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on a One-to-One basis with the buyer. The process of: Developing customer relationships, discovering customer needs, matching appropriate products with these needs, and communicating benefits.”
Sales Management Trends
Transactions Individuals Sales Volume Management Local
Relationships Teams Sales Productivity Leadership Global
PERSONAL SELLING’S UNIQUE ROLE: 1. High level of customer attention 2. Customize the message 3. Yields immediate feedback 4. Communicate more technical and complex information 5. Demonstrate a product’s functioning and characteristics 6. Develop long-term relationship MODERN SELLING PHILOSOPHY: Based on trust and mutual agreement Customer-driven Act as if on customer’s payroll After-sales service is key Professionalism and integrity are essential
SELLING FOUNDATIONS: In order to be successful in today’s global business environment, salespeople must have a solid relationship building foundation. They must: Be Trustworthy
Behave Ethically Understand Buyer Behavior Possess Excellent Communication Skills SELLING PHILOSOPHY OF ‘GOOD’ SALESPEOPLE: 1. Selling is problem solving 2. Selling is a caring activity 3. A customer is a person to be served, not a prospect to be sold 4. Treat people as human beings, not $ signs 5. Be customer driven, not product driven 6. Long-term success depends on customers relations 7. Selling is a ‘win-win’ activity 8. Adherence to ethics, mutual trust, and honesty is essential CHAPTER 02 INTRO TO SALES MANAGEMENT:
Marketing mix Products Prices Promotion Distribution Sales promotion
Sales Sales management management
Planning Planning Budgeting Budgeting Recruiting and selecting Recruiting and selecting Training Training
Motivating Motivating Compensating Compensating Designing territories Designing territories Evaluating performance Evaluating performance
SALES MANAGEMENT: Sales Management is the attainment of sales goals in an ethical, efficient, and effective manner. THE SALES FORCE MANAGEMENT Managing Sales force involves recruiting, hiring, training, supervising, compensating salespeople, motivating them and providing the proper planning and backup support so they can perform their jobs properly. WHAT ARE THE SALES MANAGERS GOALS? Sales Revenues
Profits Market Share Controlling internal costs
Sales Force Strategy
Role of Sale Sales Force Defining Selling Process Role of Alternative Sales channel
Defining the Sales Organisation
Recruit Train And …… Sales force
Building Sales capabilities…
Develop sound selling strategy Organize for efficient coverage Develop skills for effective selling Motivate & support sales force
Clear segmentation Explicit objectives, goals and priorities Winning selling proposition Realistic time frame/expectations
Right structure Right size Territory / account Assignments for adequate coverage
Define necessary skills Develop training, recruiting and coaching programs for: • Product knowledge • Buying process • Sales methodology • Planning & execution
Align measurement and reward systems: • Compensation • Recognition Provide necessary organization support (systems, etc.)
Sales management model
What is the value proposition and the role of the sales force in its delivery? Is support adequate to maximize the selling effort?
Is the sales force (and channels) organized for optimal coverage of selected markets?
Sales Force Individual Deploy- Sales Selling ment Support Skills
What critical selling skills are required for the sales role in the value proposition?
Does the sales force have adequate coaching & supervision?
Coaching & Supervision
Recruiting & Training
InforMotivation mation & CompenResources sation
Does the compensation plan meet management’s objectives and pay the sales force fairly?
Does the recruiting and training match selling skill requirements?
Are information systems being fully utilized to support the selling effort?
CHAPTER 03 SALES CHANNELS Personal selling occurs through several types of communication channels Each sales channels has unique aspects which make it relevant for particular sales situations. The five sales channels: OVER-THE-COUNTER SELLING: personal selling conducted in retail and some wholesale locations in which customers come to the seller’ place of business. FIELD SELLING: Involves calling on prospective customers in either their business or home locations. Four types of field sales person: Professional Salespeople: Help prospective customers to define their needs and then suggest the best means of meeting those needs, even if that requires suggesting that the prospects use a competitive product National account managers: Highly skilled salespersons who call on key customers’ headquarters sites, develop strategic plans for the accounts, make formal presentations to top-level executives, and assist with all the product decisions at that level Missionary Salespeople: They do not seek to obtain a direct order from their customers. Primary goal is to persuade customers to place orders with distributors or wholesalers
Support Salespeople: Support the sales force in a number of ways Technical support salespeople assist with technical aspects of sales presentations. Merchandisers may set up product displays TELE-MARKETING: Utilizes the phone for prospecting, selling, and/or following up with customers. Inbound and outbound. CHAPTER 04(a) PROSPECTING: The process of identifying, qualifying, and prioritizing organizations and individuals that have the need for and potential to purchase the PRODUCT. QUALIFIED PROSPECTS: Can benefit from the sales offering Have the financial wherewithal to make the purchase Play an important role in the purchase decision process Are eligible to buy based on a fit within the selling strategy Are reasonably accessible and willing to consider the sales offering Can be added to the customer base at an acceptable level of profitability Importance of effective prospecting: The better the lead generation method, the higher the proportion of qualified leads. The more accurate the qualifying process, the higher the proportion of customers per qualified lead. Improving the lead generation method so that 10 leads generates two qualified customers means you will need only 50 leads to generate one customer. CHAPTER 05 SALES PROCESS:
A I D A
ttention nterest esire ction
A I D A
Begin with an attention-getter that relates to the receiver’s needs. Introduce the product, service, or idea and create interest by stating specific reader benefits. Create desire to respond positively by presenting convincing evidence of the value of the product, service, or idea. Encourage action by making it easy and restating the main benefit of responding positively
The Sales Process
The AIDA Concept and the Personal Selling Process
CHAPTER 06 PRESENTATION AND OBJECTION HANDLING: A sales presentation should make the prospect want the product being presented PRESCRIPTION STAGE: The salesperson arouses a prospect’s interest by showing understanding of the prospect’s problem and prescribing (presenting) a solution to it. SOLUTION STAGE: Assumes a knowledgeable role Begins to earn the right to be an advisor to the prospect
Customizes the presentation of product features and benefits to the prospect’s specific needs and wants
PARTENERING STAGE: Business partnering occurs as a result of sellers and buyers pooling resources in a trusting atmosphere focused on continuous and mutual gain. COMPONENTS OF A SUCCESSFUL PRESENTATION: Create a drama Don’t exaggerate Keep promises CHAPTER 07 TERITORY DEIGN AND COVERAGE: WHAT IS A SALES TERITORY? A sales territory is composed of a group of customers or a geographic area assigned to a salesperson. A sales territory is number of present and potential customers, located within a geographical area and assigned to a salesperson, branch, or intermediary” Sales territories (or markets) are made up of customers rather than geography REASONS COMPANIES DEVELOP AND USE SALES TERRITORIES:
BENEFITS OF TIME AND TERRITORY MANAGEMENT: Territory should be more efficiently and effectively covered Optimum time should be spent with each class of prospects Most important customers should receive the bulk of the service Sales costs should be reduced due to better time allocation Optimum results will be yielded STAGES IN TERRITORY DESIGN:
DESIGNING SALES TERRITORIES: 1. Select a control unit State Province City Station or a zip code 2. Determine location and potential of customers Identify both present and potential customers Determine the amount of potential business from each account 3. Determine basic territories through • Determine optional call frequencies (per year) • Determine the total number of calls needed each territory • Determine workload capacity • Draw tentative territorial boundaries • Modify tentative territories as needed 4. Assign salespeople to territories Need to consider differences in sales abilities and skills Why and how often should territories be revised Effect of revision of territories 5. Set up territorial coverage plans for sales force Routing sales force Scheduling reps time 6. Evaluate effectiveness of the design
ACCOUNT ANALYSIS: Account analysis is used to estimate the sales potential for each customer and prospect in a territory Sales potential estimate is used to decide how much effort should be spent on each account Total effort to cover a territory is calculated by considering: Number of accounts Number of calls to be made on each account Duration of each call Estimated amount of nonselling and travel time
CHAPTER 08 MARKETING CHANNELS AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT: MARKETING CHANNEL: A set of interdependent organizations that ease the transfer of ownership as products move from producer to business user or consumer. SUPPLY CHAIN: The connected chain of all the business entities, both internal and external to the company, that perform or support the logistics function. Marketing channel fulfills 3 vital functions: Specialization and Division of Labor: Provides economies of scale Aids producers who lack resources to market directly Builds good relationships with customers Overcoming Discrepancies: Discrepancy of Quantity Discrepancy Of Assortment Providing Contact Efficiency CHANNEL INTERMIDEARIES: RETAILER: A channel intermediary that sells mainly to customers. Take title to goods. MERCHANT WHOLESALER: An institution that buys goods from manufacturers, takes title to goods, stores them, and resells and ships them. Take title to goods. AGENTS AND BROKERS: Wholesaling intermediaries who facilitate the sale of a product by representing channel member. Do not take title to goods.
Channels for Consumer Products
Direct Channel Retailer Channel Wholesaler Channel Agent/Broker Channel
Producer Agents or Brokers
Wholesalers Retailers Consumers Consumers Retailers Consumers
Wholesalers Retailers Consumers
Role of Supply Chain Management
Communicator of Communicator of customer demand from customer demand from point of sale to supplier point of sale to supplier
Role of Role of Supply Chain Supply Chain Management Management
Physical flow process Physical flow process that engineers the that engineers the movement of goods movement of goods
DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS PERFORM IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS: • • • • • • Facilitating the exchange process Sorting to alleviate imbalances between outputs and consumer needs Standardizing transactions Holding inventories Assisting the search process Transporting materials and products
LOGISTICS: The process of strategically managing the efficient flow and storage of raw materials, in-process inventory, and finished goods from point of origin to point of consumption.
SCM: A management system that coordinates and integrates all of the activities performed by supply chain members into a seamless process, from the source to the point of consumption.
Supply Chain Management Activities
Determine channel strategy and Determine channel strategy and level of distribution intensity level of distribution intensity Manage relationships Manage relationships in the supply chain in the supply chain Manage the logistical components Manage the logistical components of the supply chain of the supply chain Balance the costs of the supply chain Balance the costs of the supply chain with the service level demanded by customer with the service level demanded by customer
CHAPTER 10: PUSH N PULL STRATEGY:
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