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ISA-RP2.

1-1978

Approved September 30, 1978

Recommended Practice

Manometer Tables

ISA-RP2.1 Manometer Tables

ISBN 0-87664-325-X
Copyright 1978 by the Instrument Society of America. All rights reserved. Printed in the United
States of America. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or
transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or
otherwise), without the prior written permission of the publisher.
ISA
67 Alexander Drive
P.O. Box 12277
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709

FOREWORD

This Recommended Practice has been prepared as a part of the service of ISA toward a goal
of uniformity in the field of instrumentation. To be of real value this report should not be static,
but should be subjected to periodic review. Toward this end the Society welcomes all
comments and criticisms, and asks that they be addressed to the Standards and Practices
Board Secretary, ISA, 67 Alexander Drive, P.O. Box 12277, Research Triangle Park, North
Carolina 27709, e-mail: standards@isa.org.
This report was prepared and revised by the 8D-RP2 Committee of the Production Processes
Standards Division on Manometer Tables, chaired by W. G. Brombacher, Consultant, National
Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C.
The assistance of those who aided in the preparation of this Recommended Practice by
answering questionnaires, offering suggestions, and in other ways is gratefully acknowledged.
The following reviewed the original practice and served as a Board of Review:
E. A. Adler - United Engineers & Constructors, Inc.
C. W. Bates - Humble Oil & Refining Co.
W. E. Boyle - Shell Oil Company
R. E. Clarridge - General Electric Co.
J. R. Connell - Imperial Oil Co., Ltd.
W. A. Crawford - E. I. duPont deNemours & Co., Inc.
Howard Ecker - Minnesota Mining & Mfg. Co.
G. G. Gallagher - The Fluor Corporation
R. L. Galley - Convair Astronautics
W. A. Hagerbaumer - Socony-Vacuum Oil Co.
D. E. Hostedler - Foster Wheeler Corp.
P. R. Hoyt - Shell Development Company
J. G. Kerley - Shell Oil Company
A. E. Krogh - Minneapolis-Honeywell Reg. Co.
J. L. Lopez - Lago Oil & Transport Co., Ltd.
H. M. McCarthy - Standard Oil Development Co.
E. S. Mehnert - Colgate-Palmolive-Peet Co.
A. V. Novak - E. I. duPont deNemours & Co., Inc.
J. W. Percy - U. S. Steel Corporation
R. R. Proctor - The Pure Oil Company
J. E. Read - E. I. duPont deNemours & Co., Inc.
A. F. Sperry - Consultant
F. H. Trapnell - E. I. duPont deNemours & Co., Inc.
J. E. White - Black, Sivalls & Bryson, Inc.

ISA-RP2.1-1978

This Recommended Practice was approved for publication by the Recommended Practices
Committee on September 6, 1952, and approved for revision by the Standards & Practices Board
in 1962.
E. A. Adler - United Engineers & Constructors, Inc.
Standards & Practices Department Vice President
F. E. Bryan - Douglas Aircraft Company
Aero-Space Standards Division Director
R. E. Clarridge - General Electric Company
Intersociety Standards Division Director
J. P. Green - Arthur G. McKee Company
Metals Standards Division Director
E. C. Hutchison - Union Carbide Nuclear Co.
Production Processes Standards Division Director
W. J. Ladniak - Minneapolis-Honeywell Reg. Co.
Nuclear Standards Division Director
E. J. Minnar - ISA Headquarters Staff
Staff Standards & Practices Board Secretary
This Revision, under the direction of W. G. Brombacher, 8D-RP2 Committee Chairman, has been
prepared to include changes by the National Bureau of Standards since the date of last
publication (1952).

