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Flora of Sacred Groves of Pondicherry Coromandel Coastal Sector

Inventory of Species From the 35 study sites, comprising 33 sacred groves and two natural patches of vegetation, 423 Angiosperm species, (404 Dicots 19 Monocots) have been enumerated (Table I). They belong to 93 ofthe 206 families ofthe classification proposed by Bentham and Hooker (1862-1883) with subsequent modifications, as in the Flora ofTamil Nadu (h'air and
58, Henry 1983; Henry et al. 1987). They include 136 herbs, shrubs 91, trees 1 1 9, cl~mbers

lianas 14, parasite 5. Family-wise Fabaceae (n=52) is the most speciose family foliowed by Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae and Acanthaceae Though the thrust was on woody specles, we have also collected the herbaceous plants The exotics were also enumerated separately (Tabie

n, In, 1'4
Woody Species
There were 251 woody species representing 62 families and 176 geneva The following five famiheswere most speciose: Fabaceae (n=38), Euphorb~aceae (n=14). Rubiaceae (n=l I), Asclepiadaceae (n=10) and Rutaceae (n=10)

Majority of the genera (n=49) were represented by one (n=40) or two species
(n=9). Only a few (Canthiurn,Grewia,Premna, Ziriphus) had four species each The genus

Cassia had the maximum of six species, Acacia, Cappatis,Diuspyros, E~iphorbru, Frcus and Sida had five each Only three cryptogams viz. Riccra sp (KV, TM, MR) Selagmellu sp W)
and Marsileasp.
O\[M, KU) were enumerated.

Leaf habit
The leafhabit analysis indicates that both evergreen and deciduous species are fa~rly
represented. The impomnt evergreens include Aglara elaeagnoidccr,I)rypul"\ se/j~ar~a,

Table I : Sacred Groves of Pondicheny Coromandel coastal sector

No. 1 2 3 4

W m
Mudhtnai MD Ksa)rbhuvuupiiKB


Shrlnc TIP




1.0 1.0 2.0 2.5

Conservation ststus OG PP WP PP


A i l
A i i

Thiidmhi TK

lc lc

5.0 110 1.50 0.25

A V iw

A i w

A i w

A'yvlw Aivcnu


A V im
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

Swdlth~cotlommill SC Rams~thapunm PP P M ~ ~ ~ U W PA M Sihripdayam SL Kumalam KU Nsgsri NG Karaaur KS Sdtrapet ST Pm$mdtnliuciundi PM Puthupst PU Oorani OR Olsgapuum 0 1 Rnntiyur W Omipsr OM Martkkmm R.F MA

W w h i m n


Aiylnu Aiyw Aiimu A i w A ' i w Rchahtiamman Aiywr Aiysnu Aiyln~r Sdi~m~n LordPwumal AnhRdnn




1.12 11.2 0.66 1.50 0.75 0.30 0.28 0.25 0.23 2.16 20.00 1.80


0.6 0.75 0.4 1.0 0.4 0.2 0.6 0.1 04 0.5 2.0 0.5 0.5 3.2





Muttunriman .


1.20 3.20 246.0


ShrineType : OF : Open-floor, OP : Open-platform,TC : Temple complex Conservation Status : MD : Mostly degraded DG . Degraded PP : Panially Preserved WP : Wed Preserved.

Table 1 1 : Woody species and their distribution in the Sacred Groves of Pondicherry, Coromandal Coastal Sector. (H - Habit = T - Trees, S - Shrub, C - Climber, L - Liana,
LH - Leaf habit = E - Evergreen, D - Deciduous,

= Naturalised).

Ocimum tenulflorum L.

glala etasagnoidea (Adr. Juss.)

Psllanthus wightlanus (Wight el

Mudhanal - MD, Keezhbhuvanagiri- KB, Kuzhandaikuppam .KK, Thirumanikikuzhi TK, Konjikuppam - KJ, Periyakumattl - PK, T.Puthupalayarn - TM, Arasadikuppam - AK, Surlampet SP, Varakalpattu - VP, Krishnavaram - KV, Thennampakkam TP, Mootthikuppam - MK, Keezhkumaramangalam- KM, Periyakattupaiayam- PP, Nattamedu - NM, Pooranankuppam - PN, Alamarathukuppam - AA, Manpalam - MM, Sandhikuppam .SK, Swadeshl-cotton mill - SC, Ramanathapuram- RP, Pannaikuppam - PA, Silkaripaiayam - SL, Kumaiam - KU, Nagari - NG, Karasur - KS, Sedarapet - ST, Periyamudhiiarchavadi - PM, Puthupet - PU, Oorani -OR, Olagapurum - OL, Pannaiyur - PY, Omiper - OM, Marakkanam R.F. - MR,

Table II11Herbaceous flora and its distribution in the sacred groves of Pondicherry Coromandel Coastal Sector

Table . 1V:Exotic species recorded in the Sacred Groves of Pondicherry Coromandel Coastal Sector D = Deciducous, E = Evergreen

M a n i l G c w ~ af. t e ~ n m u n ccmescens etc. Regardingthe deciduouselements, MeherHomji (1974) opined t h a tthe deciduous species ofMI1. are exclusive to the coastal belt. Those occuring inlands and closer to the eastern ghats are totally different (eg Hardwickla hmata, Wrightialincloria etc.).These also occur in the far-flung deciduous formations of the western

Earlier, Balasubramanian (I 977) distinguished evergreens, semi evergreens and deciduous elementsin the MR. The following are the semi-evergreenor brevi-deciduous specles Cumbretumalbidum, Ficus benghalensrs,Azadirachta a~dica, Syzygruni c~rrnn~i, I'citrgirn~rrr prnnata etc. The deciduous species are Alhrzzia amara, A.lehheck, Uolher~~trpcrt~itrilor~~. Wrightratinctoria etc. Phytogeographic affinities The florisitc afinities of the 25 1 woody species are studied (Table V, F I 1)~ 25 species (9.9 %) areexclusive to South India, 33 (13. I %)are typically Indian. Twenty seven
(10 7 %)are shared by South India and Sri Lanka, 32 (12 7 %)more are shared by Australla

and Asiancontinents. Some of them(27, 10.7 %) are distributedin Afnca and Asia 14 (5 6 %) in America and India. Three (1.2 %) speciesviz.Cucum~smelo, Sida schrmprrrana and Tragu plukeneti are of Indo-African affinity Eight (3.2 %) species Cardrospernlumhelrcacahtrm, Cassythafiliformis, Coccinia grandis. Dodonea viscosa, Hrbiscus v~rrfol~us, lpomoeq obscura, Mukia maderaspatana and PassiJorafoetida have wider distribution, in Africa, Asia and Austrah (Aufraulasia). Fourteen (5.6 %)species belong to the warmer regions i e pantropical. Distribution of the TDEF elements

Mehw Homji (1973) identified the following six species as characteristicof coastal

tropical dry evergreen forests, viz, Mmilkara hexmda, Dtypetessepraria, Carmunaretusa, Gminia spicato; Ptemspermum canescens and Memecylon umbellatum. They don't occur in the thorn forests. Ofthese, Carmona retusa and Garciniasprcata are found in 1I groves

e t ,Carmona return is not found in the southern groves, whereas Ciarcinra sprcala each. Y

Table V : Floristic affinity of woody species occurring in the sacred grovu of Pondicherry Commandel coastal rector.

SIC (10.7%)

AFA ( 1 0.7%)

Fig 1 :

Percent representation of phytogeogrrphic elements in the woody flora of the sacred grovu of Pondicherry Coromnndel coastal sector

occurs in thenonh and south eraerne4 specially on red sandy soils. Another specles,Memecylot1 umbellarum also occur in two extremes, in four southern and six northern yroves but absent in the intervening23 groves. Drypetes separra and Manilkara hexrmda are the two understorey members ofMR which are limited to five northern grovs only and these are proximal to the MR. The sixth species Ptenupermum cmescens also shows north-south dichotomy in distribution The first impression gained from the matrix ofdistribution is that only two spiecies, Carmona retusa and Garcinia spicafa occur across the region, though intermittently Two species, Memecylon umbellaturn and Ptemspermum canescrns are conf ned to the grows at north south extreme only. Other two Drypefes sepiaria andManrlkarh hrxandra are confined to thethe groves closer to the MR. Balasubramman (1 977) hsted Alhrrrra mara, Dalhergrapi~~rilatu and Sjzygum cumrnr as Important components ofthe top storey at MR Of these. Syrygirrm cirmrtii occur in 22 groves whereas Alhrrzraamara (n=6) and Dalbergrapanrculata (n=5j show north-south dichotomy Among the members ofthe understorey at MR, Aralanoa monophjlla I S almost

an evergreen taxon (n=6j and a deciduous continuously present (n=28), Chlomxylon nurefenla,
element, Flacourtra rndrca (n=13) show dlsjunct d~str~but~on They occur only at the groves of north-south extremes Though Afalrmrra monophyllais constriuned to be a shruby tree at MR, t h ~ has s grown Into a 9 m tall tree (76 cm gbh) ~nSandh~kuppamObv~ously, the absence of sibl~ng pressure hasmaulnuzed its growth potenbal The TDEF at MR also has a fair proportion ofanned and spinous species, for eg Alalanfia monophylla, Canfhiumparvifonrm, Flacourtia rndrca, Ziriphtrs maurrlrana, Ziziphusoenoplia and 2$~phus*ylopps are fairly continuous in distribution Four species are remarkably wider and continuous in distribution - Borassua flabellifer (11132) Azadirachla indica (n=33) Ficus benghalensrs (n=32) and TamarinB . 5 i k c a (n=17). Onlythepalmyrahpalm constitutesagrove purely at Sandhikuppam.The presence ofother trees may be due to the religioudeconomicaVewIo~cal values explained elsewhere Among the shrub speciwl, a wntinuously dense layer through which isolated trees emerged, is

formed by Glycosmrsmaurrtrana at Konjlkuppam and by Memecylori umhellawni at Om~per

