1- Remains of a City Gate dating from the third millennium B.C.

Located on the left side of the castle, this gate appears as a wide opening between two ancient stone ramparts. Traces of fire are visible, recalling the Amorite invasion about 2150-2000B.C. 2- A Primitive Wall built before 2500 B.C., this is the oldest fortification on the site. 3- Foundations of the Temple "en L" (so called because of its shape) erected in 2700 B.C. A section of charred stone at the entrance of the sacred court is evidence the temple was destroyed by fire, probably at the time of the Amorite invasions 2150-2000 B.C. Terra cotta basins set in a bench of masonry behind the entrance probably held water for ritual ablutions. 4- The large empty area adjacent to the "temple en-L" and the Temple of Baalat Gebal was occupied by the Sacred Pool. 5- Temple of the Obelisks, originally built on top of the "Temple en L" was moved by archaeologists to its present location. Its scores of small obelisks were used as votive offerings. Altogether over 1,306 offerings have been uncovered, including human figurines of bronze covered with gold leaf. 6- The area that was once the Spring called "Ayn el-Malik" can be seen in a large cistern constructed of irregular stone. This was the main source of water for Byblos. In the Isis and Osiris myth, Isis met queen's maidservants here. 7- Enclosure and houses of the pre-urban period (about 3200-3000 B.C.). 8- Foundations of three houses. The lower one is from the Chalcolithic, the upper one from the pre-urban period (second half of the forth millennium B.C.). A little farther south is a third house in whose rooms can be seen seven stone bases which held the wooden pillars used for the superstructure.

and contains nine underground tombs of the Byblos kings.) that led to the temple of "Lady of Byblos" or Baalat-Gebal.).) in whose rooms can be seen three rows of five stone pillar bases. dedicated to the "Lady of Byblos". 20-28.Remains of a large Early Bronze Age Residence (third millennium B. 29.Roman Colonnade. The most important is that of King Ahiram.The Amorite Quarry is a large excavation in the rock behind the Baalat Gebal temple. Located to the left of the Castle entrance.C.C. to its present location near the sea.Ramparts. those structures show successive stages of construction and restoration. 16. goes back to the Hysksos period (1725-1580 B. which has only five tiers remaining. 31-32. remaining in use until the Roman period when it was replace by a Roman style structure. 18.C.). This is a level space near the Roman theater which is strewn with architectural fragments. 10. It was removed from its original site between the City Gate (1) and the two superimposed temples (3 and 5). 33. this monument was decorated with a niche filled with statues and enlivened by fountains. In Mamluke and Ottoman times the castle was reused and some parts of it were restored. is located at the northern edge of this area (14) and the second one (15) at the southern edge.Early Bronze Age building foundations (third millennium B. The Black pebbles in the center mark the place of a mosaic which has been preserved in the National Museum.C. courtyard and enclosure.D. The necropolis dates to the 2nd millennium B.Early Bronze Age House located near the quarry. Remains of several monocellular huts with crushed limestone floors can be seen in the area between the Early Bronze Age Residence (9) and the seashore. this large and important temple was rebuilt a number of times. With four towers defending the corners and a fifth in the middle of the north wall to defend the entrance. This sarcophagus is one of the masterpieces found in the National Museum of Beirut. 30.Esplanade.Royal Tombs. The indented wall belongs to the fortifications of the 3rd millennium. the Crusaders built a strong fortress. 12-15. glacis and City Walls of the 3rd and 2nd millennia B. converged on the fine pavement that stretched in front of the nympheun. The whole was originally surrounded by a moat.). Located inside the modern wall on the right side of the Castle entrance. the goddess who was to preside over the city for over two millennia. with an absidal shape. These six standing columns lined a north-south street (300 A.C.D.Persian castle.Reconstructed Roman Theater.C.Roman Nympheun. 19. was built about 218 A. 34. The thick walls of its seaside façade are notable for their fine construction. The road coming into the city from the north.C.Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlements (fifth and fourth millennia B.. 35.). whose sarcophagus bears one of the earliest inscriptions of the Phoenician alphabet. In the beginning of the 12th century.The site of the Crusader Castle was original lyoccupied by a Fatimid fortification.9.C. each of which held wooden pillars used for the superstructure. The theater. Constructed when Byblos had close ties with Egypt. while the terraced slopes or glacis made of large blocks. 17. The castle consisted of a central keep. re-using Roman stonework and cutting new stones to match the old. Archaeologists have found cultural installations or temples in two structures: the first one.House foundations of the Amorite conquest period (2150-2000 B. . 11.Remains of the Temple of Baalat Gebal (2700 B.).

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