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THE CLARIAN WOMEN PROJECT Introduction: Eighth Centenary of the order of Saint Clare 2012 is the 800th anniversary

of the Form of Life begun by Saint Clare of Assisi and her followers in 1212. What a rich heritage is contained in those 8 centuries of great women who have followed in the brilliant light of their foundress. Besides those who shared Clare's life in Saint Damian's there are hundreds of others who came after them whose names have been preserved in Franciscan martyrologies, histories and in various literary works in the archives of Poor Clare monasteries. This project on Poor Clare women, as well as all the bibliography in The Book Path to Clare and Her Order, began a few years before 1983. The desire to do research and writing on Saint Clare and our Order was there, but I had no plans, no idea of precisely what I was going to do, and no scholastic skills to direct my efforts. I just wanted to know more about Clare and our Order, and I also hoped that whatever I was able to do might enable others to do more. During this time I prayed and pondered. A very dear friend gave me a book on Independent Scholarship, informing me - much to my delight - that I could consider myself to be in that category. Having lived the enclosed contemplative life of a Poor Clare, this work was done, as the work of other Clares around the world tends to be, in free moments here and there, and with little or no scholastic training. The first step seemed to be to get some idea of the work that was already available. In 1983 the Lord made this possible for me in a wonderful way. But that’s another story. I began by looking through any books on Franciscan and medieval history I could find, especially old books gathering dust on library shelves from lack of use. As I did so, I came across names and bits of information on members of our Order who had been considered noteworthy enough to have been included in Franciscan chronicles, martyrologies and histories. It was like uncovering a panorama of our Order marching through time. With each unfamiliar name Clare’s Order took on new flesh and a new spirit. Our existence was no longer marked by just a time span of 800 years; now these same years contained accounts of women who had lived our life, and carried our Clare flame through those centuries. This present collection of references about Poor Clares, or writings by them, numbers 876 women, and there are still more to be gathered from the painstaking labors of those who went before us. The women so far listed are there because they left a mark in the pages of history, either for their holiness and dedication to a life of prayer, or for their writings. Some have the title of Saint, Blessed, Venerable, or Servant of God. Among these women are foundresses of monasteries throughout the world, great reformers, martyrs, stigmatics. There are members of royal families like Barbara of Bavaria, daughter of a Duke; Agnes of Bavaria, daughter of Louis IV; Agnes of Prague, daughter of Ottokar I; Agnes of Bohemia, daughter of Ottokar III; Anna de la Cruz, a Countess; and Margaret of Lorraine, a Duchess, etc. etc.


There are writers who dared to write on theological and spiritual matters at times when that form of expression was forbidden to women, like Caritas Pirkheimer. There are many who wrote biographies, autobiographies, histories, and poetry: Catherine of Bologna, Battista da Varano, Battista de Montefeltro, Eufrasia Alfari of Perugia, Ana Maria de San Jose, Alexandra of Sulmono, Illuminata Bembo, Agnes of Harcourt, Chiara Columba Angeli, Magdalen of Martinengo, Isabella Farnese, Cecilia Coppoli, Bonaventure Brown, Giacoma Policina, Girolama of Messina, and the list goes on and on. There are unedited letters and manuscripts still lying in monastery archives. There are centuries old books that could be re-edited, or translated. The legacy left by these women presents the possibility of a new opening onto the history of the Clares. Some of the references reveal the influence the Clares had upon the people of their day. There is Luisa de la Asencion, known as the nun of Carrion, whose memory has never been erased from the hearts of her people. How inspiring to both present and future members of our Order to see our charism as it moved through the past 800 years. Many histories and writings of the sisters were lost as monasteries were plundered during the almost continual warfare waged during the Middle Ages. Even in the late 19th century communities were forced into exile amid political upheavals and religious records were destroyed. Still, volumes of scriptural, theological, mystical, spiritual and poetical works by the sisters, as well as their historical and biographical accounts, have survived. Yet, this information is largely unknown even among the members of the Order of St. Clare. The Eighth Centenary is a fitting occasion on which to bring to greater light the fruit of Saint Clare’s charism. A guide to the work that follows: 1. Sources used: References listed are from at least 25 sources. These include chronicles of the Franciscan Order, martyrologies, lives of saints, histories, or simply a reference found in a footnote. 2. Other sources not yet incorporated: Seraphische Illustrierte Ordens - Legende von den heiligen, Seligen Chronürdegen und Gattsdigen der drei Orden des heiligen Paters Franziscus von Assisi auf jeden Tag des Jahres. P. Wilhelm Auer, O.F.M.Cap. Milwaukee: M. H. Weltzius & Co., 1896. [Franciscan Institute] Das Necrologium des Klosters Clarenthal bei Wiesbaden. Wiesbaden: Verlag von J.F. Bergmann, 1901. Wadding’s Annales, 34 vols. Hueber, F. Menologium seu brevis et compendiora illuminatio...sanctorum, Beatorum.... Munich, 1698. 3. Language translation: The names of persons, countries and cities remain in their respective languages for the most part. Translating them into English is another project.