Polyalthrasubemsaand Glycosmrs maurtlrana constitute such a stratum at S~lkanpalayam

Swadeshi Cotton Mill

The SwedeshiCottonMill Private Forest (SC) deserves a special considerat~on.It is locatedin the heart ofthe town. It isin the back-yard ofthe textile null, now indiuenly con'rolled by the Government Being excluded from biotic influence by a compound wall, this patch of near-natural vegetation remained inaccessible tiU recently The floristicenumerationby Arumugam (2001) also showed the co-existence of naturalized and cultivated species within this relict patch Occupying 11.2ha, it resembled a remanant oftrophicaldry evergreen forest (TDEF) in general. It had 184 species of angiosperms belonging to 158 genera and 60 families Habitwise 61 species were trees, 37 shrubs, four lianas 28 climbers and 58 herbs Of the tree species, 29 had five or more individuals of >30cm (gbh) (Table VI) Interestingly, it is a densely wooded formation (n=2450), Strebulusa~per was the most populous (n=264) It with 15.5% of stand density (n=379), followed by 10 8% of Guazuma ~lmlfolra had Craleava adansonii,Dalbergipanrculata,Diospyros motilana, ~ O k J ~ ~rniug~bltu eIti

andStreb lusasper which are present inMR, about 40 Km northwards Wrighliato~ciona a

member oftheinterior deciduousforests is a significant constituent.Only four tree species were armed and ligneous, which may be due to the exclusion ofhuman interferance Th~s patch also has severalumque features Clusters of Adanronra drgrtaia (n= 16)

Santalum album (n=37) S a ~ r a p e r s t c a (n=63) are concentrated In ~solated pockets Th~rteen

tress of Tallpot palm (Coryphamacroprda), I 10 of Lrmonra ac~dr,\rmaand 8 3 of AIhirrrci

lebbeck are s~zablepopulat~ons, wh~ch are d~spersed

Swadeshi Cotton Mill is a home for several botanically significant spec~mens too Giant treesofAdmtsoniadigilata(16 m, 960 cm gbh) and Samaneasaman (16 5 m, 670 cm gbh) are present. Salvadorapersica is a salt tolerant species and Santalum alhum (n=37) is an endargwed species. Several field botanists agree that presence of such a large population of

Table VI :Important tree species of Swadeshi Cotton Mill (n.35

trees > 30 crn gbh)

Baobab trees lsextranely rarc asit a ather Isolated or ~nsmallgroups mlts natural habitats 111the Western ghats By companson, the clumps ofPambutus mrulonu (n=22) of Kumalam and Polyalthrasubemsa (n=16) at S~lkanpalayam also deserve mentlon It ~s sad that five acres ofths densely wooded patch was cleared for the constmct~on of a 'coun complex' recently in 2002 Several trees had been uprooted, bushes cleared and rodents lulled, desplte protests from the env~ronmental~sts The barren area, shorn of ~ t tree s cover, 1s a proof of the callousness and lndlfference of the admlnlstrat~ve machinery and its ~nsenslhwty to the deforestauon mwtles nght m the heart ofthe town of Local Health Trad~t~ons (FRLHT) Recently, Foundation for Rev~tal~zat~on Bangalore has assessed the conservation status of medicinal plants and recorded 206 plant specles under vanous degrees ofthreat (FRLHT 2002) However seceral taxa s h o ~ 4 disjunct dstnbuhon Pleum@I~a oppos/~a recorded 6om Ooraru grove 1snext seen only m Po~nt Calunere ca 200 km down south Amorphophallti\ cyii~aflcus, the wild arold IS recorded only In two groves wz Ooratu and Karasur Maheswaran el a1 (1 995) have recently notlced a cluster oftius aro~d ~nthe Pornamman grove on the Pasamur blls ofthe Chengalpet D~strlct In Tam1 Nadu, about 80 km In the north-west Dmsera hunnanr occurs only three (OL, TK, MRF) ofthe 35 sltes Beyond the systematic mventory, we havenohced the presence ofDerrr~ovaI,Ioha ( g n h 43 cm) In Banglamedu near Ousuterl near Pond~cherry and a giant tree of Plerocarpus marsuplum (290 cm gbh) m Thalakantkuppam grove near Marakkanam Other magnlficlent specunens are Drospps montana (gbh 56 cm) at Sooramangalamgrove In Pond~cherry and of Salwdorapersrca (gbh 7 6 m) at Thmvamurgrovenear Pamum town m Cuddalore Dlstnct Two specles ofNymphaea, N pubescens and N naucheC (blue flowered) are noted for ranty In dlstnbubon and were collected from a pond near the Puthupet grove In 2003

( k m g a m , personal comtn~caaon) But, only the former could be recollected at that place m
March 2004

B u ~ i a m i l i a i r is s again seperated by a large gap. Recorded at Marakkanam

and Olagapuram,it is next found only in the Javadi and Kalvarayan W s ofEastem Ghats, about
70 km away.

Values of the groves

Gadgil(1992) remarked that the concept of sacred groves marks an attempt to maintain an ecologically steady state with biological resources in the wild He identified tangible and intangible functions of the grove. As observed by Chandran and Gadgil ( 1993), the sacred groves have now become a mosaic of rehgia, big or small dispersed patches of forest. Severalvalues ofconservation, ecological and botmcal significance, have been recorded from them over a course oftime It is significantthat these values could be redwovered In the groyes ofthe Pondicheny region also in ample measures (Table VI1). Since the faunal wealth of the groves has not been estimated, their value as sanctuariesis uncertain but cannot be denied

MS : Multi-stmuned TN : Tamil Nadu

Arumugam, S. 2001. Repon to the Dept, of Forest and Wildlife. Govt, of Pondicheny Balasubramanian, K. 1977. Biotaxonomical studies on Marakkanam Reserve Forests, Corornandel Coast, Ph.D. Thesis, Annamalai Universiv,):alai Nagar, India. Bentham, G. andHooker, J.D. 1862 - 1883. Genera Plantarum. L. Reeve and Co., London. Chandran, M.D.S. Gadgil, M. and Hughes, J.D. 1998. Sacred Groves of Western Ghats of India. In : Conserving the Sacredfor Biodiversity Management (eds. Ramakrishnan P.S., SaxenaK.G and Chandra Shekera U.M). Oxford IBH Publishing Co. Pvt Ltd. Ncw Dclhi. pp. 21 1-23?, FRLHT. 2002. Medicinal plants Secnario in India Metplan Conservation Sociew Bangalore 5860064. 1'-7-0 Gadgil, M. 1992. Conserving Biodiversity as if people Matter: A case study from India, Ambio 21: 266-270. Hemy. A.N., Kumari, G.R. and Chithra, V. 1987. Flora ofTamil Nadu, India (Series 1; Vol. 2). Bot. SUN.India. Southem Circle, Coimbatore. King, 0.1. 1997 Botanical and Socio - Cultural studies on Sacred Groves in Cuddalore District, l'amil Nadu. M.l'hil. Dissertation, Univcrsily oSMadras. (Dept. oSBotany, Madras Christian College,Chennai).India. Maheswaran, B., Dayanandan, P. and Narasimhan, D. 1995. Miniature Sacred grove near Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary. In: Abstracts of2nd congress on Traditional Science and Technology oflndia, Bio-3, Dec. 26-3 1, Madras, India. Meher-Homji, 1973.Aphtosociological study of the.4lbizzia amara Biologicalcommunity of India. Phytocoecologia 1: I 14-129. Meher-Homji, V.M. 1974.'.On the origin ofthe Tropical Dry Evergreen Forest of South India." J. Ecol. Envit. Sci. I: 19-39. Parthasarathy,N, and Karthikeyan, R. 1997. Plant Biodiversity inventory and conservation of two tropical dry evergreen forests on the Coromandel Coast, South India, Biodiversig and Conservation 6: 1063 - 1083. hthasarathy, N. and Sethi, P. 1997.Trees and liana species diversityand population structure in aTropical Dly Evergreen Forest in South India. Tropical Ecology. 38(1): 19-30.

Medium-sized deciduous tree; leaves light green; flowers white and scented; fruit berry, orange coloured.

Plate 3 ANACARDIACEAE: Buchanania axillaris (Desr )Ramam Kolamavu 5ni6~os Small deciduous tree; leaves dark green; flowers whlte tlntsd with green; fruits light yellow.


Lannea commandelica (Houtt.) Merr. Odhian &pei Deciduous tree; bark smooth light grey; flowers greenish white; fruit ripening red.

Plate 5


ANAcARo'Ac~~: ~ a n g i f ~ ~ L,

Mango. Maa Tree' inh'~en~e~terminal memes; flowem Y~IIOW, w~th nab V glands.

Plate 6 ANACARDIACEAE: Rhus mysorensis G.Don, Neyu kiluvai ably t6)g~ma Thorny shrub; flowers yellow; fruits red,

Plate 7


SpondlBs pinnata (L. f.) Kurz Kattumavu &si@ton

Large deciduous tree, up to 20 m; leaves light green, turning yellow before dropping; flowers yellow; fruits green-red yellow, with mango smell.


