"Yudhishthira said, 'The three regenerate classes, who are given to sacrifices and other rites, sometimes eat the remnants, consisting of meat and wine, of sacrifices in honour of the deities, from motives of obtaining children and heaven. What, O grandsire, is the character of this act?'

"Bhishma said, 'Those who eat forbidden food without being observant of the sacrifices and vows ordained in the Vedas are regarded as wilful men. (They are regarded as fallen even here). Those, on the other hand, who eat such food in the observance of Vedic sacrifices and vows and induced by the desire of fruits in the shape of heaven and children, ascend to heaven but fall down on the exhaustion of their merits.' 1

"Yudhishthira said, 'Common people say that fasting is tapas (penances). Is fasting, however, really so, or is penance something different?'

"Bhishma said, 'People do regard fast, measured by months or fortnights or days, as penance. In the opinion, however of the good, such is not penance. On the other hand, fast is an impediment to the acquisition of the knowledge of the Soul. 2 The renunciation of acts (that is so difficult for all) and humility (consisting in the worship of all creatures and consideration for them all) constitute the highest penance. That is distinguished above all kinds of penance. He who betakes himself to such penance is regarded as one that is always fasting and that is always leading a life of Brahmacharya. Such a Brahmana will become a Muni always, a deity evermore, and sleepless forever,

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and one engaged in the pursuit of virtue only, even if he lives in the bosom of a family. He will become a vegetarian always, and pure for ever. He will become an eater always of ambrosia, and an adorer always of gods and guests. Indeed, he will be regarded as one always subsisting on sacrificial remnants, as one ever devoted to the duty of hospitality, as one always full of faith, and as one ever worshipping gods and guests.'

"Yudhishthira said, 'How can one practising such penance come to be regarded as one that is always fasting or as one that is ever devoted to the vow of Brahmacharya, or as one that is always subsisting upon sacrificial remnants or as one that is ever regardful of guests?'

"Bhishma said, 'He will be regarded as one that is always fasting if he eats once during the day and once during the night at the fixed hours without eating anything during the interval. Such a Brahmana, by always speaking the truth and by adhering always to wisdom, and by going to his wife only in her season and never at other times, becomes a Brahmacharin (celibate). By never eating meat of animals not killed for sacrifice, he will become a strict vegetarian. By always becoming charitable he will become ever pure, and by abstaining from sleep during the day he will become one that is always wakeful. Know, O Yudhishthira, that that man who eats only after having fed his servants and guests becomes an eater always of ambrosia. That Brahmana who never eats till gods and guests are fed, wins, by such abstention, heaven itself. He is said to subsist upon sacrificial remnants, who eats only what remains after feeding the gods, the Pitris, servants, and guests. Such men win numberless regions of felicity in next life. To their homes come, with Brahman himself, the gods and the Apsaras. They who share their food with the deities and the Pitris pass their days in constant happiness with their sons and grandsons and at last, leaving off this body, attain to a very high end.'"


"Yudhishthira said, 'How, indeed, should the king protect his subjects without injuring anybody. I ask thee this, O grandsire, tell me, O foremost of good men!'

"Bhishma said, 'In this connection is cited the old narrative of the conversation between Dyumatsena and king Satyavat. We have heard that upon a certain number of individuals having been brought out for execution at the command of his sire (Dyumatsena), prince Satyavat said certain words that had never before been said by anybody else. 1 'Sometimes righteousness assumes the form of iniquity, and iniquity assumes the form of righteousness. It can never be possible that the killing of individuals can ever be a righteous act.'

"Dyumatsena said, 'If the sparing of those that deserve to be slain be righteousness, if robbers be spared, O Satyavat, then all distinctions (between virtue and vice) would disappear. 'This is mine',-'This (other) is not his'--ideas like these (with respect to property) will not (if the wicked be not punished) prevail in the Kali age. (If the wicked be not punished) the affairs of the world will come to a deadlock. If thou knowest how the world may go on (without punishing the wicked), then discourse to me upon it.'

"Satyavat said, 'The three other orders (viz., the Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, and

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[paragraph continues] Sudras) should be placed under the control of the Brahmanas. If those three orders be kept within the bonds of righteousness, then the subsidiary classes (that have sprung from intermixture) will imitate them in their practices. Those amongst them that will transgress (the commands of the Brahmanas) shall be reported to the king.--'This one heeds not my commands,'--upon such a complaint being preferred by a Brahmana, the king shall inflict punishment upon the offender. Without destroying the body of the offender the king should do that unto him which is directed by the scriptures. The king should not act otherwise, neglecting to reflect properly upon the character of the offence and upon the science of morality. By slaying the wicked, the king (practically) slays a large number of individuals that are innocent. Behold, by slaying a single robber, his wife, mother, father and children are all slain (because they become deprived of the means of life). When injured by a wicked person, the king should, therefore, reflect deeply on the question of chastisement. 1 Sometimes a wicked man is seen to imbibe good behaviour from a righteous person. Then again from persons that are wicked, good children may be seen to spring. The wicked, therefore, should not be torn up by the roots. The extermination of the wicked is not consistent with eternal practice. By smiting them gently they may be made to expiate their offences. By depriving them of all their wealth, by chains and immurement in dungeons, by disfiguring them (they may be made to expiate their guilt). Their relatives should not be persecuted by the infliction of capital sentences on them. If in the presence of the Purohita and others, 2 they give themselves up to him from desire of protection, and swear, saying, 'O Brahmana, we shall never again commit any sinful act,' they would then deserve to be let off without any punishment. This is the command of the Creator himself. Even the Brahmana that wears a deer-skin and the wand of (mendicancy) and has his head shaved, should be punished (when he transgresses). 3 If great men transgress, their chastisement should be proportionate to their greatness. As regards them that offend repeatedly, they do not deserve to be dismissed without punishment as on the occasion of their first offence.' 4 "Dyumatsena said, 'As long as those barriers within which men should be kept are not transgressed, so long are they designated

That man is a fool who would make any covenant with those miserable wretches or exact any oath from them (for relying upon it). (On the other the name of Righteousness. the punishment of death has become current. Then followed the punishment of fines and forfeitures. seeks to restrain others (from evil ways) becomes an object of laughter with all men in consequence of his being engaged in the enjoyment of all worldly pleasures as a slave of his . 5 Kings practise severe austerities for the sake of enabling their subjects go on prosperously in their avocations. 2 The robber has no connection with men. barriers were not punished with death. When thieves and robbers multiply in their kingdoms they become ashamed. therefore. 'If thou dost not succeed in making honest men of those rogues and in saving them by means unconnected with slaughter. 3 The robber takes away the ornaments of corpses from cemeteries. 1 They were very truthful (in speech and conduct). imitate their immediate superiors. their wrath never became ungovernable. with the Gandharvas.' 4 "Satyavat said. therefore. 255 that they imitate those whom they regard as their superiors. if they slay. without restraining himself. when the motive is to do good to the slain). betake themselves to penances for suppressing thefts and robberies and making their subjects live happily. Subjects can be made honest by being only frightened (by the king). They. and swearing apparel from men afflicted by spirits (and. the superior subjects imitate him.. or. Men are so constituted p. If they who transgressed those. This is the declaration of the Srutis. and with the Pitris. if they did. After this came the punishment represented by harsh speeches or censures. those barriers would soon be destroyed. however. deprived of senses). If the king acts properly. Good kings never slay the wicked from motives of retribution. 254 times were capable of being governed with ease. again in their turn. Good kings abundantly succeed in ruling their subjects properly with the aid of good conduct (instead of cruel or punitive inflictions). In this age. They seldom gave way to anger. In those days the mere crying of fie on offenders was sufficient punishment. What is he to whom? He is not anybody to any one. 1 That king who. The inferior people. Men of remote and remoter p. with the deities. do thou then exterminate them by performing some sacrifice. they slay in sacrifices. The measure of wickedness has increased to such an extent that by slaying one others cannot be restrained. They were little disposed to disputes and quarrels.

through the wickedness of kings and in consequence of the nature of the epoch itself. to this effect. considering the period of human life. In the Treta age. through arrogance or error of judgment. moved by pity. 'Thus addressed by that Brahmana possessed of I great fame. endued with clemency and possessed of learning. It is by this way that he is prevented from committing offences anew. Formerly. That man who. and the nature of the time that has come. The king should first restrain his own self if he desires to restrain others that offend. He should punish heavily (if necessary) even friends and near relatives. kings should rule their subjects by adopting ways that are entirely harmless. 2 . When the Kati age sets in. O son of a trader. has. Tuladhara of the Vaisya order.' "Jajali said. If. they proceed according to ways conforming with righteousness fallen away by a moiety. taught me this. offends against the king in any way. In the Dwapara age. as also (barks and leaves of) large trees and herbs and their fruits and roots. 'Thou sellest all kinds of juices and scents. well-acquainted with the truths touching the interpretations of morality and contented with knowledge. offences increase and righteousness decreases without doubt. the strength of human beings. should award punishments.' "Bhishma continued. indicated the way by means of which men may adhere to knowledge (instead of harmfulness) for the sake of emancipation. by adopting the method first mentioned (viz. 'Thus addressed by the intelligent Tuladhara on that occasion. through compassion for human beings. I have been instructed by also our grandsire of olden days. In that kingdom where a vile offender does not meet with heavy afflictions. 2 Indeed. kings conduct themselves according to ways that conform with righteousness fallen away by a fourth from its full complement. tell me all this in detail. confusion sets in. a Brahmana. the practice of harmlessness). a sixteenth portion thereof being all that then remains of it. Verily. Jajali of great intelligence.'" 3 book 12 SECTION CCLXII "Bhishma said. Their words were.. who gave such assurances of harmlessness to people. discoursed to Jajali who had undergone severe penances. the king. Manu. that foremost of ascetics. 'In the Krita age.senses. fifteen parts of even that fourth portion of righteousness disappear. O Satyavat. upon the ways of morality. the son of the Self-born. said these words unto him. "How hast thou succeeded in acquiring a certitude or stability of understanding? Whence hath this knowledge come to thee? O thou of great intelligence. should be restrained by every means. according to ways conforming with righteousness fallen away by three-fourth. and in the age that follows. O sire.

There is no morality or righteousness. in thought. I live according to that mode. There is no past. who is always the friend of all creatures and who is always engaged in the good of all creatures. 'O Jajali. or deed. 5 The eternal practices (laid down in the Vedas) are entirely given up by one who suffers himself to be stupefied by some errors that he may have noticed in the conduct of those that are admittedly good and wise. is the highest morality. this is my vow! My scales are perfectly even. with respect to all creatures. Behold. I purchase from other people's hand and sell without cheating. 2 Know. is said to know what morality or righteousness is. after the same manner am I consoled."Tuladhara said. certainly attains to a state which abounds with fear. are perfectly consoled for the loss of their senses. the roots of Nymphaea lotus. It is nothing else than that ancient morality which is known to all. 3 That mode of living which is founded upon a total harmlessness towards all creatures or (in case of actual necessity) upon a minimum of such harm. When a person does not conduct himself sinfully towards any creature in thought. and a lump of gold. with all its mysteries. I never quarrel with any one. he is then said to attain to Brahma. that person who for harshness of speech and severity of temper. no future. 3 As they that are overtaken by decrepitude. however. then is he said to attain to Brahma. viewing this variety in the world. is a source of trouble unto all creatures even as death itself. and they that are destitute of reason. I follow the practices of high-souled and benevolent men of advanced years who with their children and children's children live in the due observance of the ordinance laid down in the scriptures. O Jajali. O foremost of Brahmanas. word. O Jajali. I never solicit any one. One. and which consists of universal friendliness. the deaf. I see no difference between a clod of earth a piece of stone. or one that has subdued one's senses. He. 4 On the other hand. have no relish for enjoyments of any kind. He who is not an object of fear with any creature succeeds in attaining to a state in which there is no fear. 1 I neither praise nor blame the acts of others. I know morality. and is fraught with beneficence to all creatures. As the blind. O Jajali. O Jajali! This my house hath been built with wood and grass cut by other people's hands. to be like the variety observable in the sky. diverse kinds of good scents 4 and many kinds of liquids. I cast equal eyes upon all things and all creatures. filaments of the lotus. which is eternal. that I cast equal eye upon all creatures. and deed. and they that are weakened and emaciated. they that are afflicted by disease. after the same manner have I ceased to feel any relish for wealth or pleasure or enjoyments. O regenerate p. with the exception of wines. When a person fears nothing and himself is not feared. that is endued with learning. O Jajali. I never cherish desire for anything. by their example (for the enjoyments I abstain from). word. I never cherish aversion for any one. 234 [paragraph continues] Rishi. Lac dye. when he cherishes no desire and hath no aversion for anything. or one that is . O foremost of intelligent men.

. as in a river. no creature is frightened in the least. by practising liberality. to acquire the merit of righteousness (and Emancipation which is its fruits). the wise do not applaud acts. that is not prompted by some motive (of happiness). viz. men possessed of wealth and followers are regarded as foremost by the learned. Duty. is seen to come into contact (for some time) with another piece that is being similarly borne away. That person who gives unto all creatures the assurance of harmlessness obtains the merit of all sacrifices and at last wins fearlessness for himself as his reward. become stupefied in the track of that person who transcends all states. He. however. and cowdung cakes are seen to be united together. of whom every creature is frightened as of a wolf. O Jajali. may all be had by practising the duty of harmlessness. and by paying court to wisdom. is very subtile. by speaking the truth. O learned man. while they that are truly skilled. Grass. He of whom everybody is frightened as one is of a snake ensconced within one's (sleeping) chamber. having restrained his senses. 236 abstention from injuring other creatures. Duties have been laid down in the Vedas for the sake of . It is sure to lead also to prosperity and heaven. 3 This practice of universal harmlessness hath arisen even thus. One may follow it by every means in one's power. guided by that very conduct. on the other hand. are seen again to separate from one another. Beholding the destruction of (the merits of) acts. the person. They that are for ordinary happiness practise this duty of universal harmlessness for the sake of fame. O Jajali! One who betakes himself to acts at first wins prosperity. believe me. succeeds in attaining to Emancipation. He of whom. on the current. with a heart cleansed from all desire of injuring others. 1 That wise man who. I tell thee truly. This union is due to accident and not to purpose or design. by sacrifices.p. O ascetic. 5 Whatever fruits one enjoys by penances. 1 Of all gifts. the conduct that is followed by those called good. never frightened by any creature. practiseth. becomes himself filled with fear as aquatic animals when forced to leap on the shore from fear of the roaring Vadava fire. never acquires any merit in this world or in the next. In this world. is sure. There. other pieces of wood that had been joined together. There is no duty. 235 possessed of strength of mind. the assurance of harmlessness to all creatures is the highest (in point of merit). sticks. O great ascetic. The very gods. He who has followers and he who has wealth may seek to adopt it. 2 He of whom no creature is frightened in the least is himself. 4 Inconsequence of their ability to dispel the fears of others. practise the same for the sake of attaining to Brahma. but then (upon the exhaustion of his merit) he once more encounters adversity. There is no duty superior to the duty of p. who constitutes himself the soul of all creatures and who looketh upon all creatures as identical with his own self. obtains for himself fearlessness of all creatures. a piece of wood that is being borne away by the current as it pleases. O Jajali. in their search after it.

is certainly fraught with cruelty. again. 1 In days of yore. People regard the profession of agriculture to be sinless. O regenerate one? There are many animals that grow up in ease and comfort in places free from gnats and biting insects. the god of wind. Kratu. Brahman. said. O Jajali. But what fault can attach to the sale of oil. and not because they agree with the dictates of thy cleansed understanding.both Brahma and heaven. Cast thy eyes. 3 Thus.' For cleansing Nahusha. Kine are called in the Srutis the Unslayable. O king. O Nahusha. Thou hast also slain a bull. Others. 2 The subject of duties hath many secrets and mysteries. The sheep is Varuna. O Jajali. Earth is the deity Virat. That profession. Prana. slain a cow which is declared in the scriptures to be like unto one's mother. 3 Why dost thou not consume them that emasculate bulls and bore their noses and cause them to bear heavy burthens and bind them and put them under diverse kinds of restraint. which is declared to be like unto the Creator himself. on those bullocks yoked to the plough. did those highly-blessed Rishis cast that sin on all living creatures. The man who sells these can never obtain success. It is so subtile that it is not easy to understand it fully. Chandramas. I think that such acts of injury done to animals are in no way distinguished from foeticide. however. Amongst diverse conflicting ordinances. what scruples need they feel in selling dead carcases? The goat is Agni. and Yama (these dwell in living creatures). some succeed in comprehending duty by observing the acts of the good. 'We shall not be able to pour libations in thy sacrifice. by binding. Knowing that they are loved p. O Jajali. or drugs. and addressing Nahusha who had been guilty of foeticide. One should practise what one considers to be one's . or honey. saying. These people are not ignorant of the pain that results from beating and fastening in chains. 237 dearly by their mothers. 2 Thou hast perpetrated an evil act. The cow and the calf are Soma. however. and by otherwise subjecting them to restraints. That man perpetrates a great sin who slays a bull or a cow. are made to languish in consequence of treatment not sanctioned by the scriptures. they divided that sin into a hundred and one parts and converting the fragments into diseases cast them among all creatures. Surya. 4 In every creature that is endued with the five senses live all the deities. and lead them into miry spots abounding with biting insects. There are men that live by trafficking in living creatures! When they earn a living by such a sinful course. are some of the wicked and dreadful practices that are current in this world. and we have been exceedingly pained at it. Many draft animals are oppressed with heavy burthens. many Rishis with restrained senses addressed Nahusha. 4 These. men persecute them in diverse ways. 'Thou hast. having ascertained by their ascetic power that king Nahusha had not been intentionally guilty of that sin.' Thus said those high-souled Rishis and Yatis conversant with the truths of all things. or of Ghrita. and by beating. The iron-faced plough wounds the soil and many creatures that live in the soil. The horse is Surya. cause them to labour day and night. Thou practisest them because they are practised by all men from ancient times. and that eat the flesh of living creatures after slaying them? Men are seen to own men as slaves.

is very rare that is truly conversant with Sacrifice. O Jajali. 'This course of duty that thou. This other thing should be given away in this other Sacrifice. and with plants and herbs. The libations poured on the sacrificial fire rise up to the Sun. they do not yield to desire of fruit.' "Tuladhara said. That food offers subsistence even to thee. The righteous always observe it with eyes possessed of improved vision. human beings. From food are born living creatures. are enabled to support their existence. 'I shall now speak on the object of the means of sustenance. I bow to that Sacrifice which is ordained for Brahmanas. I do not blame Sacrifices. 1 Many persons of faith. 2 It should be known that only that sacrificial offering which was acquired by righteous means can gratify the gods.duty. From agriculture comes food. of all this. The earth yielded crops without tillage. I am not. an atheist. however. their children take the stain. men righteously devoted to Sacrifices used to obtain therefrom the fruition of all their wishes. I have none whom I like and none whom I dislike.' The consequence. with recitations or chanting of the Vedas. The blessing uttered . From covetous men are born children that are covetous. have betaken themselves to the performance of Sacrifices that are for Kshatriyas. O holder of scales. and proclaiming things that are really false but that have the show of truth. with libations poured on the fire. I bow also to them that are conversant with that Sacrifice. have introduced many kinds of Sacrifices. is that theft and many evil acts spring up. without having understood the true meaning of the declarations of the Srutis. however. Even this course of conduct. In former days. instead of blindly following the practices of the world. If the sacrificer and the priest suffer themselves to be moved by desire of fruit (in respect of the Sacrifices they perform or assist in). From animals and food sacrifices flow. which is consistent with reasons. The first of this is very laudable. I regard both of them in the same light. There are abundant indications in the scriptures that the worship of the deities may be accomplished with vows. the Brahmanas. This world will come to an end if the means by which life is supported have to be abandoned. From Sacrifices spring progeny like clear water from the firmament. 'This should be given away in this Sacrifice. The wise applauded such a course of conduct as consistent with duty or religion. saying. Alas. From rain springs food. having given up the Sacrifice that is ordained for them. With the aid of animals and of crops and herbs. From their religious acts unrighteous persons get wicked offspring. From the Sun springs rain. The man.'" SECTION CCLXIII "Jajali said. O Brahmana. O trader. that are covetous and fond of wealth. is followed by Yatis. Listen now. closes the door of heaven against all creatures and puts a stop to the very means of their subsistence. preachest. O regenerate one. and from those that are contented spring children that are contented. guided by reasons. Thy doctrines smack of atheism. as to what my behaviour is towards him that injures and him that praises me. on the other hand. If. the children born to them become of the same kind. O Jajali.

They who covet the acquisition of the highest object of life (viz. who takes all the essentials of Sacrifice as identical with Brahma. Pranava). One possessed of such wisdom always regards all things in the universe to have sprung from his own Self. always p. however. of superior efficacy. and that are possessed of faith. and always remains here. and that meditate on the Pranava. Those wise men who are the refuge of righteousness and whose delight is in righteousness. Those who somehow perform sacrifices. is certain to go. as heard by us. even then those acts are. become gratified and are contented. and greedy men exceedingly covetous of wealth. succeed in attaining to the region of Brahman. If.p. 1 The men of former times never performed Sacrifices from desire of fruits and never regarded themselves as called upon to enjoy those fruits. 3 If the acts of such a person become incomplete. Such a man is certainly possessed of a sinful soul. after the same manner one who is gratified with knowledge hath everlasting gratification which to him is a source of perfect bliss. 3 Some that are endued with knowledge. When. whence there is no return. who are bereft of cupidity in respect of all kinds of worldly wealth.--a region which is freed from sorrow. dwells in him who is conversant with Brahma. or if their completion be obstructed by all unclean animals. those acts are done from desire of fruit (and their completion be obstructed by such impediments). 1 The universal Brahma (viz.. That man who by the aid of false reasoning holds up all the authoritative scriptures as fraught with evil. 4 They that are conversant with the distinction between body and soul. therefore. O Jajali. that are devoted to Yoga. who is penetrated with fear if he fails to accomplish them any day. . that strive to reach the other shore (of this ocean of life). all the deities. into the regions of the sinful. and who are freed from envy. which is productive of great blessings. highly sacred. O foremost of Brahmanas. are persons that have certain knowledge of what is to be done and what should not be done. and inhabited by righteous persons. doubting the while their efficacy take birth in their next lives as dishonest. for such sinful act of his. 239 by the Rishis produced herbs and plants. 2 As one who is gratified with all kinds of taste feels no desire for any particular taste. who discard all provision for the future. 2 That man who regards those acts obligatory which have been laid down in the Vedas and directed to be accomplished every day. Emancipation). wily. betake themselves to practice of truth and self-restraint as their Sacrifice. 240 succeed in gratifying others. which is the soul of the deities. bereft of wisdom. and who never regards himself as the actor. such a man eats and is gratified. is truly a Brahmana.. then expiation would become necessary. and where there is no kind of agitation or pain.

they who sacrifice from desire of fruit) there is return (from the region which they reach). however. who hath no exertion in respect of worldly acts. and kine pour forth milk from udders untouched by human hands. and others lead to regions of bliss whence there is return). O great ascetic. 1 In consequence of the success that attends the purposes formed in the mind of such men. Since Renunciation hath such merit. Of one class of Sacrificers (viz. who never bows down his head unto any one. that are truly wise (viz. 2 One who is of such a cleansed soul may slaughter a cow (as an offering in Sacrifice). O Jajali. unto others.Such men do not covet heaven. 4 These men know trees and herbs and fruits and roots as the only sacrificial offerings. 241 them lead to Emancipation whence there is no return. along paths trodden by the gods. therefore. 3 They. Covetous priests. it is for that reason that I have kept it before my eyes in speaking to thee. to cause others to ascend to heaven. O Jajali. I have (abstained from injuring any creature in the world and have) come to regard all creatures with an equal heart. they perform many kinds of Sacrifice well-completed with abundant presents. 5 What.. they proceed. that are not of that kind should perform Sacrifices with herbs and plants (and not animals). who never utters the praises of others. who doth not perform Sacrifices (properly). however. 5 For this reason. who doth not make gifts unto (deserving) Brahmanas. grasping priests officiate at the Sacrifices of only those misguided persons who. for some of p. many foremost of Brahmanas perform Sacrifices (which with respect to their fruits are of two kinds. although all their acts have been completed. They walk along the path of the righteous. will be the end of him who doth not recite the Vedas. yet such is the difference between their ultimate ends. never officiate at the sacrifices of these (poor) men. by accomplishing their own duties. bulls. 6 Endued with wisdom. without being forced thereto. proceed along the path trodden by the deities (in consequence of the sacrifices they perform). still perform sacrifices from desire of doing good to all creatures and constituting their own selves as sacrificial offerings. seek for heaven.' 6 . there is no return. Of those. O Jajali. Although both classes of sacrificers. These regenerate men. They do not adore Brahma in costly sacrifices. however.. without endeavouring to attain to Emancipation. one is sure of attaining to Brahma. By performing those Sacrifices. they always seek. 4 The gods know him for a Brahmana who has given up all desire of fruit. those who sacrifice without being urged thereto by desire of fruit). that are really good. The Sacrifices they perform are performed without injury to any creature. and who is endued with strength though his acts have all been weakened. for they are desirous of wealth. and who followeth an avocation in which every kind of desire is indulged? By properly reverencing. the duties that appertain to Renunciation. Looking at both these kinds of behaviour. Creating sacrificial stakes (and other necessaries of Sacrifice) by simple flats of the will. As regards those. willingly set their shoulders to the plough for assisting at tillage and to the yoke for dragging their cars.

only one thing. the Soul is itself a Tirtha. O Jajali. As regards the faithful. and all mountains are sacred.). It is for this reason that I ask thee (about them).p.. heard of these recondite doctrines of ascetics that perform only mental Sacrifices. and by seeking the acquisition of merit agreeably to his own ability. 242 "Jajali said. however. and curds. is fit for upholding all sacrifices by means of full libations of clarified butter. for dedicating such (innocent) offerings to the deities.. by abstaining from slaughter of animals and dedicating only clarified butter. 243 creatures). viz. and her hoofs. O thou of great wisdom! Great is my faith in thy words. one is sure to attain to Brahma. it should be said.' 1 "Bhishma continued. the rice-ball is a worthy offering in sacrifices. These men. 'Sometimes sacrifices performed by some persons do not become sacrifices (in consequence of the absence of faith of those that perform them). the sages that have succeeded them have not propounded them (for general acceptance). by observing these duties (that I have spoken of and that do not involve injury to other p. her horns. These doctrines are exceedingly difficult of comprehension. The sages of olden days were not followers of those doctrines of Yoga. Hence. are not worthy of performing any sacrifice (internal or external). 'These are the duties. the hair at end of her tail. A person. the cow. one may make Faith one's wedded wife. 1 If thou sayest that only men of brutish minds fail to achieve sacrifices in the soil of the Soul. All rivers are as sacred as the Saraswati.' 2 "Tuladhara said. Do not wander about on the earth for visiting sacred places. By duly reverencing such sacrifices. etc.--duties that are consistent with reason. by what acts would they succeed in accomplishing their happiness? Tell me this. 3 (The Vedas declare that sacrifices cannot be performed by an unmarried man). 4 To the exclusion of all animals (which are certainly unclean as offering in sacrifices). 'We had never before. and that are always observed by those that are good and wise. then. O son of a trader. In performing sacrifices. however. O Yudhishthira.'" SECTION CCLXIV . O son of a trader. milk. certainly succeeds in obtaining blessed regions hereafter. which Tuladhara applauded. according to the mode I have pointed out (viz.

and that of a usurer that is liberal in conduct. 2 the deities after careful consideration. Without doubt. those that are good or those that are otherwise. This is the opinion of men conversant with duties."Tuladhara said. of a person conversant with the Vedas but miserly in behaviour. become productive of fruit. Brahman) then told them that they had committed an error. Behold. 4 An act vitiated by defect of speech is saved by Faith. Want of Faith is a high sin. are displaying their love for thee that art their father. however. summoned by Jajali. O Jajali! Do thou summon thy children.. many birds are hovering in the sky. Thou shalt then understand properly how the truth stands. viz. made answer agreeably to the dictates of that religion which is not fraught with injury to any creature. and that perform sacrifices from a sense of duty (and not from desire of fruit). that involve injury to others. O regenerate one! There those birds. Amongst them are those that were reared on thy head. Like a snake casting off its slough. The sacrifices of those that regard acquisition and non-acquisition in the same light. The' Supreme Lord of all creatures (viz. is unfit to make offerings to the deities. O Jajali. 3 Only one person in the world. The food of a liberal usurer is acceptable but not the food of a miser. The offerings in sacrifices of a person that is pure (in body and acts) but wanting in Faith. involves the destroyer in ruin. destroy faith. that are endued with faith that are self-restrained. have adopted this path of duty that I have spoken of. The food of only such a man is unfit to be eaten. O regenerate one. that have tranquil minds. Those acts. 244 neither speech nor mind can save an act that is vitiated by want of Faith. of the person that is void of Faith is lost in consequence of such want of Faith.. The food. the man of Faith succeeds in casting off all his . those birds have contracted their wings and legs for entering their respective nests. O Brahmana. had held to be equal (in respect of their worthiness of acceptance). But p. Faith is superior to the merit born of (Vedic) recitations and meditation. and faith being destroyed. 'See with thy own eyes. Faith is a cleanser of sins. and of another that is impure (in respect of their worthiness of acceptance). Summon them. She is the protectress and she is the giver of good birth. treated with affection by thee. An act vitiated by defect of mind is saved by Faith. he that is bereft of Faith. again. The food. 2 All acts that are done without injuring any creature become serviceable (to the doer) both here and hereafter. viz. The food of a liberal person is sanctified by Faith. 3 Faith with respect to Brahma is the daughter of Surya. however. 'Then those birds. as also many hawks and many others of other species.. 1 Men conversant with the occurrences of the past recite in this connection the following verse sung by Brahman. thou art their father. Behold.' "Bhishma continued. who.

What need hath such a person of penances. O thou of great wisdom. 245 there in great happiness. and according to the kind of Faith that one has. In this way. he who adheres to his own path (under the influence of Faith) is certainly a superior person. Abstaining from all faults of behaviour. or of conduct. 'Only those that are transgressors of defined limits. These eternal duties were accordingly proclaimed by him. for thou shalt then obtain that which is superior. viz. The regenerate Jajali. Tuladhara and Jajali. 'Prosperity to all the kine in the world. What other truths dost thou wish to hear?'" SECTION CCLXV "Bhishma said. and who acts according to their import (in the belief that they are good for him). Beholding the mangled body of a bull. Persons endued with goodness and possessed of insight into the true import of morality have thus laid down the subject of duties. as affected by Sattwa.sin. and that desire the acquisition of celebrity through sacrifices and religious rites speak highly of the slaughter of animals in sacrifices. these words expressive of a blessing (to those helpless animals) were pronounced. and observing the cruel Brahmanas that gathered there for assisting at the ceremonies.' "Bhishma continued. illustrated by examples for instruction. And the monarch further said. many truths of grave import were uttered by Tuladhara. 'After a short while. both of whom had been endued with great wisdom. or of endurance? Every man has Faith. that king 2 uttered these words. 1 having reached their respective places earned by their respective acts. 'In this connection is cited an old narrative of what was recited by king Vichakhy through compassion for all creatures. Many truths of this kind were spoken of by Tuladhara. he who betakes himself to Faith. having heard these words of celebrated energy. however. that are atheists and sceptics. Faith. We have. ascended to heaven and sported p.. betook himself to tranquillity. O Jajali. betake thyself to Faith. is of three kinds. by Rajas and by Tamas. O son of Kunti. That eminent person understood this religion (of abstention from injury) completely. The religion of abstention with Faith is superior to all things considered sacred. He who has Faith (in the declarations of the Srutis). as the result of our enquiries. that are destitute of intelligence. 3 The righteous-souled Manu has .' When the slaughter had commenced. becomes sanctified. got all this from the sage Dharmadarsana. and hearing the exceedingly painful groans of the kine in a cow-slaying sacrifice. is certainly of righteous soul. one is named.

'" 5 Book12 SECTION CCLXVIII . men do not eat tainted meat. therefore. 246 fruit. and cupidity. Harmlessness to all creatures is the highest of all duties. Only they that are mean are urged by the desire of p. 4 Hence. will a person who is totally free from the desire of harming and who on this account will not be able to act. 'One should. 'The body and all sorts of dangers and calamities are continually at war with each other. They that are true Brahmanas realise the presence of Vishnu in every sacrifice. fish. guided by authority (in respect of slaughter and abstention from slaughter or harmlessness) one conversant (with the scriptures) should practise the true course of duty which is exceedingly subtile. 2 Wine. His worship. 1 Reverentially mentioning sacrifices and trees and sacrificial stakes. whatever act is regarded as worthy and whatever else is held as pure by persons of pure hearts and cleansed natures and those eminent for knowledge and holiness. have been introduced by knaves. The use of these (in sacrifices) is not laid down in the Vedas. alcohol. This practice. and that death may not come. one should give up domesticity. urged by only the desire of fruit.' 3 "Yudhishthira said. Living in the vicinity of an inhabited place and injuring oneself to the observance of rigid vows. and preparations of rice and sesame seeds. are all worthy of being offered to the Supreme Deity and not unworthy of His acceptance. it has been laid down. should be made with agreeable Payasa. adopting a life of Renunciation. and disregarding the fruits indicated of Vedic acts. meat. is not worthy of applause. The hankering after these arises from pride. How. honey. succeed in keeping up his body?' 4 "Bhishma said. (The leaves and flowers of) such trees as have been indicated in the Vedas. Indeed.applauded (the observance of) harmlessness in all (religious) acts. acquire merit and act in such a way that one's body may not languish and suffer pain. however. when able. error of judgment. men slaughter animals in sacrifices.

Enjoyment and Emancipation. 'I do not censure the Vedas. ancient. 'Both courses of duty are highly blessed. both of which lead to the same end. and who have the Srutis and knowledge for their eyes. and ever directed towards truth. Both are extremely difficult of accomplishment.. and who is destitute of all exertion (in consequence of the immediate fruition of all his wishes)?' "Kapila said. the duties of domesticity and those of Yoga. 256 and practised without injuring any creature.. all lead to the same end. O Yudhishthira! 1 It has been heard by us that in days of old when the deity Tvashtri came to the place of king Nahusha. for discharging the duties of hospitality. addressed the Yati Kapila. O grandsire. and eternal injunction of the Vedas. always engaged in restraining his senses. who is without the fever (of envy and aversion). which is superior?' "Bhishma said. Amongst these two. to be the words of God himself. may be adopted p. Beholding that cow tied for slaughter. I shall presently discourse to thee on the authoritativeness of both those courses of duty. how the religion of Yoga. regard the injunctions of the Vedas. 'Hist O Kapila! If the Vedas be deserving (in consequence of those declarations in them that sanction the slaughter of living creatures). viz. It hath been heard by us that the different courses of duty laid down for the different modes of life. 'Thou hast already explained to me. viz. of the name of Syumarasmi. Listen to it.--'Alas ye Vedas!'--At that time a Rishi. of that religion which leads to both results.. beneficial. possessed of true knowledge. having acquired an excellent understanding that was characterised by faith. ever observant of the duties of Sattwa. Tell me. and abstemious in diet. whence have those other duties (fraught with entire harmlessness to all creatures) come to be regarded as authoritative? 2 Men devoted to penances and endued with intelligence. viz. Kapila of liberal soul. uttered this word once. Both are practised by those that are admittedly good. I do not wish to say anything in derogation of them. was on the point of killing a cow agreeably to the true. In this connection is instanced the old narrative of the discourse between Kapila and the cow. Listen to me with concentrated attention. which have been declared through and compiled by the Rishis. O grandsire. firm. entering (by Yoga power) the form of that cow. perfectly fearless. the latter. Both are productive of high fruits. who is addicted to nothing. 3 What can anybody say (by way of censure or praise) with respect to the contents of the Vedas when these happen to be the words of the Supreme Being himself who is freed from desire of fruit. which leads to the six well-known attributes. for dispelling thy doubts about their true import."Yudhishthira said. saying. The .

land. The deciduous herbs..--this Sruti is constantly heard by us. and the . the Samans. milk. accomplish acts which lead to heaven and other blessings. and which depends upon direct evidence instead of that of the scriptures. except sacrifice. do thou then discourse to me upon it.p. Both the other two also. cow. and time which brings up the tale of twelve. according to his own ability. by which they can obtain the fruition p. and herbs. the Richs. viz. 257 [paragraph continues] Sannyasin attains to a high end. 258 of that desire. Thinking first of the fruit (that is to be attained). 'One should perform sacrifice from desire of heaven. however. The relative strength or weakness of these. all species of birds. The Vedas again declare that the whole universe is appointed for sacrifice.' "Syumarasmi said. If thou knowest of any course of duty which is superior to the religion of harmlessness. Altogether seven (domestic) and seven (wild) animals are indicated as fit for sacrifice. All the four modes of life have always been regarded as Deva-yana ways. one makes preparations for sacrifice. human beings. domestic or wild. each succeeding one is inferior to each preceding one. reach the same end. What man of learning is there that does not select.--Do not accomplish acts. the strength or weakness of particular declarations must be very difficult to ascertain. horse. trees. Goat. Him also that is called Purusha the Vedas have appointed for the same purpose. If abstention from acts be meritorious. are food of (other) living creatures. When the scriptures stand thus. individuals from among living creatures for sacrifice? 5 The inferior animals. This is heard by us. 3 The Lord of the universe created them along with Sacrifice. animals. hath been declared in the character of their respective ends. the points of the compass. clarified butter. and herbs and plants. The forest-recluse also attains to a high end.--this is a Vedic declaration. 4 This again hath been sanctioned by men of remote and remoter times. 1--Knowing these. creepers. faith. then their accomplishment must be exceedingly reprehensible. meat and other approved things (that are poured on the sacrificial fire). the Yajuses. trees. the householder and the Brahmacharin. all wish for the attainment of heaven. Then again the Sruti declares that animals and grain are the limbs of Sacrifice. curds. There is no means. The puissant Lord of all creatures caused the deities to perform sacrifices with their aid. as represented by their relative superiority or inferiority. 2 Food again has been directed to be taken day after day morning and evening.--this also is another binding declaration of the Vedas. Instead of all being equally fit.

sacrificer himself bringing up the tale to sixteen, and Fire which should be known as the householder,--these seventeen are said to be the limbs of sacrifice. Sacrifice, the Sruti declares, is the root of the world and its course. With clarified butter, milk, curds, dung, curds mixed with milk, skin, the hair in her tail, horns, and hoofs, the cow alone is able to furnish all the necessaries of sacrifice. Particular ones amongst these that are laid down for particular sacrifices, coupled with Ritwijas and presents (to the priests themselves and other Brahmanas) together sustain sacrifices. 1 By collecting these things together, people accomplish sacrifices 2. This Sruti, consistent with the truth, is heard that all things have been created for the performance of sacrifice. It was thus that all men of ancient time set themselves to the performance of sacrifices. As regards that person, however, who performs sacrifices because of the conviction that sacrifices should be performed and not for the sake of fruit or reward, it is seen that he does not injure any creature or bear himself with hostility to anything, or set himself to the accomplishment of any worldly task. 3 Those things that have been named as the limbs of sacrifice, and those other things that have been mentioned as required in sacrifices and that are indicated in the ordinances, all uphold one another (for the completion of sacrifices) when used according to the approved ritual. 4 I behold also the Smritis compiled by he Rishis, into which the Vedas have been introduced. Men of learning regard them as authoritative in consequence of their following the Brahmanas. 5 Sacrifices have the Brahmanas for that progenitor, and truly they rest upon the Brahmanas. The whole universe rests upon sacrifice, and sacrifice rests upon the universe. 6 The syllable Om is the root from which the Vedas have sprung. (Every rite, therefore, should commence with the utterance of that syllable of vast import). Of him who has uttered for him the syllables Om, Namas, Swaha, Svadha, and Vashat, and who has, according to the extent of his ability, performed sacrifices and other rites, there is no fear in respect of next life in all the three worlds. Thus say the Vedas, and sages crowned with ascetic success, and the foremost of Rishis. He in whom are the Richs, the Yajuses, the Samans, and the expletives

p. 259

necessary for completing the rhythm of the Samans according to the rules laid down in Vedic grammars, is, indeed, a Brahmana. 1 Thou knowest, O adorable Brahmana, what the fruits are of Agnihotra, of the Soma-sacrifice, and of the other great sacrifices. I say, for this reason, one should sacrifice and assist at other people's sacrifices, without scruples of any kind. One who performs such sacrifices as lead to heaven (such as Jyotishtoma, etc.) obtains high rewards hereafter in the form of heavenly beatitude. This is certain, viz., that they who do not perform sacrifices have neither this world nor the next. They who are really conversant with the declarations of the Vedas regard both kinds of declarations (viz., those that incite to acts and those that preach abstention) as equally authoritative.'"


256:1 The redundant syllable is arsha.

256:2 Both acts and knowledge have been pointed out in the Vedas. The Vedas, therefore, being authority for both, one or the other cannot be censured or applauded.

256:3 Arsha means here Vedic injunctions declared through the mouths of inspired Rishis and compiled by Rishis. Viditatmanah is the Supreme Being himself. The object of the speaker is to show that no part of the Vedas can be censured, for every word in them is equally authoritative, all being God's own.

257:1 Deva-yanah is explained by the commentator as Devam atmanam janti ebhiriti, i.e., those by which the Soul is reached. The relative strength or weakness of the four modes of life hath been thus indicated. The Sannyasin attains to Moksha or Emancipation; the forest recluse to the region of Brahman; the house-holder attains to heaven (region of the deities presided over by Indra) and the Brahmacharin attains to the region of the Rishis.

257:2 The commentator explains that having commenced with the assertion that men should sacrifice from desire of heaven, the speaker fears that the hearer may deny the very existence of heaven. Hence, he takes a surer ground for justifying slaughter, viz., the ground that is connected with the consideration of food. Living creatures must eat in order to live. The very support of life requires the slaughter of life. Slaughter, therefore, is justified by the highest necessity.

257:3 i.e., there are the essential requisites of sacrifice.

257:4 The seven domestic animals are cow, goat, man, horse, sheep, mule, and ass. The seven wild ones are lion, tiger, boar, buffalo, elephant, bear, and monkey.

257:5 'Vichinwita is Vivechayet with alamvartham understood: atmanah is equivalent to jivat.

258:1 All the products of the cow that are named here are not required in all sacrifices. Some are required in some, others in others. Those then that are required, when coupled with Ritwijas and Dakshina, complete the respective sacrifices or uphold or sustain them.

258:2 Samhritya means Ekikritya and not 'destroying' as the Burdwan translator wrongly takes it.

258:3 The Burdwan translator, notwithstanding the clear language of both the text and commentary, wrongly connects the first line of verse 31 with the last line of 30, and makes nonsense of both verses.

258:4 By taking the two lines of 32 with the last line of 30, the Burdwan translator makes nonsense of the passage.

258:5 'Brahmanas' here means that part of the Vedas which contains the ritual.

258:6 Each constitutes the refuge of the other.

259:1 There are many such expletives, such as hayi, havu, etc.


"Kapila said, 'Beholding that all the fruits that are attainable by acts are terminable instead of being eternal, Yatis, by adopting self-restraint and tranquillity, attain to Brahma through the path of knowledge. There is nothing in any of the worlds that can impede them (for by mere fiats of their will they crown all their wishes with success). They are freed from the influence of all pairs of opposites. They never bow down their heads to anything or any creature. They are above all the bonds of want. Wisdom is theirs. Cleansed they are from every sin. Pure and spotless they live and rove about (in great happiness). They have, in their own understandings, arrived at settled conclusions in respect of all destructible objects and of a life of Renunciation (by comparing the two together). Devoted to Brahma, already become like unto Brahma, they have taken refuge in Brahma. Transcending grief, and freed from (the equality of) Rajas, theirs are acquisitions that are

viz. how can any one attain to Emancipation? . domesticity may be looked upon as the refuge of the entire universe. have the domestic mode of life for their root. in the matter of his attainment of a second body. all plants and herbs (that yield corn or grain). the Rishis. and the gods. in that of his drink and food after such attainment. and practises penances. after the same manner the three other p. that be the highest object of acquisition. the Varhishads. The eternal and certain distinctions (laid down in the Vedas) are the causes that sustain the three worlds. 260 modes of life exist in consequence of their dependence upon the domestic mode. and others of the same class that grow on hills and mountains. Upon those depend the life of living creatures. in that of sinking funeral cakes in water--Vedic mantras are necessary. 'If. When the Vedas say this so loudly and when again human beings are said to owe debts to the Pitris. if that be truly the highest end (which is attained by practising Renunciation) then the importance of the domestic mode of life becomes manifest.. becomes impossible in any other mode of life (than domesticity). Vedic mantras become necessary for enabling persons of the regenerate classes to accomplish all their acts in respect of both this and the other world. however. The procreation of offspring. When the high end that is these men's is within reach of attainment.eternal. Whatever is done by anybody from desire of happiness has for its root the domestic mode of life. is worshipped from the very date of his birth. approve of the necessity of mantras in the case of the dead. only those that are destitute of reputation that are idle and toil-worn. All living creatures regard the procreation of offspring as a source of great happiness. that have misery for their share in consequence of their past acts. what need has one for practising the duties of the domestic mode of life?' 2 "Syumarasmi said. as all living creatures are able to live in consequence of their dependence on their respective mothers. The householder who leads the life of domesticity. behold the plenitude of tranquillity in a life of mendicancy. and the Kravyads. 2 In cremating his body (after death). because without the domestic mode no other mode of life ever becomes possible. 1 Who then speaks the truth that says that domesticity cannot lead to the acquisition of Emancipation? Only those that are destitute of faith and wisdom and penetration. and mantras are allowed to be efficient causes (for attainment of the objects for which these ceremonies and rites have been directed to be performed). in that of giving away kine and other animals for helping him to cross the river that divides the region of life from that of Yama. Besides the performance of Garbhadhana. And since nothing else is seen (in the universe) than life. performs sacrifices. That illustrious person of the highest order who is conversant with the Vedas. only those that are destitute of learning. indeed. Indeed. the Archishmats. Every kind of grass and straw. Then again the three classes of Pitris.

3 This false doctrine (of incorporeal existence called Emancipation). '(If acts are obligatory. Through instructions received from the preceptor one knows that which dwells within this frame to be of a four-fold nature. the stomach. 262 not gamble with dice. That intelligent man who conducts himself in this way is said to have his hands and feet well-controlled.' By conducting . the Chaturmasya. that are cleansed (of wrath and every fault). that are endued with patience. be sparing of speech. such a person attains to high regions of felicity along with the animals he has slain in those sacrifices. therefore. (Why then perform acts involving cruelty)? Those that have betaken themselves to the Sannyasa.' "Kapila said. and other acts for the man of intelligence. and always heedful. by guile. it is by practising the rites laid down in the Vedas that one succeeds in attaining to Brahma. giving way to wrath. the Paurnamasa. apparently dressed in colours of truth. or by deception. and himself. That Brahmana who performs sacrifices according to the declarations of the Vedas is never seduced by sin. then) there are the Darsa. and the organ of pleasure. and the Pitris) represented to be so very fond of libations poured in sacrifices. One should not assist at the sacrifice of a person of ignoble birth. and that are conversant with Brahma. mode of life. gratified by the acquisition of all his wishes succeeds in gratifying those animals by fulfilling their wishes. the very gods are said to have four doors. the Agnihotra. that abstain from all acts. 2 One should p. One should. has been introduced by learned men reft of prosperity and eaten up by idleness. One should forbear from knavery and from calumniating others. Through sacrifices. having besides four doors and four mouths. 261 the declarations of the Vedas. One should not speak words that are vain. smite another with hands or feet. One should not. One should not appropriate what belongs to another. On the other hand. One should observe the vow of truthfulness. 1 The very gods become stupefied in tracing the track of that trackless person who constitutes himself the soul of all creatures and who looks upon all creatures with an equal eye. but subversive of the real purport of p. succeed by such knowledge of Brahma in paying off the debts (thou speakest of) to the gods (the Rishis. the organ of speech. In consequence of (their possession of) two arms. one never succeeds in attaining to the Supreme. In their performance is eternal merit. By disregarding the Vedas. One should not indulge in vociferous abuse or censure. strive one's best to keep those doors under control.

singly enjoys all the happiness that wedded couples enjoy. it is very difficult to observe them in practice. (And marking this. In truth.' . Mark this well. the fruits to which they lead are terminable. and that are deathless. By conducting oneself in this way one is said to have one's organ of pleasure properly controlled. One should not abstain entirely from food. and the organ of speech. that are fraught with the highest puissance. it is very difficult to ascertain all their particulars. If ascertained. men of foolish understandings do not succeed in obtaining a knowledge of what is needed in making one a Brahmana even when explained by preceptors. One should give up covetousness. What can the penance of such a man do? What can his sacrifices bring about? What cart be achieved by his body? The gods know him for a Brahmana who has cast off his upper garment. the two arms (and two feet). heaven and its joys. If practised. embracing as it does practices the very opposite of those that are seen in seasons of distress. One should not eat too much. these men desire fruits of a different kind.oneself in this way one will have one's organ of speech well-restrained. should be known for a Brahmana. the stomach. and whose heart is possessed of tranquillity. which is eternal. and always seek the companionship of the good. Without having acquired purity of heart which is the true result of all pious acts such as gifts and sacrifices. and who turns not his attention to the joys and griefs of others. 263 creature hath any fear and who constitutes himself the soul of all creatures. One should never summon a woman to bed except in her season. 2 That man who rightly understands all this as it exists in reality and its multiform transformations. properly controlled. 1 That person who. By conducting oneself in this way one succeeds in properly controlling the door represented by one's stomach. That man of wisdom is truly a regenerate person who has all his four doors. however. One should not. who makes his arm a pillow. viz. and by adopting which men of knowledge belonging to all the modes of life convert their respective duties and penances into terrible weapons for destroying the ignorance and evils of worldliness. O hero. is known by the gods for a Brahmana. should be known for a Brahmana. as fruitless after all and as deviations (from the proper course) not sanctioned by the scriptures... One should confine oneself to one's own wedded spouse without seeking congress with other women. which enters as a thread in all our duties. Destitute of a knowledge of all this. men of foolish understandings regard acts that are productive of visible fruits. that conduct. and who knows what the end is of all created objects. Everything becomes useless of that person whose doors are not wellcontrolled. which is characterised by certitude. viz. the organ of pleasure. 1 Unable to practise even a small part of that good conduct which has come down from remote times. who sleeps on the bare ground. lustfully take another wife when one has a wedded spouse (with whom to perform all religious acts). 2 As regards sacrifices again. One should eat only so much as is needed for sustaining life. is the very essence of heedfulness and is never affected by lust and wrath and other passions of a similar kind. do thou betake thyself to the path of knowledge). devoted to contemplation. 3 One who hath no fear from any creature and from whom no p.

are the visible results of those other objects which you (men of acts) pursue?' "Syumarasmi said. As a boat that is tied to another bound for a different port. 'O Brahmana.. I have so studied the Agama as to have July mastered their true meaning. I have come here for acquiring knowledge. nor one that is absolutely free from the desire to act (for one's own benefit). Do thou discourse to me on this subject. In consequence of the certainty of the conclusions of Agama. nor one that has an absolute distaste for companionship. the success to which the latter leads may be said to be almost realisable by direct evidence. The dark doubt has taken possession of my mind. O Brahmana!' "Kapila said. nor one that is perfectly free from disease. can never cross the interminable river of birth and death (and reach the heaven of rest and peace we may have in view). By Agama I understand the declarations of the Vedas. p. Like other . Such observance of the practices laid down in Agama crowns one with success. nor one that has entirely abstained from acts of every kind. Yoga). nor one that has transcended grief. Desirous of doing good to myself I have started this conversation in artless candour and not from desire of disputation. however. nor one that is perfectly contented with oneself. What. 1 Without avoiding the duties laid down for the particular mode of life which one may lead.. realise its fruits by the direct evidence of their senses. do you even in this life realise its fruits by the direct evidence of your senses. Discourse to me on this topic. one should pursue the practices laid down in Agama. is productive of great benefit. is that which is so realisable by the direct evidence of the senses and which is pursued by yourselves? Avoiding all sciences that have disputation only for their foremost object. even so ourselves. Even men like yourself are seen to give way to joy and indulge in grief as persons like ourselves. dragged by our acts due to past desires. 264 [paragraph continues] Whence then is their authority when their declarations thus contradict each other? Renunciation of acts. Yoga)."Syumarasmi said. O illustrious one. No one can be found amongst men that has completely renounced all worldly objects. solve it to me. indeed. 'The Vedas countenance acts and discountenance them. What. again. cannot take its passengers to the port they desire to reach. Both these have been indicated in the Vedas. I also include la that word those sciences based on logic which have for their object the bringing out of the real meaning of the Vedas. by which Brahma is attained. 'Betaking yourselves to the path of the good (viz. O illustrious one! Teach me as a preceptor teaches a disciple. Thou hast said that they who take the path of the good (viz. I am Syumarasmi by name.

the passions of envy. continually grow. betake themselves to Yoga. Thinking in this strain and beholding these faults (through the aid of instructions secured from preceptors). these robbers of the scriptures. Whatever again the school of opinion according to which one may conduct oneself. become the slaves of pride and arrogance. if we are to investigate the question of happiness. Tell me. who covet the highest end. does pure felicity consist for all the four orders of men and all the four modes of life who and which have.' p. pride. One becomes subject to all the incidents of that nature which one imbibes. of him who hath Tamas for his refuge. refuse to pursue tranquillity and practise self-restraint. all that I have said (about the laudable character of acts and the opposite character of Renunciation) is strictly conformable to the scriptures. the ordinances laid down in it for regulating those acts never become fruitless.' 3 "Syumarasmi said. It is. Similarly. 2 These men behold fruitlessness on every side. Made up entirely of the quality of Tamas. who. Without having correctly understood the meaning of scriptural declarations.creatures the senses of persons like yourselves have their functions and objects. Knowledge assists that man in crossing (this interminable river of life and death) who pursues knowledge. But have any of you at any time succeeded in acquiring that knowledge in consequence of which everything is capable of being viewed as identical with one Universal Soul? 1 Without a correct apprehension of the scriptures. That conduct. for one's qualities have one's nature for their spring. 'O Brahmana. they have Tamas only for their refuge. This also is declared by the Sruti. some there are. in consequence of being overwhelmed by desire and aversion. That again is . whatever conduct is inconsistent with equity is inconsistent with the scriptures. 'Whatever the Sastras according to which one performs the acts one feels inclined to do. afflicts them (by subjecting them to the evils of life and death). very true that without a correct apprehension of the meaning of the scriptures. influenced by arrogance and error. lust. and if (by chance) they succeed in obtaining the puissance of knowledge they never impart it to others for rescuing them. in what then. leaving both good and ill. one does not feel inclined to obey what the scriptures really declare. Whatever conduct is consistent with equity is consistent with the scriptures. falsehood. however. as regards their inclinations. fond only of disputation. It is certain that no one can do an act that is scriptural by transgressing the scriptures. however. and vanity. the same resting ground. Accordingly. Yatis. one is sure to attain to the highest end by only observing the duties of self-restraint of Yoga. It is evident that ye are possessed of knowledge and dissociated from every worldly object that may produce distress. these depredators of Brahma. which men pursue after deviating from the path of knowledge. Even that is what the Sruti declares. wrath. 265 "Kapila said.

seek the same single end (viz. however. 1 For one. One becomes chargeable with atheism if one disregards the Vedas by not doing the acts they direct. In view of the high end that Renunciation is certain to bring. to give way to grief. when by practising even these no one succeeds in attaining to Emancipation. They do not behold what the scriptures declare to be faults. as the commentator explains. The Sruti declares this. who believe only what directly appeals to their senses. who has brought his soul under perfect control. accordingly.. what need has a person of the domestic mode of life which leads to rewards that are insignificant compared to the other. As regards ourselves. begetting offspring. (The course of conduct. this course of conduct is exceedingly difficult to follow. Those objects of the senses with which men like you are concerned are the same with which other living creatures are concerned. sacrifices. in consequence of our inability to understand the Soul we are destitute of a correct apprehension of the reality.p. however different their duties. O illustrious one. O learned one!' Footnotes 259:2 For. I desire to hear without delay about that (Emancipation) which comes in the Vedas after the declarations in favour of acts. O Brahmana! I sit at thy feet as a disciple. and on Emancipation itself that is sought! It seems that the labour spent upon attaining to it is all fruitless. For ascertaining that particular course of conduct (amongst those various duties) which is well calculated to accomplish the desired end. Teach me kindly! I wish to know as much about Emancipation as is known to thee. and we are enveloped in thick darkness. how vast is the difference that exists between you and them! All the four orders of men and all the four modes of life. who is capable of roving everywhere depending only on his own body. filled my soul with tranquillity. is exceedingly difficult of practice). Many men. thou hast. Yet in consequence of your knowledge of the soul and their ignorance of it. fie on him who seeks to attain to it. Do tell me the truth. Thou art possessed of unquestioned talents and abilities. Only he who is devoted to Yoga. Our wisdom is concerned with things that are low. who has transcended the requirements of the science of morality and who disregards the whole world (and everything belonging to it). however. like ourselves. study of the Vedas. . the highest happiness). 266 unscriptural which is against the Vedas. by discoursing to me on the Infinite (Brahma). behold only this world (and not what is addressed in the scriptures to Faith). who lives in the midst of relatives. simplicity of dealing. who has discharged all his duties. one who has acquired an empire does not seek the dole of charity. can transgress the declarations of the Vedas with respect to acts. Gift. that thou hast indicated for enabling one to attain to Emancipation. and say that there is Emancipation. They have.