ISA-RP2.1-1978

Contents

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................. 7
2 Manometer tables ............................................................................................................. 7
3 Errors of liquid column manometers .............................................................................. 9
4 Basis, description and use of tables ............................................................................. 14

ISA-RP2.1-1978

1 Scope

1.1 This report presents abbreviations and fundamental conversion factors commonly used in
manometry, recommended definitions of pressure in terms of a column of mercury and water, and
for a large number of liquids, tables of pressures indicated by, or equivalent to, heights of columns
at various temperatures. These data have the object of facilitating and standardizing the use of
manometers and U-tubes as direct pressure indicating instruments or in the calibration of pressure
recorders and controllers.
1.2 A discussion is included of the more frequent or more important sources of error in manometric
measurements, together with correction tables for mercury and water columns. To conform to
general practice in this country, English units of measurements are largely used (i.e., pounds,
inches, etc.) and with several exceptions, decimals are used to denote parts of units, rather than
octonary fractions.
1.3 In particular, it will be seen that conversion factors for kerosine, gage oil, alcohol, dibromobenzene, dibromoethane, and acetylene tetrabromide are given only to obtain equivalent water columns at 60F. Further, no conversion data are presented for benzol, butyl collosolve, carbitol,
nbutyl phthalate, or halowax oil. The filling in of these omissions will have to await demonstrated
need.

2 Manometer tables

2.1 Discussion of standards of manometers


For a more complete discussion on mercury manometers, see "Mercury barometers and
manometers," Nat. Bur. of Standards Monograph No. 8, 1960.
Standards. The pressure in terms of height of a column of liquid is given by the fundamental
relation

P = Dhg

(1)

where P is the pressure in absolute units, as dynes/sq cm or poundals/sq in.


D is the density of the liquid in grams/cu cm or lb/cu in.
h is the height of the column from horizontal surface to horizontal surface of the menisci
in cm or in.
g is the acceleration of gravity in cm/sec2 or in./sec2
P/g is the pressure in grams/sq cm or psi
If the height of the column of a liquid is used as a unit of pressure,

P
h = ------Dg

ISA-RP2.1-1978

(2)

from which it is evident that some value of the density of the liquid and of gravity must be selected
as standard for greater convenience, preferably the same by everyone. The standard density will
be considered only for water and mercury, and is more conveniently set in terms of the
temperature of the liquid, rather than in terms of density.
At its meeting of September 7,1947, the Recommended Practices Committee approved as a
recommended practice the following standards:
a) Standard conditions for a mercury column used as unit of pressure:
Gravity: 980.665 cm/sec2 = 32.1740 ft/sec2
Temperature: 0C (32F)
760 mm of mercury (= 29.9213 in. of mercury)
= a pressure of one atmosphere
b) Standard conditions for a water column used as a unit of pressure:
Gravity: 980.665 cm/sec2 = 32.1740 ft/sec2
Temperature: 20C (68F)
407.513 in. of water (= 1035.08 cm of water)
= a pressure of one atmosphere
The value of standard gravity given above is an international standard accepted in engineering
and physics and therefore is applicable for all columns of all liquids in addition to water and
mercury if used as a pressure unit. It should be noted that meteorologists in 1953 adopted
internationally this value, previously having used the value 980.62 cm/sec2.
The pressure of one atmosphere internationally defined for fixed points on the International
Temperature scale is 1013.250 millibars. This value has been rather universally accepted. This
pressure is equivalent to that exerted by a column of mercury 760 mm high, having a density of
13.5951 grams/cm3 and subjected to a gravitational acceleration of 980.665 cm/sec2. A mm or
cm or inch of mercury of differential or absolute pressure is defined as a submultiple of the
atmosphere above defined. However, at high pressures correction for compressibility may have
to be applied.
For convenience, mercury manometers are often calibrated to indicate the height of the mercury
column in terms of mercury at 0C when the manometer is at another temperature.
The definition of a unit height of a water column at 20C as a unit of pressure is a recommended
practice, made in an effort to eventually obtain national standardization. It is obviously worth
while to standardize on a single pressure unit, but it is realized that changes from other units now
used may cause serious inconvenience. Use of the proposed unit is advocated in fields where no
standard has been defined. Three manometer temperatures, 15C (59F), 60F (15.56C), and
20C (68F), are now used on a national scale to define the unit of pressure as the height of a
water column. In aeronautics, 15C is used; The American Gas Association, and perhaps other
societies, uses 60F; and in orifice flowmeter work, 20C is commonly used. The temperature
used to define the pressure does not affect other conditions desired as standard, as for example,
volume of gas flow measured in terms of the gas at 60F and 29.92 inches of mercury. Some
have suggested the maximum density of water (3.98C) as the unit. This temperature is far from
normal laboratory temperatures and will require the application of temperature corrections in
many cases where none would be necessary with 20C as the standard. The proposal is
attractive, however.
It is intended that the definition apply to distilled water, free from absorbed gases. It is easier to
eliminate absorbed gases than to determine the amount present. In mercury, absorbed gases
8

