J.

Selvakumar

Hazardous Area Classification: Assignment-1
Review Chapter 6 of IP-15 and identify how the ventilation aspects have been considered in your project
INTRODUCTION: Ventilation is one of the important factors to be considered in determining the hazardous zone classification in addition to operating condition (temperature/ pressure), material handled, flammability of fluid handled, ignition source, occupancy, release source & likelihood of release. Inadequate ventilation in a shelter or enclosed area or obstructed open area may lead to gradual accumulation of gas or vapour over time leading to higher risk of fire & explosion. Adequate ventilation eventually dilutes or removes the contaminated air until its safe limit concentration is reached. EXCERPTS OF CHAPTER-6 OF IP-15: Effect of ventilation on hazardous area classification is detailed in this section. Degree of Ventilation: For assessing the degree of ventilation the following procedure needs to be considered.       Determine the openness of the region whether open area or enclosed area. If area is open and sheltered/ obstructed it is restricted natural ventilation otherwise is it adequate natural ventilation. If area is enclosed and contain internal source of release with ventilation greater than 12 air changes per hour gives dilute ventilation else it is adequate ventilation. If area is enclosed and contain internal source of release with ventilation less than 12 air changes per hour it is inadequate ventilation. If area is enclosed pressurized to greater than 50 N/m2 and without internal source of release but having external source of release it is classified as non-hazardous. If area is enclosed and not pressurized to greater than 50 N/m2 without internal source of release but having external source of release it is classified as dilution ventilation provided ventilation is greater than 12 air changes per hour.

Open Area: Natural ventilation and obstacles to free air movement: Facilities classified as open area (i.e. with natural ventilation) the hazardous area classification applies without further ventilation consideration. Some obstacles may impede natural ventilation and this may enlarge the extent of the hazardous area and possibly increase the severity of the zone classification. However, obstacles like dyke, walls and ceilings may limit the movement of gaseous release, reducing the extent of the hazardous area. Effect of fire or deflection wall on hazardous area: Due to limitation of space if a source of ignition is located inside a hazardous area, imperforated firewall with suitable fire rating may be provided on the side of the facility containing the source of release allowing free ventilation in all other directions.

Hazardous Area Classification: Assignment-1
Buildings adjacent to open hazardous areas

J. Selvakumar

The buildings should be assigned a zone classification of a higher severity than the adjacent area if it is possible for any leakage to persist in the building. Sheltered or Obstructed Areas: Area with restricted natural ventilation should be assigned a zone classification of a severity of one step higher than if it were a fully open area. Releases from low pressure or evaporation sources are dependent upon the ventilation flow to induce mixing as well as transport. In these conditions, if the density of the vapour is greater than air, there is possibility of vapour entrapment at floor/ roof level. Enclosed areas: An enclosed area is any building or enclosed space within which, in the absence of artificial ventilation, the air movement will be limited and any flammable atmosphere will not be dispersed naturally. Based on its degree of ventilation it is classified as adequate or inadequate ventilation. Adequate ventilation ensured that a building containing secondary grade of release source can be properly classified as Zone 2. In large buildings it may be possible to classify some parts as nonhazardous, while other parts as Zone 2. Continuous or primary grade release should not be discharged internally, but should be piped directly to an external safe location through ducting. Localized exhaust ventilation, gas detection or other means of prompt identification of release of flammable materials should be considered. Continuous and primary grade source of release should be avoided in areas having inadequate ventilation. These areas should be classified as Zone 1 since a secondary grade source may form a localized flammable atmosphere and persist for a long period. Flammable gas detectors may be installed in the area if adequate ventilation cannot be provided. Effect of loss of ventilation on HAC of an enclosed area: An enclosed area classified as Zone 2 by virtue of adequate ventilation contains normally secondary grade source of release. On loss of adequate ventilation there will not necessarily be an immediate development of a flammable atmosphere and it be acceptable, subject to monitoring of the atmosphere and plant conditions, to continue for a short period to operate equipment only suitable for Zone 2. There should be an audio-visual alarm to indicate ventilation loss. Equipment not suitable for Zone 1 should be electrically isolated. Location of an enclosed area without over pressure protection on a Zone 0 or 1 is not acceptable practice and should be avoided if the enclosed area with no internals source of release but adjacent to an external hazardous area.

2|Page

Hazardous Area Classification: Assignment-1 J. Selvakumar
Effect of Ventilation on Hazardous area Classification in Bab Compression Project: Shelters are provided for the gas compressor area, chemical injection area handling flammable fluids. The natural ventilation in these area were restricted. Hence the zone classification assigned is Zone 1 (i.e. severity of one step higher than if it were a fully open area) for the sheeted area ( from 3.5 m above grade till roof height) and Zone 2 form grade level till 3.5m height which is open at all sides. Since primary grade source of release should be avoided in areas having inadequate ventilation, the from compressor seal gas vent, diesel day tank vent are released outside the shelter to a safe location. Closed drain drum and drain pumps are inside pit i.e. situated below grade level. These areas have restricted natural ventilation. Hence the pit area is classified as Zone 1, which is one step higher than the if it were an open area. In addition, the open drain pit, burn pit, diesel tank in well head area are classified as Zone 1 due to restricted natural ventilation.

3|Page

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful