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Santi SECTION CCLXXII
"Yudhishthira said, 'Amongst the diverse kinds of sacrifices, all of which, of course, are regarded to have but one object (viz., the cleansing of the heart or the glory of God), tell me, O grandsire, what that sacrifice is which has been ordained for the sake only of virtue and not for the acquisition of either heaven or wealth!' 2
"Bhishma said, 'In this connection I shall relate to thee the history, formerly
recited by Narada, of a Brahmana who for performing sacrifices, lived according to the unchha mode.'
"Narada said, 'In one of the foremost of kingdoms that was distinguished again for virtue, there lived a Brahmana. Devoted to penances and living according to the unchha mode, that Brahmana was earnestly engaged in adoring Vishnu in sacrifices. 1 He had Syamaka for his food, as also Suryaparni and Suvarchala and other kinds of potherbs that were bitter and disagreeable to the taste. In consequence, however, of his penances, all these tasted sweet. 2 Abstaining from injuring
any creature, and leading the life of a forest recluse, he attained to ascetic success. With roots and fruits, O scorcher of foes, he used to adore Vishnu in sacrifices that were intended to confer heaven upon him. 3 The Brahmana, whose name was Satya, had a wife named Pushkaradharini. She was pure-minded, and had emaciated herself by the observance of many austere vows. (Herself having been of a benevolent disposition, and her husband being thus addicted to sacrifices that were cruel), she did not approve of the conduct of her lord. Summoned, however, to take her seat by his side as his spouse (for the performance of a sacrifice), she feared to incur his curse and, therefore, comforted herself with his conduct. The garments that invested her body consisted of the (cast off) plumes of peacocks. Although unwilling, she still performed that sacrifice at the command of her lord who had become its Hotri. In that forest, near to the Brahmana's asylum, lived a neighbour of his, viz., the virtuous Parnada of Sukra's race, having assumed the form of a deer. He addressed that Brahmana, whose name was Satya, in articulate speech and said unto him these words, 'Thou wouldst be acting very improperly, 4 if this sacrifice of thine were accomplished in such a manner as to be defective in mantras and other particulars of ritual. I, therefore, ask thee to slay and cut me in pieces for making libations therewith on thy sacrificial fire. Do this and becoming blameless ascend to heaven.' Then the presiding goddess of the solar disc, viz., Savitri, came to that sacrifice in her own embodied form and insisted upon that Brahmana in
doing what he desired by that deer to do. Unto that goddess, however, who thus insisted, the Brahmana replied, saying, 'I shall not slay this deer who lives with me in this same neighbourhood.' 1 Thus addressed by the Brahmana, the goddess Savitri desisted and entered the sacrificial fire from desire of surveying the nether world, and wishing to avoid the sight of (other) defects in that sacrifice. 2 The deer, then, with joined hands, once more begged of Satya (to be cut in pieces and poured into the sacrificial fire). Satya, however, embraced him in friendship and dismissed him, saying, 'Go!' 3 At this, the deer seemed to leave that place. But after he had gone eight steps he returned, and said, 'Verily, do thou slay me. Truly do I say, slain by thee I am sure to attain to a righteous end. I give thee (spiritual) vision. Behold the celestial Apsaras and the beautiful vehicles of the high-souled Gandharvas.' Beholding (that sight) for a protracted space of time, with longing eyes, and seeing the deer (solicitous of sacrifice), and thinking that residence in heaven is attainable by only slaughter, he approved (of the counsels the deer had given). It was Dharma himself who had become a deer that lived in those woods for many years. (Seeing the Brahmana tempted by the prospect he beheld), Dharma provided for his salvation and counselled him, saying, 'This (viz., slaughter of living creatures) is not conformable to the ordinances about Sacrifices. 4 The penances, which had been of very large measure, of that Brahmana whose mind had entertained the desire of slaying the deer, diminished greatly in consequence of that thought itself. The injuring of living creatures, therefore, forms no part of sacrifice. 5 Then the illustrious
Dharma (having assumed his real form), himself assisted that Brahmana, by discharging the priestly office, to perform a sacrifice. The Brahmana, after this, in consequence of his (renewed) penances, attained to that state of mind which was his spouse's. 6 Abstention from injury is that religion which is complete in respect of its rewards. The religion, however, of cruelty is only thus far beneficial that it leads to heaven (which has a termination). I have spoken
to thee of that religion of Truth which, indeed, is the religion of those that are utterers of Brahma.'" 1
275:2 The verse is not difficult; the commentator, again, is very clear. The Burdwan translator, however, while citing the very words of the commentary, totally misunderstands them and makes utter nonsense of them. Ekarthanam is explained as Ekam chitiasuddhih Iswarapritirva tadarthanam madhya. The question asked is dharmartham yo yajnah samahitah (viniyuktah) tadeva vruhi and not that Yajna which sukhartham (bhavati).
276:1 One that subsists upon grains of corn picked up from the fields after the reapers have abandoned them is called a person leading the unchha mode of life. The Burdwan translator commits the ridiculous error of taking unchhavrittih as the name of the Brahmana. The commentator supposes that Yajna here implies Vishnu, as expounded in the Srutis.
276:2 Syamaka is a variety of paddy called Panicum frumentaceum. 'Suryaparni' is otherwise called 'Mashaparni' (Ayurvedhartha chandrika). It is identified with Tiramus labialis, syn.--Glycine deblis. 'Suvarchala' is a name applied to various plants. Here, very probably, 'Brahmisaka,' or Herpestes Monnjera (syn.--Gratiola Monniera, Linn) is intended.
276:3 i.e., he never slaughtered living animals for offering them in sacrifices because of his inability to procure them. He, therefore, substituted vegetable products for those animals. His sacrifices, intended to take him to heaven, were really cruel in intention.
276:4 Following the Bombay text I read the last line of 8 as Sukrasya punarajatih Parnadonamadharmavit, or Sukrasya punarjnabhih, etc.; ajatih is a 'descendant.' If ajnabhih be taken as the reading it would mean 'at the repeated commands of Sukra.' The Bengal reading apadhyanat adharmavit seems to be vicious. Both the vernacular versions are incorrect; K.P. Singha supplying something of his own will for making sense of what, he writes, and the Burdwan translator writing nonsense as usual.
277:1 K.P. Singha wrongly translates this verse; for once, the Burdwan translator is correct.
277:2 Both the vernacular versions of this verse were incorrect. The commentator explains that the grammar is rasatalam didrikshuh sa Yajna-pavakam pravishtah. Yajne duscharitam kinnu, samipavarti mudo janah i.e., fearing to see many other defects in the sacrifice which was being celebrated by an ignorant person.
277:3 Vaddhanjalim is an adverb, qualifying ayachata. The Burdwan translator wrongly takes it as an adjective of Satyam.
277:4 In verse 8, it is said that it was a descendant of Sukra, viz., the virtuous Parnada, who had become a deer and lived in those woods as the Brahmana's neighbour. Here it is said that it was the deity Dharma who had become so. The two statements may be reconciled supposing that Dharma first became the Rishi Parnada and then, as Parnada, was metamorphosed into a deer. Tasya nishkritim adhatta is explained by the commentator in a very far-fetched way. He takes these words to mean that Dharma, who had become a deer, provided at this juncture for his liberation from that metamorphosis. I think tasya has reference to the misled Brahmana.
277:5 Yajnia is explained as yajnaya hita.
277:6 Samadhanam is the absorption of meditation, or that state of mind in which one has no longer any affection for the world, Bharyayh is genitive, but the Burdwan translator takes it for the instrumental singular.
I ask.278:1 Yo dhamah is the reading I take. in consequence of his very nature. that highly blessed ascetic. and owing to his habit of never accomplishing any act without long reflection. who was the son of Gautama.' Chirakarin. the sire Gautama passing over his other children. 247 one's obligation to do it or of abstaining from it? Is it to be judged speedily or with delay?' "Bhishma said. witnessing an act of great fault in his wife. One that reflects long before he acts is certainly possessed of great intelligence. There was once a man of great wisdom. Santi SECTION CCLXVI "Yudhishthira said. and not no dharmah. The clamour of being an idle man stuck to him. saying. commanded in wrath this Chirakarin. 'So be it. how should one judge of an act in respect of either p. How shall I obey the command of my sire and yet how avoid slaying my mother? How shall I avoid sinking.' Having said these words without much reflection. the learned Gautama. 'Slay thou this woman. On a certain occasion. of the name of Chirakarin. 'Thou. into sin in this situation in which contradictory obligations are dragging me into opposite directions? Obedience to the . Such a man never offends in respect of any act. he used to do all he had to do. He came to be called by the name of Chirakarin because he used to reflect long upon all matters. Twice blessed be the man that reflects long before he acts. by every person of a light understanding and destitute of foresight. like a wicked person. began to think for a long while (upon the propriety or otherwise of what he was commanded by his sire to do). 'In this connection is cited the old story of what occurred with respect to Chirakarin born in the race of Angirasa. saying. and to take a long time in setting himself to the accomplishment of such acts as he accomplished. Reflecting for a long time upon every consideration connected with proposed acts. art our highest preceptor in the matter of all acts that are difficult of accomplishment (in consequence of the commands of superiors on the one hand and the cruelty that is involved in them on the other). Having after a long while assented to it. to remain awake for a long time. He was also regarded as a foolish person. to sleep for a long time. departed for the woods. O grandsire. that foremost of persons engaged in the practice of Yoga.
Unto the son the sire is not an ordinary object. The sire is the giver of all articles of food. the mother is the (chief) cause as the firestick of fire. lean or robust. Whatever words are pronounced by the sire become blessings that attach to the son. especially his mother? Who again can obtain prosperity and fame by disregarding his own sire? Regard for the sire's behest is obligatory. the reverse deprives one of all protection. Nor doth decrepitude ever assail him. confirm the reverence actually paid to him. Of this union of the five (primal) elements in me due to my birth as a human being. The words expressive of joy that the sire utters cleanse the son of all his sins. even if he happens to be possessed of sons and grandsons and even if he counts a hundred years. The sire is the highest penance. Knowing as I do my own origin. Unto the sire the son is only a source of joy. of instructions in the Vedas. I have been begotten as a son by both my mother and my father. for continuing his practices. 1 In consequence of his bringing up the son p. The sire is heaven. How shall I so frame my conduct that both obligations may be discharged? The father places his own self within the mother's womb and takes birth as the son. . A person whose mother exists. The existence of the mother invests one with protection. moved by parental affection. These then are my reflections upon the reverence due from the son to the sire. the behests of the sire should be obeyed without ever questioning them in the least. enters his house. The very Vedas lay it down as certain that the son should regard what the sire says as his highest duty. uttering the words. though divested of prosperity. The fruit is seen to fall away from the tree. is the son's protector. and those that were uttered by him on the occasion of the subsidiary rite (after the return from the preceptor's abode) are sufficient (evidence) for settling the reverence due to him and indeed. The sire being gratified. 2 The mother is as the fire-stick with respect to the bodies of all men. I shall now think upon (what is due to) the mother.commands of the sire constitutes the highest merit. None else. and of all other knowledge regarding the world. (Prior to the son's birth) the sire is the performer of such rites as Garbhadhana and Simantonnayana. The protection of the mother again is a clear duty. whatever his distress. The protection of my mother is equally a duty. The body and all else that the son owns have the sire alone for their giver. Unto the son. The very sins of one that obeys one's sire are cleansed (by such obedience). all the deities are gratified. name and race. The man who. never abandons the son. the sire is all in all. however. 'O mother!'--hath not to indulge in grief. why should I not have this knowledge (of my relationship with both of them)? The words uttered by the sire while performing the initial rite after birth. 1 The sire is religion. How shall I avoid being afflicted by sin? Who is there that can be happy after having slain a woman. Hence. Able or disabled. The status of a son is fraught with dependence. The flower is seen to fall away from the stalk. conduct. looks like a child of but two years of age. But the sire. 248 and instructing him. the son is always protected by the mother. the sire is the son's foremost of superiors and the highest religion. according to the ordinance. She is the panacea for all kinds of calamities.
Then again the sinfulness (in this case) is evident of Indra himself who (by acting in the way he did) caused the recollection of the request that had been made to him in days of yore by woman (when a third part of the sin of Brahmanicide of which Indra himself was guilty was cast upon her sex). he is on that account called Pati. therefore. the son should behave equally towards her). because he protects her. 249 chief cause of his birth. If men. On the other hand. By perpetrating an act of adultery. There is no shelter (protection against the sun) like the mother. a place of greater reverence. 3 Then again woman can commit no fault. she is called Amva. She occupies. There is no one so dear as the mother. For having borne him in her womb the mother is the son's Dhatri. There is no doubt that my mother is innocent.Then doth the son become old. It is man only that commits faults. It is man who becomes stained with fault. but in respect of their fruition more depends upon the mother than on the sire. The mother is one's own body. because he supports the wife. the desire cherished with respect to the (unborn) son are cherished by both. 4 It has been said that the husband is the highest object with the wife and the highest deity to her. When these two functions disappear from him. That woman is again my mother. he ceases to be both Bhartri and Pati. and their liability to solicitation. women cannot be regarded as offenders. The very beasts that are irrational know that the mother is p. to whose care alone it is due that his own head did not lie on the street-side like a dry gourd? When husband and wife unite themselves for procreation. There is no refuge like the mother. There is no defence like the mother. For bringing forth a child possessed of courage she is called Virasu. From the moment of conception the mother begins to show affection to her child and takes delight in her. then doth he become stricken with grief. 2 The husband. What rational man is there that would slay his mother. Indeed. For nursing and looking after the son she is called Sura. (For this reason. she is his Janani. in consequence of the natural weakness of the sex as displayed in every act. they then cease to be worthy of respect. the man only becomes stained with guilt. 1 The mother knows the family in which the son is born and the father who has begotten him. is called Bhartri. and. the scriptures declare that the offspring belongs to the father alone. 250 . when he becomes deprived of his mother. Women can commit no fault. She whom I have been commanded to slay is a woman. after accepting the hands of wives in marriage and pledging themselves to earn religious merit without being dissociated from them. seek congress with other people's wives. For having nursed his young limbs into growth. then doth the world look empty in his eyes. My mother gave up her sacred person to one that came to her in the form and guise of her husband. For having been the p.
. arises from error of judgment. Burning with grief and shedding copious tears. 2 The sages have said that all calamities spring from envy.unslayable. Who is there that can rescue me from this sin? Acting heedlessly I commanded the high-souled Chirakarin (to slay that wife of mine). By that envy. that is. When many days had expired. passed a long while (without accomplishing the act he had been commanded by his sire to accomplish). I have slain a woman. came to my retreat. he misbehaved himself. Alas. in its turn. notwithstanding all this. convinced. To the mother. When. 'The lord of the three worlds. also. could be held to have offended. If on the present occasion he proves true to his name then may he rescue me from this guilt. attaches a combination of all mortal creatures and all the deities. Gautama's son Chirakarin. Endued with great wisdom. Medhatithi of Gautama's race. viz. in consequence of thy great wisdom thou takest a long time for reflection before achieving any act. Be thou really a Chirakaraka p. nor Indra himself who while passing through the sky had beheld my wife (and become deprived of his senses by her extraordinary beauty). Let not thy conduct be otherwise today! Be thou a true Chirakaraka today. I have been dragged from where I was and plunged into an ocean of sin (in the form of wife-slaughter). my son Chirakaraka is delaying today (to achieve my bidding) in view of the . and honoured with a (proper) welcome. For a long time did she bear thee in her womb. The sire must be known to be a combination of all the deities together. however. he uttered these words.--a woman that is again my wife--one. Perhaps. O Chirakaraka. engaged in the practice of penances. in the guise of a Brahmana asking for hospitality. from grave sins. however. He was received by me with (proper) words. by indulging in those reflections. my wife Ahalya could not be regarded to have committed any fault. in consequence of her sharing her lord's calamities came to be called by the name of Vasita. It seems that neither my wife. after having reflected for that long time. nor myself. I also granted him the rest he had asked for. his sire Gautama's returned. Thy mother had expected thy advent for a long time. and thy mother. and presented in due form with water to wash his feet and the usual offerings of the Arghya. I further told him that I had obtained a protector in him. 1--In consequence of his habit of reflecting long before acting. Purandara. as also thy own self. of the impropriety of the chastisement he had commanded to be inflicted upon his wife. let thy habit of reflecting long before acting be productive of beneficial results today.--one that was called Bharya owing to the obligation I was under of supporting her. came back (to his retreat). which. and the penances I have achieved. 251 today! Ordinarily. I thought that such conduct on my part would induce him to behave towards me as a friend. O Chirakaraka! If on this occasion thou hast delayed accomplishing the work. who. The blame really attaches to the carelessness of my Yoga puissance. Rescue me. then art thou truly worthy of thy name. Twice blessed be thou. for repentance had come to him in consequence of the beneficial effects of that calmness of temper which is brought about by a knowledge of the scriptures.
who reflects for a long time before setting himself to the performance p. to haughtiness. Gautama. overwhelmed with grief. he is sleeping over that bidding. never does any act which brings repentance. cast away the weapon (he had taken up) and bowing his head began to pacify Gautama. If the matter is the death of a friend. If it is the abandonment of a project already begun. 252 of any act. One should attend to one's duties for a long time and be engaged for a long while in ascertaining them. 'Do thou live long!' Then. In all acts a man should. in this way. O king. weapon in hand. and blessed him. and sitting near them show them reverence. A friendship that is formed after a long examination lasts for a long time. to disputes. and in accomplishing all disagreeable tasks he that delays long deserves applause. Perhaps. to pride. Observing his son prostrated before him with bent head. One should wait for a long while upon those that are aged. From that time the highsouled Rishi. O thou of Kuru's race.sorrow it would cause me (to see him execute that bidding). a servant. are reverentially serving for a long time those that are good in . uttering the words. did not live separately from his spouse or his heedful son. 'Blessed be thou.' Indulging in such repentance. reflect for a long time and then settle what he should do. Having uttered the command that his wife should be slain he had gone away from his retreat for accomplishing some purpose of his own. Since that time his son had stood in an humble attitude.' That learned and best of Rishis then uttered these verses upon the subject of the merits of such cool men as reflect for a long time before setting their hands to any action. and for a long time held him in a close embrace. bearing it in his heart (without any intention of executing it promptly). O Chirakaraka! Do thou always reflect long before acting. Perhaps. for that act of delay on the latter's part in doing the former's bidding. Beholding his sire come back to their abode. dwelling in that lone hermitage. in view of the grief it would cause both him and me. to sinful acts. reflecting upon the circumstances of the case. the great Rishi Gautama then beheld his son Chirakarin sitting near him.' Thus. The sire praised his son for a long time. In giving way to wrath. the sire thought that. a friend. one should abandon it after a long while. and beholding also his wife almost petrified with shame. addressed his son and said these words. struck with fear. O Bharata. Beholding that his son prostrated at his feet. the son Chirakarin. he is delaying. was Gautama pleased with his son. By conducting himself in this way one is sure to avoid grief for a long time. That man who never nurses his wrath for a long while. Waiting for a long time upon those that are learned. and smelt his head for a long time. he was asking for pardon for the offence he had committed in taking up a weapon (for killing his own mother). When the offence is not clearly proved against a relative. for executing that command on his mother. he that reflects long before inflicting the punishment is applauded. By thy delay in accomplishing my bidding thou hast today made me happy for ever. filled with joy and contented with what had occurred. the Rishi became filled with great joy. O thou of great wisdom. one should accomplish it after a long while. or a wife.
--etc. the principal rite being the putting of the minimum mark on the head of the wife. One engaged in instructing others on the subject of religion and duty. 248 the samavartana or return from the preceptor's abode. yet their fruition depends more on the mother than the father. Of course. It is called subsidiary because it does not occur among the rites laid down in the Griha Sutras. These were replaced by the flint-stone and a piece of steel. one succeeds in enjoying the respect of the world for a long time. should. The mark is put on the line of partition of her locks. 248:2 In India in every house two sticks were kept for producing fire by rubbing. He may then avoid indulging in repentance (for returning an incorrect answer whose practical consequences may lead to sin). Garbhadhana is the ceremonial in connection with the attainment of puberty by the wife. Samslesha is union.' 'Let him be long-lived! Though both parents cherish such wishes. etc. and in the hands of children have become a source of great danger to both life and property.' 'be thou an axe (unto all my foes). The mother only has correct knowledge of who the father is. Simantonnayana is performed by the husband in the fourth. may be set aside on the ground of the suspicion that . take a long time to reflect before giving an answer. 249:2 The sense seems to be this. The commands of the father. Bhojya implies food. at last ascended to heaven with his son. Bryant and May's matches have now replaced those primitive arrangements almost everywhere. O Son. having adored the deities for a long while in that retreat of his. Pravachana is instruction in the scriptures. and keeping one's soul for a long while under proper restraint. 249:1 Prana is the organ of generation.' The upakarma or subsidiary rite is performed on the occasion of p. 'Let our child be fair of complexion.' 248:1 Bhogya implies such articles as dress. that Rishi. 'Thou art my own self. This is a scientific truth. when asked by another for information on those subjects.behaviour. sixth or eighth month of gestation. The words uttered on that occasion are. The desires cherished are indicated in the Griha Sutras.--As regards Gautama of austere penances. therefore.'" Footnotes 247:1 On the occasion of the Jata-karma the sire says 'be thou as hard as adamant.
that are destitute of intelligence.' 250:1 The sense is this: the sire is all the deities together. again. however. The mother. 'Prosperity to all the kine in the world. to slay her could not be obeyed. all the deities are pleased. escapes the guilt. 'Only those that are transgressors of defined limits. In reality. takes the guilt upon himself woman. 3 The righteous-souled Manu has applauded (the observance of) harmlessness in all (religious) acts. is all mortal and immortal creatures together. Gautama blames his own carelessness in not having provided. 4 Hence. by Yoga-puissance. however. he should not be regarded on account of his sinfulness. these words expressive of a blessing (to those helpless animals) were pronounced.' When the slaughter had commenced. Santi SECTION CCLXV "Bhishma said. His command. Indeed. and observing the cruel Brahmanas that gathered there for assisting at the ceremonies. and hearing the exceedingly painful groans of the kine in a cow-slaying sacrifice. And the monarch further said. Chirakarin asks. that are atheists and sceptics. being the tempted. Probably. urged by only the desire of fruit. guided by authority (in respect of slaughter and abstention from slaughter or harmlessness) one conversant (with the scriptures) should practise the true course of duty which is exceedingly subtile. Beholding the mangled body of a bull.attaches to his very status as father. 249:4 The commentator argue that 'man being the tempted. Then. 250:2 Dharmasya is explained by the commentator as Yogadharma-sambandhi. for by gratifying her one is sure to obtain success both here and hereafter. that king 2 uttered these words. Living in the vicinity of an inhabited place and injuring oneself to the . Harmlessness to all creatures is the highest of all duties. men slaughter animals in sacrifices. there can be no doubt that it was Indra who was to blame. 'In this connection is cited an old narrative of what was recited by king Vichakhy through compassion for all creatures. and that desire the acquisition of celebrity through sacrifices and religious rites speak highly of the slaughter of animals in sacrifices. if the father be adulterous. The commentator observes that the Rishi's exculpation of Indra himself is due to his own purity of nature and the entire absence of a desire to wrong other people. therefore. against the commission of the offence. 'How shall I know that Gautama is my father? How again shall I know that he is not sinful?' 249:3 The object of this verse is to indicate that when Gautama had ceased to protect his wife he had ceased to be her husband. for by reverencing the sire.