ISA-RP2.1-1978

give no trouble. Lack of purity fouls the mercury meniscus long before there is a significant
change in density.
No action on standards for liquids other than water and mercury was taken, since these other
liquids are not often used as standards of pressure.

3 Errors of liquid column manometers


3.1 The errors in the indications of manometers are: (a) scale errors, (b) temperature errors, (c)
gravity errors, (d) capillary errors, (e) compressibility, and (f) effect of absorbed gases. Of these,
corrections are ordinarily applied only for the scale, temperature, and gravity errors. The other
errors are corrected for only precise work or under special conditions of use.
3.2 Scale errors. After a manometer reading has been corrected for temperature and gravity
error, and for such of the other errors as are warranted, there usually remains a residual error
which may be called the scale error. This can be determined only by calibration against a
standard instrument. If corrections are made only for the temperature and gravity errors, the
scale error will include (a) errors in graduating the scale, and (b) the effect of capillarity, and
perhaps of compressibility and of absorbed gases. Under (a) will be included to a high degree of
accuracy the error introduced when the scale is graduated true at one temperature and is
assumed correct at another temperature. Further, when the effects under (b) are included under
the scale error, only the variation in these effects need to be accounted for.
In general, the procedure of calibrating manometers is such that correction for scale error should
be applied first in applying corrections to a manometer reading.
3.3 Temperature Errors. Since the densities of liquids vary with temperature, any deviation in
manometer temperature from that selected as standard for the pressure unit will introduce an
error in the manometer indication. Further, since the scale expands or contracts with changes in
its temperature, an additional error is introduced. An expansion of the scale reduces the reading
of the manometer held at constant pressure and conversely an expansion of the liquid increases
the reading; the two expansions tend to balance one another, but the effect of the expansion of
the liquid is usually much larger.
Temperature corrections are given by the following relations:

Ho = Ht + C
s ( t ts ) m( t to )
C = ------------------------------------------------ H t
1 + m ( t to )
where

Ho
Ht
C
s
m
t
ts

ISA-RP2.1-1978

(3)

(4)

is the height of the liquid column at the standard temperature


is the indicated height of the liquid column at temperature t, corrected for scale
errors
is the temperature correction
is the coefficient of linear expansion of the scale
is the coefficient of cubical expansion of the liquid
is the manometer temperature
is the temperature at which the scale indicates the true height

to

is the standard temperature at which the height of the liquid column is in terms
of a pressure unit.

When the correction is negative in sign, the correction is subtracted from Ht as indicated by
equation (3).
The coefficient of expansion is usually available with reference to 0C or 32F, but no significant
error is ordinarily introduced by using this value if to differs from 0C. If warranted, the proper
value of s can be computed.
Both the cubical and linear thermal expansions of most manometer liquids and scales are
hyperbolic in character and therefore in general cannot be accurately represented by the single
terms s and m used in equation (4). For the small temperature ranges over which manometers
are generally used, the errors introduced are not usually significant. Consideration of this point is
essential in very precise measurements.
Exceptions to the above are mercury, for which m requires no modification over the temperature
range of interest, and water, for which m varies with temperature considerably and significantly
for most measurements at all temperatures ordinarily of interest. Therefore, for water, equation
(4) does not apply, and corrections must be applied in two parts, first for the temperature error for
the scale { =s(tts)} and then for the error for the liquid by a multiplier obtained from Table 12.
If to be substituted in equation (4) for the temperature ts at which the scale is calibrated true and
the resulting error be incorporated into the scale correction, considerable simplification in
constructing tables is obtained. The error thus introduced is usually not significant. On this
basis, equation (4) becomes

s ( t to ) m( t to )
C = ------------------------------------------------ H t = C o H t
1 + m ( t to )