4. Name check: There might be some duplication of persons names because of differing forms of the same person’s name in some circumstances. 5. Historical insights: There were many women who lived in Clarisse Houses and yet were not Clares themselves. Among these are Constance, Queen of Aragon and the mother of St. Elizabeth of Portugal; Blanche, daughter of King Philip of France. Is there a different meaning in the designation of “Clarisse”, or, on the other hand, “in the cloister of the Clarisses/ Clarissenkloster.” They were not professed members but rather boarders or retired Royalty. Noble members professed in the Order were quite numerous, however. For example, the daughter of Rudolph II, Emperor of Wein; the daughter of King Frederick of Sizilien and Queen Leonora; daughter of Albert II and Anna, daughter of Ferdinand I, to mention a few. 6. Omitted references: References that are privately circulated or for any reason considered difficult to access have been omitted from this collection. 7. Unknowns: There are countless unknowns in the present work, such as the definite branch of the Order to which the member belonged, or exact countries of origin. 8. Contemporary Poor Clare writers: This collection includes merely a token of the many Poor Clares, in the 20th century to the present, who have published writings. That is another project in itself. Sister Mary Francis Hone, O.S.C. Monastery of Saint Clare 920 Centre Street Jamaica Plain, MA 02130 August 11, 2009 Solemnity of Saint Clare of Assisi


TABLE OF SOURCES The following list provides an explanation of abbreviations used for frequently cited resources. AFH....Archivum Franciscanum Historicum. Collegio S. Bonaventura, Colle S.Antonio, Grottaferrata, Roma. AIA....Archivo Ibero-Americano. Col. Card. Cisternos, O.F.M. Madrid, 1914 -1936; 1941BF.... Bibliographia Franciscana. Collectanea Franciscana. Sectio Bibliographia, Instituto Storico dei Fr. Minori Cappuccini, Roma. [This reference is included because it contains notices of reviews of many books, and descriptions of their contents.] BBF.... Bibliografia de Bibliografias Franciscanas BLH.... Bibliografía de la literatura hispánica. 11 vols. ed. José Simón Días. Madrid 1960-1976. Chiara d'Assisi.... early issues of Forma Sororum., a Review published by the Proto-Monasterio di Santa Chiara in Assisi. CronEspan..... Cronicas Franciscanas de España. Ed. Jacobo de Castro, O.F.M. Madrid: Editorial Cisneros, 1977. [Note: There are hundreds of Clares in these volumes not yet recorded in this lists.] Devas.... Franciscan Essays. Dominic Devas, O.F.M. London:Herder, 1924. Di Clary..... Lives of Saints and Blessed of the Three Orders of Saint Francis. Leon di Clary. Taunton: Franciscan Convent, 1885. Escritoras .... Escritoras Clarisas Españolas. An Anthology. Maria Victoria Triviño, O.S.C. Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 1992. Fiege.... Marianus Fiege, O.S.F.Cap. The Princess of Poverty. Evansville: Poor Clare Nuns, 1900. The Newman Press, 1991. FS.... Forma Sororum, Revista delle Clarisse d'Italia, Monastero S. Lucia,Viale Vanni, 6, 06062 Cittá della Pieve (Perugia) Italia. Habig....Franciscan Book of Saints, Marian Habig, O.F.M. Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press, 1959; revised edition 1979. Hist. Abrégée....Histoire Abrégée de L'Orders Sainte Claire d'Assise. 2 vols. Edition des Monastéres des Clarisses Colettines a Lyon et a Tournai. Lyon: Desclee de Bower, 1906. Iriarte....Franciscan History: The Three Orders of St. Francis of Assisi. Damien Iriarte, O.F.M.. Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press, 1982. 00046