error of judgment. acquire merit and act in such a way that one's body may not languish and suffer pain. meat. when able. human beings. They that are true Brahmanas realise the presence of Vishnu in every sacrifice. it has been laid down. is not worthy of applause. one should give up domesticity. succeed in keeping up his body?' 4 "Bhishma said. Thy doctrines smack of atheism. From animals and food sacrifices flow. 'The body and all sorts of dangers and calamities are continually at war with each other. 'This course of duty that thou.observance of rigid vows. The hankering after these arises from pride. adopting a life of Renunciation. How. O holder of scales. should be made with agreeable Payasa. and disregarding the fruits indicated of Vedic acts.' 3 "Yudhishthira said. From agriculture comes food. His worship. and preparations of rice and sesame seeds. will a person who is totally free from the desire of harming and who on this account will not be able to act. This practice. 1 Reverentially mentioning sacrifices and trees and sacrificial stakes. fish. That food offers subsistence even to thee. men do not eat tainted meat. With the aid of animals and of crops and herbs. closes the door of heaven against all creatures and puts a stop to the very means of their subsistence. This world will come to an end if the means by which life is supported have to be abandoned.' . 2 Wine. are enabled to support their existence. (The leaves and flowers of) such trees as have been indicated in the Vedas. 'One should. and that death may not come. whatever act is regarded as worthy and whatever else is held as pure by persons of pure hearts and cleansed natures and those eminent for knowledge and holiness. alcohol. therefore. O trader. honey. Only they that are mean are urged by the desire of p. 246 fruit. however. The use of these (in sacrifices) is not laid down in the Vedas. preachest. are all worthy of being offered to the Supreme Deity and not unworthy of His acceptance. have been introduced by knaves. and cupidity.'" 5 Santi SECTION CCLXIII "Jajali said.
From rain springs food. that are covetous and fond of wealth. The first of this is very laudable. Such a man is certainly possessed of a sinful soul. O foremost of Brahmanas. have introduced many kinds of Sacrifices. with libations poured on the fire. of superior efficacy.' The consequence. If the sacrificer and the priest suffer themselves to be moved by desire of fruit (in respect of the Sacrifices they perform or assist in). having given up the Sacrifice that is ordained for them. 1 The men of former times never performed Sacrifices from desire of fruits and never regarded themselves as called upon to enjoy those fruits. O regenerate one. bereft of wisdom. or if their completion be obstructed by all unclean animals. The libations poured on the sacrificial fire rise up to the Sun. and proclaiming things that are really false but that have the show of truth. of all this. however. and greedy men exceedingly covetous of wealth. the Brahmanas. Those who somehow perform sacrifices. and with plants and herbs. 'I shall now speak on the object of the means of sustenance. the children born to them become of the same kind. doubting the while their efficacy take birth in their next lives as dishonest. I bow also to them that are conversant with that Sacrifice."Tuladhara said. I do not blame Sacrifices. From their religious acts unrighteous persons get wicked offspring. If. their children take the stain. who is penetrated with fear if he fails to accomplish them any day. I bow to that Sacrifice which is ordained for Brahmanas. with recitations or chanting of the Vedas. is certain to go. From the Sun springs rain. The man. they do not yield to desire of fruit. into the regions of the sinful. From Sacrifices spring progeny like clear water from the firmament. O Jajali. There are abundant indications in the scriptures that the worship of the deities may be accomplished with vows. If. is that theft and many evil acts spring up. The blessing uttered p. and always remains here. on the other hand. 3 If the acts of such a person become incomplete. O Brahmana. wily. Alas. From covetous men are born children that are covetous. have betaken themselves to the performance of Sacrifices that are for Kshatriyas. 2 That man who regards those acts obligatory which have been laid down in the Vedas and directed to be accomplished every day. even then those acts are. an atheist. however. 2 It should be known that only that sacrificial offering which was acquired by righteous means can gratify the gods. . and who never regards himself as the actor. for such sinful act of his. saying. without having understood the true meaning of the declarations of the Srutis. as heard by us. is very rare that is truly conversant with Sacrifice. 239 by the Rishis produced herbs and plants. who takes all the essentials of Sacrifice as identical with Brahma. I am not. and from those that are contented spring children that are contented. men righteously devoted to Sacrifices used to obtain therefrom the fruition of all their wishes. From food are born living creatures. The earth yielded crops without tillage. 'This should be given away in this Sacrifice. That man who by the aid of false reasoning holds up all the authoritative scriptures as fraught with evil. is truly a Brahmana. In former days. 1 Many persons of faith. This other thing should be given away in this other Sacrifice.
highly sacred. after the same manner one who is gratified with knowledge hath everlasting gratification which to him is a source of perfect bliss. still perform sacrifices from desire of doing good to all creatures and constituting their own selves as sacrificial offerings. and that are possessed of faith. and that meditate on the Pranava. those acts are done from desire of fruit (and their completion be obstructed by such impediments). 5 For this reason. and inhabited by righteous persons. 240 succeed in gratifying others. by accomplishing their own duties. 3 Some that are endued with knowledge. which is the soul of the deities. betake themselves to practice of truth and self-restraint as their Sacrifice. O Jajali. Such men do not covet heaven. which is productive of great blessings. succeed in attaining to the region of Brahman. One possessed of such wisdom always regards all things in the universe to have sprung from his own Self. Pranava). for some of p. 1 The universal Brahma (viz. that strive to reach the other shore (of this ocean of life). seek for heaven. they always seek. become gratified and are contented. 4 They that are conversant with the distinction between body and soul. then expiation would become necessary. that are devoted to Yoga. O Jajali.. Emancipation). 6 Endued with wisdom. When. always p. to cause others to ascend to heaven. without endeavouring to attain to Emancipation. These regenerate men. many foremost of Brahmanas perform Sacrifices (which with respect to their fruits are of two kinds. Looking at both these kinds of behaviour. and who are freed from envy. dwells in him who is conversant with Brahma. They walk along the path of the righteous. As regards those. 4 These men know trees and herbs and fruits and roots as the only sacrificial offerings.. Covetous priests. I have (abstained from injuring any creature in the world and have) come to regard all creatures with an equal heart. The Sacrifices they perform are performed without injury to any creature. although all their acts have been completed. therefore. for they are desirous of wealth. 2 As one who is gratified with all kinds of taste feels no desire for any particular taste. Those wise men who are the refuge of righteousness and whose delight is in righteousness. such a man eats and is gratified. who are bereft of cupidity in respect of all kinds of worldly wealth. however. 241 . They do not adore Brahma in costly sacrifices. are persons that have certain knowledge of what is to be done and what should not be done. They who covet the acquisition of the highest object of life (viz. all the deities.however. that are really good. who discard all provision for the future. never officiate at the sacrifices of these (poor) men. whence there is no return. and where there is no kind of agitation or pain. grasping priests officiate at the Sacrifices of only those misguided persons who.--a region which is freed from sorrow.
' 6 p.' 2 "Tuladhara said. Creating sacrificial stakes (and other necessaries of Sacrifice) by simple flats of the will. 1 In consequence of the success that attends the purposes formed in the mind of such men. and others lead to regions of bliss whence there is return). without being forced thereto. As regards the faithful. and who is endued with strength though his acts have all been weakened. it should be said.them lead to Emancipation whence there is no return. 1 If thou sayest that only men of brutish minds fail to achieve sacrifices in the soil of the Soul. it is for that reason that I have kept it before my eyes in speaking to thee. proceed along the path trodden by the deities (in consequence of the sacrifices they perform). O thou of great wisdom! Great is my faith in thy words. are not worthy of performing any sacrifice (internal or external). O son of a trader. Of one class of Sacrificers (viz. O great ascetic. Of those. unto others. that are truly wise (viz. who doth not perform Sacrifices (properly). who never bows down his head unto any one. then. those who sacrifice without being urged thereto by desire of fruit). 4 The gods know him for a Brahmana who has given up all desire of fruit. by what acts would they succeed in accomplishing their happiness? Tell me this. It is for this reason that I ask thee (about them). they who sacrifice from desire of fruit) there is return (from the region which they reach). These men. one is sure of attaining to Brahma. however. and who followeth an avocation in which every kind of desire is indulged? By properly reverencing.. will be the end of him who doth not recite the Vedas. O Jajali. however. they perform many kinds of Sacrifice well-completed with abundant presents. yet such is the difference between their ultimate ends. who hath no exertion in respect of worldly acts. 3 They. bulls. 5 What. that are not of that kind should perform Sacrifices with herbs and plants (and not animals). there is no return. and kine pour forth milk from udders untouched by human hands. heard of these recondite doctrines of ascetics that perform only mental Sacrifices. who doth not make gifts unto (deserving) Brahmanas. willingly set their shoulders to the plough for assisting at tillage and to the yoke for dragging their cars. Hence. therefore. the duties that appertain to Renunciation. These doctrines are exceedingly difficult of comprehension.. O son of a trader. O Jajali. along paths trodden by the gods. 'We had never before. 2 One who is of such a cleansed soul may slaughter a cow (as an offering in Sacrifice). the sages that have succeeded them have not propounded them (for general acceptance). who never utters the praises of others. 242 "Jajali said. 'Sometimes sacrifices performed by some persons do not become sacrifices (in consequence of the absence of faith of those that perform them). Although both classes of sacrificers. however. The sages of olden days were not followers of those doctrines of Yoga. Since Renunciation hath such merit. they proceed. By performing those Sacrifices. .
for dedicating such (innocent) offerings to the deities. 243 creatures). and that are always observed by those that are good and wise. according to the mode I have pointed out (viz.. Do not wander about on the earth for visiting sacred places. one is sure to attain to Brahma. certainly succeeds in obtaining blessed regions hereafter. one may make Faith one's wedded wife. and her hoofs. the Soul is itself a Tirtha. by abstaining from slaughter of animals and dedicating only clarified butter.' 1 "Bhishma continued. 4 To the exclusion of all animals (which are certainly unclean as offering in sacrifices). milk.--duties that are consistent with reason.. etc. 'These are the duties. and curds. her horns. viz. and by seeking the acquisition of merit agreeably to his own ability. the hair at end of her tail. O Jajali. O Yudhishthira. By duly reverencing such sacrifices. the cow. A person. and all mountains are sacred. All rivers are as sacred as the Saraswati.).only one thing.'" . which Tuladhara applauded. 3 (The Vedas declare that sacrifices cannot be performed by an unmarried man). In performing sacrifices. is fit for upholding all sacrifices by means of full libations of clarified butter. by observing these duties (that I have spoken of and that do not involve injury to other p. the rice-ball is a worthy offering in sacrifices. however.