'Brahma-sanjnitah' implies 'conversant with Brahma. 261:1 The mention of 'Devan' as the commentator points out--Rishis and also Pitris. Vahiranya adrija implies 'other kinds of Oshadhi born on mountains. uttered in Sraddhas. the words are. The argument then is this: when the Vedas. the Soma and other useful hill plants and shrubs. These mantras are.' i. The amrita here that these covet is. pranat vahihna kinchit drisyate. which are the words of Supreme Godhead. food and drink are offered to him with the aid of mantras.e. of course. Mantras are needed for assisting the dead spirit to attain to a brilliant form (either in the next world or in this if there p. atah viswasyapi mulam garhastyam.--'Without doubt. 260:2 Literally rendered. Kine and animals are given away by the representatives of the dead for enabling the dead ancestor to cross the Vaitarani (the river that flows between the two worlds) and for enabling him to become happy in heaven. The argument in the second line is this: Oschadhibhyah pranah. The funeral cake. That soul .' for the Srutis say that 'Brahmavid Brahmaiva bhavati. which involves an incorporeal existence transcending the very Karana (form) be possible? The very declarations of the Vedas in favour of acts are inconsistent with incorporeal existence or with the negation of existence with dual consciousness of knower and known. of course. have laid down these mantras for the attainment of such objects in the next world. Oshadhi here implies paddy and other grain. 260:3 Mantras are necessary in cremating a Brahmana's dead body. with the aid of mantras. Domesticity is the root of these. the Sacrificial libation.' Practically. according to the ordinance.. with a body. how can Emancipation. 261 be rebirth). Enam is the universal Soul dwelling within this physical frame. By study he pays off his debt to the Rishis: by the performance of sacrifices he pays off his debt to the gods. By becoming a human being one inherits three debts. again. Vedic mantras enter into persons of the regenerate classes in respect of acts whose effects are seen and acts whose effects instead of being seen depend upon the evidence of the scriptures. It refers to the person who constitutes himself to be the soul of all creatures or one who is conversant with Brahma or has become Brahma itself.260:1 Varhi is grass or straw. After the dead spirit has been provided. because these are cultivated or collected by persons leading the domestic mode of life. what is said here is that all the acts of a Brahmana are performed with the aid of Vedic mantras. is sunk in water for making it easily attainable by him to whom it is offered. and by begetting children he frees himself from the debt he owes to the Pitris.' 261:2 The terseness of the original has not been removed in the translation. Teshamapi mulam garhastyam should be supplied after the first line.

and suddha (stainless). 263:1 The original is very terse. and the understanding.. following the instructions of preceptors. pasyanti.. tam (sadacharam) puranam puranam saswatam dhruvam dharmeshu cha sutritamkitichit charitum asaknuvantah phalavanti vyushtimanti dhruvam cha karmani (mudah) vigunani. i. the mind. antarena is equivalent to vina. Their external aspects are only transformations. Anyat phalam in the second line implies heaven and its joys (which satisfy ordinary men). it is virat (all-embracing). the organ of speech. without marrying succeeds in enjoying singly all the felicity that attaches to married life. He who would transcend them and shine in his own stainless nature should seek to control or restrain them. The Kartritwa (power of action) is then pointed out by the mention of the doors which are the two arms. antaryamin (possessed of omniscience).e. Practically. sutra (fine as the finest thread and pervading everything). The very gods feel their force. The construction is this: Yam sadacharam asritya samsritanam swakarmabhih (sahitam) tapah ghoratwam agatam. Dana-yajna kriya phalam is chitta suddhi of purity or heart. I have expanded it. of course. the senses. Brahma. What the p. etc. by which are meant the four sources of enjoyment or pleasure. There can be no doubt that the commentator is right.. p. Its four mouths. anujananti governs Brahmanyam understood. 262:2 Dwandwarama very likely means here the joys of wedded couples and not 'the pleasures derived from pairs of opposites'. 262 speaker wishes to point out by this is the Bhotkritwa (power of enjoyment) of the Soul. 262:3 In reality all things are. The second line of 36 stands by itself as an explanatory sentence referring to some of the characteristics of the sadachara that . viz. 262:1 'One who has cast off his upper garment' is one who clothes himself very scantily only for the sake of decency and not for splendour. They are the screens or avaranas that conceal its real nature. The sense seems to be this that man is a Brahmana who.' 263:2 These three verses run together and are extremely abstruse. it is Yoga that is recommended for enabling one to attain to the position of the universal Soul. The practice anu before jananti is taken to imply gurum anu. are the body. the stomach and the organ of the pleasure (generation). being unable to transcend them or their said to have a fourfold nature. following the commentator. These last operate as doors for shutting or confining the soul within its chamber. 263 The end of all creatures is death and rebirth till absorption takes place into Brahma by means of Yoga.

and dhruva karmani which fools regard to be vigyunani and anaikatitikani are. The Burdwan translator makes nonsense of the second line of 64 by connecting it with the first line of 65. Sankhya. Nirarambhah is Camadyarambha-sunyah. Samsritanam. This is that true knowledge which brings about Emancipation or is Emancipation itself. Fools. they convert those duties and their penances into efficient means for dispelling the darkness of ignorance. in consequence of their sadacharah. become a terrible weapon. and dhruvam. look upon it and Yoga itself as fruitless and valueless although the rewards these confer are visible. What is meant by this is that the penances of such men. Some texts read Siddhante for samyame. 264:1 The sciences that have disputation only for their foremost object. SECTION CCLXX . the Saughatas (or Buddhists). K. for destroying the evils of worldliness. They are 'depredators of Brahma' because they deny the very existence of Godhead. 265:1 Aikatmyam is explained by the commentator as Eka eva dwaita darsana hina atma yatra bhavati. etc. are. and Patanjala. ghoratwam agatam is samsarandhakaranasakam bhavati. The phalavanti vyushtimanti. it is that state of the mind in which one perceives one's identity with everything in the universe. 266:1 What is intended to be said here is that only a life of Renunciation. The latter is no new-fangled theory of men of learning but is puranam saswatam. those acts which are included within the word 'Yoga. in these three verses. whatever their mode of life. can lead to Emancipation. on the other hand. The sadacharah spoken of here is nishkamadharmah. observe its duties. Practically. the speaker. the Kapalikas. Singha omits it entirely. wishes to inculcate that wise men. refers to men observing the different modes of life. unable to practise that nishkama dharma. 265:2 They are called 'robbers of the scriptures' because they always seek to rob the scriptures of their true spoken of. so hard to follow. The other sciences based on Logic that are included within the word Agama are the two Mimamsas. Dhyana and Samadhi. along with the duties they are called upon to observe by the particular mode of life they follow. the sciences of the Lokayatikas. 265:3 The particle anu means 'following the instructions of preceptors. according to the commentator. of course.P.' In brief. But by virtue of the nishkama dharma they follow.' Samyame refers to Dharana.

3 of unstained birth. endued with certain conclusions through pure knowledge. viz. Brahma is of two kinds. Brahma as represented by sound. observant of those rites that have been laid down in the Vedas. 4 They behaved equally towards all creatures and were endued with perfect sincerity. devoted to the good of all creatures."Kapila said. Know that the reward of acts is purity of heart which only leads to Emancipation. They were possessed of faith in Brahma of both forms. unstained conduct. 2 When the body has been cleansed with purificatory rites (performed with the aid of Vedic mantras).). Relying as they did p. that body which the sire creates with the aid of Vedic mantras is cleansed (after birth) by Vedic mantras. perform sacrifices because of the conviction that their performance is a duty. They that cherish no expectation. without failing off in any particular. and many Brahmanas also of the same character (like Yajnavalkya and others). Visible were the rewards of their righteousness. the owner there of come to be called a Brahmana and becomes a vessel fit for receiving knowledge of Brahma. that discard every kind of wealth by not storing anything for future use. 268 . and that are free from every kind of affection and aversion. And inasmuch as they never tripped. Uniting together they used to perform meritorious acts. They were observant of the duties of righteousness on even occasions of distress and difficulty. 5 At first making their hearts pure. free from pride and malice. that are not covetous. 1 One conversant with Brahma represented by sound succeeds in attaining to Supreme Brahma. and unstained learning. It can never be known with the aid of either the Vedas or inference. Contentment was theirs. leading lives of domesticity and thoroughly devoted to their own duties. and certainty of knowledge. People never p. and Brahma as Supreme (and intangible). 267 disregard them. and pure were they in behaviour and heart. Commencing with the rites of Garbhadhana. firm in Yoga. they had never to perform any expiation. capable of crowning all their wishes with fruition. they duly observed all (excellent) vows. In this they found great happiness. I shall presently speak to thee of that. there were many kings also of the same qualifications.--never indulging in envy. Whether purity of heart has been attained or not (by performance of acts) is what can be known to the person himself who has attained it. never giving way to wrath. there were in days of yore many men. 'The Vedas are regarded as authoritative by all. etc. Never addicted at any time to sinful acts.. devoted to Yoga (like Janaka. To make gifts unto deserving persons is the end (right use) of all wealth.

Those myriads of Brahmanas . 1 In consequence of their observing unitedly the absolute ordinances of the scriptures without betaking themselves ever to the rites laid down in the alternative. lastly. characterised as they were by thorough sincerity. which is eternal and whose characteristics are unchangeable. of men whose conduct and acts were so difficult of observance and accomplishment. The Brahmanas say that that Good Conduct. devoted to the performance of sacrifices. corresponding with the four modes of life by persons unable to p. and mindful as they were of their own practices. and endued with fame. Even this is the eternal Sruti heard by us. subsequently came to be distributed into four subdivisions. which differs from the practices to which even the good resort in seasons of distress and represents their acts in other situations. The sacrifices of these men. their (knowledge of the) Vedas. which is identical with heedfulness. were identical with Infinite Brahma. they were never under the necessity of performing expiation. of profound knowledge of the Vedas. of men whose wishes were crowned with fruition in consequence of the strict discharge of their duties. became efficacious weapons for the destruction of all earthly desires. attain to the highest end. freed as they were from lust and wrath. The Sruti declares that expiation exists for only men that are weak and unable to follow the absolute and substantive provisions of the sacred law. and the wishes they entertained. which is wonderful. over which lust and wrath and other evil passions can never prevail. 2 Those Brahmanas are seen to shine in the firmament as luminaries shedding beneficent rays of light all around. They never followed their own understandings in the matter of earning merit but followed the dictates of the scriptures alone for that end. Many Brahmanas there were of this kind in days of old. they became endued with irresistible energy. their study of the scripture at the fixed hours. possessed of purity and good conduct. and in consequence of which there was (at one time) no transgression in all mankind. They also that betake themselves to the forest mode reach the same high end (by duly observing that conduct). by duly observing that course of Good Conduct after adoption of the Sannyasa mode of life. those that lead the Brahmacharya mode obtain the same (end by a due observance of the same conduct). observant as they were of pious conduct and acts notwithstanding all difficulties. 1 They that are good. 269 practise its duties in minute detail and entirety. They too that observe the domestic mode of life attain to the highest end (by duly practising the same conduct). renowned as they were for performing the duties of their own order and mode of life. Accordingly they were never guilty of guile in the matter of performing acts of righteousness. devoted as they were to tranquillity. purified as their souls were in consequence of their very nature. whose origin may be traced to very ancient times.upon the true course of righteousness. and. 2 There is no expiation for men living in the observance of the ordinances laid down in the scriptures. Possessed of learning they transcended all the bonds of life. They always worshipped Brahma in the sacrifices. and were free from desire. their acts performed in obedience to the ordinances. 3 The penances of men that were so high-souled.

1 Renunciation sometimes exists mixed with the duties of other modes. that knowledge is always acquired by Brahmanas of pure hearts and restrained soul. O Brahmana! Do thou tell me truly. That pure-hearted man who seeks to attain to Brahma becomes rescued from the world (with its misery). who has arrived at settled conclusions (in respect of the soul).have become stars and constellations set in their fixed tracks. and they that betake themselves to a life of Renunciation after having acquired and enjoyed wealth and all its pleasures. for acquisition of the knowledge of Brahma. As regards those that have by conquering all evil passions acquired purity of heart. 270 based upon contentment is regarded as the refuge of true knowledge. renunciation. Only he that is weak. they that devote themselves to the study of the Vedas. who is it that attains to the foremost place in heaven? I ask thee this. they that perform sacrifices. and which is highly necessary for a Brahmana. 'Amongst those that are given up to enjoyment (of property). Who else would deserve to be called a Brahmana? When acts alone determine who is a Brahmana and who is not. that are freed from desire. Indeed. and who has devoted himself to Yoga thus. abstention from acts. is eternal (and comes down from preceptor to pupil for ever and ever). Verily. when they depart from this world. In consequence of contentment (or Renunciation) they have all attained to Infinity as the Vedas declare. fails to practise it. Renunciation is the cause of supreme benefit unto every kind of person. acts (good or bad) must be held to indicate the happiness or misery of a person. 3 One whose soul is for Renunciation p. are equally laid down for all the four orders of men and all the four modes of life. they are never stained by sins which have the unexhausted residue of previous acts for their originating cause. If such men have to come back to the world through the wombs of living creatures. is truly a Brahmana. and the abstraction of Samadhi) followed by those men of pure hearts. The duties (of tranquillity. and that have Emancipation only for their object. they behold everything to be Brahma. Renunciation.' 2 "Syumarasmi said. in which is that knowledge which leads to Emancipation. we have heard the eternal Sruti that in consequence of the Infinity to which they attain (through beholding the universal soul) and of the knowledge of Brahma (they acquire through the declarations of Srutis). selfrestraint. they that make gifts. one practises it according to the measure of one's strength (that depends upon the degree of one's absence of worldly desires).' . But whether existing in that state or by itself. devotion. one who has led the life of a Brahmacharin and waited dutifully upon his preceptor.

abstention from injury. which is full. viz. that this universe exists and does not exist. By those one attains to what is the Highest. 4 which is absolute. that when complete Renunciation takes place one obtains what is sufficient. 'Acts only cleanse the body. viz. 3 This truth rests upon all the Vedas. and when the felicity of Brahma becomes established in knowledge. withdrawn from all acts. 271 benevolence. which is the highest object of knowledge as being identical with all mobile and immobile things. Verity. It has. forgiveness. These constitute the path that lead to Brahma. 2 This one conclusion is deducible from all the scriptures. and future all exist in the Vedas. One who succeeds in acquiring a knowledge of the Vedas..--these three are the cause of perfect felicity. They are unable. tranquillity. is observable between them in respect of either their superiority or inferiority of puissance. is regarded as the highest end which is obtained by Brahmanas endued with wisdom. however. That the cure of all faults of the heart is the result of acts becomes intelligible to the wise man when these are attained. past. do thou tell me then how stands the matter truly. which exists as the soul of all mortal and immortal things."Kapila said. To him. which is perfect felicity. truthfulness. 'Ye depend upon knowledge as the means (for the attainment of Emancipation). 1 One who is conversant with the Vedas knows everything. p. and candour. the present. which is the foremost of all things. compassion.' "Kapila said. 5 Ability to subdue the senses. which is well-known as such universal soul.. however. 'Those who lead a life of domesticity are certainly auspicious and acquire excellence of every kind. Knowledge. To the man of knowledge this (all that is perceived) is both sat and asat. renunciation. modesty. 5 When all faults of the heart are cured (by acts). to enjoy the felicity that attaches to Renunciation. which is without duality. forgiveness. is the highest end (for which one strives). Any other man is only a bag of wind. and which is without deterioration of any kind. whence the Unmanifest has sprung. absence of pride. That. which is Unmanifest and the cause also. Brahma as represented in acts). been said that the end of all modes of life is Emancipation. which is Brahma. Those who lead lives of domesticity have planted their faith in acts. of that which is taught by the Vedas (viz. possessed of purity and the certitude of knowledge.' 3 "Syumarasmi said. O illustrious one. Then again the highest contentment follows and rests upon Emancipation. this all is both the end and the middle. 4 No difference. however. and the minutiae of acts. Even thou mayst see this.. indeed. for everything is established on the Vedas. is said to be conversant with the Vedas. therefore. and abstention from work in consequence of the absence of desire. With the aid . and abstention from work are attained.