(5)

For cistern manometers where the level of the liquid in the cistern shifts with change in the
pressure while the scale remains fixed, equations (4) or (5) do not apply. Usually the
temperature correction can be put in the form

C 1 = ( H t + h )C o

(6)

where C1 is the temperature correction, Co is defined by equation (5), and h is an addition to the
indicated column height H t which in general must be determined by calibration tests at various
temperatures of a manometer of any given design.
3.4 Gravity Errors. The effect of variation of gravity from the standard value on manometer
indications is as follows:

where

P
Ho
C
g

10

g
P = ----- H o
gs

(7)

( g gs )
or P = H o + H o -------------------- = H o + C
gs

(8)

is the height of the liquid column subjected to standard gravity. This is the
pressure if, as is common practice, no further corrections are applied.
is the indicated height of the liquid column at the standard temperature
is the correction to be applied to Ho
is the ambient value of gravity
ISA-RP2.1-1978

gs

is the standard value of gravity, 980.665 cm/sec2

The ambient value of gravity at any location can be obtained as a function of latitude from the
Smithsonian Meteorological (or Physical) Tables and more accurate values for many locations
from the U. S. Coast & Geodetic Survey, (Washington, D.C.).
In some cases the value of gravity must be obtained from the accepted relation for gravity as a
function of latitude. This relation holds only for sea level. To obtain the value of gravity at a
station h feet above sea level:

g = go 0.000094h

(9)

where g is the value of gravity at the station, go is the value of gravity at sea level, both in cm/
sec2, and h is the altitude in feet. Equation (9) holds only for free air, but is sufficiently accurate
for moderate elevations of terrain above sea level.
3.5 Capillary errors. If a liquid wets the walls of the manometer tube or cistern, the center of
the liquid column is elevated above the level which would obtain if the surface were infinite in
extent. Conversely if the liquid does not wet the surface, of which mercury is a conspicuous
example, the column level is depressed. The amount of the depression tends to vary with the
direction of the change in pressure and greatly with local differences in the condition of the
surface in contact with the liquid.
Correction for the capillary effect, if made at all, is normally made only for the depression of the
mercury in the tube. Part of the table given by Gould and Vickers in the Journal Scientific
Instruments 29, 85, 1952, is reproduced, based on a surface tension of mercury of 450 dynes per
centimeter.

Depression of mercury column in mm


Bore of tube,
mm

Height of meniscus in mm
0.6

0.8

1.0

1.5

2.0

0.73

0.94

1.12

1.43

--

0.37

0.48

0.58

0.78

0.89

10

0.20

0.26

0.32

0.44

0.52

12

0.12

0.15

0.19

0.26

0.31

15

0.05

0.07

0.09

0.12

0.15

20

0.015

0.02

0.024

0.034

0.042

To reduce the variable effects of surface tension, certain practices may be recommended,
assuming that the scale correction includes the capillary effect.
a) In the design of the manometer, large bore tubes greatly reduce the change in capillary
depression (or elevation) with meniscus height. For mercury manometers the minimum
bore should be about 10 mm (0.4 in.); there is little overall advantage in bores exceeding
15 to 20 mm (0.6 to 0.8 in.). The above recommended minimum and maximum bores
apply equally well to water manometers and probably also to those with other liquids.
Equal size of bore is obviously indicated for U-tube manometers.
ISA-RP2.1-1978