'Common people say that fasting is tapas (penances). He who betakes himself to such penance is regarded as one that is always fasting and that is always leading a life of Brahmacharya. Such a Brahmana will become a Muni always. ascend to heaven but fall down on the exhaustion of their merits. fast is an impediment to the acquisition of the knowledge of the Soul. such is not penance. 'People do regard fast. That is distinguished above all kinds of penance. (They are regarded as fallen even here). a deity evermore. consisting of meat and wine. who eat such food in the observance of Vedic sacrifices and vows and induced by the desire of fruits in the shape of heaven and children. On the other hand. Those. In the opinion. who are given to sacrifices and other rites. What. however of the good. 125 . however. is the character of this act?' "Bhishma said. measured by months or fortnights or days. as penance. Is fasting. from motives of obtaining children and heaven. 'The three regenerate classes. p. 'Those who eat forbidden food without being observant of the sacrifices and vows ordained in the Vedas are regarded as wilful men. O grandsire. really so. 2 The renunciation of acts (that is so difficult for all) and humility (consisting in the worship of all creatures and consideration for them all) constitute the highest penance. and sleepless forever. of sacrifices in honour of the deities. sometimes eat the remnants.' 1 "Yudhishthira said. or is penance something different?' "Bhishma said. on the other hand.Santi SECTION CCXXI "Yudhishthira said.
the meaning would be "such men are deceived by their vows." the sense being that though acquiring heaven and the other objects of their desire. and by going to his wife only in her season and never at other times. That Brahmana who never eats till gods and guests are fed. Such a Brahmana. servants. who eats only what remains after feeding the gods. and an adorer always of gods and guests. the gods and the Apsaras. viz. and as one ever worshipping gods and guests. as one ever devoted to the duty of hospitality. that that man who eats only after having fed his servants and guests becomes an eater always of ambrosia. If. and pure for ever. 'He will be regarded as one that is always fasting if he eats once during the day and once during the night at the fixed hours without eating anything during the interval. He will become an eater always of ambrosia. Such men win numberless regions of felicity in next life. even if he lives in the bosom of a family. Know.and one engaged in the pursuit of virtue only. wins. he will become a strict vegetarian. the Bengal reading vrataluplah be adopted.. and guests. 'How can one practising such penance come to be regarded as one that is always fasting or as one that is ever devoted to the vow of Brahmacharya. as one always full of faith. O Yudhishthira. They who share their food with the deities and the Pitris pass their days in constant happiness with their sons and grandsons and at last. attain to a very high end. Indeed. by always speaking the truth and by adhering always to wisdom. however. becomes a Brahmacharin (celibate). and by abstaining from sleep during the day he will become one that is always wakeful. the Pitris. He is said to subsist upon sacrificial remnants. which is attainable by following the religion of nivritti only. yet they fall down upon exhaustion of their merit and never attain to what is permanent.'" Footnotes 124:1 The reading I adopt is Vrataluvdhah. leaving off this body. By never eating meat of animals not killed for sacrifice.' "Yudhishthira said. By always becoming charitable he will become ever pure. . or as one that is always subsisting upon sacrificial remnants or as one that is ever regardful of guests?' "Bhishma said. heaven itself. he will be regarded as one always subsisting on sacrificial remnants. by such abstention. with Brahman himself. emancipation. To their homes come. He will become a vegetarian always.
124:2 The object of Bhishma's two answers is to show that the giving of pain to others (sacrificing animals) is censurable. I who adhere to the scriptures incur no fault (by assisting at the killing of this animal). will enter into water. After hearing their consent. Of this constant (principle) which looks upon diverse natures. if the Vedic declaration on this subject be true. I am never attached to anything through desire and wrath. I do not touch. after the manner of the upward and the downward life-winds when souls have entered animate bodies. Nor do I entertain purposes of any kind. yet the assemblage of enjoyments does not attach itself to them.--This is destruction of life! unto him the Adhwaryu said in reply. Not having any desire for any object of desire. 'I do not smell scents. in them are eternal dispositions. and the giving of pain to one's own self is equally censurable.--This goat will not be destroyed. 'If thou beholdest such good to the goat in this dissociation with (his) life-winds. I do not see colours. This goat is especially dependent. it is Nature that hates such objects as are disliked. (these as also) the soul of all creatures. I do not perceive tastes. and decrepitude and death. I do not likewise hear the diverse sounds (that arise). His eye will enter the sun. What need hast thou for it? Let the brother. Yogins would behold in the body. Taking him (to them) do thou consult them.' "The Yati said. even as the assemblage of rays of the sun does not attach to the sky. It is Nature that desires such objects as are liked. the matter will become fit for consideration. Aswameda parva SECTION XXVIII "The Brahmana said. The animal (sacrificed) meets with great good. In this connection is recited an ancient story of a discourse between an Adhwaryu and a Yati. his ear will enter the different points of the horizon. The life-winds of this goat have been made to return to . they are inconstant possessions. as there is no taint of a drop of water on (the leaves of) the lotus. there is no taint on my natures. his life-winds will enter the sky. and friend (of this goat) give thee their approval in this. Desire and aversion spring from Nature. then this sacrifice is for the goat. That part of this animal which is of earth will go to earth. and not having any aversion for any evil. Beholding an animal sprinkled with water at a sacrificial ceremony. It behoveth thee to see them who can give their consent in this. mother. O glorious lady. Dwelling in that. Do thou hear it. a Yati said unto the Adhwaryu seated there these words in censure. Separated from them are others. father. 1 Though actions are performed. That part of this one which is born of water.
that is alike to all creatures. and that is released from all his surroundings. Or. The Destructible is said to be exceedingly non-existent. We know this is the proposition. Thou hearest the sounds which have their origin in space (or ether). believing thee to be a god. the tongue. the mind. 1 The life-wind.. Thou dost not then abstain from taking life. Of these the Indestructible is existed. This is what I think. by performing these rites with the aid of Mantras!' 3 . We do not rely on what is beyond direct perception. that transcends all pairs of opposites. are all existent. All these entities. Abstention from cruelty is the foremost of all deities. 'O foremost of intelligent men.' "The Adhwaryu said. thou art of opinion. I come to thee.--for him no fear exists from any source!' 2 "The Adhwaryu said. The Atman is above these forms and hence is without duality and hope. have their origin in wind. Thou touchest the properties which. viz. There can be no movement without slaughter. Hearing thy opinion my understanding shines with light. what dost thou think. Thou thinkest thoughts with the mind. As regards one that is freed from these existent objects. O illustrious one.p. Always abstaining from cruelty to all creatures is what meets with our approbation. O regenerate one. Only the inanimate body remains behind.--No slaughter (of living creatures). (it will then appear that) diverse kinds of faulty actions are capable of being done by thee.--If I say anything further. 'The Indestructible and the Destructible constitute the double manifestation of the soul. Of those who wish to enjoy felicity by means of the inanimate body (of an animal) which is comparable with fuel. O regenerate one. thou art engaged in slaughter. that does not cherish any expectation. 50 their respective sources. 'Thou enjoyest the properties of smell which belong to the earth. that has subjugated his self. Really. the quality of goodness. one should reside with those that are good. the fuel (of sacrifice) is after all the animal himself.' "The Yati said. Thou drinkest the tastes which appertain to water. that is liberated from the idea of meum. Even this is the teaching of the elders. We establish this from what is directly perceptible. and I say I have no fault. Thou seest colours which belong to lighted bodies. along with the quality of passion. have life.
The Adhwaryu also proceeded with the great sacrifice. the mind. 50:1 Swabhava is explained by Nilakantha as sutaram abhava. 50:3 'I have no fault etc. 51 exceedingly subtle. which stands here for all the organs of perception. 'With this conclusion. freed from delusion. to be of this kind and having understood it. The Brahmanas understand Emancipation. My eyes. the quality of goodness. they live accordingly directed by the Kshetrajna. the Yati remained silent after this. of all the internal operations. however. I should not be held responsible for what I did while I was ignorant.'--The sense seems to be that by doing these rites with the aid of Mantras I have done that which has been approved from ages past by those who have always been regarded wise. These. the life-winds indicate the operations of the several organs of action: the tongue. that beholder of all topics. which is p. transcends sin. <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< . for sin is destroyed by freedom from these. of all kinds of pain.'" Footnotes 49:1 The correct reading is bhavantyanityah and vahuswabhavan."The Brahmana continued. have now been opened by thee. of the sensual perceptions. and the quality of passion. therefore include the whole external and the internal worlds. He that is free from these. of all pleasure. 50:2 The sense seems to be this. knowledge being the means of attaining to that freedom.
Book 12 Chapter 260 1 [य] य य उ य य 2 य यच य [ ] उ उ य 3 उ य य यउ य च य 4 5 य 6 य 7 य य 8 उ य य 9 य य 10 [y] avirodhena bhūtānāṃ tyāgaḥ य ṣādguṇyakārakaḥ yaḥ syād ubhaya bhāgdharmas tan me brūhi pitāmaha 2 gārhasthyasya ca dharmasya य य च य tyāgadharmasya cobhayoḥ adūrasaṃprasthitayoḥ kiṃ svic chreyaḥ च य pitāmaha 3 [bhī] ubhau dharmau mahābhāgāv ubhau च paramaduścarau च उ ubhau mahāphalau tāta sadbhir ācaritāv ubhau य उ य य 4 atra te vartayiṣyāmi prāmānyam ubhayos य tayoḥ śṛṇuṣvaika manāḥ pārtha chinnadharmārthasaṃśayam 5 atrāpy udāharantīmam itihāsaṃ purātanam kapilasya goś ca saṃvādaṃ tan nibodha yudhiṣṭhira 6 āmnāyam anupaśyan hi purāṇaṃ śāśvataṃ dhruvam nahuṣaḥ pūrvam ālebhe tvastur gām itinaḥ śrutam 7 tāṃ niyuktām adīnātmā sattvasthaḥ samaye rataḥ य jñānavān niyatāhāro dadarśa palilas tadā 8 sa buddhim uttamāṃ prāpto naiṣṭhikīm akutobhayām smarāmi śithilaṃ satyaṃ vedā ity abravīt sakṛt 9 tāṃ gām ṛṣiḥ syūma raśmiḥ praviśya yatim abravīt य haṃho vedā yadi matā dharmāḥ kenāpare matāḥ 10 tapasvino dhṛtimataḥ यय śrutivijñānacakṣuṣaḥ sarvam ārṣaṃ hi manyante vyāhṛtaṃ viditātmanaḥ 11 tasyaivaṃ gatatṛṣṇasya vijvarasya nirāśiṣaḥ च kā vivakṣāsti vedeṣu nirārambhasya 1 .
य 11 य य [ ] य 12 य 13 य च य चउ च य च य 14 य यय 15 16 य य य उ य 17 य य च य य य 18 [ य ] य य 19 च य य य च च य च चय 20 यचय य 21 sarvaśaḥ 12 [kapila] य nāhaṃ vedān vinindāmi na vivakṣāmi karhi cit य pṛthag āśramiṇāṃ karmāṇy ekārthānīti naḥ śrutam च 13 gacchaty eva parityāgī vānaprasthaś ca gacchati gṛhastho brahmacārī ca ubhau tāv api gacchataḥ 14 deva yānā hi panthānaś catvāraḥ śāśvatā च matāḥ teṣāṃ jyāyaḥ kanīyastvaṃ phaleṣūktaṃ balābalam 15 evaṃ viditvā sarvārthān ārabhed iti vaidikam nārabhed iti cānyatra naiṣṭhikī śrūyate śrutiḥ 16 anārambhe hy adoṣaḥ syād ārambhe 'doṣa uttamaḥ य evaṃ sthitasya śāstrasya durvijñeyaṃ balābalam 17 yady atra kiṃ cit pratyakṣam ahiṃsāyāḥ paraṃ matam य ṛte tv āgamaśāstrebhyo brūhi tad yadi paśyasi य 18 [syūmaraṣmi] svargakāmo yajeteti satataṃ śrūyate śrutiḥ य phalaṃ prakalpya pūrvaṃ hi tato yajñaḥ pratāyate 19 ajaś cāśvaś ca meṣaś ca gauś ca pakṣigaṇāś ca ye grāmyāraṇyā oṣadhayaḥ prāṇasyānnam iti य śrutiḥ य य 20 tathaivānnaṃ hy ahar ahaḥ sāyaṃ prātarnirupyate च paśavaś cātha dhānyaṃ ca yajñasyāṅgam iti śrutiḥ 21 etāni sahayajñena prajāpatir akalpayat य tena prajāpatir devān yajñenāyajata prabhuḥ 22 te smānyonyaṃ carāḥ sarve prāninaḥ य य sapta sapta ca य yajñeṣūpākṛtaṃ viśvaṃ prāhur uttamasaṃjñitam 23 etac caivābhyanujñātaṃ pūrvaiḥ य .