Miliusa eriocarpa Dunn. Sakkada maram s h a ~ a ~oglb

Medium-sized tree; flowers pendulous; fruits reddish, turning ohnge.


Polyalthia Iongifolia (Sonner.)Thw. Nettilingam QpLtpdkmib

Pillar like tree, 20 m;branches pendulous, crowded; flowers yellowish green; fruit aggregate & greenish yellow.

'late 11 4NNONACEAE:

PolyalUIia suberosa (Roxb.)Thw. Siru Naval Bia~p~6~6il

Shrub to small tree; bark brown; leaves dark green; flowers light yellow; fruits aggregate brown to dark blue;


Carissa spinarum L. Chiru kila Blm15srnr

Thorny shrub; flowers white, tinged with pink outside; fruits green, tinged red,dark blue at ripening.

Plate 15


RauvoMa tetraphylla L. Pampukalachedi urrrbq6snrr

Small shrub, tender parts puberulous, leaves planiforrn;flowers cream; fruits reddish, clustered.


Wrightia tinctofla (Roxb.) R. Br Veppaalai, Irumpaalai, Nilapalai


Small deciduous tree with milky latex; flowers cymes creamy having fimbriate corolline corona; fruits dark green.


Calamus rotang L. Pirambu d y 1 6 q

Climber, armed, stem ringed at nodes; flowers yellow; fruit mucronate with scales in vertical series.


Phoenix pusilia. Gaertner. Chiru icham rsrri6 t-ftkd

Low shrub; stem very short, thichkly dlothed and hidden by old leaf-sheaths; leaves short, le~hlets 4-farious , rigid shining, with orange red pulvinus at the junction with the rhachis, basal ones forming stout flat spines; fruits first green, black when ripe.

Plate 23 A~ISTOLOCHIACEAE: Arlstolochia indica L. Perumarundukodi,Easwara Mooli



ribbed Profusely branched twiner; flowers dark purple; fruits Septicidal capsule, after dehiscgnse capsule resembles umbrella

Plate 24 ASCLEPIADACEAE: Calotropisgigantea (L.) R, Bra Erukku sroi~ Milky shrub; bark yellowish; white branches, leaves and inflorescence covered with soft white wool; flowers purple; follicle curved.


Ceropegiajuncea Roxb.

Twiner; stem fleshy and purplish brown; latex watery; leaves deciduouslleafless; flowers purple.

Plate 26 ASCLEPlADACEAE: Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) R. Br, ex Schuter Kannu minnayam kodi, Sirukurinja, Sarkkarai kolli. 8 1 a w & & m B

Climber; pale green tender parts pubescent, milky latex; flowers dull; yellow fruits, dark green.

Plate 27 ASCLEPIADACEAE: Leptadenia retlculata (Retz.) R. Br. Wt. & AM. Palai keerai unmsu cbmg Straggler forming dense mass on the other plants; latex watery; bark yellowish brown; flowers yellowish, corolla-lobes greenish yellow.

'late 28

~SCLEPIADACEAE: Pentalropls capensis (L.f.) Bullock Uppili e u q d Slender climber, latex watery; leaves chartaceous when dry and mucronate; flowers purple.

Plate 29 ASCLEPI ADACEAE: Pergularia daemia (Forsska) Choiv. Vaelipparuthi Qsuduu@&$

A slender strong smelling climber with hispid stems, latex milky; flowers green, corona silky, brownish white.

Plate 30 ASCLEPIADACEAE: Sarcostemma intermedium Decne . Kodikhalli baprssird Leafless straggler; branchlets succulent, terete; jointed, latex milky; flowers creamy, peak during July September.

Plate 31

ASC~EPIADACEAE: Secamone emetica (Retz.) R. Br. Angaravalli a d n g 6~6j161fl Profusely branched climber, old stems with numerous spirally arranged protuberances; bark brown, thick and corky, latex milky; fruits yellowish, follicles paired.

Plate 33 A s C L E p l ~ ~ ~ ~Wattakaka E A ~ : volubilir (L. fa)Stapf,



Liana; bark brown, rough and corky; flowers green; fruits with golden hairs when young.


Dolichandrone falcata Wall. Ex (DC) Seeman Chithathi, Kattunarai

Tree; bark light grey; leaves compound, opposite with seven leaflets; flowers white; fruit capsule compressed, falcate (sickle shaped); epicarp striate.

Plate 35


Bombax ceiba L. Mullilavu wsirdm~

Tree; old trees buttressed; branches horizontal, sharply prickled; leaves 5-7foliate thin coriaceous, glabrous; flowers blood r?d; seeds in capsule surrounded by cotton, blown by wind when ripe.


\eaves thick. white glandular each a borne, SpafselY above, cream; along nerve below;



Cordia monoica Roxb. Narivizhi maram pfldl@ID@

Tree; leaves scabrous and spotted with whitish points above, slightly pubescent below, mature ones glabrous; flowers yellowish, fragrant; fruiting calyx pubescent, orange when ripe.


Cordia obliqua Wild. Viruksham, Mookku Sali @b@e d

Tree; bark thick, grey or brown; leaves variable in size glabrescent on both sides; flowers white; Fruits yellow or pink, glossy, supported by the accrescent calyx and containing a mucilaginous transparent edible pulp,


Ehrefia pubescens Benth Aadaali a ~ n d

Shrub with stout pale brown branchlets; leaves chartaceous (papery) hirsute above (long hairs) seriaceous below; inflorescence hairy-pubescent; flowers white; fruits red when ripe.


Commiphora caudata (Wt. & Arn.) Engl Kiluvai d a m m

Tree; bark peeling and papery, exposing green greyish bark stem, leaflets glabrous. cyme, peduncle red. calyx tube pubescent, flowers cream; fruits globose, seeds black with 4 radiating wings.

Plate 41 CACTACEAE: Opuntia monocantha (willd.) Haw. Pachai chappathi u8me euurr&l Spiny shrub; branches green, areoles woolly; spine one in each cushion and straight; flowers yellow, the sepals and petals tinged with red.

@ I / .Pr , / J

l crn

Cadaba fruiticosa (L.) Druce (=Cadaba indica Lani ) Kattagatt~ 6LI;wg. G L D ~ ~ ~ ~ I T I ~ I

Shrub; leaves simple; flowers light green with androgynophore with prominent tubular disc; fruits red when ripe, torulose.


Cadaba frifoliafa (Roxb.) Wt. & Arn. Poorna, Vizhuthi ~ i r m n

Shrub; leaves 3-foliate; flowers greenish to cream, only gynophore present; fruit dehiscent.


Capparis divaricata Lam. Thoratti ~ , B ~ & w ) L

Armed shrub; h2r4 deeply fissured; branchlets stellate, pubescent; leaves dark green; flowers greenish yellow; fruits woody, corrugated, ribbed, beaked, red when ripe.


Capparis rotundifolia Rotti

Armed straggler; leaves dark green; flowers light yellow; fruit black when ripe.


Capparis zeylanica L Thondai &@Qajnyig

Armed straggler; branchlets stellatetomentose or glabrescent; leaves coriaceous, strongly mucronate; racemose; flowers cream in early morning, pinkish in mid morning and red to purple by evening; fruits smooth, blood red when ripe, pulpy inside, edible.

Plate 49
CAPPARIDACEAE: Crataeva adansonii DC. Ssp. Odora (Buch. Ham.) M. Jacobs Mavilingam ~onBmirjcs16

Tree, deciduous; branchlets greyish-brown when dry, lenticellate;flowers in clusters, white; gynophore 5 cm; fruits yellowish grey, irregularly rugose, powdery tomentose,

Cassine glauca (Rottb.) Kunze Kannira maram, Karuvalli rssdrsbil~rr u)~Lb

Tree; branchlets glabrous; bark grey; thin fleash-coloured when cut; leaves coriaceous, dark green; flowers green; fruits yellow when ripe.


Pleurostyla opposita (Wallich) Alston. Chirupiyari, karikku vagai B)gtSltufl

Tree; bark grey and fissured; leaves dark green, glossy, thin coriaceous; flowers with white anthers, ovary red, disc green; fruits copius


Calophyllum inophyllum L. Pinnai Alexandrian laurel, Punnai qkmm

Tree; trunk glabrous with milky latex; leaves thickcoriaceous, glossy, dark green, parallel veined; flowers white in clusters; anthers bright yellow; pistil red; fruits drupe with thick pericarp.


Garcinia spicata (Wigth & Am.) Hook. f Kokothai

Tree; branchlets glabrous, bark dark brown; leaves coriaceous with very close numerous parallel veins; flowers yellow white, fragrant; fruits yellow when ripe, regenerate by root suckers.


Anogeissus lafifolia (DC.)Wallich ex Beddome Vekkali Vellai nagai 616~ffi6[161f

Tree; bark smooth grey; leaves glabrous, rusty below, turning red before falling; flowers yellow; fruits two winged, with persistant calyx.


Calycopteris floribunda Lam Therulankodi, Pillani Bsirmd

Liana; branchlets densely tomentose; leaves light green, glabrous above, tomentose below; flowers creamy without petals, velvety; fruits 5- ribbed, accrescent calyx lobes.


