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INDONESIA VOCATIONAL EDUCATION STRENGTHENING PROJECT (INVEST)
Lessons on Implementation of Gender Action Plan
Presented by: Sutarum Wiryono, Project Officer (Education), ADB Indonesia Resident Mission
Beijing, 11-13 September 2013
The views expressed in this paper are the views of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. The countries listed in this paper do not imply any view on ADB's part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADB's terminology.
• Overview of the Indonesian Vocational Education (TVE) • INVEST Project • INVEST’s Gender Action Plan (GAP) and It’s Achievements • Issues and Challenges • Lessons Learned and Ways Forward
Senior Secondary Vocational Education (SMKs)
• Total 10,640 schools (public and private); cater 4 million students (2012) • Offer various competency skills (trades): Technology and Engineering, Agriculture & Agroindustry, Arts & Crafts, Tourism, Business and Management. • Provide academic, technical, and entrepreneurial skills for employment • Students mostly coming from low-income families
Technology and Engineering
Mechanical, electrical, building construction/management, electronics, automotive, heavy equipment, ICT, multi-media, graphic design and printing, mining, ship building & maintenance, wood/furniture production, aviation, etc. Population: 4,700 schools (45%); Female students: 16%
Agriculture & Agro-industry
Food crops, Industrial crops, livestock, poultry, fisheries (production, capture), post harvest technology/food processing, etc; Population: 851 schools (8%); Female students: 33%
Tourism, Hotel, Restaurant, Beauty
Hotel, restaurant, pastry, cookery, beauty, travel services management, etc; population 1,590 schools (15%); Female students: 78%
Business and Management
Office administration, Secretarial, Accounting and Financial Management, Garment, etc. Population: 2,870 schools; Female students: 75%
Arts & Crafts
Music, Dance (traditional & contemporary), crafts, acting, painting, etc: population : 530 schools; Female students: 38%
Project Background Indonesia Vocational Education Strengthening Project (INVEST)
• Project costs:
ADB Loan = $80 million (ADF); GOI counterparts = $35 million, Total costs = $115 million;
• Implementation period: 2009 - 2013. • Executing Agency: DTVE, DGSE-MOEC; • Target group: 90 Model SMKs + 230 Alliance SMKs • Locations: 33 provinces, 88 districts/cities
Project Impact and Outcome
• Expected Impact: increased competitiveness and employment opportunities of vocational school (SMK) graduates
• Expected Outcome: improved quality and relevance, expanded access, and greater efficiency in senior secondary vocational education
4 Project Outputs:
• Output 1: refocused vocational school management using a business approach • Output 2: improved quality of teachinglearning in model and alliance schools • Output 3: strengthened school-industry linkages • Output 4: enhanced entrepreneurship focus
How the Project works?
• Schools prepare School Business Plan (SBP): 5 year development plan (demand driven, bottomup approach); and annual/budget plan • MOEC awards block grants based on SBP & annual plan & budget • School committee manages the project: construction/rehabilitation of school buildings/labs, teacher/staff training, partnership with industry, teaching equipment & materials, entrepreneurial development. • MOEC (and Local Government) monitors implementation
Profile of Model Schools
5 13 46 22 4
Technology & Engineering Business and Management Hotel, Tourism, Beauty
Arts and Crafts
Agriculture and Agroindustry
Teachers & Students in 90 Model Schools
Teachers: 25,045 persons
20,000 18,000 16,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000
Students: 141,951 persons
80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 -
Gender Action Plan (1)
• overall female student enrollment at model schools reach 37% • overall female student enrollment at alliance schools reach 37% • Each model school develop SBP gender inclusive
Remarks: • Achieved. In 2012, 56,937 out of 141,951 students (40%) were female
• Achieved. In 2012, 24,945 out of 62,860 (39.7%) were female (new entrants) • Achieved. SBPs states that male and female students have equal rights to participate in all school activities
Output 1: refocused vocational school management using a business approach
• Provide equal access training to develop SBP (target 37% female) • School committee member: 30% women • School committee receive gender training: at least 10%
Remark: • all school principals attended, no record on gender data
• 178 out of 728 school committee members (24.5%) were women • Achieved. All committee attended training
Output 2: improved quality of teachinglearning in model and alliance schools
improve facilities to promote female participation e.g separate toilets/ changing rooms, Female teachers participation in training, at least 37%
Remarks: • Achieved. Toilets & facilities improved; all 90 model and 230 alliance schools provide separate toilets;
• Achieved. Out of 9,659 teachers attended training, 4,509 were female (47%)
Output 3: strengthened school-industry linkages
• Promote Gender Balance in Partnership with Industry • Promote female participation in the “traditionally-maledominated trades (technical, engineering, agriculture), at least 18% female enrollment
Remarks: • Achieved. Male and female students receive equal treatment in job fairs and internship;
• Female enrollment is 15%; factor: job market, parents’ and student perception.
Output 4: enhanced entrepreneurship focus
GAP: • At least 45% female graduates obtain employment
Remarks: • Average absorption is 40% at graduation, around 30% continue to tertiary education; 10% self employment;
• Output 4:
• Participation of female students in business incubator, min 30%
• Achieved. Participation of female students 40%
How to improve employability
• Schools develop partnerships (MOUs) with Industries for:
Student apprenticeship Skills competence test Curriculum review and update Job recruitment Teaching industry & specific projects/income generating activities
Improving entrepreneurial skills
School store, teaching factories, entrepreneurship training, moving workshop, exhibition, etc.
Issues and Challenges (1)
• Parents and students’ perception of on TVE, particularly for Engineering, Agriculture, Marine/Fisheries, Mining: male occupation • Job market preference on graduates
Issues and Challenges (2)
• On the other hand, male’s participation is low in “femaledominated areas” such as beauty, fashion, cookery and pastry, etc.
Issues and Challenges (3)
• Lack of awareness and knowledge of school management & staff to prepare genderdisaggregated data for each project activity (training, job fair, etc) • Limited data from tracer studies conducted by schools
100 80 60 40 20 0 Male Male Female Total
Lessons Learned (1)
Access to employment is facilitated by strong school-industry linkages for both men and women. Improving technical level of training in traditionally female occupations improved women’s productivity and the applicability of training to labor market needs. Technical training of female teachers significantly improved their training methods. The provision of block grants ensured that schools were built and rehabilitated with separate facilities for boys and girls which positively impacted girls’ access.
Lessons Learned (2)
Deliberate effort by schools to attract female students to male dominated courses began to challenge the cultural stereotypes regarding female occupations. Potentially 15% of future jobs in traditional male occupations will be held by women in the Indonesian labor market which is a good start to build on.
Anectodal evidence shows that there is now more family support of women studying non-traditional courses and at school there is more acceptance and support from male students and teachers. Women’s 40% employment rate after graduation also shows changing perceptions of women in non-traditional occupations.
• Improvement of quality and relevance of skills training • Strengthening partnership with industries • Improvement of entrepreneurial skills • Promotion to improve gender balanced participation
Ways Forward (2)
• In designing GAP: indicators must be meaningful, simple, and easy to measure; • Using participatory approach in GAP formulation
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