J.a S.Antonio....Bibliotheca Universa Franciscana, sive Alumnorum Trium Ordinum S.P.N. Francisci, 3 vols., 1732. Lainati....Chiara Augusta Lainati, O.S.C., ed. Temi Spirituali dagli Scritti del Secondo Ordine Francescano. Assisi: Maria Degli Angeli, 1970. Marianus....Libro delle Degnitá et Excellentie del Ordine della Seraphicae Madre delle povere donne Sancta Chiara da Assisi. Marianus da Firenze. Introduzione, note e indici del P. Giovanni Boccali, O.F.M. Edizione "Studi Francescani" Firenze: S. Maria degli Angeli, 1986. Men....Hueber, F. Menologium seu brevis et compendiora illuminatio...sanctorum, Beatorum.... Munich, 1698. MartFran....Martyrologium Franciscanum. Compiled by P. Ignatio Beschin and P. Juliano Palazzolo, O.F.M. Vicetiae: Tipografia Commerciale Editrice, 1939. Misc.Fran....Miscellanea Francescana. P. Antonio...Giardino Serafico. Pietro Antonio di Venezia, 1710. [Italian translation of Hortus Seraphici. PM....Pro Monialibus. A periodical for Franciscan Contemplative nuns by the Franciscan Curia. SerMart....Ausserer, Peter Paul, O.S.F. Seraphisches Martyrologium. Salzburg 1889. SOG....Servant of God Other sources: Seraphische Illustrierte Ordens - Legende von den heiligen, Seligen Chronürdegen und Gattsdigen der drei Orden des heiligen Paters Franziscus von Assisi auf jeden Tag des Jahres. P. Wilhelm Auer, O.F.M. Cap. Milwaukee: M. H. Weltzius & Co., 1896. [The Franciscan Institute] Das Necrologium des Klosters Clarenthal bei Wiesbaden. Wiesbaden: Verlag von J.F. Bergmann, 1901. Wadding’s Annales. 33 vols. Hueber, F. Menologium seu brevis et compendiora illuminatio...sanctorum, Beatorum.... Munich, 1698.