Combretum albidum G Don Verragay Q W I L ~ Q C ~ ~ Q

Climber; flowers funnel shaped; fruit dry with four papery wings.


lpomoea aquatica Forsk. Neer Kodi 6irQcbnlp

Creeper rooting at nodes; branchlets subsucculent; flowers pink with a deeper throat; capsule with persistent calyx emb:ecing the fruit.


lpomoea obscura (L.) Ker. Gawler. Siruthali. 81upnd

Twining perennial, stems villous; leaves puberulous on both sides; flowers pink with purple tube; fruits apically beaked.


lpomoea sepiaria J . Koeniger Roxb Thazha kodi grrgffiQcrrlp

Climber; branchlets hirsute; leaves glabrous; flowers white creamy, with purple throat, peduncle and pedicels often thickened in fruit.

Plate 65 CONVOLVULACEAE: Jacquemontia paniculata (Burm.) Hallier f Climber, pubescent; leaves chartaceous; flowers white; fruits 8-valved; seeds slightly winged.

Plate 66

CONVOLVULACEAE: Rivea hypocrateriformis (Dest.) Choisy d Msusthaikodi ( t ~ c i r n ~Qsrrq Climber; leaves glabrous above, silky pubescent below; flowers white, fragrant, open at sunset and close at sunrise; fruits dehisce by the rupture of the lid.


Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt Kovai Bmiranmffi(~~rrlp

Climber; deeply grooved stem; branchlets apically pubescent, glabrolls at base; leaves chartaceous, glabrous punctate above (marked with dots) glandular below; flowers white; fruits blood red when ripe, edible.

Plate 68


Cucumis melo L. Sukkankai ffirrjc5bffiiruj

Prostrate spreading vine; leaves chartaceous hispid; flowers yellow; fruits light green with longitudinal green patches in rows; light yellow when ripe.


Mukia maderaspatana (L) M. Roemer Mosumosukkai ~ffi(yabrncb

Clin~bing vine, branchlets hispid; leaves chartaceous, scabrid above (feeling rough due to hard small hairs) shortly hispid below; flowers yellow; fruits red when ripe.


Solena amplexicaulis(Lam.)Gandhi.

Perennial climber; leaves polymorphic, ovate, angled, lobed, chartaceous; minutely denticulate; tendrils simple; racemes umbellate; flowers yellowish white; fruit red with yellow spots, striped when ripe.

Woody tendril climber, branchlets lepidote; leaves polymorpnus, deeply lobed, lobes oblong, thin coriaceous, denticulate; flowers in racemes white; fruits with hard rind, red when ripe.


Dioscorea oppositifolia L. Malayam kizhangukodi,Vetrilaivalli


Vine; rhizomes branched; branchlets twining to right, glabrous; leaves simple, coriaceous, glabrous; flowers green; fruits winged, with bulbils.

Plate 73 DIOSCOREACEAE: Dioscorea pentaphylla L. Vellaikodi, Chedhukandhi susirmmbQmlrlp Vine; branchlets twining to left; leaves 3-foliate, coriaceous, mucronate; flowers green; fragrant capsule, winged in pendulous masses.


Diospyros chloroxylon Roxb

Small tree; branches thorny, branchlets seriaceouspubescent; leaves thin coriaceous, hairy on both sides; bark dark brown; flowers white; fruit brown when ripe.

Plate 75


Diospyros ebenum J. Koel ex Retz. Karunkali, Salaikarimaram ffi~kffirrd

Tree; leaves coriaceous, bark brown, when cut, old bark deeply fissured nearly black outside, new leaves light green, old ones dark green; flowers greenish yellow; fruits velvety when young, dark green later with prominent five lobed calyx.

Plate 76


Diospyros ferrea (Willd.)Bakh, lrumballi @@wudil

Shrub; leaves small thick; flowers small greenish; fruit berry red.


Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb. Karunthumbi, Beedi elai illp@mbu my16

Tree; tornentose; bark greyish black, cleft in rectangular plates, showing black inner oar'^ in the clefts; leaves light green, coriaceous; flowers white; fruit orange, edible, rusty, tomentose when young.


Diospyros montana Roxb. Vakkanthi, Karunthuvalisu ffi~$amda

Tree; bark greyish black; leaves thick chartaceous, mature leaves glabrous; flowers greenish yellow; fruit green with an apical black mucro orange when ripe.


EIythroxylummonogynum Roxb. Sernbulichan. (2%b~ldh~t%

Tree; bark dark brown rough; leaves coriaceous, glabrous; flowers white; fruits red when ripe, edible.

Plate 81

Cleistanthus collinus (Roxb.) Benth. Ex Hk

Oduvam 966116i1

Trees to shrubs; leaves coriaceous shining; flowers greenish; fruits 3-ridged ripening brown, opening explosively; tender leaves deadly poisonous.


Dimorphocalyx glabellus var. lawianus (Hk. f.) Chak & Bat.

Shrub to tree; flower greenish white; fruit black with calyx.


Euphorbia antiquorum L Sadhurakkalli eayffi~66iraf

Armed shrub; branchlets 3-5 angular, subsucculent; latex milky; flowers greenish; fruits reddish when young.


Euphorbia nivulea B. Hav. Elaikalli, Silaikkalli, Kilaimukkukalli

Armed shrub; bark deeply fissured; leaves succulent, light green; latex milky.


Jatropha curcas I. Kattukottai, Katamanku sni~nlomkpj

Shrub; bark smooth greenish white; leaves green and lobed; flowers light green, fruits oily, rugose when dry globose.

Plate 87 EUPHORBIACEAE: Jatropha glandulifera Roxb. Vellai kattukottai Qrmsirmsrrffiffini~~Qffinim~

Shrub; leaves deeply lobed, glands in leaf margins; tender parts purplish green; flowers villous at base; capsule 3-lobed.


Jatropha gossypifolia L., Aadalai q , ~ m m

Shrub; dark coloured with glandular haus on branches; flowers red; capsule 3-lobed.


Phyllanthus reticulatus Poiret Pullanthi, Karunelli s~$pdd

Shrub; leaves dark green, thin; flowers white; fruits blue when ripe.

Plate 91 EUPHORBIACEAE: Securinega leucopyrus (Wild.) Muel. Arg. Madhupullanthi, Vellaipoola 61~usirnnmuymn Armed shrub; branchlets ending in spines; leaves glaucous; flowers greenish; fruits globose, white when ripe.


Tragiaplakenetii R. Smith Karumchenthatti, Sirukaanchori, Poonakachi


Climbing shrub with stinging hairs; glaucous light green leaves; fruits green.

Plate 93 FABACEAE - Caesalpinioideae: Bauhinia purpurea L Manthari m$gam~ Tree; bark greyish to dark brown, rough; branchlets warty; leaves thin coriaceous, lobed to almost half way down to the base; flowers rose pink; pod apex horned.

Plate 94 FABACEAE-Caesalpinioideae:

Bauhinia racemosa Lam. Aathi ~+,%$1

Tree; crooked, bark rough, nearly black; leaves dull green; flowers white; pods dark green, pendulous massive, twisted 2-3 times.

Plate 95


Bauhinia variegata L. Sigupumanjary Blcutp@efl

Tree; bark grey wltn vertical cracks; leaves big sized glabrous above, puberulous along nerves below, mucronate at the cleft; flowers light, pink, upper lobe dark; pod veins prominent.

Plate 96 FABACEAE- Caesalpinioideae:

Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. Kazharchikaai 5pj#li 5n6

Armed straggler; outer bark papery brown; leaves glabrous above, puberulous below; flowers yellow, latex milky; pods densely spiny.

Plate 97 FABACEAE - Caesalpinioideae: Cassia auriculata L. Aavaram amrrLb

Shrub; bark yield tannin; leaves stipules auriculate, thin. coriaceous, glabrous above, puberulous below, mucronate; flowers golden yellow; fruit turgid, light brown when ripe.

Plate 98


Cassia fistula L. Sarakkonrai er~k~2bnsdrm~

Tree; pale smooth bark when young, darker and rough when old; leaves coriaceous; flowers yellow; inflorescence penduluous, pods long cylindrical, indehiscent.

Plate 99 FABACEAE-Caesalpinioideae:

Cassia montana Heyne. ex. Roth Mali avaram ~maq,sunyti

Tree; branchlets glabrous; leaflets dark green, chartaceous; flowers yellow interminal cluster; pods compressed, strongly nerved.O

Plate 100 FABACEAE-Caesalpinioideae:

Cassia occidentalis L. Peiavarai Ou66umr

Shrub; leaves chartaceous, glandular; flowers yellow in cluster; pod flattened, horned; weed.

Plate 101 FABACEAE-Caesalpinioideae:

Cassia fora L.

Shrubs; foetid smell when broken; leaves thin, corlaceous, glabrous above, pubescent below; flowers golden yellow. pods compressed, glabrous, constricted.

Piate 103 FABACEAE-Caesalpinioideae:

Pterolobium hexapetalum (Roth.),Santapuet Wa gh @ i ! s a d r @ Karuindu W

Armed straggler; branchlets tomentose-stellate; leaves chartaceous, glabrous; flowers white; pod samaroid, apically winged, dark green below, wings terminal reddish.

Plate 105 FABACEAE-Faboideae

Abrus precatorius L. Kundumani @61RiT@~~m?

Climber; branchlet: densely sericeous; leaves chartaceous, glabrous; flowers rose to pink; pods wrinkled, seeds dark red with black end.

Plate 106 FABACEAE-F~~O Butea ~ ~ ~monosperma ~~: (Lam.) Taubert Porasu Qurr~ffi Tree; leaflets coriaceous, glabrous above sericeous below; flowers in leafless period orange scarlet (flame) colour in dark velvety calyces; pods brown when ripe.

Plate 107

FAEACEAE-Faboideae: Dalbergia paniculata Roxb., Arivagia, Panivagai Velluruvai


Tree; bark whitish; branchlets pubsecent; leaves chartaceous, pubescent; flowers white fragrant, tinged with pink; pods lanceolate, faintly nerved.

Plate 108 FABACEAE-Faboideae: Derris ovalifolia (Wight et Am) Benth. Liana; bark dark coloured; leaves dark green; flower whitish; fruit capsule, brown.

Plate 109 FABACEAE-Faboideae: Derris scandens (Roxb.)Benth Thekil, Ponili QgBsi, Liana, branchlets tomentose; leaves glabrous above pubrulous below; flowers creamlpink; pods oblong, glabrous.

Plate 110 FABACEAE - Faboideae:

Glyricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex walp. Vivasaya thagari dsuerrug6my

Tree; branchieis glandular-pubescent; leaves thin coriaceous; flowers rose pink in clusters; pod oblong, continuous between seeds.

Plate 111 FABACEAE-Faboideae: Mucuna pmriens (L.) DC. Poonaikali ~~.mmffi f f i r r d Climber, branchlets downy pubescent; leaves thin coriaceous white - pubescent irritant hairs are very troublesome; flowers dark - purplish; pods curved and apex S -shaped grey, bristly irritant.

Plate 112 FABACEAE-Faboideae: Ormocarpum cochinchinense (Lour) Merr Elumbotti, Kattu murungai a@lbQum~:~q Shrub; leaves light green thin; flowers yellow, pods 2-4 seeded; medicinally used to help fix broken bones.

Plate 113 FABACEAE-Faboideae:

Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre Pungan 4k161b

Tree; leaves shiny dark green; flowers pea like white and purple pods brown when mature.

Plate 114 FABACEAE-Faboideae:

Pseudarthria viscida ( L . )Wt. Et Am Kodi ottai Q f f i r r l p ~ i m ~

Climber; branchlets viscid villous; leaf margin ciliate: flowers roses; pods hooked, pubescent, margin undulate; non septate apiculate.

Plate 115 FABAcE~~Taboideae: Terannus labialis (L. f.) Sprenge. Muvilaikodi ~dmsoffiQmrlp Climber; branchlets tomentnsp: leaves thin coriaceous pubescent below flower pink; pods compressed, septate, brown when ripe.

Plate 117 FABACEAE-Mimosoideae Acacia chundra (Roxb.) Ex. Rott. Wild. Karungali ffifirrjffirrd Armed tree; bark dark greenish L~own, branchlets glabrous; leaves glabrous; flowers yellowish white; pods brown when ripe.

Plate 1I 8 FABP.CEAE-Mimosoideae:

Acacia leucophloea (Roxb.) Willd. Velvalem 6)mdQmmb

Armed tree; branchlets yellowish-velvety; bark grey and smooth dark brown and rough; leaflets glabrous above, pubescent below; flowers cream to yellow; pod thick turgid, rusty, tomentose brown.

Plate 120 FABACEAE-Mimosoideae:

~lbiGa amara (Roxb.) Boivin Unjaa, Usilai redsmm

Large tree; branchlets yellowish or grey pu~escsnt; leaves glabrous; flowers pinkish white cream; pods compressed, strongly nerved, indehiscent, greyish brown.

Plate 121 FABACEAE - Mlmoso~deae

~1biz;'a lebbeck (L) Benth Vaga~arrmffi

Dec~duous tree, bark brown~sh grey, flowers wh~te with very long green~sh stamens, rlpe pods straw tree coloured, remalnlng w~th

Plate 122 FF~ACEAE - Mimosoideae:

~lbiiia odoratissima (L. f.) Benth Karuvagai ffiu~~mrnmffi

Moderate tree; bark grey with irregular cracks; leaves puberulous, sweet scented; flowers white with yellow anthers; pods drying black.

Plate 123 FABACEAE - Mimosoideae Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wt. & Arn Vedathala, Viduthalai Osu~&,rnrr Armed small tree; bark grey; branchlets densely pubescent; spine tiped; leaflets pubescent; flowers bicoloured, upper yellow, lower pink; pods twisted, brown.

Plate 124

FABACEAE - Mimosoideae:

Leucena leucocephala (Lam.) De wit Nattu cavintham, Savundal


Tree; bark brown with lenticels; leaves compound glaucous; flowers white pods strap shaped, brown when dry.

Plate 125 FABACEAE-Mimosoideae:

Mimosa intsia L. Kattu seekai 6rri~Qbmffi

Armed shrublstraggler; pubescent; leaflets dark green; flowers rose to pink; pods falcate, jointed, spinous along margin, beaked; coppery, turning dark brown.

Plate 126 FAB~cEAE-M~~oso~~ peltophoruffl ~~~: pter0Carpurn (DC)Baker ex Heyne, Mania\ Konnai D @ ~
iree, Rowers yellow with brownish calyx: bark brownish-cracking.


Plate 127 FABACEAE-Mimosoideae:

Pithecd obium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. Kodukapuli Q f f i r r ~ f f i ~ r r u q d

Armed tree; branchlets densely tornentose; leaflets chartaceous, glabrous; flowers light greenlcream; pod circinate or falcate, turgid black seeds with white aril.

Plate 128 FABACEAE-Mimosoideae:

Prosopis juliflora L. Vaelikaruvai, Velikathan


Armed shrub; branchlets glabrous; leaflets chartaceous, glabrous; flowers cream yellowish; pods slightly curved, compressed yellow when ripe.

Plate 129


Samanea saman (Jacq.) Prain Thoongu moonji maram


Tree; branchlets tornentose; leaflets glabrous above; pubescent below; flowers pinkish white; pods slightly twisted, woody with thick rnesocarp,

Plate 130 FLACOURTIACEAE: Casearia elliptica Wild. Nayalingi 9rr6adGB1

Small tree; pale bark; branchlets warty, densely pubescent; leaves thin- coriaceous, pubescent; petiole red, biade velvety; iiuwers light green; fruits dehiscing along 3 valves exposing the red seeds.

Plate 132 HIPPOCRATEACEAE: Salacia chinensis L. Perunattukkodi 6iu~riffirri@bQffiirq Liana; !eaves grey Igreen thin coriaceous, glabroti; below, glossy above; flowers greenish yellow; berry ripening yellow to red Isalmon pink.

Plate 133

YIPPOCRATEACEAE: Reissantia indica (Wild) N Halle. Odankodi, Morasarakodi ~ ~ i i Q & r r l p Straggling shrub; branch-lets sometimes coiled, glabrous; leaves thin coriaceous, glabrous; flowers rusty yellow; seeds winged enclosed in capsules.


Pyrenancantha volubilis Wight.

diocious climber; leaves dark green shiny and rough; flowers small greenish yellow; fruit orange when ripe, mesocarp sticky.

Plate 135 LAM IACEAE:

Anisomeles iadica (L.) Kuntz. Paemiratti, Vattachadachi G u b d ~ i q

Shrub, smelling qtrongly of camphor; leaves chartaceous, pubescent; flowers pink-violet.


Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit

Shrub; sweet scented branchlets hispid with chartaceous leaves; flowers blue; fruits nutlets.

?late 137 LAMIACEAE: Leonotis nepetaefolia (L) R. Br.

Shrub; branchlets pubescent, leaves chartaceous spinous with whorls of orange-scarlet flowers.

Plate 138 LAMIACEAE:

Ocimum americanum L. Kanjam korar Najthnlali a6rrGenh O ~ r r r n ~

Shrub; leaves serulate, flower cream, scented; peduncles purplish green

Plate 139 LAMIACEAE:

Ocimum tenuiflorum L. Nallathulasi p6i)6\) am81

Shrub, strongly aromatic, branchlets hispid; flowers purplish; nutlets brown when dry.

Plate 140 LAURACEAE:

Cassytha fi/i?formis L Antharakkadi, Kothan, wi3~5(2ffimlg

Partial stem parasite, twiner, seen in dense clusters light green on thickets; flowers yellow; fruits white when ripe.


Careya arborea Roxb. Peithaandri, Ayrner, Kurnki, Ouu>&iir&fl

Tree, bark dark brown, grey branchlets with leaf scars, pubescent; leaves thin-coriaceaous clustered; flowers yellowish white; fruits globose fleshy, brown when ripe crowned with calyx lobes.

Plate 142 LILIACEAE:

Asparagus racernosus Wild Thenner vitan kizhangu, kadamoolam gsadrdfr S s i i ~ r r a i r Bcpi~(g

Armed tuberous climber leaves scaly, cladodes light green; flowers, white scented; fuits ripening red.

Plate 143 LlLlACEAE

Gloriosa superba L. kalappai kizhangu senkandala kanvalikodi

66~~6nuff d@k@ i

Tuberous climber; branches glabrous; lean leaves chartaceous glabrous apex tendrilled; flowers first greenish, then yellow, passing through orange and scarlet to crimson; capsule linear.

Plate 144 LINACEAE:

Hugonia mystax. L Modirakanni ~ 1 0 ~ & ~ & 6 6 d T d

Liana; bark yellow; leaves coriaceous glabrous, nerves pubescent below; flowers golden yellow; fruits when ripe red.


Strychnos colubrina L. Kodi yeti Gl&rrlpailp

Liana; leaves dark green; flowers with rancid smell; fruits yellow when ripe.


Strychnos nux-vomica L. Kanjaram, Yettimaram ailplo~lo

Tree; leaves coriaceous, 3-nerved, shiny, flowers small greenish; fruits orange when ripe.


Strychnos potatorum L. f. Thethankottai C ~ g i y i r j Q c s r r i s m ~

Tree; leaves chartaceous, 5-nerved, bright green; flowers white; fruits thin shelled, deep blue when ripe: seeds used to clear muddy water.


Dendrophthoe falcata (L, f.) Etingsh. Pullurivi qb@~sSi

Parasite; branchlets terete; leaves subcoriaceous, glabrous; flowers yellow, when dry red.


Taxillus bracteatus (Wall.) Tieghem

L D J ~6l@rr,@l9

Parasite; branchlets downy-tomentose; leaves pilose pubescent; flowers greenish yellow red inside.


Viscum orientale (Willd.) Pulluruvi gi@

Parasite; leaves obtuse at apex 3-ribbed; berry purple.

Plate I 51


Abufilon indicum (L.) Sweet. Thutthi g&l

Shrub; branchlets with stellate pubescent and simple hairs; leaves minutely hairy; fruits light black when ripe.

Plate 153 MALVACEAE:

Hibiscus surattensis L. Kattupulichai ~rri@irqd8sme

Prickly shrub; branchlets reddish with recurved prickles; leaes membranous, flowers yellow, inside base purple around throat.

Plate 154 MALVACEAE:

Hibiscus vitifolius L. Manjalthuthi tr@%g,@$

Shrub; branchiets stellate t o ~ r ~ e ~ ~ lglandular; ose, lower leaves triangular upper-angled or ovate -cordate chartaceous; flowers yellow; inside base purple (throat).

Plate 155 MALVACEAE:

Pavonia odorata Wild. Peramutti Gugirwilp

Shrub; branchlets viscid; leaves basally 5 - nerved; flowers pink or white schizocarp, pubescent, mericarps not winged; seeds pubescent.

Plate 156 MALVACEAE:

Sida cordifolia L. Nila tutti $mg,@&

Small undershrub velvety; branchlets densely stellate, tomentose with simple hairs; leaves chartaceous, tomentose; flowers yellow, schizocarp exceeding calyx.

Plate 157 MALVACEAE:

Sida schimperiana Hochst

Rigid undershrub; branchlets densely stellate tomentose; leaves sub coriaceous, glabrous above stellate-tomentose below; flowers bright yellow; schizocarp not exceeding calyx.

Plate 158


Thespesia populnea (L.) Sol. Ex Corr. Puvarasu U6UIJd

Tree; branchlets and leaves peltate scaly; flowers yellow fading to purplish pink, throat reddish inside; capsule indehiscent, apically depressed.

Plate 159 ME1 ASTOMATACEAE: Memecylon umbellaturn Burm. f.


Shrub; leaves coriaceous glabrous; flowers blue in clusters of umbels; fruit yellow when ripe.

Plate 160


Aglaia elaeagnoidea (Adr. Juss.) Benth Erumaikanni n@sm1~&5sdrsdil

Tree; leaves glossy on the tip; flowers small white with fragrance; fruit orange when ripe.

Plate 161 MELIACEAE:

~zadiraita indica Adr. JuSS. Vembu Ombu

Tree; branchlets glabrous; leaves imparipinnate ~yb-coriaceOUS; flowers white; fruits yellow when ripe

Plate 163 MENISPERMACEAE: Cissampelos pareira L. Appatta wljui~rr

Climber tomentose; leaves chartaceous, pubescent; flowers minute greenish; fruits hirsute, rcd when ripe, subtending the conspicuous auricular bracts.

Plate 166 MENISPERMACEAE: Tiliacora acuminata (Lam.) Miers. Perungattukodi Qugrbmrri~rSGlcsrrlp Climber, woody base, with hanging prop-roots; leaves coriiceous, glabrous; flowers bright yellow; fruits green turning orange to red.

Plate 167 MENISPERMACEAE: Tinospora cordifolia (Wild.) Meirs ex Hk fl. & Thomson ; Sallikodi, Seendhil #$fiisi, Woody climber; branchlets glabrous, bark corky; leaves chartaceous with glandular papillose patches on lower surface in basal nerve axils; flowers green; fruits green to orange to red.

Plate 168


Ficus amplissima J . E. Smith Kal-lchchi ffidl8d

Tree; leaves sub-coriaceous, petiole 8 crn glandular at the apex below; figs subsessile pyriform, seeds turn red when ripe.

Plate 169 IWRACEAE:

Ficus benghalensis L. Ala maram ~ ~ , ~ U L D Q ~ I

Tree; with aerial roots; leaves coriaceous, glabrous above puberulose below, petiole 4 cm, syconus ripening red.

Plate 170


Ficus hispida L. f. Paey-Atthi OuJjah$l

Tree; bark grey; branchlets hispid, petiole with a sub nodal gland to 4 cm; figs on special shoot or branches.

plate 171


Ficus racemosa L. Vellai atthi 96usirm61~abfl

Tree; bark brown; branchlets white pilose; leaves sub-coriaceous, glaucous above glabrous below, petiole 3-5 cm cauliflorous.

Plate 172 M~RACEAE:

Ficus religiosa L. Arasamaram ajelogb

1ree; leaves suocoriaceous; petiole 12 cm, articulate; figs paired sessile ripening pink, purple or black.

Plate 174 M~RACEAE:

Strebolus asper Lour. Pura maram qpirm~tb

Tree; leaves scabrid; flowers small;fruits yellow when ripe.


Eugenia bracfeata (Wild.)Roxb. Kayan e;u~rr&

ShrublTree; branchlets glabrous; leaves chartaceous, glabrous; flowers white, petals with calyx lobe orange glandular; berry c~vered when ripe.

Plate 177 MYRTACEAE:

Syzygium hemisphericurn (wight) Alston Vellai Naval Qasirmm ~rrsusi,

Tree; bark smooth, blakish; branchlets glabrous; leaves thin, coriaceous, glabrous; flowers white or rose; fruit light rose, hemisperical


Ochna obtusata DC. Chilanti Blsu@,@

Shrub; leaves glabrous glossy; flowers golden yellow; seeds black when ripe, held on reddened calyx.

Plate 179 OLACACEAE:

Olax scandens Roxb. Kodal ranchi 5 ~ 6 i ) y @ B I

Armed climbers; leaves ttin coriaceous; flowers white; fruits cupule, fleshy pinkish on ripening.

Pla!e 180 OLEACEAE:

Chionanthus zeylanica L.

Tree; ieaves simple; flowers small white, with coconut fragrance; fruits purple when ripe.

Plate 181 OLEACEAE:

angustifolicum. Wt.

Jasminum angustifolium (L.) Wild. Var. Kattumalligai, Karamanachedi &rri@~oBsSim&

Climber; leaves dark green chartaceous; flowers white with scent; fruits black when ripe.

Plate 182 OLEACEAE:

Jasminum auriculatum Vahl. Kodimalli, Mullai (~~s;imsu

Climber; leaves light green, glabrous, chartaceous, often variegated; flowers white with scent; fruits black when ripe.


Cansjera rheediJ. Gmelin. Kalimannakkeerai f f i d ~ m s Z m ~

Liana; branchlets tomentose; leaves dark green shiny, thin-coriaceous; flowers yellowish; fruits green to orange to red.


Argemone mexicana L. Brama thandu Lnrjh~~@mhfj

Armed shrub; leaves chartaceous glaucous with yellow juice, grey coloured; flowers golden yellow; capsule spinous apically, dehice by valves; seeds black and pitted.

Plate 186 PASSIFLORACEAE: Adenia Wightiana (Wt. Et. Arn.) Engl Climber (Vine); branchlets glabrous, petioles much t wisted; leaves chartaceous, glabrescent gland at the leaf base; flowers small petals attached to calyx throat, a fringe of short hairs at the base of petals; capsule 3 cm long.


Passiflora foetida L. Mosukkattan Q m r r f f i f f i ~ i ~ n a i

Vine; te~drillar; foetid when bruised; branchlets densely stiff-hispid; leaves chartaceous; flowers white, with andro-gynophore; stigmatic branches cross-like; beny deeply pitted yellowlgreen.


Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br, Nannari pairmrrfl

Climber; milky latex; leave: grey green coriaceous glabrous above glaucous below; flowers axillary yellow; seeds in capsule blown by wind; roots flavouring for drinks.


Antigonun leptopus Hk. & Am. Kodi rose - coral creeper 6i~nlpGyrrak

Climbers; inflorescence tip tendrilar; leaves light green; flowers pink.


Scutia myrtina (Brum. f.) Kutz,.

Kokkinullu, Tuvadi Qffi1~id1(g6iTm

Armed shrub; brnchlets glaucous; spines recurved; leaves coriaceous, slightly inrclled; flowers white; fruits dark blue compressed.


Ventilago madraspatana Gaertner Vernbadam OslluurnnkQ&rrlp

Unarmed liana; branchlets tornentose; leaves thin coriaceous; flowers yellow frequent; fruits winged, capsule coriaceous.


Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. llanthai @m$m@

Small tree; branchlets woolly; stipular thorns; leaves grey glabrous above, rusty tomentose below, flowers greenish; fruits red when ripe.


Ziziphus oenoplia (L.) Miller. Choorai mullu rgmgwsira

Armed shrub; branchlets densely tomentose; leaves pubescent above sericeous below; flowers gleen; fruits black when ripe.


Zjzjphus rugusa Lam. Kattilandai, Sudu Thoratti


Armed shrub, branchlets woolly; leaves woolly flowers small green; drupe pyriform.