Some idea may be given of the extreme terseness of such verses by offering a literal rendering: 'That lump of matter which is made a (human) body by what is contained in the Veda. 267:3 Yoga is the only way to true knowledge. different deities are invoked to develop different organs and parts of the body of the child to be begotten.e. which is identical with him that knows it. What Kapila wishes to teach is that commencing with acts. in Brahma as possessed of attributes and as freed from attributes. All this requires the aid of the Vedic mantras. 267:2 I have expanded this verse. which is the prime cause of the universe. In this rite. subsequent to birth. cleansed or purified. knowledge should finally be acquired. the understanding. What is meant by guile in the practice of righteousness may be exemplified as follows. which is unchangeable and which is beyond destruction. following the lead of the commentator. men having understanding for their eyes succeed in reaching that Brahma which is p. Thus begotten. hence Jnana-nishthah is Yoga-nishthah. the body of the child is.. 268:1 Matra is explained as miyante vishya anya i.' One approaches one's wife after performing the rite of Garbhadhana.'" 1 Footnotes 267:1 The Vedas are Savda-Brahma or Brahma as represented by sound. 267:4 These and men like these are pointed out as persons deserving of gifts.of these three qualities. is (afterwards) made (a body by the same means).. I bow to that Brahma.e. Individual grains of barley may be . 272 uncreate. 267:5 i.

dreamless slumber (sushupti). all the four modes.' Jato-anye. Singha gives the substance very briefly without endeavouring to translate the words. and 4th. Singha and the Burdwan translator have completely misunderstood verse 23 and the first line of 24. which.. 3rd. Turiya. called sadachara or good conduct. There p. wakefulness. 269:2 Both K. which is reached by Samadhi (abstraction of Yoga-meditation). relating to the Chaturthopanishat or. should be construed together. titiksha. etc. etc. as the commentator explains. are spoken of. Thus. samadhi. The construction is Tam (sadacharam) santah grihebhyah nishkramya eva (sannyasam kritwaiva) vidhivatprapya paramam gatim gachcchanti. are sama. Similarly. Grihameva bhisamsritya anye santah. tadartham dharmah. They were the Soul of the universe. for all men. etc.given away instead of cloths by one unable to obtain clothes for gift. or they did nothing for self. 268:2 The scriptures frequently lay down ordinances in the alternative. rejecting some of the connecting links without any excuse. What is said in these two lines is simply this: the duties (dharmah). and making the Collocation utterly unintelligible. What . Chaturthopanishaddharmah is explained by the commentator as implying paramatma-vishayini vidya. And yet the verse presents almost no difficulty. They had no consciousness of self. uparama. are sadharanah or common to all the four orders of men and modes of life. 269:1 What is said here in effect is that at first there was only one course of duties. In progress of time men became unable to obey all its dictates in their entirety. the Knowledge of Paramatman. of such men being identical with infinite Brahma is that these men were identical with Brahma and whatever they did was Brahma.P. commencing with the last. 269:3 It is impossible for any one to read the Burdwan version of such verses without pitying the Pandit responsible for its accuracy. The last line of 29 and the first line of 30 make one sentence. 268:3 What is meant by the sacrifices. Those in the alternative are for them that are unable. K. Those duties. etc.P. The absolute or substantive provisions are for the able. of course. the words of the great commentator have been reproduced in the Burdwan version in a strange order. It then became necessary to distribute those duties into four subdivisions corresponding with the four modes of life. Anye santo vanamasritah tam vidhivat prapya. dream. Without understanding the commentary in the least. 270 are four states of consciousness: 1st. sraddha. But one giving away barley grains when perfectly able to give away clothes would be guilty of guile. 2nd. dama. and in which Brahma becomes realisable.

Yathavalam implies yathavaira-gyam. The Burdwan translator misses the sense altogether and K. Nityin is avasyakah. only an exaggerated mode of saying that the Vedas deal with everything. Literally. 271:3 The sense seems to be that while they that are ignorant regard the universe to be as existent and durable as the thunder or adamant. Nishtha is swarupam. What is meant by sanatanah is sampradayagatah. Singha quietly passes over the entire second line of this triplet. or the Vedas are everything. 270:4 The Burdwan translator gives a very erroneous version of this verse. The Burdwan translator misses the sense entirely. What is implied is. . that such a man breathes or lives in vain. 271:2 Nasti is explained by the commentator as the past and the future. This is. 270:2 Sadharana is opposed to kevala. Yatidharmah is a life of Renunciation. perhaps. Durvala means he who is wanting in vairagya. perhaps.P. Gachcchatam Gachcchatam means purushamatrasyavanigvya-dhadeh. what is said is that everything is the Vedas. 270:3 The commentator explains that the object of this verse is to show that even if there be equality in respect of the end that is attained in next said in the last line of 30 is that Brahmanas of pure hearts and restrained souls always succeed (by the help of those duties) in acquiring or attaining to that Turiya or consciousness of Brahma. 270:1 Apavargamiti is explained by the commentator as apavargaprada vidya or Brahmasakshatkararupa vrittiryasmin iti. 271:1 Vatarechaka is bhastra or a bellows. the man of knowledge regards it to be truly nonexistent though it puts forth the appearance of existence. there is more of real felicity in a life of Renunciation than in a life of enjoyment. 270:5 For by Knowledge Emancipation is obtained.

what that sacrifice is which has been ordained for the sake only of virtue and not for the acquisition of either heaven or wealth!' 2 "Bhishma said. Singha errs in connecting anamayam with what follows tatha. This samyak is Brahma. In Emancipation again is the Supreme felicity of Brahma. This all the Vedas teach. however. Samadhi) is Brahma. separates these from what follows. Abidham is explained as akittrimam.P. 276 . Similarly. i.. Etaih sarvaih refers to Tejah and the two others. tell me. are regarded to have but one object (viz. is this: in the complete abstraction of Yoga (i. then. the cleansing of the heart or the glory of God)..--these are anamayam subham. Tehjah. in not taking anamayam subham as one and the same. although his punctuation is incorrect. Tatha. K. all of which. The word used in the first line is Tyaga implying Renunciation. It is difficult. The Burdwan translator gives a correct version.271:4 I have endeavoured to give a literal version of verse 45. The meaning. Abidham Vyoma Santanam. He errs. 'In this connection I shall relate to thee the history. vyoma as jagatkaranam. 271:5 I have followed the commentator in his exposition of almost all the adjectives in the text. Samaptam is samyak aptam (bhavati). nirdukhasya sukhasyapraptau hetuh. O grandsire. of course. santosha is not ordinary contentment but Brahmananda or the Supreme felicity of one who has attained to Brahma. Apavargah is not annihilation but Emancipation. 'Amongst the diverse kinds of sacrifices. 272:1 The grammatical construction of this verse is very difficult to catch.e. to seize the meaning from such versions. kshama. formerly p. and dhruvam are governed by gamyate. There can be no doubt that the commentator is right. The commentator correctly explains that this is that complete Renunciation which takes place in Samadhi or the perfect abstraction of Yoga. Book 12 SECTION CCLXXII "Yudhishthira said.. which is existence in Brahma without the dual consciousness of knower and known. however.e. santih.

however. the virtuous Parnada of Sukra's race. 'Go!' 3 At this.' 1 Thus addressed by the Brahmana. 277 doing what he desired by that deer to do. and leading the life of a forest recluse. and her husband being thus addicted to sacrifices that were cruel). who thus insisted. he used to adore Vishnu in sacrifices that were intended to confer heaven upon him. whose name was Satya. of a Brahmana who for performing sacrifices. of his penances. comforted herself with his conduct. had a wife named Pushkaradharini.' Then the presiding goddess of the solar disc. Devoted to penances and living according to the unchha mode. 'I shall not slay this deer who lives with me in this same neighbourhood. she still performed that sacrifice at the command of her lord who had become its Hotri. in articulate speech and said unto him these words. (Herself having been of a benevolent disposition. viz. the deer seemed to leave that place. Savitri. With roots and fruits. she feared to incur his curse and. Unto that goddess. embraced him in friendship and dismissed him.. however.' "Narada said. as also Suryaparni and Suvarchala and other kinds of potherbs that were bitter and disagreeable to the taste. He addressed that Brahmana. the Brahmana replied. whose name was Satya. he attained to ascetic success. however. 3 The Brahmana. then. 1 He had Syamaka for his food. however. there lived a Brahmana. lived a neighbour of his. 2 The deer. came to that sacrifice in her own embodied form and insisted upon that Brahmana in p. In consequence. and wishing to avoid the sight of (other) defects in that sacrifice. therefore. and had emaciated herself by the observance of many austere vows. 4 if this sacrifice of thine were accomplished in such a manner as to be defective in mantras and other particulars of ritual. all these tasted sweet. 'In one of the foremost of kingdoms that was distinguished again for virtue. viz. Summoned. that Brahmana was earnestly engaged in adoring Vishnu in sacrifices. with joined hands. near to the Brahmana's asylum. I. O scorcher of foes. Satya. saying. having assumed the form of a deer. Do this and becoming blameless ascend to heaven. therefore. In that forest. Although unwilling. to take her seat by his side as his spouse (for the performance of a sacrifice). lived according to the unchha mode. she did not approve of the conduct of her lord. 2 Abstaining from injuring any creature. 'Thou wouldst be acting very improperly. saying. ask thee to slay and cut me in pieces for making libations therewith on thy sacrificial fire. But after he had gone eight steps he . She was pure-minded.. once more begged of Satya (to be cut in pieces and poured into the sacrificial fire). the goddess Savitri desisted and entered the sacrificial fire from desire of surveying the nether world. The garments that invested her body consisted of the (cast off) plumes of peacocks.recited by Narada.

do thou slay me. The commentator supposes that Yajna here implies Vishnu. attained to that state of mind which was his spouse's. The religion. Behold the celestial Apsaras and the beautiful vehicles of the high-souled Gandharvas. The Brahmana. of cruelty is only thus far beneficial that it leads to heaven (which has a termination). by discharging the priestly office. 'Verily. Ekarthanam is explained as Ekam chitiasuddhih Iswarapritirva tadarthanam madhya. which had been of very large measure. .returned. however. Dharma provided for his salvation and counselled him. again.' Beholding (that sight) for a protracted space of time. is very clear. 276:1 One that subsists upon grains of corn picked up from the fields after the reapers have abandoned them is called a person leading the unchha mode of life. and said. The question asked is dharmartham yo yajnah samahitah (viniyuktah) tadeva vruhi and not that Yajna which sukhartham (bhavati).'" 1 Footnotes 275:2 The verse is not difficult. diminished greatly in consequence of that thought itself. himself assisted that Brahmana. as expounded in the Srutis. however. forms no part of sacrifice. 6 Abstention from injury is that religion which is complete in respect of its rewards. slaughter of living creatures) is not conformable to the ordinances about Sacrifices.. 'This (viz. 4 The penances. with longing eyes. (Seeing the Brahmana tempted by the prospect he beheld). to perform a sacrifice. and seeing the deer (solicitous of sacrifice). and thinking that residence in heaven is attainable by only slaughter. indeed. The Burdwan translator commits the ridiculous error of taking unchhavrittih as the name of the Brahmana. after this. he approved (of the counsels the deer had given). It was Dharma himself who had become a deer that lived in those woods for many years. in consequence of his (renewed) penances. Truly do I say. the commentator. I give thee (spiritual) vision. while citing the very words of the commentary. I have spoken p. 278 to thee of that religion of Truth which. therefore. totally misunderstands them and makes utter nonsense of them. 5 Then the illustrious Dharma (having assumed his real form). The Burdwan translator. saying. The injuring of living creatures. slain by thee I am sure to attain to a righteous end. is the religion of those that are utterers of Brahma. of that Brahmana whose mind had entertained the desire of slaying the deer.

who had become a deer and lived in those woods as the Brahmana's neighbour. Here it is said that it was the deity Dharma who had become so. syn. Singha supplying something of his own will for making sense of what.P.e. I think tasya has reference to the misled Brahmana. therefore. for once. The two statements may be reconciled supposing that Dharma first became the Rishi Parnada and then. it is said that it was a descendant of Sukra. It is identified with Tiramus labialis. as Parnada. 'Suvarchala' is a name applied to various plants. the virtuous Parnada. the Burdwan translator is correct. 277:4 In verse 8.' or Herpestes Monnjera (syn. Yajne duscharitam kinnu. very probably.' The Bengal reading apadhyanat adharmavit seems to be vicious. 276:3 i.--Gratiola Monniera. ajatih is a 'descendant. The commentator explains that the grammar is rasatalam didrikshuh sa Yajna-pavakam pravishtah. His sacrifices. K. 277:1 K. provided at this juncture for his liberation from that metamorphosis. he writes. He. The Burdwan translator wrongly takes it as an adjective of Satyam... were really cruel in intention.P. and the Burdwan translator writing nonsense as usual. . substituted vegetable products for those animals. 'Brahmisaka. was metamorphosed into a deer. samipavarti mudo janah i. Linn) is intended. Tasya nishkritim adhatta is explained by the commentator in a very far-fetched way. Here. qualifying ayachata. or Sukrasya punarjnabhih. 'Suryaparni' is otherwise called 'Mashaparni' (Ayurvedhartha chandrika). Both the vernacular versions are incorrect.. 277:3 Vaddhanjalim is an adverb.276:2 Syamaka is a variety of paddy called Panicum frumentaceum. Singha wrongly translates this verse. etc.e. intended to take him to heaven.. fearing to see many other defects in the sacrifice which was being celebrated by an ignorant person. viz.' If ajnabhih be taken as the reading it would mean 'at the repeated commands of Sukra. he never slaughtered living animals for offering them in sacrifices because of his inability to procure them. 276:4 Following the Bombay text I read the last line of 8 as Sukrasya punarajatih Parnadonamadharmavit. He takes these words to mean that Dharma. who had become a deer. 277:2 Both the vernacular versions of this verse were incorrect.--Glycine deblis.

but the Burdwan translator takes it for the instrumental singular. and Virtue to their very roots. desire or aversion springs up. O son of Kuru's race. by what doth he achieve virtue. and not no dharmah. O chief of Bharata's race. Gradually. One endeavours one's best for repeatedly enjoying those forms and scents (and the three other objects of the remaining three senses) that appear very agreeable. Indeed. desire runs after it at first. Una possible explicacion al estilo escalera …. unto all which he makes answers plausibly consistent with reason and conformable to the injunctions of . One then begins with hypocrisy to do acts that are good. then. one sets one's heart to such acquisition wholly. It is then that one begins to do acts that are sinful. form. by what doth he attain to Renunciation. When one succeeds. This question that thou askest is only for confirmation of thy conclusions. with hypocrisy one then seeks to acquire virtue. and Sin. and aversion. Bhair muka solo quiere complcerse los vedas le dan una mano consigue lo que quiere desarrolla fe en los vedas regula la matanza y la violencia en contra de los demás y se vuelve purificado para el conocimiento de Brahma ……. taste. and Renunciation. obtaining them within the purview of the senses. attachment. scent. 278:1 Yo dhamah is the reading I take. and by what doth he win Emancipation?' "Bhishma said.277:5 Yajnia is explained as yajnaya hita.. sound.por eso es que se dice que los actos prehescritos en los vedas siempre lo elevan a uno desde karma asta gyana y luego bhakti book 12 SECTION CCLXXIII "Yudhishthira said. or that state of mind in which one has no longer any affection for the world. Bharyayh is genitive. 277:6 Samadhanam is the absorption of meditation.e. Listen now to Emancipation. and errors of judgment arise. and greed. notwithstanding the admonitions of well-wishers and the wise. 'Thou knowest all duties. Perceiving any one of the five objects (viz. and touch). 'By what means doth a man become sinful.. 2 One. Indeed. for the sake of that object (i. and with hypocrisy one likes to acquire wealth. The mind of one overwhelmed by greed and error and affected by attachment and aversion is never directed to virtue. in winning wealth with hypocrisy. for acquisition of what is liked and avoidance of what is disliked) strives and begins acts that involve much labour.

and acts sinfully. They. his sins. of three kinds. The mind of such a person takes delight in virtue. Renunciation. O Yudhishthira. O Yudhishthira. succeeds beforehand in beholding the faults p.'" 4 Footnotes . O Bharata! Thou shouldst. He who. Indeed. and scent. 3 Gradually abandoning all sinful acts he betakes himself to Renunciation. for he thinks sinfully. touch and form. form. he waters the roots of only those things in which he sees merit. In this way. When he fairly starts on the way of sin.. inasmuch as he seeks the good of others. taste. If he sets his heart on the acquisition of wealth. of thee that adherest to righteousness. who is skilled in judging of what is happiness and what is sorrow and how each is brought about. O Bharata. that are of a disposition similar to that of the sinful man. such a man does not give himself up to joy. he attains at last to a highly agreeable end. rapidly increase. Listen now to me as I speak to thee of one that is righteous. and of children. touch. Whence then would he succeed in winning happiness hereafter? It is thus that one becomes sinful. Having obtained the fruit of virtue. enter into friendship with him. 279 above adverted to. and becoming righteous-souled succeeds at last in attaining to Emancipation. the topics of Sin. of wealth. 2 He does not. he strives to cast off virtue (with its rewards in the form of heaven and its happiness) and endeavours to attain to Emancipation by the (well-known) means. The mastery (in respect of enjoyment) that a living creature attains over sound. I have now told thee. In consequence of his acquisition of friends. having acquired the eye of knowledge. however. doth one become righteous and acquires friends that are good. adhere to virtue in all situations. he sports in happiness both here and hereafter. speaks sinfully. making virtue his support. O son of Kunti. By practising duties that are fraught with other people's good. both in consequence of his habit and such companionship of the good. 1 Remember this. in taste and in scent. succeeds in winning good for himself. aided by his wisdom. He succeeds not in winning happiness even here. they that are good mark his wickedness. of that about which thou hadst asked me. it is then that he succeeds in freeing himself from desire.the scriptures. and who waits with reverence upon those that are good. Eternal is the success. Righteousness. O son. therefore. and he lives on. When. however. he ceases to take pleasure in the gratification of desire. when he does not allow his mind to run towards sound. viz. represents the fruit of virtue. Such a man. he desires only such wealth as may be acquired in righteous ways. makes progress in achieving virtue. Beholding then all the worlds to be liable to destruction. and Emancipation. Without being contented with such (visible) fruits of virtue he betakes himself to Renunciation. Born of attachment and error. even then cast off virtue or righteous acts. led on by the eye of knowledge.

279:1 This is the mastery or puissance that is brought by Yoga. this enquiry that thou hast addressed to me and that is connected with a subtle topic. 279:4 By dharma here is meant nishkama dharma. 1 That path which leads to the Eastern Ocean is not the path by which one can go to the Western . I desire to hear duly what those means are. SECTION CCLXXIV book 12 "Yudhishthira said. disappears after the jar has been completed. 280 "Bhishma said. 279:3 What he does is to abandon sakamah dharmah for betaking himself to nishaamah dharmah or the practice of duties without desire of fruit. for only such a course of conduct can lead to Emancipation. 'Thou hast said. 279:2 The Burdwan translator gives a ridiculous version of this verse. since thou. 'O thou of great wisdom. flats of the will. that cause which urges persons who regard virtue as the root of advancement and prosperity ceases to operate with them that seek to achieve Emancipation. is really worthy of thee. always seekest to accomplish all thy objects by the application of means. the Emancipation is to be won by means and not otherwise. He cites the commentator's words without understanding them aright. etc.' p.278:2 The commentator explains the grammar as panchanam (madhya ekam) artham prapya. O grandsire. for the fruits of sakama dharma are not eternal. in creating whatever he desires. After the same manner. so that the person succeeds. O sinless one. That state of mind which is present when one sets oneself to make an earthen jar for one's use. heaven like all things else having an end.