pūrvatarais tathā ko jātu na vicinvīta vidvān svāṃ śaktim 22 य यच ātmanaḥ 24 paśavaś ca manuṣyāś ca drumāś च cauṣadhibhiḥ saha य उ svargam evābhikāṅkṣante na ca svargas tv ṛte makham 23 चच य 25 oṣadhyaḥ paśavo vṛkṣā vīrudājyaṃ payo च dadhi havir bhūmir diśaḥ śraddhā kālaś caitāni dvādaśa 24 च य च च 26 ṛco yajūṃsi sāmāni yajamānaś ca sodaśaḥ agnir jñeyo gṛhapatiḥ sa saptadaśa ucyate aṅgāny etāni yajñasya yajño mūlam iti च śrutiḥ ख 27 ājyena payasā dadhnā śakṛd āmikṣayā tvacā 25 य य य vālaiḥ śṛṅgena pādena saṃbhavaty eva च gaurmakham evaṃ pratyekaśaḥ sarvaṃ yad yad asya vidhīyate 26 च य य च 28 yajñaṃ vahanti saṃbhūya sahartvigbhiḥ sadakṣiṇaiḥ य उ य saṃhatyaitāni sarvāṇi yajñaṃ य य यय nirvartayanty uta 29 yajñārthāni hi sṛṣṭāni yathā vai śrūyate śrutiḥ 27 य य य च evaṃ pūrve pūrvatarāḥ pravṛttāś caiva य ख mānavāḥ 30 na hinasti hy ārabhate nābhidruhyati kiṃ य य य य य cana 28 य य yajño yastavya ity eva yo yajaty aphalepsayā य य य यउ 31 yajñāṅgāny api caitāni yathoktāni na 29 य य य saṃśayaḥ vidhinā vidhiyuktāni tārayanti parasparam च 32 āmnāyam ārṣaṃ paśyāmi yasmin vedāḥ 30 य य च pratiṣṭhitāḥ taṃ vidvāṃso 'nupaśyanti य य य य य य य brāhmaṇasyānudarśanāt य 33 brāhmaṇa prabhavo yajño brāhmaṇārpaṇa eva ca 31 य य च य anu yajñaṃ jagat sarvaṃ yajñaś cānu य jagat sadā 34 om iti brahmaṇo yonir namaḥ svāhā य य svadhā vasat 32 य य य य य .
'Thou hast already explained to me. may be adopted .yasyaitāni prayujyante yathāśakti kṛtāny य य 33 api na tasya triṣu lokeṣu paralokabhayaṃ viduḥ iti vedā vadantīha siddhāś ca paramarṣayaḥ 36 rico yajūṃsi sāmāni stobhāś ca vidhicoditāḥ yasminn etāni sarvāṇi bahir eva sa vai dvijaḥ 37 agnyādheye yad bhavati yac ca some sute dvija yac cetarair mahāyajñairveda tad bhagavān svataḥ 38 tasmād brahman yajetaiva yājayec cāvicārayan yajataḥ svargavidhinā pretya svargaphalaṃ mahat 39 nāyaṃ loko 'sty ayajñānāṃ paraś ceti viniścayaḥ vedavādavidaś caiva pramānam ubhayaṃ tadā 35 य य य य य य य य य च च य च य य य य च च च 34 य 35 36 37 य यय यच च य य च य य यच च य य यच 38 च 39 य चय च य य उ य च SECTION CCLXVIII "Yudhishthira said. O grandsire. how the religion of Yoga. which leads to the six well-known attributes.
which have been declared through and compiled by the Rishis. I do not wish to say anything in derogation of them. firm.--'Alas ye Vedas!'--At that time a Rishi. viz. In this connection is instanced the old narrative of the discourse between Kapila and the cow. ancient. It hath been heard by us that the different courses of duty laid down for the different modes of life. and eternal injunction of the Vedas. the duties of domesticity and those of Yoga. and ever directed towards truth.. and who is destitute of all exertion (in consequence of the immediate fruition of all his wishes)?' "Kapila said. Enjoyment and Emancipation. 3 What can anybody say (by way of censure or praise) with respect to the contents of the Vedas when these happen to be the words of the Supreme Being himself who is freed from desire of fruit.. regard the injunctions of the Vedas.p. which is superior?' "Bhishma said. of the name of Syumarasmi. was on the point of killing a cow agreeably to the true. addressed the Yati Kapila. viz. who is addicted to nothing. Listen to it. perfectly fearless. whence have those other duties (fraught with entire harmlessness to all creatures) come to be regarded as authoritative? 2 Men devoted to penances and endued with intelligence. ever observant of the duties of Sattwa. saying. Both are productive of high fruits. uttered this word once. to be the words of God himself. Both are extremely difficult of accomplishment. possessed of true knowledge. of that religion which leads to both results. Kapila of liberal soul. having acquired an excellent understanding that was characterised by faith. for dispelling thy doubts about their true import. 256 and practised without injuring any creature. Listen to me with concentrated attention. 257 . The p. and who have the Srutis and knowledge for their eyes. all lead to the same end. 'Hist O Kapila! If the Vedas be deserving (in consequence of those declarations in them that sanction the slaughter of living creatures). entering (by Yoga power) the form of that cow. Tell me. I shall presently discourse to thee on the authoritativeness of both those courses of duty. for discharging the duties of hospitality. who is without the fever (of envy and aversion). 'Both courses of duty are highly blessed. O grandsire. the latter. Beholding that cow tied for slaughter. Amongst these two.. O Yudhishthira! 1 It has been heard by us that in days of old when the deity Tvashtri came to the place of king Nahusha. always engaged in restraining his senses. both of which lead to the same end. viz. 'I do not censure the Vedas. Both are practised by those that are admittedly good. and abstemious in diet. beneficial.
and hoofs. meat and other approved things (that are poured on the sacrificial fire). is the root of the world and its course. viz. Thinking first of the fruit (that is to be attained). reach the same end. human beings. When the scriptures stand thus. If abstention from acts be meritorious. Altogether seven (domestic) and seven (wild) animals are indicated as fit for sacrifice.[paragraph continues] Sannyasin attains to a high end. 1--Knowing these. the points of the compass. by which they can obtain the fruition p. coupled with . one makes preparations for sacrifice. then their accomplishment must be exceedingly reprehensible. The puissant Lord of all creatures caused the deities to perform sacrifices with their aid. all species of birds. clarified butter. and Fire which should be known as the householder. Particular ones amongst these that are laid down for particular sacrifices. individuals from among living creatures for sacrifice? 5 The inferior animals. all wish for the attainment of heaven. horse. Him also that is called Purusha the Vedas have appointed for the same purpose. except sacrifice. This is heard by us. faith. The forest-recluse also attains to a high end. trees.--Do not accomplish acts.' "Syumarasmi said.--these seventeen are said to be the limbs of sacrifice. dung. There is no means. 'One should perform sacrifice from desire of heaven. trees. the Sruti declares. Both the other two also. Sacrifice. the strength or weakness of particular declarations must be very difficult to ascertain. skin. curds. the Richs.--this also is another binding declaration of the Vedas. curds. the hair in her tail. and time which brings up the tale of twelve. and which depends upon direct evidence instead of that of the scriptures.--this is a Vedic declaration. 2 Food again has been directed to be taken day after day morning and evening. Then again the Sruti declares that animals and grain are the limbs of Sacrifice. The deciduous herbs. and herbs. the Samans.--this Sruti is constantly heard by us. do thou then discourse to me upon it. the Yajuses. land. milk. the householder and the Brahmacharin. each succeeding one is inferior to each preceding one. cow. milk. creepers. All the four modes of life have always been regarded as Deva-yana ways. and herbs and plants. domestic or wild. The Vedas again declare that the whole universe is appointed for sacrifice. accomplish acts which lead to heaven and other blessings. as represented by their relative superiority or inferiority. 3 The Lord of the universe created them along with Sacrifice. according to his own ability. Instead of all being equally fit. 258 of that desire. Goat. however. animals. horns. What man of learning is there that does not select. and the sacrificer himself bringing up the tale to sixteen. The relative strength or weakness of these. 4 This again hath been sanctioned by men of remote and remoter times. With clarified butter. hath been declared in the character of their respective ends. If thou knowest of any course of duty which is superior to the religion of harmlessness.. curds mixed with milk. the cow alone is able to furnish all the necessaries of sacrifice. are food of (other) living creatures.
those that incite to acts and those that preach abstention) as equally authoritative. One who performs such sacrifices as lead to heaven (such as Jyotishtoma. 3 Those things that have been named as the limbs of sacrifice. As regards that person. Of him who has uttered for him the syllables Om. Svadha. I say. of the Soma-sacrifice. Thus say the Vedas. one should sacrifice and assist at other people's sacrifices. and those other things that have been mentioned as required in sacrifices and that are indicated in the ordinances. there is no fear in respect of next life in all the three worlds. performed sacrifices and other rites. This Sruti. and who has. according to the extent of his ability. or set himself to the accomplishment of any worldly task. consistent with the truth. Swaha. however. 6 The syllable Om is the root from which the Vedas have sprung. and Vashat. This is certain. It was thus that all men of ancient time set themselves to the performance of sacrifices.. etc. 4 I behold also the Smritis compiled by he Rishis. O adorable Brahmana. and truly they rest upon the Brahmanas. indeed. . is heard that all things have been created for the performance of sacrifice. that they who do not perform sacrifices have neither this world nor the next. (Every rite.. and the expletives p. and the foremost of Rishis. and sages crowned with ascetic success. a Brahmana. for this reason. all uphold one another (for the completion of sacrifices) when used according to the approved ritual. it is seen that he does not injure any creature or bear himself with hostility to anything. 1 By collecting these things together. and of the other great sacrifices.'" Footnotes 256:1 The redundant syllable is arsha. therefore. without scruples of any kind. what the fruits are of Agnihotra. people accomplish sacrifices 2. 259 necessary for completing the rhythm of the Samans according to the rules laid down in Vedic grammars.Ritwijas and presents (to the priests themselves and other Brahmanas) together sustain sacrifices. and sacrifice rests upon the universe. 1 Thou knowest. Men of learning regard them as authoritative in consequence of their following the Brahmanas. Namas. is. should commence with the utterance of that syllable of vast import). They who are really conversant with the declarations of the Vedas regard both kinds of declarations (viz. the Yajuses. who performs sacrifices because of the conviction that sacrifices should be performed and not for the sake of fruit or reward. 5 Sacrifices have the Brahmanas for that progenitor. into which the Vedas have been introduced.) obtains high rewards hereafter in the form of heavenly beatitude. The whole universe rests upon sacrifice. viz. the Samans. He in whom are the Richs.
and ass. 258:1 All the products of the cow that are named here are not required in all sacrifices. therefore.256:2 Both acts and knowledge have been pointed out in the Vedas. . when coupled with Ritwijas and Dakshina. mule. bear. the ground that is connected with the consideration of food. Slaughter. man. Viditatmanah is the Supreme Being himself. 256:3 Arsha means here Vedic injunctions declared through the mouths of inspired Rishis and compiled by Rishis. The very support of life requires the slaughter of life. those by which the Soul is reached. and monkey. elephant. i. 257:3 i. the speaker fears that the hearer may deny the very existence of heaven. buffalo. boar. 257:4 The seven domestic animals are cow. Those then that are required.e. others in others.. complete the respective sacrifices or uphold or sustain them. he takes a surer ground for justifying slaughter. The Sannyasin attains to Moksha or Emancipation. The seven wild ones are lion. sheep. being authority for both. The object of the speaker is to show that no part of the Vedas can be censured. goat. Some are required in some. The Vedas. 257:1 Deva-yanah is explained by the commentator as Devam atmanam janti ebhiriti. 257:2 The commentator explains that having commenced with the assertion that men should sacrifice from desire of heaven.. Hence. the house-holder attains to heaven (region of the deities presided over by Indra) and the Brahmacharin attains to the region of the Rishis. therefore. all being God's own. is justified by the highest necessity. for every word in them is equally authoritative. horse. the forest recluse to the region of Brahman..e. Living creatures must eat in order to live. one or the other cannot be censured or applauded. The relative strength or weakness of the four modes of life hath been thus indicated. there are the essential requisites of sacrifice. tiger. 257:5 'Vichinwita is Vivechayet with alamvartham understood: atmanah is equivalent to jivat. viz.
and Mahat all bear p. when the celestial Purohita Vrihaspati was born in the race of Angiras. The words. 258:4 By taking the two lines of 32 with the last line of 30. 259:1 There are many such expletives. such as hayi. all the deities became very happy. the Burdwan translator makes nonsense of the passage. wrongly connects the first line of verse 31 with the last line of 30. 258:3 The Burdwan translator. and makes nonsense of both verses. etc. 258:5 'Brahmanas' here means that part of the Vedas which contains the ritual. notwithstanding the clear language of both the text and commentary. Brahma. 122 . santi aswamwdha SECTION CCCXXXVII "Bhishma said.258:2 Samhritya means Ekikritya and not 'destroying' as the Burdwan translator wrongly takes it. havu. 'Then upon the expiration of the great Kalpa. 258:6 Each constitutes the refuge of the other. Vrihat.
Parvavasu. the great God showed himself to his worshipper. Hari).. Arvavasu. With soul cleansed from all sorts of evil by sacrifices and other religious rites. The king had ordained it so. all of them addressed Vrihaspati. O monarch. otherwise called Vasu. the foremost of Rishis. Accepting by taking its scent. and was well-conversant with all rites.the same sense. O king came to be called Vrihaspati because he was endued with all these attributes. viz. otherwise called Vedasiras. I place this as Narayana's share of the sacrificial offerings. he shall take it before my eyes.. 3 The great God took up the offerings without being seen by any one. became a disciple of Vrihaspati and soon became the foremost of his disciples.--Here. who was the father of Salihotra. Kapila. Admitted as such. all the requisite articles were collected. the share offered to him he himself took up the Purodasa. all the deities appeared in their respective forms for taking their shares of the sacrificial offerings and were seen by all. The illustrious king performed a great Horse-sacrifice in which his preceptor Vrihaspati became the Hota. Kanwa. Addressing king Uparichara he said. and Trita. The requisites of that sacrifice all consisted of the products of the wilderness. "Yudhishthira said. Vrihaspati became angry. the Rishi Medhatithi. King Uparichara. In that great sacrifice. 'In the great sacrifice of Uparichara. viz. viz. At this. became highly gratified with the king on account of that sacrifice. he ruled the Earth like Indra ruling the Heaven. Without doubt. The ancient God of gods (viz. Incapable of being seen by any one else. and Devahotra. and began to shed tears in wrath.. the blessed Rishi Santi. In this Krita age. this anger to which thou hast given way. Taking up the ladle he hurled it with violence at the sky. Dwita. Ekata. the great king Vasu and all his Sadasyas sought to pacify the great Rishi. the first Kalpa. The great deity for whom the share of the sacrificial offerings was . 2 There were others also who became Sadasyas in that sacrifice. Dhanusha. Raivya. should not be the characteristic of any one. he had cast off all desires. Of pure and liberal mind. The sons of Prajapati (Brahman) themselves.--It behoveth p. the great Rishi Tandya. No animals were slain in it. Tittiri the elder brother of Vaisampayana. saying. he began to study at the feet of his preceptor that science which was composed by the seven Rishis who were (otherwise) known by the name of Chitrasikhandins. 'When Vrihaspati gave way to wrath. With cool heads. Why is it that the puissant Hari only acted otherwise by invisibly taking his share?' "Bhishma continued. He was full of compassion. became the Sadasyas in that sacrifice. in all forming sixteen.. 123 thee not to give way to anger. 1 The celestial Purohita.
ye seek to know how ye may succeed in beholding that god of great puissance! On the northern shores of the Ocean of Milk there is an island of great splendour called by the name of White Island. The faces of some were turned towards the North and of some towards the East. 1 They are divested of senses. In consequence of their hearts having been entirely set upon Him. the splendours which Surya assumes when the time . they are devoted to Him with their whole souls. He is incapable of being seen either by ourselves or by thee. They were engaged in silently thinking on Brahma. Having undergone penances for thousands of years and acquired great ascetic merit. is himself free from anger. O puissant Vrihaspati. for a hundred years. the idea. The object we had in mind was how to behold the divine Narayana in his own form. Indeed. proceeded by the way indicated to the country described. who were well conversant with the science of morality and duties compiled by the seven Rishis. we again stood on only one foot like fixed stakes of wood. Once on a time we repaired to the north for obtaining what is for our highest good. due to the grace of the great God Himself. O Vrihaspati! Only he can see Him to whom He becomes gracious. Arrived there. we could see nothing. we beheld a number of men of auspicious features. ye ascetics. well have ye performed these penances with cheerful souls. 2 The Yapa performed by those high-souled persons was a mental yapa (and did not consist of the actual recitation of any mantras in words). Their hands were always joined in prayer. begotten by a fiat of his will (and not in the ordinary way). Devoted unto Narayana. we arrived at last at that large island called White Island. Eagerly desirous of beholding Him and our hearts full of Him. for there I have revealed myself!--All of us. the denizens of White Island believe and worship only one God. All of them were white and looked like the Moon (in colour) and possessed of every mark of blessedness.--Then the Rishis Ekata. The voice said. 124 by the energy of the great deity and accordingly we could not see Him. an incorporeal voice was heard by us. Worshippers of that foremost of all Beings. Hari became highly pleased with them. and Trita. Dwita. suited to the time and place. 1 At this. Upon the completion of our vows. The country where we underwent the austerest of penances. They all enter that eternal and illustrious deity of a thousand rays.designed by thee.--We are the sons of Brahman. The men that inhabit that island have complexions as white as the rays of the Moon and that are devoted to Narayana. at once deep as that of the clouds and exceedingly sweet and filling the heart with joy. Indeed. Their eyes are winkless. arose in our minds that one that had not undergone sufficient penances could not speedily behold Narayana. Go thither. They do not subsist on any kind of food. lies to the north of the mountains of Meru and on the shores of the Ocean of Milk. The effulgence that was emitted by each of those men resembled. Upon the completion of our penances and after we had performed the final ablutions. hearing these incorporeal words. Under the influence of this idea we once more set ourselves to the practice of some severe austerities. Their bodies always emit a fragrance. addressed that conclave and began the following narration. O foremost of ascetics. our vision was blinded p.--Ye Brahmanas.
Incapable of being seen in consequence of his dazzling effulgence. Those men. all of whom were cheerful and filled with devotion and who were all practising the Brahma-frame of mind. and deed. are competent to behold (Narayana). conversant with the ordinances laid down in the Pancharatra. 4 Go hence. O Vrihaspati. stupefied by His illusion. no one honoured us with a glance or nod. Our penances had emaciated us. we thought that Island was the home of all Energy. we were suddenly deprived of our senses by his Energy. possessed of hearts full of reverence. As we stood among those thousands of men all of whom were of pure descent. 4 We only heard a loud volume of sound uttered by the assembled inhabitants. It seemed that those men were employed in offering a sacrifice to the great God.comes for the dissolution of the universe. Those ascetics. endued with great devotion. The inhabitants. an incorporeal Being addressed us from the sky and said unto us these words--These white men. that illustrious Deity can be beheld by only those persons that in course of long ages succeed in devoting themselves wholly and solely to Him. full of joy. ye have a great duty to per-form. become competent to behold the great God. 125 rules of orthoepy. to the place whence ye have come. and of certain herbs and plants that were of use on the occasion. 2 Without doubt. ye shall then have to become the allies of the deities (for dispelling that calamity). a great calamity will overtake the worlds. we could not see him. O foremost one of Angira's race. O foremost of Beings. O thou of eyes like lotus-petals! Salutations to thee. After the expiration of this the Krita age. and uttering the one word Namas (we bow thee!) We then heard a very loud noise uttered by all of them together. uttered distinctly and agreeably to the p. As regards ourselves. All the inhabitants were perfectly equal in energy. O Hrishikesa. That great Deity is incapable of being ever seen by one that is destitute of devotion. It said. when the Treta age comes in course of the Vivaswat cycle. Deprived of vision and strength and all the senses. When with the aid of even such austere penances and of . a breeze. that seemed to be the concentrated effulgence of a thousand Suns. As regards ourselves. who are divested of all outer senses. blew. After the breeze had ceased and the sacrifice had been over. O Creator of the universe! Salutations to thee. our hearts became agitated with anxiety. word. Ye Munis. assembling together. were then worshipping the great deity with mind. At that time.--Victory to thee. O thou that art the First-born! Even this was the sound we heard.--Having heard these wonderful words that were sweet as nectar. fragrant and pure. did not show any kind of feeling for us. 3 We had been exceedingly tired. we could not see or feel anything. Hari appeared in that place whence the sound we heard arose. 1 Meanwhile. ye Munis. There was no superiority or inferiority there among them. Indeed. Only those foremost of regenerate persons whom these white men honoured with their glances. 3 We then suddenly beheld once more a light arise. through the grace of that great Deity. ran towards that light. with hands joined in reverential attitude. bearing perfumes of celestial flowers. Ye foremost of regenerate one. we soon got back to the place we desired.
'" 1 SECTION XCI "Janamejaya said. Both the Deities and the Danavas worship Him. and ever reciting sacred mantras having Narayana for their deity. again. having worshipped the deities in sacrifices. King Uparichara also.--Induced by these words spoken by Ekata and approved by his companions. king Vasu in consequence of the very highest end that he attained. Indra of a thousand eyes. with Bhima and Arjuna by him. casting off his body. why then did that mongoose depreciate that great Horse-sacrifice of the high-souled monarch?' . At last. and self-restraint. his devotion to virtue did not abate. obtained the sovereignty over the deities through the many sacrifices he performed with gifts in profusion and attained to the fruition of all his wishes. After some time. how. Ascending from the bowels of the Earth. O tiger among monarchs. he once more ascended to heaven through Narayana's grace. Even this is my conviction. viz. He has no beginning and no end. through the curse of the Brahmanas. resembled the chief of the deities himself in prosperity and prowess. Ever devoted to Narayana. he ascended to heaven.offerings devoutly given in sacrifices. He is Unmanifest. Hence it seems that nothing can be seen in this world which can compare with the fruits of sacrifices. peacefulness of behaviour. we failed to have a sight of the great Deity. Although sunk deep into the bowels of the Earth. was always devoted to the true religion. When king Yudhishthira. O best of regenerate persons. having completed his great sacrifice. indeed. and solicited also by the other Sadasyas. 'O puissant Rishi. King Vasu. seems to be undoubtedly correct. He is adorned in sacrifices with offerings of clarified butter and other food dedicated with the aid of Vedic mantras. the puissant chief of the deities viz.. The great Rishis are attached to penances. Dwita and Trita. earned high fame here and obtained Heaven hereafter. 126 [paragraph continues] Creator of the universe.. he fell down from those regions of felicity and sank deep into the bowels of the Earth. Endued with great energy. That conviction. began to rule his subjects righteously. Innumerable kings. Learned Brahmanas are observant of tranquillity of mind. proceeded to a spot that is even higher than the region of Brahman himself. kings are attached to sacrifices. He is the p. the high-minded Vrihaspati brought that sacrifice to a completion after duly offering the accustomed adorations to the Deities. can you expect to behold Him so easily? Narayana is a Great Being.