Plate 195


Ziziphus xylopynrs (Retz.) Willd. Kottai Elandai (d~rrism~@su$mg

Armed tree; branchlets tomentose; leaves glabrous above, tomentose below; flower greenish; drupe tomentose grey Igreen when ripe.

Plate 196 RUBIACEAE:

Benkara malabarica (Lam.) Tiruvengadum Pudan W O ~ I T ~ J

Armed shrub; leaves dark green; flowers white; fruit globose dark cream.

Plate 197 RUEIACEAE:

Canthium dicoccum (Gaerrtn.) Teysm. Ex. Binnend Irambarathan, Nekkini @fibugbgnh

Unarmed tree; bark dark grey, smooth; leaves coriaceous dark green shining; flowers cream; fruits globose.

Plate 198 RUBIACEAE:

Canthiurn parviflorum lam. Mullukaari, Sengaarai Qekffirrmy

A thorny grey shrub; leaves chartaceous; flowers greenish; drupe globose.


Catunaregam spinosa (Thunb.) Tw. Mathukarai @&,1&5smj

Armed shrub; leaves chartaceous; flowers white turning yellow; berry with a crown of calyx lobes.

Plate 200 RUBiACEAE:

lxora pavetta Andr. Korivi Qsrrfid

Small tree; leaves coriaceous dark green; flowers white scented; fruit berry black when ripe.

Plate 201


Morinda pubescens J. E. Smith Manjanathi, Nuna p w m

Tree; bark light yellow; flowers white; fruit compound greenish;dark when ripe.

Plate 202 RUBIACEAE:

Pavetta indica L. Pannapavattai 611~i@8@!Jd

Shrub; leaves sub coriaceous; flowers white; fruit black when ripe.

Plate 203 RUBIACEAE:

Pavetfa tomentosa Roxb. Gx. Smith. Therani Qggd

Tree; tender parts softly tomentose; leaves densely tomentose below drying black above, Lwers white; berry small-black when ripe.

Plate 204 RUBIACEAE:

Psilanthus wightianus (Wt. Et. Am), J. Ler oy Vedan, Uppulathi, Wild Coffee G r m ~ a i

Shrub; branchlets horizontal; leaves light green chartaceous; flowers white; fruit black when ripe.

Plate 205 RURIACEAE:

Tarenna asiatica (L) Kunze ex. Schuman Thaerani, Kura, Thirukura C ~ ~ w d i l

Shrub; leaves coriaceous; flowers white; fruits black when ripe.

Plate 207 RUTACEAE

Aegle marmelos ( L . ) Corr. Serr. Vilvam dbsutb

Armed tree; branchlets pubescent; leaves chartaceous glabrous; flowers white; fruit grey when ripe valued for aromatic pulp.

Plate 208


Atalantia monophylla (L.)Corr. Serr. Kattunaragam, Kattu elumichai &rig ~ a ~ ~ j - r r r n n

Armed tree; leaves glabrous, coriaceous; flowers white, scented; fruits yellow waxy dark green.

Plate 209


Chloroxylon swietena DC. Satin Wood, Vaimaram, Porasu Giunva

Unarmed tree; bark rough and corky yellowish; branchlets pubescent; leaves compound, thin coriaceous gland-dotted; fruit capsule woody.

Plate 21 1 RUTACEAE:

Glycosmis mauritiana (Lam.) Yuich Tanaka Konji pazham (affin~.$dl

Shrub; leaves thin aromatic if crushed; flowers white; fruits salmon pink.

Plate 212 RUTACEAE:

Limonia acidissima 1. Vila maram, Wood Apple dmrr

Arined tree, bark rough, white; leaves thin coriaceuus, glossy green; flowers cream; fruits grey, pulp edible.

Plate 214 RUTACEAE:

Pleiospemum alatum (Wall. Ex Wt & Arn.) S. Kurun tharnul gija,bapsir

Armed shrub; leaves thin coriaceous glossy, glabrous; flowers cream; fruits dark green.

Plate 215 RUTACEAE:

Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. Kindu mullu, Milakaranai c61sa6r@wsir@

Armed climber; leaves fragrant when crushed; bark cream; flowers white; fruits orange when ripe.

Plate 216 SP LVADORACEAE: Azima tetracantha Lam. Mulsangu (1~6iT1fk(g Armed shrub; branchlets divaricate; leaves greyish green, spine tiped; flowers white; berries white edible.

Plate 217 SALVADORACEAE: Salvadora persica L. var. Nightiana (Thavettes) Verde, Sithuva, kodumavali Ql&ysuir Tree; leaves thick chartaceous; flowers white; fruits green red to dark blue salt-tolerant.


Santalum album L. Sandhana maram c r $ p m ~ l b

Tree; bark light red; leaves subcoriaceous; flowers red; fruit red when ripe.


Allophylus serratus (Roxb.) kun. Siruvalli d@6~h6m

Shrub; leaves trifoliate, leaflets woolly when young, glabrous later; flowers pale yellow; fruits arillate, green to orange to red.

Plate 220 SAP1NDACEAE:

Cardiospermum helicacabum L. var. microcarpum (Kunt) Blume Mudakkathan (y~ffiffijj5rr~

Climbers; leaves membranous sub-glabrotls; flowers white; capsule 3-lobed, pubescent winged at angles.

plate 221


Dodonaea angustifolia L. f,

Virali 61np5'

Shrub dioecious; leaves thin coriaceous gland dotted flowers green unisexual; fruits 3-merous tinged reddish when ripe especially the wings.

Plate 223 SAP1NDACEAE:

Sapindus emarginatus Vahl. Pucha, Poovamkottai, pungankai, Soap nil!

Tree; branchlets tornentose; leaves thick coriaceous, flowers white, fruits rusty, substitute for soap.


Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard. Kanupalaa, Vlakkai palai umrr

Tree; sap milky; leaves dense green coriaceous; flowers white fragrant brownish red when dry; fruits berry beaked with persistent style when young.


Mimusops elengi L. Mahizhamaram LD~IJJIDJL~

Tree; leaves sub-coriaceous, bark deeply furrowed; flowers fragrant cream berry ovoid light yellow.

Plate 227



Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze


Root parasite herb; leaves thick; flowers yellow; fruit capsules small.


Guazuma ulmifolia Lam, Uthraksham, Thenkai maram 0~66rcsnu>, ~&~ii5Lb

Tree; branchlets stellate tomentose; leaves chartaceous, tomentose below; flowers yellow; fruits woody, tubercled resembling a small mulberry in shape and colour.


Pterospermum canescens Roxb. Sembiolavu, Tada GicrlbBsuq

Tree; leaves lobed brown pubescent below; flowers white fragrance; fruit capsule, brown.


Pterospermum xylocarpum (Gaert~r) Santapau & Wagh. Masippuluvai, Masapoondi t ~ g u ~ m i ~ l q

Tree; branchlets warty; lezves thick coriaceous glabrous above rusty below; flowers white turning yellow soon fading; fruits reddish brown.

Plate 234 TILIACEAE:

Grewia obtusa Wali,ex.Dunn

Shrub; leaves lanceolate; flowers cream; fruit pyrene, brown coloured.

Plate 235 TILIACEAE:

Grewia rhamnifolia Heyne. ex. Roth.

Shrub; branchlets densely-tomentose; leaves thin coriaceous glabrous; flowers light green; fruit drupe Clobed velvety.

Plate 236 TI LIACEAE:

Grewia filiafolia Vahl. Thadachi p ~ + Q i

Tre?; leaves thin coriaceous, stellate along nerves above; grey below; flowers yellow; drupe sparsely hirsute.

Plate 237 TILIACEAE:

Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq. Ottarai Q L L ~ D

Shrub; branchlets stellate tomentose; leaves thincoriaceous; scabrid above, woolly below; flowers cream; fruit capsule, woolly prickly apex transparent.


Turnera ulmifolia L var. angustifolia Wild. ex. Urban,

Shrub; branchlets glandular pubescent; leaves chartaceous; flowers bright yellow capsule globose pitted.


Gmelina asiatica L. Nilakkumala, Sirukumalam., Mulkumizu


Armed shrub, horizontal branches; spines leaf bearing; leaves chartaceous glabrous; flowers golden yellow; fruits yellow when ripe.


Lantana camara L, var, aculeata (L.) Moldenke Unnichedi ~ ~ 6 d i i i Q a l p

Prickly shrub aromatic; leaves rugose and scabrous; flowers white yellow or mixed orange, condensed clusters; fruits dark blue.


Premna corymbosa (Burm. f.) Rott. & \h' Serithalai. Nalla Pinnai ~~sudairsmm


Shrub moderately scented when bruised; leaves chartaceous; flowers cream to brownish; fruits black when ripe.


Premna serratifolia L. Paaiminnai urrujdkwrrr6

Tree; leaves thin-coriaceous light green glossy; flowers greenish white unpleasant smell; fruits black when ripe.


Premna tomentosa Wild. Kolakathaithaekku.Malai thaekku Q&rrsukffiian~~Ogt@

Tree; bark yellowish; leaves thick coriaceous, tomentose; flowers cream scented; fruits black when ripe.


Symphorema involucratum Roxb. Vellai mallikkodi, Poongurungu

Qsusirmm loddiQ6nlp

Liana; leaves thin coriaceous; flowers with thick obovate involucral bracts grcz: corolla white; fruits conspicuous by the accrescent involucre of bracts.


Vitex altissima L, f. Mayilai nochi 1~~31slrrrlp

Tree; leaves thick - chartaceous; flowers white to purple; fruit ripening purple.


Vifex negundo L. Nalla nochichi


Shrub; tender parts grey pubescent; leaves chartaceous, glabrous above, grey pubescent below; flowers purple to violet; bark grey.

Plate 248 VITACEAE:

Cayratia pedata (Lour.) A. L. Juss. ex. Gaghe~ Pannikkaodi uidffiQmaq

Climber; (Liana); stem brittle; leaves 7-9 foliate soffly pubescent, dark green; flowers green; fruits green to red.

Plate 250 'JITACEAE:

Cissus vitiginea L. (~cFL~~IJ~~T~L

Climber; branchlets densely pubescent; leaves broadly cordate, thick-coriaceous 5-angled serrate; tendrils simple; flowers pale yellow; fruits rugose blue when ripe.

Plate 251 VITACEAE:

Cyphostemna setosum ( R o x ~ .Alston. )


Climber; fleshy stem; leaves fleshy; fruit red hairy.

Plate 1

ACANTHACEAE Justicla adhatoda L. Adatodai aur6p~r

Shrub with foetid smell; flowers cream white, lower lobe crested with purple lines.

Plate 12

APOCYNACEAE Carlssa carandas L.

Kalaka Ikiia &ni~ Shrub; leaves 3 ribbed at base, thorny; bark yellowish brown; flowers white or pale rose; fruits red berry turning purple or black on ripening.

Plate 14

APOCYNACEAE lchanocarpus frutescens (L.) R. Br

c 6 m p Manipilan kodi; Udar kodi roaufhflmrrbr 4

Straggling shrub with milky latex, tender parts rusty-pubescent; flowers cream; fruits rusty.

Plate 17


Borassus fiabelifer L, Panaimaram

Tree, stem grayish black, when young clothed with dry leaves or bases of petioles: fruit drupe blackish yellow.

Plate 19 ARECACEAE Corypha macropoda Kurt.Ex. Linden.

Kudai panai Tree, stem with annular petiolar scars, naked, monocarpic; flowers light green; fruits greenish yellow.

Plate 20

ARECACEAE Phoenlx hurnllis Royal. Malai eacham, kattu eacham. &@

&erbr, @BI

Shrub; inflorescence light yellow; fruits small green when young, red when semi-ripe and black when ripe.

Plate 22


Phoenix sylvestris (L.) Roxb Eechamaram


Tree; trunk with persistent leaf base; leaves with grey coatings ending In spines; flowers light yellow; fruits green when young, yellow when semi ripe and brown when ripe.

Plate 32


Tyiophora indica (Burrn, f.) Merr Nangiiai prattai

~ @ d ,s m s u

Straggler; branches pubescent; latex watery; flowers axillary, clusters, greenish yellow, outside purple, and inside pink.

Plate 44


Capparis brevispina D. C. Adondai, Athandovi mL.@kQar@,d

Armed shrub; leaves coriaceous and mucronate, flowers solitary, creamy, upper pair with a yellow blotch each on inside base; fruit smooth, ellipsoid beaked, red when ripe.

Plate 47


Capparis seplarla L.

Kattukathiri, Karunjurai, kokkimullu. wl@km Qdsbfl Straggling shrub; branchlets densely fulvous or grey pubescent; leaves thin mucronate, thorns r e c u ~ e d ;flowers corymbose, sub sessile, umbels white; fruit dark blue when ripe.

Plate 50

CAPPARACEAE Maerua oblonglflia (Forsskal) A. Rich.

Mocchakodi C l w k Q e q Unarmed woody straggler; branchlets glabrous, arching, very brittle; leaves lanceolate, entire, mucronate; racemes corymbose; flowers greenish white 1 pink; fruits moniiiform.

Plate 52

CELASTRACEAE Maytenus emarglnata (Willd.) Ding. Hou.

& & L T I

Armed shrub; whitish grey bark; leaves coriaceous, glabrous; flowers white fragrant; capsule brown when ripe.

Plate 59

COMBRETACEAE Termlnalla belllrlca (Gaetrner) Roxb.

Thani, Thandri.

~~ lPmb Qu

Tree, branchlets warty, with leaf scars; leaves coriaceous, glabrous, flnely pellucid-dotted above; flowers creamy, strong scented; fruits sty or velvety outside.

Plate 60


Argyrela cymosa (Roxb.)Sweet

Attukodi 4 t b i @ d i * Climber; leaves thinly pubescent on both sides, chartaceous; inflorescence cyrnose, bracts foliaceous, persistent; calyx reddish, corolla lobes rose in the upper, pink in the lower half; fruits globose, blown by wind.

Plate 61


Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.

Sivan koondal 6ku-h h i $ & Total parasite; slender twiner; leafless yellowish branches; flowers creamy; fruits sticky.

Plate 80


Bridelia retusa (L.) Sprengel.

Mulvaengai, Mul Alamaram, Adamaruthu ( ~ ~ ~ & r n r s Tree; bark dark grey red when cut; leaves pale green; flowers light green; fruits ripenlng black.

Plate 83 EUPHORBIACEAE Drypetes separle (Wt et Arn.) pax et hoffn.,

Vellilambu, Veerai

1 tomb

Tree; bark grey; leaves chartaceous shiny, dark green; flowers greenish; fruits green to orange to red.

Plate 102 FABACEAE Caesalplnloldeae. Delonlx elata (L.) Gamble.

Padenarayan, curg+p~&I Tree; branchlets warty; leaflets without stipels; flowers cream, becoming yellow; pod apices attenuate, horned, sutures groved.

Plate 116 FABACEAE - Mmsoldeae

Kari indu

Acacla caesla (L.) wild.

d l @&@

Armed liana; branchlets glabrous, inter-nodal thorns hooked; leaves puberulous, petiole prickled on the underside with convex elongate gland at base; flowers cream; pods thin glabrous, horned, brown when ripe.

Plate 119 FABACEAE- Mlmosoideae Acacia nllotica (I.) Del

Karuvelarn ffi~66URH6 Armed tree; branchlets grey pubescent; thorns white; bark dark brown rough; flowers golden yellow; pods constricted glaucous, grey when ripe



Flacourtla Indica (Burrn. f.) Merr Qm~@ffimn

Armed shrub; leaves thin coriaceous, glabrous, dark green; flowers usually on the thorns, white; fruits black red when ripe, edible.

Plate 152


Hlblscus rosas!knsls L.

Sernparuthi Qebu& Shrub; bark light brown with lenticel; leaves dark green; flowers red cultivated.


Walsura trifoliata (Adr. Juss.) Harns. Walsura mad

Tree; branchlets densely tomentose; leaves thick coriaceous, glabrous, glossy above, glacous below; flowers white; fruits yellow when ripe.

Plate 164 MENISPERMACEAE Coccolus hirsutus (L.) Diels

Sirunkattukodi ~ c s l r i @ & Q q Climber; leaves chartaceous; flowers greenish; fruits purple when ripe.

Plate 165 MENISPERMACEAE Pachygone ovata (Poir.) Mers.Ex. Hk.

Thorns. Kattukodi



Climber; leaves coriaceous; flowers yellow, clusters, honey scented; fruits green through orange to purple.

Plate 176

MYRTACEAE Syzygium cumlni (L.) Skeets



Tree; branclets glabrous; leaves coriaceous glabrous, glossy above, aromatic when crushed; flowers cream; fruits green, red to dark blue, petiole reddish.


Pandanus odoratissirnus Roxb. Cor. ~mlp Talumbu Tree; with thick prickly glabrous leaves; trunk with basal prop-roots bracts leafy, cream and fragrant; fruits orange when ripe.


Tricalysia sphaerocarpa,Gamble Ceepu maram #Lq tomb

Tree; leaves simple; flowers small; fruits green turning black when ripe.

Plate 213

RUTACEAE Pamburus misslonls (Wt.) Swing. Kadanaathi s ~ p @ Armed tree; bark brown coloured, rough; leaves glossy, thin conaceous; flowers cream; fruit dark green.

Plate 222

SAPINADACEAE Leplsanthes tetraphylla (Vahi.) Radlk Kugamathi, Nehota


Tree; crooked leaves thick-coriaceous; flowers white, cauliflorus foetid; fruits rusty outside yellow-velvety tomentose.

Plate 228


Solanum trl]obatum


p m r n Thuduvaeiai D
Armed climber; leaves chartaceous prickly; flowers purple; Fruits green with white spots, dark red when ripe; medicinal.

Plate 230


Melochla nudiflora L. Akichedi gl&Q 6 l q

Sub-shrub; branches tomentose, browny; leaves ovate to lanceolate, serrate; flowers in axillary clusters, pinkish-white; capsule five-valved, brown when ripe.

Plate 2 3 3 TlLlACEAE Grewla tillafolla Vahl.

Thadachi s b . 8 Tree; leaves thin coriaceous, stellate along nerves above; grey below; flowers yellow; drupe sparsely hirsute.


Premna latlfolla Roxb.

Perlajitti, Qh@& Tree; leaves chartaceous glabresent above softly pubescent below; flowers white; fruits ripening red.

Plate 249


Clssus quadrangularls L



Climber; stem 4-angled, glabrous; leaves early-caducous, thick conaceous; flowers greenish-yellow; h i t s red.


Cleistanthus collinus (Roxb.) Benth. Ex Hk. f. Oduvam ~gsu&

Trees to shrubs; leaves coriaceous shining; flowers greenish; fruits bridged ripening brown, opening explosively; tender leaves deadly poisonous.