11

b) Cistern manometers should also have the recommended tube bores. The capillary effect
in the cistern is minimized by making the area of the cistern large. In mercury
manometers of this type especially, it is necessary to tap or vibrate the cistern vigorously
in order to reduce scatter in the readings at a constant pressure. It also helps to vibrate
the tube, but not to the same degree.
c) The gradual accumulation of corrosion products and dirt at mercury surfaces changes
the capillary correction. This change is larger in its effect on the reading the smaller
the bore of the tube or of the cistern. Corrosion seems easier to prevent with other
liquids.
d) After a pressure change, drainage of liquids which wet the surface of tubes is a source
of error, particularly in manometers in which the measured pressure depends upon the
indication of one surface level only, as in the case of most cistern manometers. In effect
a time lag in reading occurs while drainage takes place. The effect reduces with increase
in the bore of the manometer tubes.
e) The addition of a few drops of a wetting agent, such as Aerosol OT100, or Dreen, to the
water helps greatly in obtaining a symmetrical meniscus in water manometers. This
decreases the difficulty in making readings and also eliminates in large measure the
effect of films of foreign material on the glass.
3.6 Compressibility effects. The absolute pressure acting on a liquid compresses it and
thereby changes its density. It is of importance for manometers only in the cases where the
difference between two high pressures is measured.
The compressibility coefficient C, or change in volume per-unit pressure, is defined as follows:

1 dV
C = ------ ------V o dP
where

(10)

is the volume at pressure P or more practically is the volume at the lowest


pressure
dV/dP is the rate of change of volume with pressure normally negative since the volume
usually decreases with the application of pressure
Vo

A few values of the coefficient are given in the table for water, mercury, and ethyl alcohol. The
pressures are absolute values. The values for water were obtained from "Properties of Ordinary
Water Substance" by E. N. Dorsey; those on mercury from the "Smithsonian Physical Tables;"
and those on ethyl alcohol from the "Handbook of Chemistry and Physics."

12

ISA-RP2.1-1978

Compressibility of liquids
Liquid

Temp. deg C

*Coefficient

Pressure range,
atmospheres

Water

10

48.0

1-25

20

47.2

1-25

10

49.2

25-50

20

47.6

25-50

10

46.0

100-200

20

44.2

100-200

50

42.8

100-200

20

37.4

500-100

20

32.6

1000-1500

20

29.2

1500-2000

20

25.9

2000-2500

20

23.6

2500-3000

Mercury

Ethyl Alcohol

20

3.95

300

22

3.97

500

22

3.91

1000

20

112

1-50

28

86

150-200

28

81

150-400

Petroleum oils with a specific gravity 60/60F between 0.80 and 0.90 have a compressibility
coefficient of approximately 70 x 106 at 20C (68F) for a gage pressure change from 0 to 50
atmospheres. Reference: R. S. Jessup, BS Jnl. of Research, Vol. 5, 1930, p 985; RP244. Most
organic liquids have compressibilities of the same order as that of oil.
As a consequence of compressibility it requires 4 x 106 more pressure to obtain a change in
indication of one mm of mercury at an absolute pressure of 760 mm than it does at one mm of
mercury. This difference is 12 times as great for water and 38 times as great for ethyl alcohol.
Thus the unit of pressure defined in terms of a liquid column is also a function of pressure, but the
effect in manometers as ordinarily used to measure low gage pressures is less than 0.001
percent.
3.7 Effect of Absorbed Gases. Air absorbed in water decreases the density, contrary to what
might be expected. At 100C the decrease of water density presumably fully saturated with air is
1.6, and at 20C, 0.4 parts per million. The weight of absorbed air is 27 at 10C and 22 parts per
million at 20C. The effect is quite variable and requires consideration for each gas in contact
with a particular liquid.