The time came for slaughtering the animals. even when they are very large. By the gifts made by a person of unrighteous conduct. Gifts made by a sinner with an impure understanding. on the excellent ordinances relating to sacrifice and the fruits also. Desirous of acquiring great merit as thou art. Such gifts go for nothing. would be fraught with great righteousness and productive of fruits of high efficacy. king Vasu. who . All of them were worn out with disputation. those Rishis. should they be performed with mobile creatures or with immobile objects. 163 became engaged in pouring libations of clarified butter. that sacrifice yields. The great Rishis were seated around. felt compassion for them. Therefore. that is. Beholding that the animals had all become cheerless. he had to enter the nether regions. when a doubt arises. no person. 'O highly blessed one. this is verily an indication of thy unacquaintance with sacrifice. O king. as I discourse to thee duly. on one occasion Sakra performed a particular sacrifice. the great Rishis. influenced by pride and overwhelmed by stupefaction. not fatigued with what they did. While the limbs of the sacrifice were spread out. become lost. O puissant one. Even this. Those foremost of Adhwaryyus. When the animals selected for sacrifice were seized. Formerly. This sacrifice is not consistent with righteousness. at once answered. O king. however. without all judging of the strength or weakness of the arguments on the two sides. animals have not been ordained to be slaughtered in sacrifices. O Bharata. approached Sakra and said unto him. endued with wealth of penances. The deities were summoned one by one by contented Brahmanas of great learning uttering scriptural Mantras in sweet voices. The pourer of libations. unless he be the puissant and self-born Lord himself of creatures. what is the Vedic declaration about sacrifices? Is it preferable to perform sacrifices with animals or with steeds and juices? Hearing the question.--one. O Sakra. p. The destruction of creatures can never be said to be an act of righteousness.' Having answered the question thus. 'This method of sacrifice is not auspicious. 'Sacrifices may be performed with whichever of the two kinds of objects is ready. those beholders of truth. recited the Mantras of the Yajurveda in soft accents. 'Do thou listen to me. the Ritwijas became busy in accomplishing the diverse rites ordained in the scriptures."Vaisampayana said. that is. however wise. Indeed the puissant ruler of the Chedis had to undergo that misery for having answered falsely. these preparations of thine are destructive of merit. possessed of every qualification. If thou wishest it. saying. should singly decide the matter. having made an understanding with Sakra (about referring the matter to arbitration) asked king Vasu. O Purandara. O thou of a hundred eyes. let thy priests perform thy sacrifice according to the Agama. do thou perform the sacrifice with seeds of grain that have been kept for three years.' The deity of a hundred sacrifices. By performing a sacrifice according to the (true import of the) scriptural ordinances. a great dispute arose in that sacrifice of Sakra between the ascetics as to how sacrifices should be performed. O ruler of men. Then. great will be the merit achieved by thee. did not accept these words uttered by the Rishis. The Rishis then. O Bharata.
makes gifts or performs sacrifices therewith. Those amongst Brahmanas and Kshatriyas and Vaisyas and Sudras who betake themselves to penances. having acquired wealth by such means. That person of little intelligence who. have attained to high success. and who purify themselves by gifts and other acts of righteousness. at the conclusion of that great horse-sacrifice. 164 overwhelmed by passion and stupefaction. Someone.' "Vaisampayana said. He is seen to persecute all creatures. as also compassion to all creatures. and fortitude.--these and many other kings. from desire of acquiring merit. O chief of kings of a most wonderful incident that occurred. 'Hear. truthfulness of speech and kindness. and forgiveness. and Asita. endued with wealth of penances. acquire great merit and proceed to Heaven. who acquires wealth by sinful acts. and Kakshasena and Arshtisena. only creates the conviction in men about his own righteousness (without earning true merit). After all the foremost of Brahmanas and all the kinsmen and relatives and friends. overwhelmed by cupidity and stupefaction. Men endued with wealth of penances. We hear of Visvamitra and other kings of ancient times. 'It behoveth thee to tell me of any wonderful incident that occurred in the sacrifice of my grandsires. never succeeds in earning merit. urged by a sinful and impure understanding. constitute the eternal foundations of Righteousness which itself is eternal. and the helpless ones had . becomes bent on strong wealth. having made gifts of articles acquired lawfully. grains of corn picked up from the fields or roots or fruits or pot-herbs or water or leaves. and king Janaka. O Bharata. Visvamitra. Indeed. who hypocritically assuming a garb of righteousness mikes gifts unto Brahmanas. He who. and Brahmacharyya. and all the poor. performs sacrifices with wealth acquired by unrighteous means. O puissant monarch. attains at last to the goal of the sinful. never enjoys the fruits of those gifts or sacrifices in the other world in consequence of the wealth having been earned by unrighteous means." Aswamwdha SECTION XC "Janamejaya said. Even such gifts. and king Sindhudwipa.is of sinful soul and who is a destroyer. That Brahmana of uncontrolled conduct. just fame is never acquired either here or hereafter. the blind. to the best of their power. by giving away. over p. proceed to Heaven. That low wretch of sinful soul.
The regenerate class have been gratified with gifts of diverse kinds. O sinless one. It behoveth thee to explain thyself. It was witnessed by me and its consequences were felt by me. The incident relates to a liberal Brahmana dwelling in Kurukshetra in the observance of the Unccha vow. Repeatedly uttering such deep sounds and thereby frightening all animals and birds. That which I have said may have been heard by you all. do thou truly declare unto these Brahmanas. when the gifts made in profusion were being spoken of on all sides. The Kshatriyas have been gratified with battles fought according to just methods. spoke in a human voice and said. answered them as follows. when flowers were rained down on the head of king Yudhishthira the just. asked by the Brahmanas who are eager to know. indeed. and many foremost of women have been gratified by accomplishing their desires. O chief of Bharata's race. In consequence of that incident he attained to Heaven.' Thus addressed by those regenerate persons. The grandsires have been gratified with Sraddhas. Thou hast come into the midst of learned Brahmanas. a blue-eyed mongoose. with large body. ye foremost of Brahmanas. The deities have been gratified by libations of clarified butter and acts of merit. saying. which is true. Those who are deserving of worship have been duly worshipped here according to the way pointed out by the scriptures. 'Ye kings. with one side of his body changed into gold. all those foremost of Brahmanas became filled with wonder. the mongoose. this great sacrifice is not equal to a prastha of powdered barley given away by a liberal Brahmana of Kurukshetra who was observing the Unccha vow. and dependants and followers by protection.' Hearing these words of the mongoose. Kinsmen and relatives have been gratified by the purity of behaviour displayed by our king. this sacrifice is not equal in merit to the gift of a prastha of powdered barley. smiling. Wonderful and excellent was the occurrence that fell out. with the aid of diverse sacrificial rites. That therefore. O king. everything that should be done has been accomplished here according to the scriptures and agreeably to reason. Neither have I spoken them from pride. Listen to me with undivided attention as I narrate what happened to thee truly.been gratified. p. Thy words seem to demand credit. ye . The Sudras have been gratified by kind speeches. Approaching the mongoose. that proud denizen of a hole. do thou declare what is agreeable to the scriptures and to actual experience. The Vaisyas have been gratified by the protection offered to them. they then asked him. Thou art wise. I should say this. 'Ye regenerate ones. 156 [paragraph continues] 'Whence hast thou come to this sacrifice. the words I have uttered are not false. this resort of the good and the pious? What is the extent of thy might? What thy learning? And what thy refuge? How should we know thee that thus censurest this our sacrifice? Without having disregarded any portion of the scriptures. Libations have been poured on the sacred fire with the aid of proper mantras. Indeed. Without doubt. Ye foremost of regenerate persons. That which should be given has been given away without pride. came there and spoke in a voice that was as loud and deep as thunder. and others with the remnants of the profuse wealth collected on the spot. Thou bearest also a celestial form.
They were of pure minds. 1 He p. there occurred a dreadful famine in the land. he succeeded in obtaining a prastha of barley. and ascertaining from him in return those particulars. and with senses under complete control. those ascetics divided that little measure of powdered barley amongst themselves so that the share of each came up to the measure of a Kudava. with all the members of his family. 'Ye regenerate ones. 2 As they were about to sit down for eating. Beholding the person who came as a guest. which is the abode of many righteous persons. Freed from malice. selfrestrained. he adopted the mode of living that is followed by a parrot. while the Sun was in the meridian. They had cast off pride and haughtiness and anger. there came unto their abode a guest. in the month of Jaishtha. they had conquered wrath. Unable to obtain grains of corn. Of excellent vows. they saluted him and made the usual enquiries of welfare. ye foremost of regenerate ones. This occurred day after day. That best of Brahmanas passed the days in great suffering. And in consequence of what then happened half my body became transformed into gold. of a very little measure (of powdered barley) obtained by lawful means. seeing him. I shall presently tell you what the excellent fruit was of the gift. he was practising even this penance. 'This is . and having duly poured libations on the sacred fire. On that righteous spot of ground known by the name of Kurukshetra. along with his wife and son and daughter-in-law. Having finished their silent recitations and other daily rites. All the members of his family were afflicted with hunger but were obliged to pass the days as best they could. ye Brahmanas. 1 If there was nothing to eat at the sixth division of the day. they were conversant with every duty.' "The Mongoose continued. One day. During that time there was nothing stored in the abode of that righteous Brahmana. Indeed. Indeed. Of righteous soul. he had no food to eat. The herbs and plants were all dried up and the whole realm became void of foodstore. One day. Afflicted by heat and hunger. and endued with faith and control over the passions. they were never pained at the sight of other people's happiness. all of them became exceedingly glad. there lived a Brahmana in the observance of what is called the Unccha vow. Addressing him they said. Possessed of piety. Informing their guest of their own penances and of the race or family to which they belonged. that excellent Brahmana would fast for that day and eat the next day at the sixth division. That barley was then reduced by those ascetics to powder for making what is called Saktu of it. he used to eat everyday at the sixth division. they caused that hungry guest of theirs to enter their cottage.regenerate ones. after the sixth division came. the Brahmana was engaged in picking up grains of corn. When the accustomed hours came for eating. Indeed. On one occasion. the Brahmana had nothing to eat. the Brahmana soon became worn out with hunger and toil. made by a Brahmana. That mode of living is like unto that of the pigeon. 157 lived there with his wife and son and daughter-in-law and practised penances.