In death is their humanity. (It is not identical with any of those that lead to any other object of acquisition). In their vows and observances is their purity. viz. There is only one path that leads to Emancipation. those faults and those kinds of . 'in what consists the divinity of the Brahmanas? In what their purity? In what their impurity? And in what their status of humanity?' "The Swan said. who. 'I wish to know. SECTION CCC interesante book 12 "The Sadhyas said. 'In the study of the Vedas is the divinity of the Brahmanas. who.--all these. or kills one. sells a cow.' 2 "Bhishma continued. In obloquy is their impurity. 2 O thou of great puissance.Ocean. or making a gift of her unto a Brahmana." "The Grandsire said.--rot in hell for as many years as there are hairs on the body of the cow so slain. for the sake of wealth.. and he that permits the slaughter.' Book 13 SECTION LXXIV "Indra said. suffer a person to kill kine. The body (both gross and subtile) is the origin of acts. and existence or Jiva is truth. without being checked by the restraints of the scriptures. what the end is that is attained by him who consciously steals a cow or who sells one from motives of cupidity. or eats the flesh of a cow. he that eats. 'Thus have I recited to thee excellent narrative of the discourse between the Sadhyas (and the Swan). O Grandsire. 'Hear what the consequences are that overtake those persons that steal a cow for killing her for food or selling her for wealth. or they. he that kills. He.

--which amongst these is fraught with the greatest merit with respect to a person?' . penances. and obedient services rendered to the preceptors. who. meditation. for the Rishis of rigid vows held it amongst themselves as also the righteous kings of the earth.'" Book 13 No hagas lo que no te gusta que te agan --SECTION CXIII "Yudhishthira said. had said so (unto Indra on the subject of kine). O chief of Bharata's race! Indra imparted it unto Dasaratha. The holy Brahman. in gifts of kine. It has then come down from generation to generation. p.' "Bhishma said. That Brahmana. having stolen a cow makes a gift of her unto a Brahmana. The gift of gold is the best of gifts. the Supreme Lord. subjugation of the senses. gold has been said to be the sanctifier of the entire race of him who gives it away. the observance of the Vedic ritual. Lakshmana imparted it unto the Rishis. By giving away kine with Dakshina of gold one rescues one's ancestors and descendants of double the number. indeed. Gold is a great cleanser. My preceptor. and Dasaratha in his turn unto his son Rama. Rama of Raghu's race imparted it unto his dear brother Lakshmana of great fame. Gold is. obtains hereafter many regions of inexhaustible felicity where he always resides with the deities as his companions. 'Abstention from injury. By making a gift of kine one is said to rescue one's ancestors to the seventh degree as also one's descendants to the seventh degree. in sacrifices or at gifts of kine. are said to attach to the sale and the theft of kine. That man. While dwelling in the woods. 103 enjoys felicity in heaven as the reward of the gift but suffers misery in hell for the sin of theft for as long a period.faults that have been said to attach to one that obstructs a Brahmana's sacrifice. again. the best Dakshina. gold has been said to be the best Dakshina in all sacrifices. Indeed. O thou of great splendour. and is. O Sakra. or when two persons meet together. O Yudhishthira. 'Even this was said by the Grandsire unto Indra. O thou of great splendour. communicated it to me. who recites it every day in the assemblies of Brahmanas. Gold has been said to constitute the Dakshina. the best of all cleansing objects. told thee in brief of Dakshina. I have thus. O thou of a hundred sacrifices.

having said this unto king Yudhishthira the just.. attains to success 1. that other cherishes the cherisher. by throwing them upon all creatures (and practises the virtue of compassion). is the rule of Righteousness. In refusals and gifts. That man who regards all creatures as his own self. laying aside the rod of chastisement and completely subjugating his wrath. That man who keeps under control the three faults. and cupidity. succeeds in attaining to happiness. wrath. slays other harmless creatures with the rod of chastisement. said to be apada. I have told thee what Righteousness is even by this subtile way. dividing them into infinite small parts. becomes guilty of unrighteousness. who are desirous of a fixed abode. I shall discourse upon them presently. one should judge of their effects by a reference to one's own self. 'The preceptor of the deities. possessed of great intelligence. 235:2 In the first line. become stupefied in ascertaining the track of that person who constitutes himself the soul of all creatures and looks upon them all as his own self. The sense of this verse seems to be this. are padaishinah. atmatwena is understood. in happiness and misery. never attains to happiness. for they desire a fixed abode such as heaven or a spot fraught with felicity. viz. for such a person leaves no track behind. The deities on the other hand. What is meant by nidhaya sarvabhuteshu is. before our eyes. Similarly. and behaves towards them as towards his own self. ascended upwards for proceeding to Heaven.'" Footnotes 235:1 Kama and krodha are mentioned: but the use of cha gives by implication cupidity. in brief. This. from motives of his own happiness. when one cherishes another. for he becomes identified with Brahma. One should frame one's rule of conduct according to this. lust. . They are different doors of piety. O chief of the Bharatas! I shall tell thee what constitutes the highest good of a human being. The very deities. 3 When One injures another. It is painful to see how the Burdwan translators misunderstand verses 2 and 3. and the disagreeable. in the next world. to cast them off from oneself to others. such a man leaves no trace behind him. All these six are fraught with merit. He is. Do thou listen to them. therefore. They read Hanti for Hanta and write ridiculous nonsense. in the agreeable."Vrihaspati said. He who. 2 One should never do that to another which one regards as injurious to one's own self. One by acting in a different way by yielding to desire.' "Vaisampayana continued. after Sarvabhutani. That man who practises the religion of universal compassion achieves his highest good. the injured turns round and injures the injurer.

So with regard to the rest. Book 13 Chapter 114 1 [य] य ऽथ 2 [ब] य य 3 य य 4 च य य 5 ड य य 6 य 7 ड य च य य य य य य य थ ड य य य य य .235:3 The sense is that when one refuses a solicitation one should think how one would feel if another were to refuse the solicitations one addressed to that other.

य 8 य य य य य 9 य य य च च य य 10 यथ ऽ 11 [ ] य च 1 [y] ऽ . थ . यथ य य ahiṃsā vaidikaṃ karma dhyānam indriyasaṃyamaḥ tapo 'tha guruśuśrūṣā kiṃ śreyaḥ puraṣaṃ prati 2 [b] sarvāṇy etāni dharmasya pṛthag dvārāṇi sarvaśaḥ śṛṇu saṃkīrtyamānāni ṣaḍ eva bharatarṣabha 3 hanta niḥśreyasaṃ jantor ahaṃ vakṣyāmy anuttamam ahiṃsāpāśrayaṃ dharmaṃ yaḥ sādhayati vai naraḥ 4 trīn doṣān sarvabhūteṣu nidhāya puruṣaḥ sadā kāmakrodhau ca saṃyamya tataḥ siddhim avāpnute 5 ahiṃsakāni bhūtāni daṇḍena vinihanti yaḥ ātmanaḥ sukham anvicchan na sa pretya subhī bhavet 6 ātmopamaś ca bhūteṣu yo vai bhavati pūruṣaḥ .

by what acts of people succeed in attaining to an auspicious end in this world? By what acts also do people attain to an auspicious end in heaven?' "Vrihaspati said. feels the pangs of repentance and sets his heart on contemplation (of the deity). Accordingly as one becomes cleansed therefrom fully or otherwise. One becomes freed from one's sins in proportion as one repents for them. By making. one becomes quickly cleansed from the obloquy arising from one's sin. with a concentrated mind. and concentrating the mind (on the deity). like a snake freed from his diseased slough. That man who. O king. one yields to the sway of unrighteousness and as a consequence goeth to hell. If one having committed a sin. Having committed diverse acts of sin. I . what the end is of unrighteousness or sin. having perpetrated sinful acts through stupefaction of mind. 'Thou hast told me. has not to endure the consequences of his sins. tathāparaḥ prakramate parasmin eṣaiva te 'stūpamā jīvaloke.nyastadaṇḍo jitakrodhaḥ sa pretya sukham edhate 7 sarvabhūtātmabhūtasya sarvabhūtāni paśyataḥ devāpi mārge muhyanti apadasya padaiṣiṇaḥ 8 na tatparasya saṃdadyāt pratikūlaṃ yad ātmanaḥ eṣa saṃkṣepato dharmaḥ kāmād anyaḥ pravartate 9 pratyākhyāne ca dāne ca sukhaduḥkhe priyāpriye ātmaupamyena puruṣaḥ samādhim adhigacchati 10 yathā paraḥ prakramate 'pareṣu. 'By committing sinful acts with perverted mind. yathā dharmo naipuṇenopadiṣṭaḥ 11 [v] ity uktvā taṃ suragurur dharmarājaṃ yudhiṣṭhiram divam ācakrame dhīmān paśyatām eva nas tadā SECTION CXII bbok 13 "Yudhishthira said. O regenerate one. O foremost of speakers. of what the end is of Righteousness. one attains to an auspicious end. gifts of diverse kinds unto a Brahmana. proclaims it in the presence of Brahmanas conversant with duties. I desire now to hear.

given with a cheerful heart is taken by a thousand Brahmanas. One desirous of attaining to merit should. The householder should always seek to eat after having made a gift of food unto a Brahmana. That man who. in cleansing himself. and having earned to make always gifts of it unto deserving men. with a cheerful heart. becomes cleansed of the piety and devoted to Yoga practices. makes a gift of it to Brahmanas. having earned it by lawful means. may become endued with merit. all praise food. that of food is regarded as the best. That Kshatriya who. By making gifts of food. From it all creatures are born. Every man should make the day fruitful by making gifts of food. They that make gifts of food are regarded as givers of life. Rishis. Hence. O son of Pandu. Food is the great refuge of the world of living creatures. even if guilty of having committed sinful acts. with concentrated heart. by feeding ten thousand Brahmanas. succeeds in attaining to happiness here. whose food. becomes cleansed of all his sins. in days of old. he sports in . Food that is good and that has been acquired lawfully. without taking anything that belongs to a Brahmana. Possessed of such merit. Hence food is applauded. A person by making gifts of such food as is productive of great energy. unto Brahmanas foremost in Vedic knowledge. and men. one should always make gifts of food. earns food without doing any act of injury to any creature. by making which a person. and makes gift of it unto Brahmanas succeeds in avoiding all calamities. O thou of righteous soul. a person should. A person. Hence. of all his sinful acts. becomes cleansed from every sin. should be given. has not to go to Hell and to return to this world for undergoing rebirths. A person by cheerfully making gifts of food acquired by lawful means unto Brahmanas pre-eminent for Vedic lore. That man has never to take birth in an intermediate order. 1 A person by feeding. one has never to go to hell.shall now tell thee what those gifts are. succeeds by such conduct. The path made by charitable persons is always trod by those that are endued with wisdom. becomes himself possessed of great energy. 234 possessed of Vedic lore. O Yudhisthira. The merit they acquire by such gifts is eternal. under all circumstances. unto such Brahmanas as are p. make gifts of food. he enjoys great felicity hereafter. obtained by the exercise of his strength. The deities. proceeded to Heaven by making gifts of food. earning food by hard labour and at the risk of life itself. and makes gifts of food. protects his subjects lawfully. Of all kinds of gifts. O chief of men. with a sincere heart. a thousand Brahmanas all of whom are conversant with duties and the scriptures and the sacred histories. That Vaisya who divides the produce of his fields into six equal shares and makes a gift of one of those shares unto Brahmanas. unto a Brahmana devoted to the study of the Vedas. O king. succeeds by such conduct in cleansing himself from every sin. Endued with the fruition of every wish. seek to earn food by lawful means. by giving away food acquired by him as alms. by putting forth his physical strength. That Sudra who. King Rantideva. All the worlds of living creatures are established upon food. A Brahmana conversant with the Vedas. By treading in the path of the righteous one becomes freed from all sins. Pitris. Food is the life-breath of men.

. so the scriptures declare. freed from every anxiety. Discarding it mentally at the outset. suffering themselves to be stupefied by its taste which they pronounce to be something inconceivable. 'Utterers of Brahma have said that there are four kinds of compassion or abstention from injury. as also of all gifts. attachment proceeds from taste. Listen to me. That sin may attach to the mind. O king. As all four-footed animals are incapable of standing on three legs. words and thoughts 1. all applaud that religion which has compassion for its indication. the religion of compassion. 'After this. even so all other religions are said to be comprehended in that of compassion. meat. O king. gradually attracts the mind and enslaves it. led by the authority of the Vedas. abstains from eating meat is said to be cleansed in a threefold way. stupefied by folly. The union of father and mother produces an offspring. thought and deed. That foolish person. it is said. even so the religion of compassion cannot stand if any of those four divisions or parts be wanting. A person becomes guilty of injury through acts. addressed his grandsire lying on his bed of arrows. in the following words. who eats meat is regarded as the vilest of human beings. He who. the Rishis and Brahmanas and the deities.' "Yudhishthira said. whet I ask thee is this: how does a man. is not observed. and the foremost of eloquent men. It is for this reason that men of wisdom who are endued with penances refrain from eating meat. succeed in cleansing himself from misery?' "Bhishma said. But. I have thus told thee all about the high merit of gifts of food. as I tell thee what the faults are that attach to the eating of meat. How will those foolish men that subsist upon meat succeed in listening to the sweet music of (celestial) drums and cymbals and lyres and harps? They who eat meat applaud it highly. As the tongue is the cause of the knowledge or sensation of taste. produces its progeny of repeated rebirths fraught with great misery. one should next discard in word and thought. possessed of beauty of form and great fame and endued with wealth. O Bharata!'" book 13 SECTION CXIV "Vaisampayana said. to words. and to acts. 2 Well-dressed. the cruelty that a helpless and sinful wretch commits. The meat of other animals is like the flesh of one's son. endued with great energy. If even one of those four kinds be not observed. in whatever form one may take it. cooked with salt or without salt. Even this is the root of all righteousness and merit. As the footprints of all other animals are engulfed in those of the elephant. After the same manner. king Yudhishthira. who has perpetrated acts of injury to others in word.happiness. It is heard that utterers of Brahma ascribe to three causes (the sin of eating meat). according to this rule. 'O thou of great intelligence.

I desire to ascertain this eternal religion with certainty. endued with great wisdom. On this topic. however. The Self-born Manu has said that that man who does not eat meat. many righteous men. should abstain from acts of injury. how does one become endued with excellent indications? "Bhishma said. mental and physical strength. What are the faults that one incurs by eating meat. scion of Kuru's race. have proceeded to heaven. applaud abstention from meat. The seven celestial Rishis. In former days. long life. what their opinion was. Listen to me as I declare to thee what the excellent ordinances. How can meat. adores the deities every month in horse-sacrifices. and what are the merits that one wins? What are the demerits of him who eats meat by himself killing a living creature? What are the merits of him who eats the meat of animals killed by others? What the merits and demerits of him who kills a living creature for another? Or of him who eats meat buying it of others? I desire.undescribable. protected the flesh of other creatures and as a consequence of such acts of merit. are on this head. Such a man is incapable of being . O monarch p. is a friend of all creatures. How does one attain to longevity? How does one acquire strength? How does one attain to faultlessness of limbs? Indeed. understanding. and unimaginable. and memory. seem to me to be contradictory. be procured without slaying a living creature? Thy declarations. therefore. In this way. or who does not slay living creatures. Listen. and those Rishis who drink the rays of the sun. with the steadiness of a vow. the Valakhilyas. or who does not cause them to be slain. therefore. A doubt has. O Yudhishthira. faultlessness of limbs. In Sraddhas. is equal to his who discards honey and meat. arisen in our mind respecting the duty of abstaining from meat. O. innumerable discourses took place between the Rishis. Thou hast said so while discoursing formerly upon the ordinances in respect of Sraddhas. Those high-souled persons who desire beauty. that thou shouldst discourse to me on this topic in detail. O Yudhishthira. by giving the flesh of their own bodies. what the merit is that attaches to abstention from meat.'" SECTION CXV "Yudhishthira said. however. in truth. I have thus declared to thee that religion which comprises all other religions within it. 'Thou hast told it many times that abstention from injury is the highest religion. persons for their own good should make offerings of diverse kinds of meat. that are performed in honour of the Pitris. 'Listen to me. The merit acquired by that person. who. 237 the religion of compassion is surrounded by four considerations. O sinless one. O scion of Kuru's race. Such praise even of meat is fraught with demerit.

That man who abstains from meat. the highest penance. should be known as Rakshasas wedded to the attribute of Passion. wherever he may be. it is exceedingly difficult for such a person to observe the high vow of abstention from meat. however. O monarch. Vrihaspati has said that that man who abstains from honey and meat acquires the merit of gifts and sacrifices and penances. What need there be said of those innocent and healthy creatures endued with love of life. in terrible wildernesses or inaccessible fastnesses.oppressed by any creature. Those persons. are devoted to truth and sincerity. It is also the highest truths from which all duty proceeds. or at the two twilights. in the open squares of towns or in assemblies of men. a vow that assures every creature by dispelling all fear. Hence is the fault in eating flesh. It is. it cannot be had. O Bharata. by any creature. and nectar. 238 righteous-souled Narada has said that that man who wishes to increase his own flesh by eating the flesh of other creatures. That man who having eaten meat gives it up afterwards. It is exceedingly difficult to give up meat after one has become acquainted with its taste.. meets with calamity. The lifebreaths of other creatures are as dear to them as those of one's to one's own self. of heaven. he who adores the deities every month in a horse-sacrifice for a space of hundred years and he who abstains from honey and meat. He always enjoys. He enjoys the confidence of all living beings. acquires merit by such an act that is so great that a study of all the Vedas or a performance. Men endued with intelligence and cleansed souls should always behave towards other creatures after the manner of that behaviour which they like others to observe towards themselves. by day or by night. Abstention from injury is the highest religion. Indeed. Unless a living creature is slain. Flesh cannot be had from grass or wood or stone. besides. It is seen that even those men who are possessed of learning and who seek to achieve the highest good in the form of Emancipation. viz. again. when they are sought to be slain by sinful wretches subsisting by slaughter? For this reason. from upraised weapons or in places where there is great fright from wild p. is never put in fear. cannot bestow its like. In consequence of abstention from meat one comes to be regarded as one who always adores the deities in sacrifices. and of happiness. of all the sacrifices. as the giver of life-breaths in this world. 1 Even this is the high religion which men of wisdom applaud.. That learned person who giveth to all living creatures the Dakshina of complete assurance comes to be regarded. know that the discarding of meat is the highest refuge of religion. viz. Swadha. without doubt. or as one who always makes gifts to others. or as one who always undergoes the severest austerities. these two persons are equal. The deities who subsist upon Swaha. The p. In my estimation. the approbation and commendation of the righteous. are not free from the fear of death. 239 . who are for gratifying the sensation of taste. O king.

animals or snakes. Through cupidity or stupefaction of the understanding. He who eats the flesh of animals that are desirous of living but that have been killed by either himself or others. This I heard in days of old. If flesh were regarded as inedible. One should never eat meat of animals not dedicated in sacrifices and that are. is superior to that of one who makes presents of gold. He never causes any anxiety in others. of kine. one becomes stained with sin. each of these three acts being so. O thou of great splendour. and that has not been offered to the gods and Pitris with the aid of the ordinances. 240 . and happiness. productive of fame and Heaven. He who eats flesh slays living creatures through such act of eating. That wretch among men who. O son of Kunti. The man who kills living creatures kill them for the sake of the person who eats flesh. Since. and a great propitiation by itself. The eater's demerit is not so great. from Markandeya when that Rishi discoursed on the demerits of eating flesh. perfect health. and acquires a long life. slain for nothing. the period of life is shortened of persons who slaughter living creatures or cause them to be slaughtered. or through association with the sinful. Such persons should always be molested and persecuted even as beasts of prey. one incurs a little fault. never find protectors when they are in need. it is clear that the person who wishes his own good should give up meat entirely. He who does not himself eat flesh but approves of an act of slaughter becomes stained with the sin of slaughter. The merit that is acquired by a person by abstaining from meat. Those are the three kinds of slaughter. there would then be no slaughter of living creatures. the disposition manifests itself in men for sinning. incurs the sin that attaches to the slaughter for his this act of cruelty. He who binds or seizes and actually kills living creatures is the slaughterer. By behaving otherwise. High Rishis devoted to the observance of vows and self-restraint have said that abstention from meat is worthy of every praise. following the path of religious rites and p. That man who seeks to increase his own flesh by (eating) the flesh of others. Those fierce persons who are engaged in slaughter of living creatures. therefore. He who purchases flesh slays living creatures through his wealth. All creatures seek his protection. It is for the sake of the eater that the slaughter of living creatures goes on in the world. we have heard. and of land. has to live in this world in great anxiety and after death has to take birth in indifferent races and families. incurs great demerit. for the sake of strength and energy. By abstaining from meat and showing compassion to all creatures one becomes incapable of being molested by any creature. That wretch among men who slays living creatures for the sake of those who would eat them. If there were nobody who ate flesh there would then be nobody to kill living creatures. He is an object of confidence with all creatures. There is not the slightest doubt that a person by eating such meat goes to Hell. and himself has never to become anxious. If one eats the meat that has been sanctified in consequence of its having been procured from animals dedicated in sacrifices and that have been slain for the purpose of feeding Brahmanas.

From that moment Vasu fell down from the firmament on the earth. viz. and established in the Vedas. regarding such animals as dedicated by them. dedicated. with the result that he had to sink below the earth for it. like a Rakshasa. It has been said that that religion which has acts for its indications has been ordained for householders. Served with flesh according to the ordinance. knowing that flesh is inedible. the high-souled Agastya. In this. performed sacrifices with seeds. one should never eat flesh obtained from useless slaughter and that has not been sanctified by the ordinance. and leads to Hell and infamy. in rites performed in honour of the Pitris. O monarch. he who buys or sells. he who cooks. it has been ordained. Listen to me. by the aid of his penances. All other meat falls under the class of what is obtained by useless slaughter. There is complete happiness in abstaining from meat.. In the lighted fortnight of the month of Karttika in especial. He who arranges for obtaining flesh. all wild animals of the deer species to the deities. are both equal in point of merit. as I tell thee this. I shall now cite another authority. He that undergoes severe austerities for a hundred years and he that abstains from meat. attains to great merit in consequence of such abstention from sin. are all regarded as eaters of flesh. therefore. After this he once more repeated his opinion. O son of Pritha. the Rishis asked Vasu the ruler of the Chedis for solving them. Indeed. Hence. Even this is my opinion. He who abstains from meat for the four months of the rains acquires the four valued blessings of achievements. Desirous of benefiting all men. there is no longer any necessity of sanctifying those animals for offering them to the deities and the Pitris. uneatable. 241 [paragraph continues] Brahma ordained for them in consequence of their abstention from cruelty. and not for those men who are desirous of emancipation. That man who having eaten flesh abstains from it afterwards. O chief of kings. persons. transcends all kinds of woe and lives in complete happiness. Soul and Not-soul. would certainly become a resident of hell. and is. he who slays. there is great merit. O monarch. Many kings in ancient days. once for all. any meat that has been obtained by means not sanctioned by the ordinance. he who approves of those arrangements. answered that is was edible.sacrifices laid down in the Vedas. and he who eats. longevity. O chief of Bharata's race. King Vasu. One should never eat. desirous of attaining to regions of merit hereafter. Mann himself has said that meat which is sanctified with mantras and properly dedicated. according to the ordinances of the Vedas. fame and might. O sinless one. one should abstain from honey and meat. who had constituted themselves the souls of all creatures and who were conversant with the truths of all things. depending upon that was declared by the ordainer himself. would kill a living creature from desire of eating its flesh. They who abstain from flesh by either months or fortnights at a stretch have the region of p. It is heard that in the ancient Kalpa. Filled with doubts respecting the propriety of eating flesh. is pure. O king of kings. That man who wishes to avoid calamity of every kind should abstain from the meat of every living creature. had . He who abstains for the whole month of Karttika from meat of every kind. the Pitris become gratified.

That man who practises this religion consisting of abstention from meat or who recites it for causing others to hear it. Born in the order of humanity. O chief of Kuru's race. and Aja and Dhundhu and Suvahu. becomes cleansed of every sin and attains to great felicity in consequence of the fruition of every wish. and Haryaswa and Kshupa and Bharata. O monarch. adored by Gandharvas and surrounded by thousand damsels of great beauty. O monarch. Never speak an untruth. did not eat flesh for the month of Karttika and as the consequence thereof attained to heaven. O king. Syenachitra. or hears it read. and Muchukunda and Mandhatri. SECTION CXVI . Without doubt. These righteous men who. he succeeds in freeing himself from them with the utmost ease. and Harischandra.abstained from flesh either for the whole of the month of Karttika or for the whole of the lighted fortnight in that month. When ill with disease. together with the ordinances respecting both the religion of Pravritti and Nivritti as framed by the Rishis. It is by truth that Harischandra roves through heaven like a second Chandramas. that are sacred and adored by the Rishis. and Sagara.. They were Nabhaga and Amvarisha and the high-souled Gaya and Ayu and Anaranya and Dilipa and Raghu and Puru and Kartavirya and Aniruddha and Nahusha and Yayati and Nrigas and Vishwaksena and Sasavindu and Yuvanaswa and Sivi. and afflicted with sorrow he becomes liberated from it with greatest ease. who (often-times) reads these ordinances about abstention from meat. The assurance given to all creatures of never injuring them on any occasion is the Dakshina or Sacrificial present of the great sacrifice that is constituted by universal compassion or abstention from injury. blazed forth with effulgence in the region of Brahman. and Aila and Prithu and Virasena. are regarded as Munis. He." Footnotes 238:1 The sense is this: he who observes the vow of abstention from injury comes to be regarded as the giver of life-breaths in this world. I have thus told thee. and Virupaswa and Nimi and Janaka of great intelligence. he attains also to a position of eminence among kinsmen. and Somaka and Vrika and Raivata and Rantideva and Vasu and Srinjaya. When obstructed with impediments. O king. he becomes cured speedily. viz. and Dushmanta and Karushma and Rama and Alarka and Nala. he attains to great beauty of person. and endued with prosperity. When afflicted with calamity. he readily transcends it. he acquires great fame as well. abstain from honey and meat and wine. Do thou always speak the truth. will never have to go to hell even if he be exceedingly wicked in conduct in other respects. and Sambhu. Truth is an eternal duty. Such a man has never to take birth in the intermediate order of animals or birds. the son of Usinara. and Ikshvaku. from the time of birth. Those high-souled men who practise this excellent religion which is characterised by abstention from injury succeed in attaining to a residence in heaven. Endued with great prosperity. These other kings also. and Sweta. all that should be said on the subject of abstention from meat.

"Yudhishthira said. Hence. when such is the case. that is superior to flesh. the hunting of deer is not censured. O Bharata. Tell me. by Agastya. Without doubt. I think. who. and what the demerits are that attach to the eating of flesh. incur any fault by eating flesh sanctified according to the ordinances of the Vedas. Flesh speedily increases strength. Hence (instead of taking that valuable possession). Indeed. there is nothing which can compare with flesh in the matter of taste. of what substances it is. O son. the merits are great that attach to men that abstain from it.' "Bhishma said. therefore. One does not. indeed. There is equality of risk between the slayer and the slain. there is merit in abstaining from it. either here or p. In this world there is nothing that is dearer to a creature than his life. one should show compassion to the lives of others as one does to one's own life. discarding diverse kinds of food. But. They do not incur any fault by eating flesh that has been acquired by expenditure of prowess. O delighter of the Kurus. what is flesh. Thou art conversant with every duty. O delighter of the Kurus. It produces great development. Listen to me as I tell thee what the ordinance is that has been laid down for the Kshatriyas. There is no food. Do tell me what. That man who wished to increase his own flesh by the flesh of another living creature is such that there is none meaner and more cruel than he. covet only flesh. All deer of the wilderness were dedicated to the deities and the Pitris in days of old. There can be no hunting without risk of one's own life. for this reason. however. Hence. as. the merits that attach to abstention from it. even royal sages betake themselves to the practice of hunting. By such conduct they do not become stained with sin. flesh has its origin in the vital seed. Either the animal is killed or it kills the hunter. that. O scorcher of foes. O grandsire. indeed. 'Alas. is edible and what inedible. they do not relish diverse kinds of cakes and diverse sorts of potherbs and various species of Khanda with juicy flavour so much as they do flesh! My understanding. becomes stupefied in this matter. Do thou discourse to me in full agreeably to the ordinances on duty. and the demerits that attach to the eating of flesh. or addicted to sexual congress or exhausted with travel. There is nothing that is more beneficial then flesh to persons that are lean. There is great demerit attaching to its eating. O chief of Bharata's race. I desire. or weak. to hear what the merits are of abstention from flesh. that is equal in point of merit. Listen to me as I discourse to thee on it. are really like great Rakshasas! Alas. O mighty-armed one. those cruel men. There is nothing. O puissant one. 243 . O king. There is nothing on earth that is superior to flesh in point of taste. on this subject. They who eat flesh in any other way are said to follow the Rakshasa practice. 'It is even so. as thou sayest. or afflicted with disease. the practice is not regarded as sinful. The audition is heard that animals were created for sacrifice.

There is nothing so dear to one as one's life when one comes to this world. Since he hath eaten me. and in this way have to travel repeatedly. It is certain that there is nothing dearer to oneself than one's life. they do so. as such. That man who is devoted to compassion and who behaves with compassion towards others. in this ocean of the world. acquires a large space in Heaven. 1 The slayer is always slain. is a calamity or evil unto all creatures. Whatever acts one does in whatever bodies. a gift that is superior to the gift of life. who abstains from every kind of meat from his birth. O Bharata. That man. to the practice of compassion to all living creatures. Abstention from cruelty is the highest gift. Persons conversant with duty say that that Religion is worthy of being called Religion which has abstention from cruelty for its indication. Enduring birth in the uterus. ever slay him. constitutes the character as Mansa of Mansa. They that are covetous of meat are seen to be repeatedly cooked in the uterus in such a state of helplessness. They who eat the flesh of animals who are desirous of life. without doubt. all creatures are cooked in the fluid juices. O Bharata.--even this. That flesh which is dedicated in sacrifices performed in honour of the deities and the Pitris is called Havi (and. 244 similar acts done by that other. they are cooked in the hell called Kumbhipaka. Neither snakes nor wild animals. that are alkaline and sour and bitter. one has to suffer the consequences thereof in those bodies. neither Pisachas nor Rakshasas. Abstention from cruelty is the highest sacrifice. is worthy of being eaten). The man of cleansed soul should do only such acts as have compassion for their soul. a person of cleansed soul should be compassionate to all living creatures. without doubt. Even this is my opinion. in whatever state he may be. of urine and phlegm and faeces. When the time comes for Death. living creatures may be seen to be continually going forward and coming back. Every creature is afflicted by death. There in the uterus. a trembling of the whole frame is seen in all creatures. . 1 Abstention from cruelty is the highest Religion. Abstention from cruelty is the highest self-control. There has never been. Whether he is wounded or fallen down or prostrated or weakened or bruised. whether he is on even or uneven ground. Death. under all circumstances. decrepitude and afflictions of diverse kinds. Abstention from cruelty is the highest penance. are themselves eaten by the animals they eat. they have to dwell in a state of helplessness and are even repeatedly torn and pierced. Indeed. nor will there ever be. Hence. He who acts with hostility towards another (in this life) becomes the victim of p. he becomes freed from fear who frees others from situations of fear. While dwelling in the uterus. O king. Those harmless men that are endued with compassion have both this world and the next. It is heard that all creatures abstain from causing any fear unto such a creature. Attaining to diverse kinds of birth. all creatures protect him. When circumstances of fear arise. The man of compassion has no fear.--juices that produce painful sensations and are difficult to bear. I shall eat him in return. After him the eater meets with the same fate. has no fear to entertain from any creature. They are assailed and slain.hereafter.

To throw away life in battle is fraught with sorrow for men. Listen to me as I explain the reason to thee. O Yudhishthira! In this connection. and the merit that one acquires from making all kinds of gifts mentioned in the scriptures. thou knowest that to give up life is difficult for men whether they are in prosperity.--all these do not come up to abstention from cruelty (in point of the merit that attaches to it). 'Desiring to die or desiring to live. the consequences of that injury the doer will suffer in his human body. Gifts made in all sacrifices. the merits that attach to it are so many that they are incapable of being exhausted even if one were to speak for a hundred years. many persons give up their lives in the great sacrifice (of battle). In my opinion. Altogether. thou art possessed of omniscience. one. are some of the merits of abstention from cruelty. The consequences of that act one will have to endure while one becomes reborn as a tiger. One becomes a tiger and slays a deer. Abstention from cruelty is the highest happiness. ablutions performed in all sacred waters. live according to a particular tenor. The man that abstains from cruelty is the father and mother of all creatures. Book 13 SECTION CXVII "Yudhishthira said. The words following Me he should be supplied in order to get at the meaning. The question thou hast asked me is excellent. The man that abstains from cruelty is regarded as always performing sacrifices. therefore. This verse explains the etymology of the word. The penances of a man that abstains from cruelty are inexhaustible. O chief of Kuru's race. Abstention from cruelty is the highest Sruti. in felicity or calamity. I shall eat him. O grandsire. Abstention from cruelty is the highest truth. Tell me. O thou of great wisdom.Abstention from cruelty is the highest puissance. O . O lord of the earth. in happiness or woe.' "Bhishma said. living creatures. while endued with a human body injures another. Me he eateth. Even these. Mam (me) sa. what is the end that these attain to. Abstention from cruelty is the highest friend. or adversity. 'In prosperity or adversity. 244:1 The sense is this. Do thou tell me the reason of this. coming into this world." Footnotes 243:1 Mansa is flesh.

on a road over which cars used to pass.. Will it not kill me? It is for this that I am flying away. 'O worm. in whatever situation he may be placed. when that learned Brahmana. thou seemest to be exceedingly alarmed. 'A living creature. the Island-born Vyasa said. whither dost thou run. Life is an acquisition difficult to make. 245 every creature and the language of every animal. It is almost come! The sound is heard. whence can be thy happiness? Thou belongest to the inter-mediate order of being. O thou of great intelligence.king. Death is felt by all creatures to be fraught with pain. It is for this reason that I am flying from this situation of great fright. death will prove a benefit to thee!' "The worm said. death would be fraught with happiness to thee! Sound. roamed over the world.' "Vyasa said. The sound. O puissant one. I do not wish to pass from a state of happiness to one of woe. The Rishi was conversant with the course of p.' "The worm said. every object of enjoyment exists for me according to the needs of my body. Possessed of omniscience. a worm moving speedily. In even this order of being I am happy. I was a Sudra possessed of . Human beings and those creatures that spring from immobile objects have different enjoyments. he beheld. O thou of great wisdom! It is for this that I wish to live. I hear also the diverse sounds made by the men who are driving the bulls. Tell me. 'Hearing the rattle of yonder large car I am filled with fear. O worm! I think. having identified himself with Brahma. In even this condition. he addressed the worm he saw in these words. and diverse kinds of excellent enjoyments are unknown to thee. I think. of the bulls I hear. and to be in great haste. I fly away in fear. becomes attached to it. I shall explain to thee the old narrative of the discourse that took place in former times between the Island-born Rishi and a crawling worm. touch. scent. They are breathing hard under the whip of the driver. fierce is the roar it makes. I think. I catch. the Island-born Krishna. 'Thus addressed. Such sounds are incapable of being heard by a creature that like us has taken his birth in the order of worms. taste. In my former life I was a human being. Hence. 'O worm. In days of old. viz. as they are drawing the heavy burden. and whence hast thou been afraid. as it is heard from a near point.' "Bhishma continued.

worshipped my old mother and on one occasion worshipped a Brahmana. and spouses held dear by them. in course of his wanderings. Following that course of conduct which promised to crown my own wishes with fruition. If. I received him with reverent hospitality. that thou. though born in the intermediate order of being. and articles of drink. I did not extend my protection to those that came to me with prayers for dispelling their fear. Those men that came to me. I sought to destroy the virtue. 'It is in consequence of a meritorious act. Do thou in kindness tell me what is for my good. came to my house once as a guest. Beholding the happiness of others. Greedy I was of wealth. I was always given to taking away what belonged to others. I used to feel unreasonable envy at seeing other people's wealth. Recollecting those acts I am filled with repentance and grief even as one is filled with grief at the loss of one's dear son. with faith and reverence. and a usurer. and pleasures of other people. any food to the deities and the Pitris although duty required me to dedicate food unto them. In that past life of mine. they are performed from desire of fruit (and not with disregard for . I was not devoted to the Brahmanas. my own stomach. and corn. that thou hast taken birth in the order of worms through the evil acts of thy past life. Endued with birth and accomplishments. however. my memory has not forsaken me. I sent adrift without giving them any protection. under the impulse of pride. O thou of ascetic wealth. enjoy or endure the consequence of acts done by them in this field of action. I know. I was cruel. when hungry. I regard cunning as wisdom. moved by fear. covetous of good food. Without feeding servants and guests arrived at my house. I think that in consequence of that act I shall once more succeed in regaining happiness. thou mayst again attain to it. thou knowest everything. O worm. art not stupefied. O worm. in consequence of which thou art not stupefied. and good mansions. I am able to rescue a being of demerit by granting him a sight only of my person. I hated all creatures. when acts of merit are performed. 1 In consequence of the puissance of my penances. O worm. I never dedicated. I committed diverse deeds largely fraught with cruelty and such other passions. for seeking my protection. thou thinkest of attaining to righteousness and merit.great wealth. Deities as well as beings crowned with ascetic success. 246 poverty. Taking advantage of pretexts in compacts made between myself and others. In consequence of these acts of mine I do not know what the fruits are of good deeds. That act is mine. I. I was harsh in speech. There is no stronger might than the might that attaches to penances. vile in conduct. I was filled with envy and I always wished them p." SECTION CXVIII "Vyasa said. I used to fill. however. In consequence of the merit attaching to that act. that Brahmana. Amongst men also. wealth.

' "The worm said. He had. Attaining to that status. their chief. I may place thee in any other status!' The worm. viz. O worm. Elephants of great strength. Meanwhile. decked with golden chains. did not leave the road. O thou of great wisdom. Sutas and Magadhas and encomiasts utter my praises even as the deities utter the agreeable praises of Indra. With all my relatives and friends I now eat food rich with meat. Or. I who was before a worm have now become a person of the royal order. the worm (now transformed into a Kshatriya) with joined palms fell at the Rishi's feet and touched them with his head. Through the grace of thyself that art firm in truth and endued with immeasurable energy. I who was formerly a worm have thus attained to the status of a prince. p. and remembering the Rishi's kindness for him. Having given an account of his various transformations unto the truth-telling Rishi. Born at last in the Kshatriya order through the grace of Vyasa of immeasurable puissance. agreeing to the words of Vyasa. he proceeded to see the great Rishi. O highly blessed one. The very accomplishment that one seeks to acquire are sought from desire of the happiness they will bring. is really destitute of everything. 3 He that becomes a superior Brahmana adores. Worshipped by all. When thou hast attained to that state. even this happy status hath now become mine!' "Vyasa said. That memory has again appeared. 'My present status is that high one which is coveted by all and which is attainable by the possession of the ten well-known attributes. the large vehicle which was coming in that direction came to that spot. thou wilt enjoy all the elements converted into articles of enjoyment.. Transformed into a worm. the worm gave up his life-breath. I shall impart to thee Brahma.fruit). I bow my head to thee. before becoming a Kshatriya. but remained on it. 1 Torn to pieces by the assault of the wheels. if thou wishest. destitute of speech and understanding and hands and feet. 2 Learned or ignorant (in a former life) the creature that is.--that sin. Ordained by the puissance of thy penances. bear me on their backs. on costly beds in delightful rooms into which disagreeable winds cannot blow. . Indeed. 'I have today been worshipped by thee. Do thou command me as to what I should do now. with diverse words expressive of reverence. Towards the small hours of every night. uttering diverse sacred Mantras. to pass through diverse orders of being. O king. thou shalt attain to that state of existence. in this life. Numerous vehicles. thy memory had become clouded. bear me. sleep. The sin thou committed in a former life has not yet been destroyed. such as hedgehog and Iguana and boar and deer and bird. Unto my cars are yoked Kamvoja steeds of high mettle. unto which are attached camels and mules. the deities of the sun and the moon. and Chandala and Sudra and Vaisya. 247 while alive.

The Kshatriya who takes pride in the discharge of the duties of his order.'" Footnotes 246:1 What the sage says is that the fact of the worm's being able to recollect the incidents of his past life is due to some meritorious act. 246:3 Literally. attains to heaven that is fraught with great felicity.' is destitute of everything. etc. from the Kshatriya order thou shalt rise to the status of a Brahmana. In other words. thou shalt attain to heaven and transformed into eternal Brahma. 246:2 The sense is that among human beings also. In consequence of thy having saluted and worshipped me thou shalt rise higher. succeeds in attaining to the status of a Brahmana. 'the worm that is destitute of speech.' meaning that such a creature has been already forsaken by everything. The Brahmana. if only thou castest off thy life-breaths on the p. and the Vaisya to that of the Kshatriya. That was an act of merit to thee while thou wert a worm. thou wilt have perfect beatitude.which was earned by thee while thou wert a Sudra covetous of wealth and cruel in behaviour and hostile to the Brahmanas.. the verse runs. . The Sudra rises to the status of the Vaisya. 247:1 Jugupsita smritih jata is the paraphrase. for. That meritorious act is the very sight of the sage which the worm has been fortunate to obtain. 248 field of battle for the sake of kine or Brahmanas. Those that take birth in the intermediate order (of animals) become (when they rise) Sudras. Thou wert able to obtain a sight of my person. Hence. Its condition is really fraught with great misery. acts are done with the intention of securing happiness. human beings also enjoy the fruits of their good acts and endure those of their evil ones. by following a righteous conduct. enjoying much felicity and performing many sacrifices with copious presents. O prince.--what is that which would forsake a creature that is destitute of etc.

that foremost of Brahmanas. and cleansing thy soul. Conducting thyself in this way. the person (of whom I am speaking). thou wilt then. on the other hand. O thou that art conversant with righteousness. Therefore. O blessed one. go on practising righteousness. Beholding those severe austerities of the Kshatriya who was well-conversant with religion and wealth. when thou castest off thy life-breaths. do not be troubled through fear of death. Soon. O best of kings. Be thou of cleansed soul. who acts unrighteously attains to a low and vile birth. the Island-born Krishna. therefore. Ascertaining what is right and what is wrong. the celebrated Rishi. be thou contented and be thou devoted to the practice of righteousness.SECTION CXIX "Bhishma said. the Island-born Krishna of great wisdom.' "The worm said. in consequence of the due discharge of the duty of protecting his subjects. Thou shalt then attain to the status of a Brahmana. do thou duly cherish and protect all creatures. went to him. 249 . viz. be not troubled (through fear of death)! He who acts righteously attains to respectable birth.. O worm. Do thou. 'O chief of Brahmanas. one attains to misery agreeably the measure of one's sin. 'Having cast off the status of a worm and taken birth as a Kshatriya of great energy. Beholding him transformed into a Brahmana. I have attained from p. The penances that appertain. began to undergo severe austerities. having heard the words of the great Rishi he began to cherish and protect his subjects righteously. He. judiciously gratifying all good desires and correcting all that is unholy. O holy one. The only fear thou shouldst entertain is about the loss of righteousness. to the Kshatriya order consist of the protection of all creatures. become a Brahmana!' "Bhishma continued.' "Vyasa said. 'Although he had retired into the woods. became a Brahmana after casting off his Kshatriya body. O Yudhishthira. 'Through thy grace. that worm. O monarch. O worm.' "Vyasa said. came to him. yet. remembering his previous transformations. Do thou regard these duties of the Kshatriya order to be the penances laid down for thee.

' "Bhishma said. that of eternal Brahma.. as the result of his own acts done in obedience to the counsels of Vyasa. viz. I ask thee this.' 2 "Vyasa said. he even laughed aloud. caused the earth to be marked with a thousand sacrificial stakes. and gifts? I ask thee. Once on a time. the high-souled Krishna became exceedingly delighted and as he sat there. viz. penances. Having eaten that good food which was very wholesome and which produced every kind of gratification. has come over thee! Saluting thee. 'Which amongst these three is superior.. do not mourn on their account. Seeing Krishna laugh. gave him a seat and after worshipping him with due rites. what the puissance is of my penances and what the high blessedness is that is thine! The acts I do are different from those which thou doest. 'The worm having. have all attained to a meritorious end. O foremost of righteous persons! Do tell me this. also. O righteous-souled one. viz.'" Bok 13 SECTION CXX "Yudhishthira said. attained to the status of a Brahmana that is so difficult to attain. my demerits have been lost. it seems. Great joy. Therefore O king. Indeed. O son of Pritha. Maitreya addressed him.happy to happier positions! Having obtained such prosperity as has its roots in righteousness.. Seeing Vyasa arrive. Thou art already emancipated though still owning lifebreaths. viz. and worshipping thee with bent head. I. who have cast off their life-breaths (on the field of Kurukshetra) exerting their energy the while. and from its paradoxical statement . distinguished by birth. the Island-born Krishna. Those bulls among Kshatriyas. proceeded to Baranasi and waited upon Maitreya who belonged by birth to a race of Munis 1. at the command of the holy Rishi. I think. O king. fed him with excellent food. knowledge. the worm attained to the highest status. 'Tell me. saying. I am again. that foremost of Rishis. Maitreya.. however. what the reason is of thy laughter! Thou art an ascetic. 'In this connection is cited the old narrative of the conversation between Maitreya and the Island-born Krishna. while wandering over the world in disguise. That foremost of all persons conversant with Brahma then obtained a residence in the region of Brahman himself. 'This wonder that has filled me hath arisen from an ordinance that looks like a hyperbole. O grandsire!' "Bhishma said. For all that I think that there is not much difference between thee and me. am not yet freed. endued with capacity to control thy emotions.

The fragrance of Righteousness is about thee. The declaration of the Vedas seems to be untrue. Those men that are devoted to sacrifices. are regarded as righteous. as a life of universal Renunciation. These. It is always observed. There are some men who appropriate what belongs to others. These certainly fall into Hell and meet with misery. made under the circumstances laid down. there can be no question about its superiority. and earning happiness as the result thereof. for gift without doubt. are regarded as sinful. one should always tell the truth. His sins are never regarded as sins. is as I hold. Thyself thirsty and hungry. The duties that constitute Righteousness are established in them. and penances. thou hast. as also with thy penances. one does by many sacrifices. If it be not more meritorious than all sacred acts. gift is more auspicious than all sacred acts. O puissant one. All . p. O Brahmana. These injunctions were heard in days of old. 251 [paragraph continues] The conduct of the person who is devoted to Brahma is not regarded either way. is gift. wilt rise from joy to greater joy in consequence of thy having betaken thyself to the duty of making gifts The man of intelligence (who practises this duty) certainly rises from joy to greater joy. produces great fruits 2. All those rites laid down in the Vedas which thou applaudest do not come up to gift. following the declarations of the Vedas. Even a small gift. O son. 250 for the comprehension of the people. Men endued with prosperity succeed in acquiring wealth. But why should the Vedas say an untruth? It has been said that there are three tracks which constitute the best vows of a man One should never injure. As the Vedas when well-studied. Some are righteous. gifts. however. The track that has been made by those men who make gifts is the track that is trodden by the wise. making gifts. fraught with very superior merit. superior to ablutions in sacred waters superior to the accomplishment of all Vedic vows. as the restraining of the senses. Indeed. The Rishis of old announced this. O thou of great wisdom. O son. met with many direct instances of this. even so is gift which is fraught with very superior merit. and one should make gifts. to happen naturally that happiness is followed by misery and misery is followed by happiness. They who make gifts are regarded as givers of even the life-breaths. I am exceedingly delighted with thy very sacred gift. We have without doubt. conquered many high regions of felicity.p. performing sacrifices. Thou.--they should certainly be followed by us even in our times. 1 Men of wisdom nave said that human beings in this world have three kinds of conduct. that injure other creatures and are unfriendly to them. by giving me such food. Thy puissance is that of Righteousness: Thy appearance is that of Righteousness. some are sinful: and some are neither righteous nor sinful. So also the man who is devoted to the duties laid down for him is regarded as neither righteous nor sinful (for the observance of those duties). Unto a thirsty man thou hast given a little water with a sincere heart. I think that all thy acts are performed agreeably to the ordinance. as.

which looks like a hyperbole. and those who practise austerities meet with felicity as their reward. who was a worshipper of acts. 'Thus addressed by Vyasa. Sukhatman is one whose soul has transcended all upadhis. is this: Atichccheda or Atichcchanda implies a hyperbolic statement. This ordinance. The Vedas say that no one attains to such a place without a hundred sacrifices. It is said that by gift of even a palmful of water one may attain to a place which is attainable by a hundred sacrifices.other acts that men do are indifferent. The meaning. the race of Munis. Do thou sport and grow and rejoice and make gifts and perform sacrifices. Neither men of knowledge nor those endued with penances will then be able to get the better of thee!'" Footnotes 249:1 Swairini-kule implies. This seems to be untrue. however. Book 13 SECTION CXXI "Bhishma said. 250:1 The sense is that those who pursue carnal pleasures meet with misery as the end. as the commentator explains. who was wise and possessed of great learning said unto him these words'. fill me with wonder. Swam (Dharamaya) irayati is the etymology. for people do reach it by making even slight gifts to deserving persons at proper times. Ativaua means a paradox. being regarded as neither righteous nor sinful. Maitreya. who had been born in a race endued with great prosperity. Ajnata-charitam-dharan applied to Krishna-Dwaipayana. 249:2 Prithagatman implies one whose soul is still invested with upadhis. . If it be read charam it would refer to Maitreya. 250:2 This literal version of the verse yields no sense. and its statement by Vedic teachers that looks like a paradox.

There where Brahmanas exist. Without doubt. O Maitreya. is equal to what the taker acquires by accepting the food. for the latter become his whose food has enabled the progenitor to beget them. that is due to thy grace and flows from the nature of my own acts. In consequence of thy soul being cleansed.--these are the causes of the status which one acquires of a Brahmana. Having eaten it. do thou say. for I wish to hear thee. knowledge of the Vedas. 'Whatever thou wishest to say. "Maitreya said. O man of great wisdom. one may reap great merit by making gifts unto a Brahmana possessed of great learning. by eating the food that is offered to him. The food that is eaten also destroys the eater (for the eater incurs sin by eating what is offered to him). people are enabled to earn the sacred fruits of gifts and to enjoy them both here and hereafter. even this is the great advantage I reap from it. The ignorant who eats the food offered to him loses his right to the children he begets. If there were no Brahmanas endued with Vedic lore and good conduct for accepting gifts. an abundant harvest can be reaped. On a well-tilled field. possessed of Vedic lore and conduct. all would be darkness. There is nothing superior to a Brahmana possessed of Vedic lore. who are exceedingly devoted to penances. The merit which the giver acquires by making the gift. 1 Penances. 'O thou of great wisdom. would cease. When one has these three attributes. Without the Brahmana. 252 useless. The distinction between Righteousness and Unrighteousness. That ought to be properly termed an eatable which is given away to a deserving man. The ignorant Brahmana. without doubt it is as thou hast said. he that takes it makes the donor's gift thrown away and the receiver is likewise ruined for his improperly accepting it. in all other cases. Even this is what the Rishis have said. destroys what he eats (for it produces no merit to him who gives it). the Pitris and the deities are also gratified. Nothing would be known. Truth and Falsehood. and . and birth in a pure race."Maitreya said. As regards ourselves we succeed in acquiring prosperity through only a sight of personages like thee I think. then does he come to be called a regenerate person. with thy permission I desire to say something. 'Thy words on the subject of Gift are faultless and pure. The Brahmana possessed of learning becomes the subjugator of the food that he eats. he begets other food. O puissant one. If the Brahmana be gratified. With the aid of my understanding I see that thou art endued with high penances. Those men who are of pure lineage. Even so. Even this is the subtle fault that attaches to persons eating other people's food when they have not the puissance to win that food. Both the giver and the acceptor depend equally upon each other.' "Vyasa said. The four orders would not exist. thy soul has been cleansed by knowledge and penances. the wealth possessed by wealthy people would be p.

and study the Vedas. It is those men that are the leaders of others to heaven. Penances are sacred. Penances are the means by which one may acquire the Vedas and heaven also. The man who drinks alcohol. One should always bow unto these two 1. the holy one replied unto Maitreya. succeeds in crossing with the aid of penances. one becomes cleansed of all these sins through penances. can all be achieved with the aid of penances. Listen to me as I discourse to thee upon what is even superior (in efficacy) to gift. whatever is difficult to conquer. agreeably with the lead of the Vedas. by making gifts of food obtain both this world and that of Brahman himself with many other regions of superior felicity. all men endued with penances deserve to be worshipped. It is by penances that one destroys one's sins and all else that is evil. 253 [paragraph continues] Whatever is difficult to accomplish. With the aid of penances and of knowledge. whatever (righteous) inclinations are observable in the world. or he that is guilty of foeticide. and an ascetic of whatever kind." SECTION CXXII "Bhishma said. Following them I applaud gift. Thou praisest penances and Vedic lore. One possessed of all knowledge and. Of all things. It is those good men that have chalked out the path by treading on which one does not become stupefied. saying 'by good luck. themselves adore him who makes gifts. Similarly. thy understanding is of this kind! They that are good highly applaud all righteous attributes. and whatever is difficult to cross. This favour done to thee is due to the kindness of the deities. Those who make gifts obtain happiness hereafter and much prosperity here. It has been heard by us that with whatever purpose in view one undergoes penances. are regarded as worthy of the most reverent worship. Those men who are adored by all. having true vision. All men who have the Vedas for their wealth should be worshipped. or he that violates the bed of his preceptor. one attains to the highest fruits. one attains the fruition thereof in consequence of those penances. That personal beauty and youth and prosperity do not succeed in overwhelming thee is due to good luck. they have flowed in their due order. They are the men who bear on their shoulders the burden of sacrifices and live for eternity. Righteous men of this world. By good luck. therefore. or he that takes by force what belongs to others. penances are possessed of very superior might. what is difficult to attain. 'Thus addressed.who make gifts. Those men that are honoured everywhere . p. The same may be said of knowledge. thou art endued with knowledge. Indeed. are equal. Whatever scriptures and religious treatises there are. according to their due order. we have heard.

as darkness is dispelled by the splendour of fire even so is sin washed off by gifts and penances. 'Let blessing be to thee also. one always attains to those places to which one becomes entitled by one's acts. Do thou keep in mind what I have said.--the duties. As regards thyself. Do thou take instructions from me regarding those duties which thou shouldst first follow.. Be thou devoted to Righteousness. O Maitreya! Thou art observant of vows. viz. Wherever the giver goes. As filth is washed away from the body with water. In that house in which the husband is gratified with his wedded wife. O holy one!" . Bless thee. Vedic lore. thou wilt certainly obtain whatever food and drink thou mayst covet. of householders. and joining his hands in reverence said. He who does acts and he who omits to do them gets each what is proportionate to his acts and omissions. O Maitreya. Thou shalt then be able to reap many advantages! Maitreya then walked round his illustrious guest and bowed his head unto him. all auspicious results ensue. Tot thou art endued with intelligence. he bears himself praised. Whether one dwells in the upper regions or in the nether. let mansions be thine! I depart hence in peace. and the wife gratified with her husband. and compassion! Thou art possessed of youth. good birth.themselves honour him who make gifts.

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