ISA-RP2.1-1978

13

The "Handbook of Chemistry and Physics" and the "International Critical Tables" contain data on
the solubility of many gases in a number of liquids. These references, however, contain relatively
little information on the effect of solubility on the density of those liquids that are used in
manometers.
Mercury is an exception in that small amounts of gases go into solution. No data were found, but
no sensible outgassing is evident when mercury is subject to a sudden decrease in pressure, as
is the case with most other manometric liquids.
Since there is considerable time lag in both outgassing and in the dissolving of gases in liquids,
considerable uncertainty usually exists as to the precise amount of gas in solution. For this
reason, densities used in computing pressures should be for gas-free liquids if available, and
when necessary, corrections made for the change in density due to the gas in solution. The
correction is rarely made except in precise work or under unusual conditions of measurement

4 Basis, description and use of tables

4.1 Table 1. Abbreviations. Abbreviations used are those proposed by the American
Standards Association (Z10.1-1941).
4.2 Table 2. Fundamental constants and common factors. As indicated in the table the values
are largely taken from "Units of Weight and Measure," NBS M233, although the number of digits
in the values is far in excess of that needed in manometry. The conversion factors are primarily
from metric to English units and vice versa.
4.3
4.4 Tables 3, 4, and 5. No comment is required.
4.5
4.6 Table 6. Density of mercury. The values of the density of mercury given here are based on
the mean value of the thermal coefficient of volume expansion. Accurate (not mean) values of
the coefficient of cubical thermal expansion of mercury are given by Beattie, Blaisdell, Kaye,
Gerry and Johnson, Proc. Am. Acad. Arts and Sciences, 74, 370, 1941. The two values of the
density do not differ more than one part in 100000. At 0C, the density is generally considered
accurate to one part in 100,000 for virgin natural mercury. There is no great difficulty in purifying
mercury to the degree necessary to realize the densities given; even minute impurities of the
base metals make the mercury unusable in a manometer.
The density at 0C is the standard used at present in defining pressure in terms of the height of a
mercury column.
4.7 Table 7. Density of water. The values given here differ slightly from those given by various
experimenters. The data for temperatures above 40C (104F) are less reliable than those for
lower temperatures, which is indicated by dropping one digit from the values. As pointed out
under "Discussion of Standards and Errors of Manometers," the density is affected somewhat by
the content of absorbed air. Also, the dissolved salts will affect the density, which effect is
avoided by the use of distilled water.
The unit height of a water column at either 15C, 60F, or 68F is used in various fields of
engineering to define a pressure. The ISA has adopted as a recommended practice 68F (20C)
as the definition.

14

ISA-RP2.1-1978

4.8 Tables 8A and 8B. Gravity corrections at sea level at various latitudes or at various
values of gravity. In Table 8A are given the gravity corrections at sea level for a column of any
liquid in any unit of height, mm, cm, in., or ft, against latitude. The values of gravity
corresponding to latitude are from the formulas and tables given in the Smithsonian
Meteorological Tables, 1958 edition.
Table 8B presents the gravity corrections, again for any liquid or in any unit of height, against
evenly divided values of gravity. This table is convenient to use if the value of gravity for the
station is known. It is preferable to base corrections on the actual value of gravity of the station, if
available. The U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, (Washington, D. C.) has determined and can
furnish values of gravity for hundreds of locations in the United States.
When Table 8A is used, an additional correction is required for the elevation of the station above
sea level. The altitude correction to be applied to the value of gravity, which is strictly speaking
only for free air and applies only approximately to large elevations found in mountainous areas, is
as follows:
Correction (cm/sec2) = 94 x 106h
where h is the elevation in feet of the manometer above sea level.
As an example of the use of the tables, assume a liquid column height of 72 inches (after
application of scale correction, before or after application of the temperature correction) at
latitude 38 degrees and elevation above sea level of 150 feet.
From Table 8A the value of gravity at sea level at 38 degrees latitude is 979.997 cm/sec2.
The altitude correction is 94 x 150 x 106 or 0.014.
The value of gravity is 979.983 cm/sec2.
By interpolation in Table 8B, the gravity correction is 0.048 in.
The column height corrected for gravity is 72 0.048 or 71.952 inches.
Neglecting the altitude correction and using Table 8A to obtain the correction, there is obtained
0.049 inch. Correcting gravity for the altitude effect introduces negligible error in this case.
4.9 Table 9. Conversion factors for various pressure units. This table was computed based
largely on the data given in Tables 2, 6, and 7. The number of digits of the factors is greater than
required for most manometer use. The factors were used insofar as applicable in preparing the
other tables.
The factors apply only to manometer readings after all corrections have been made to obtain the
pressures in the units stated.
4.10 Table 10. Properties of manometer liquids. This table is not complete, either in the
properties of the liquids listed or in the best liquids which might be used for a particular
application. Members of the ISA who have additional data are urged to furnish it so that this table
can be perfected.
Water is probably the most widely used manometric liquid, being not only low in cost, readily
available, and stable in nature, but also having a low factor of thermal expansion. Its major
disadvantages are its limited range of utilityusually from 0.05 to 2.0 psi, and only 40F to 100F
and its corrosive effect on ferrous metals. One of the most desirable methods of increasing its
visibility in glass tubing is by the addition of a few drops of fluorescein solution; coloring by inks or
dyes is not satisfactory.
Mercury is the second most widely used manometric liquid, being quite stable and reasonably
available, immiscible with other liquids, and having a low thermal expansion and low vapor