Let this foremost of regenerate persons be gratified and let him then go whithersoever he will. why should not I part with mine)' Thus addressed by her. Do thou take a fourth of this barley. The wife treats her lord with kindness and feeds and protects him. began to think of what other food he could place before him for gratifying him. O foremost of regenerate ones. Do thou. cheerless. Thou art my Bhartri for the means of sustenance thou givest me. that Brahmana accepted the Kudava of powdered barley that was offered to him and ate it all. Thou art my Pati (lord) for the protection thou givest me. But his hunger. careful nursing. Such a man falls down from even a position of great fame and never succeeds in acquiring regions of happiness hereafter. Indeed. Overcome by decrepitude. (in return for so many favours). take my share of the barley and give it unto the guest.the Arghya for thee. O sinless one. our religious acts and wealth are united. O foremost of regenerate persons. wives are fed and protected. Indeed. (If thou couldst part with thy share. of women. do thou accept it. pleasure. 158 wife said unto him. Through the grace of the husband. It behoveth thee not. having accepted that quantity. seeing that his guest's hunger was still unappeased. In the production of offspring the mother contributes her blood. O king. offspring for perpetuating the race. Afflicted by hunger thou art exceedingly weakened. as also all the objects of their desire. saying. therefore. O best of men. to say so. Here is some clean Saktu acquired by lawful means. The Brahmana in the observance of the Unccha vow. Thou art. religious merit. thou art of advanced years.' Knowing that his chaste wife who said so was herself afflicted by hunger. 'O regenerate one. that best of Brahmanas could not approve of her share of the powdered barley being given to the guest. do thou accept this measure of powdered barley as well. pleasure. with even worms and insects. that best of Brahmanas possessed of learning. and Heaven as acquirable. she answered him. women obtain both pleasure and offspring as the reward. immediately ate it up. therefore. with even animals. This water is for washing thy feet. 'O beautiful one. toil-worn. Indeed. There are scattered some Kusa grass for thy seat. be gratified with me. but his hunger was not yet appeased.' The Brahmana. Given by us. knowing from his own state that his aged.' Thus addressed. The husband is the highest deity of the wife. the merits of a person himself as also of his deceased ancestors depend also on her. The wife should know her lord by his acts.' Thus addressed by them. Everything appertaining to religion. O puissant one. again. Truth.--'Let my share be given unto him. The father contributes his seed. Verily. thou art very much emaciated. are all dependent on the wife. and wealth. he took her share of the powdered barley and addressing his guest said. and helpless wife was herself afflicted by hunger and seeing that lady who had been emaciated into mere skin and bone was quivering with weakness. Worn out with fasts. Then his p. boon-giver to me in consequence of thy having presented me a son. addressed her and said.--'O regenerate one. Beholding him . by good qualities. was not appeased by what he ate. that man who fails to protect his wife earns great infamy here and goes into Hell hereafter. are dependent on the husband.
Even this is the eternal sruti (audition) current in the three worlds.ungratified. . do it. Maintenance of the father is a duty which the good always covet. Like the triple aggregate beginning with Religion. takes birth as one's son. O puissant one.' "The son said. The Sruti declares that one's offspring is called putra because one is rescued by him. I shall. I am old. I have no fear of death. 159 creatures. practised penances. Do thou. become strong (by eating the food that has fallen to thy share). 'O best of men. again. again. thou wilt still seem to me to be only a little child. His son then said unto him. O son. I have. I regard this act of mine as one of great merit. 'In form thou art like me. Thou shouldst be always maintained by me with great care. O learned Rishi. Old and decrepit as I am.' 1 "The father. Through thy grace. The righteous-souled host in the observance of the unccha vow became ashamed (at the thought that he had nothing more to give). take my share of the barley and give it unto this guest.' "The father said. rescue thyself by thy own self (in the form of thy son). the Brahmana in the observance of the Unccha vow became thoughtful. therefore. 'I am thy offspring. O son. Through the grandson one obtains those regions repairing whither one has not to endure any kind of misery. 'If thou attainest to the age of even a thousand years. O son. I shall obtain a son. Do thou.' Having said this. By barely living thou art capable of practising penances. the guest's hunger was not appeased. at this. the sire achieves success through him. I know that the hunger of children is very strong. taking my share of the barely do thou give it to the guest. approached him and said. hunger scarcely afflicts me. Do thou. that foremost of regenerate persons cheerfully took his son's share of the barley and smilingly presented it to his regenerate guest. O learned Brahmana. Thou hast been examined on various occasions by me. therefore. numerous regions of beatitude will be mine for eternity. or the triple aggregate of sacred fires. The life-breath is the great deity that resides in the bodies of all embodied p. One's own self. Desirous of doing what was agreeable to him. Therefore. In conduct and in self-restraint also thou art my like. The maintenance of the father in his old age is the duty ordained for the son. 'Through thy son. his chaste daughter-in-law then. for many years. Having begotten a son. therefore. I shall somehow succeed in holding my life-breaths. Having eaten that barley also. bearing her share of the barley. accept thy share of the barley. there is a triple aggregate of everlasting Heavens. said.
the grandson. 'O . Thou shouldst be always protected by me. O thou that art the delighter of all thy kinsmen. how can I be such a transgressor against the rules of righteousness as to take thy share of the barley? O auspicious damsel. Thou art truly. I shall obtain many regions of happiness hereafter. and religious rites have all one purpose viz. With gratified soul.. take my share of the barley. the Brahmana took her share of the barley and gave it unto his guest. in consequence of such conduct of thine thou wilt for ever shine in glory. Do thou. Know. and belongest to the softer sex. how can I behold thee: at even this. beholding thee wasted by wind and sun. Thou art a child. O learned Brahmana. Through thy grace. O puissant one. Thou deservest not to be deceived by me. deprived of thy very complexion. Alas. it behoveth thee to take this my share of the barley. the service of my senior. then addressed that foremost of Brahmanas and said. Alas. 'O chaste lady. Through sons and grandsons one always enjoys the happiness of those regions which are reserved for the pious and the good. therefore. 'Thou art the senior of my senior since thou art the deity of my deity. reckoning all thy virtues. for the sake of those auspicious results for which every family must strive. even thou hast to pass thy days in so much misery. I deserve to be looked after by thee.' "The father-in-law said. viz. Cherishing also this thought. thy eyes are directed to that conduct which should be observed towards seniors. that first of regenerate person. afflicted by hunger. My body.' Having said so unto her. emaciated and almost destitute of consciousness through hunger. who was none else than the deity of Righteousness in a human form. Therefore. that I am wholly devoted to thee. The son is called Putra because he frees his sires from debt. 'O thou of excellent vows and conduct. O blessed damsel.' "The daughter-in-law said. life-breaths. abstaining from p.depending upon the son. the sixth division of the day. 2 O auspicious damsel. O daughter-in-law. that my happiness is thy concern. 160 food and observing vows? Thou art endued with purity and good conduct and penances. for endued with vows and steadiness in religious rites. it behoves thee not to say so. At this the guest became gratified with the high-souled Brahmana endued with great piety.. I have to see thee worn out with fasts. I shall take thy share of the barley.' "The father-in-law said. possessed of great eloquence. and the great-grandson. the foremost of all persons observing the duties of righteousness. Thou art verily the god of my god. O regenerate one.
Thy gifts have. with a pure heart. he went to Heaven. in a season of great difficulty. that conquers hunger conquers Heaven without doubt. The celestial Rishis. therefore. thou practisest penances with great devotion. King Nriga had made gifts of thousands of kine unto the regenerate class. The door of Heaven is very difficult to see. Through heedlessness men fail to obtain a sight of it. Good men acquire merit by exerting to the best of their . Through this gift. struck with wonder at thy gift. having attained to the regions of the righteous. The acquisition of wealth is an act of slight merit. flowers have been rained down from the firmament on the Earth. I am exceedingly gratified with this pure gift of thine. if acquired lawfully and given away with devotion and faith.best of regenerate ones. Usinara's son Sivi of excellent vows. It has been said that he that gives away a hundred. O best of regenerate ones. Lastly. O learned Brahmana. this gift of what was acquired by lawful means by thee. are all equal in respect of the merit they earn. Mere wealth is not merit. One whose intelligence is overwhelmed by hunger casts off all fortitude. Of still greater merit is the (proper) time. 161 affection one feels for one's wife. and the celestial messengers. conquered Heaven. The Pitris residing in their own region have all been rescued by thee. thy gifts. by giving away the flesh of his own body. Disregarding filial affection. That bar is kept fastened by desire and affection. Others also who have not attained to the position of Pitris have equally been rescued by thee for countless Yugas. For thy Brahmacharyya. the Gandharvas. gratified the deities highly. O foremost of regenerate persons. O thou of excellent vows. Behold. having a thousand. The deity of righteousness is never gratified so much with large gifts of costly things as with gifts of even things of no value. he fell into Hell. The regenerate Rishis who dwell in the regions of Brahma. and he that gives a handful of water. go to Heaven. this gift of thine is being bruited about in Heaven by the denizens of that happy region. By giving away only one cow that did not belong to him. are solicitous of obtaining thy sight. Since thou hast made this gift. agreeably to the rules of righteousness. and which thou didst freely part with. Verily. The bar of Heaven's door has cupidity for its seed. having a hundred. One's righteousness is never destroyed as long as one cherishes the inclination of making gifts. and thy acts of piety done with a pure heart. therefore. Verily. are all praising thee. Its gift to a deserving person is fraught with greater merit. thy penances. he that gives away ten. Hunger destroys one's wisdom and drives off one's righteous understanding. when divested of all his wealth. He. those Brahmanas who are endued with penances and who make gifts according to the measure of their ability. thou hast paid no heed to the cravings of nature. King Rantideva. disregarding the p. those who walk before the deities. by this act of thine. is rejoicing in Heaven. Heaven's door is unapproachable. gave a small quantity of water with a pure heart. go thou to Heaven. thou hast. seated on their cars. having no wealth. devotion (in the matter of gift) is fraught with the highest merit. succeed in beholding it. Those men who subdued wrath and conquered their passions. and reckoning righteousness as the foremost. the deities. thy sacrifices.
' Having said those words unto all those foremost of Brahmanas. Ye foremost of Brahmanas. Through wrath. for converting the rest of my body into gold I repeatedly repair. Do thou ascend it as pleasest thee. the fruits of gifts are destroyed. Abstention from injury as regards all creatures. in consequence of the gift of that p.power and with the aid of pious meals.'--After the deity of Righteousness had said these words. Those Brahmanas then returned to their respective homes. through penances. Even this is my opinion. This great sacrifice however. in enjoying Heaven. with the mire caused by the water (which the Brahmana had given to his guest). proceeded to Heaven. selfrestraint. son and daughter-in-law. truthfulness.. With thy wife.' "Vaisampayana continued. I came out of my hole. penances."' . Ye regenerate ones. to the retreats of ascetics and the sacrifices performed by kings. it was for this that I uttered those words. to the abode of Brahman that is without the stain of darkness. daughter-in-law. After that learned Brahmana. sincerity. O king. and leading a just course of conduct succeeds. Go thou in happiness. and the penances of that Brahmana. with a cheerful heart. of this gift made by thee (of a prastha of powdered barley) is much greater than what one acquires by many Rajasuya sacrifices with profuse gifts or many Horse-sacrifices. 162 [paragraph continues] Brahmana who was firm in truth. conversant with all duties. I have now told thee all relating to that wonderful incident which occurred in that great Horse-sacrifice. a celestial car is here for all of you. Behold. One does not acquire such merit by means of even diverse sacrifices as with even a little wealth that has been earned lawfully. One conversant with the merits of gift. is not equal to those grains. and gifts are each equal in point of merit to sacrifice. that Brahmana. Through cupidity one fails to go to Heaven. contentment. and his penances. and wife numbering the fourth. O Brahmana. The fame of thy achievement will last in the world. Thou shouldst not. and thy daughterin-law. been made gold. Millions of Rishis have ascended to Heaven with the aid of only their penances. O Brahmana. 'O conquerer of hostile towns. with the particles of the barleypowder which that good man had given away. I came hither with high hopes. however. Hearing of this sacrifice of the Kuru king endued with great wisdom. half of this my ample body has become golden. conduct. go now to Heaven. with his wife. had thus ascended to Heaven with his son. I was made gold on that occasion. viz. think highly of sacrifice. There with the scent of that powdered barley. With this prastha of powdered barley thou hast conquered the eternal region of Brahman. O learned Brahmana. with the contact (of my body) with the celestial flowers that had been rained down. I have not. the mongoose disappeared from their sight. thy son. With the grains of that prastha of powdered barley. Behold me! Thou hast rescued thy body. I am the deity of Righteousness. O foremost of regenerate persons. my head became gold. The fruit. that this sacrifice can by no means compare with (the gift of) that prastha of powdered barley.
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