BRANCHES OF THE ORDER OF SAINT CLARE Pope Urban IV promulgated a Rule written by his predecessor, Alexander IV, in which he adjusted the strict poverty in Clare's Rule thus allowing the sisters to have the financial security the Holy See considered necessary for enclosed nuns. This came to be called the "Rule of Urban IV" and was considered by the Church, and by the great majority of Poor Clares, as the rule followed by the Order of St. Clare. In 1946 many communities experienced the movement of the spirit to return to the First Rule of St. Clare. Because of this transition and other changes in the choice of observances down through the centuries, members of either the First Rule of Saint Clare, the Rule of Urban IV, or the Colettine Reform will have no specific designation. Other branches specifically known will be indicated by one of the abbreviations listed here. O.S.C.... Order of St. Clare. The title given to the Order by Pope Urban IV, to those following the Rule he promulgated, known as the Urbanist Rule of St. Clare. Today the title applies equally to those who returned to the original Form of Life written by Saint Clare of Assisi, known as the First Rule of Saint Clare. Formerly, they were known as The Order of Saint Clare of the Strict Observance because they were under the jurisdiction of the Friars of the Strict Observance, or, Observant branch of the Order of Friars Minor. P.C.C.... Poor Clare Colettines. Poor Clares who live the Rule of St. Clare of 1253 according to the particular charism of St. Colette of Corbie who initiated a reform of the Order in France in the 15th. century. They became known as “Colettines” because they were under the jurisdiction of the Colettine Friars who had been reformed by St. Colette and served as their chaplains. O.S.C. Cap.... Poor Clare Capuchin. Mother Maria Laurenza Luongo led a reform of the Order in the 16th. century. At first they used the Constitutions of St. Colette supplemented with statutes from the Capuchin Friars' Constitutions. In 1927 particular Constitutions were drawn up for Capuchin Clares. The history of this observance may be found among the reference material on Maria Lorenzo Luongo. They are called Capuchin Poor Clares because they are under the jurisdiction of the Capuchin Friars. Da Mareto, Felice O.F.M.Cap. Le Capuccino nel Mondo (1538-1969). [History of the Capuchin Nuns.] Saint Clare's Plan for Gospel Living. The Rule and Constitutions of the Capuchin Poor Clares. Published by Ronald Giannone, O.F.M.Cap., 506 N. Church St., Wilmington, Delaware, 19801. [April 1989.] Iriarte, 459. O.S.C. Divine Providence.... Poor Clares of the Divine Providence. Poor Clares in Barcelona, led by Mother Teresa del Sagrado Cuore, were requested by the bishop to teach catechism to poor girls. They were officially recognized as Poor Clares in 1878. The history of this observance may be found in reference material on Teresa del Sagrado Cuore.

P.C.P.A.... Poor Clares of Perpetual Adoration, or Sacramentine Poor Clares, or, Poor Clares of the Most Blessed Sacrament. Founded in 1854 in Troyes, France, by Bonaventure Heurlaut, O.F.M.Cap. and Mother Marie Claire Bouillevaux. At first they were Third Order Regular Cloistered Nuns called Franciscan Nuns of the Most Blessed Sacrament. In 1912 they were incorporated into the Order of St. Clare taking the Urbanist Rule. Their particular charism centers upon adoration of the Eucharist. Barboza, Robert, O.F.M.Cap. Poor Clares of Perpetual Adoration, Their Origin, History, and Their Growth in India. A paper presented at The Franciscan Institute, St. Bonaventure University, NY. O.Conc.... Poor Clares of the Immaculate Conception, known as Conceptionists. An Order founded by Beatrice of Silva. They assumed the Rule of St. Clare for about 12 years, and then they wrote their own. They are Franciscan enclosed nuns traditionally referred to as Conceptionist Poor Clares. Vaughn, John, O.F.M. En Maria Immaculada una Admirable Comunion. Encyclical Letter on the occasion of the Fifth Centenary of the Foundation of the order of the Immaculate Conception (Spanish, English, French and Italian.) Special Edition. Rome: General Curia of the Order of Friars Minor, 1988. O.S.C....Congregation of the Sisters of St. Clare. Originally Cloistered nuns of Ireland forced out of their monasteries during Reformation. In the 20th century they were given the option to return to cloister. Some did, but most continued as an Active Congregation but have an Abbess General. They care for orphans and elderly primarily taking special care to maintain a spirit of prayer. Poor Clares of Reparation and Adoration, are members of the Episcopal Church. Religious Communities in the Episcopal Church and in the Anglican Church in Canada. Compiled by Poor Clares of Reparation and Adoration. New York: Holy Cross press, 1945. Alcantrine Poor Clares, or Discalced Nuns of St. Peter of Alcantara (1676), were under the jurisdiction of the Alcantrine Friars. This branch was incorporated into other branches of the order. See: Iriarte, 461. Cordelier Poor Clares, once in France, like other branches that existed through the centuries, were gradually merged into other branches of the Order. Recollect Poor Clares, were those under the jurisdiction of the Recollect Friars of France.