ISA-RP2.1-1978

15

pressure. It can be used over a wide range of temperature conditionsfrom 35F to over 250F,
and normally in the pressure range from 0.2 psi to 20-30 psi. Many metals, such as copper, tin,
silver, and zinc are soluble in mercury, so that instrument parts in contact with it should be glass,
carbon steel, stainless steel or good grade iron.
The major use of kerosine as a manometric liquid is a substitute for water in locations of low
temperatures; for many years steel mills and coke oven plants have used "mm of oil" as a
manometric unit on exposed mains. Normal practice specifies the use of 40-41 degrees API
kerosine, having a specific gravity of 0.8200-0.8204 at 60F. It has some advantages over water
in that it can be used at low temperatures, will not become discolored by rusting of iron fittings
with which it is in contact, and provides slightly more accurate measurements because of its
lower density. Its use provides a fire hazard, and it cannot be used at temperatures above 7585F because of vapor phase and meniscus effects.
Ellison gage oil is a special petroleum fraction, similar to kerosine, having a specific gravity of
0.830-0.834 designed for use in inclined gages measuring low differentials in pressure.
Alcohol, and mixtures of alcohol and ethylene glycol, are quite frequently used as substitutes for
water in locations in which temperatures below 35F are encountered. Ethyl alcohol, having a
specific gravity of only 0.794, may provide a slightly more sensitive measurement of pressures,
but has the drawbacks of being inconstant in density due to absorption of water vapor, becoming
discolored by rusting, promoting a fire hazard, and being undesirable above 90-100F. A mixture
of 36 percent by volume of ethyl alcohol, and 64 percent of ethylene glycol (or Prestone) has a
specific gravity at 60F comparable to that of water, and is therefore frequently used in water
manometers for below freezing temperatures. However, both alcohol and glycol have relatively
large thermal expansion coefficients which, if not taken into account when these substances are
used at low temperatures, may lead to serious calibration errors.
Glycerine finds some use as a manometric liquid at temperatures above those at which water or
kerosine may be used from 100F to 250F. At ordinary temperatures it is relatively viscous and
slow draining; deliquescence alters its density.
Both dibromobenzene and dibromoethane have densities approximately twice as great as that of
water, and they are therefore used to obtain more accurate measurements within the range 10 to
150 in H2O than can be obtained by use of mercury. Both have the serious drawback of being
hydrolyzed by water and becoming slightly acidic; they should be used only in glass tubes or
instruments with special brass chambers and fittings.
Acetylene tetrabromide, or tetrabromoethane, is another high density liquid which is used for
measuring pressures greater than those that can be conveniently reached by use of water
columns, i.e., equivalents of 5 to 250 in H2O or 0.2 to 10.0 psi. In spite of a greater degree of
bromination, tetrabromoethane appears to be somewhat more stable and less reactive than
dibromoethane, but not sufficiently so to permit use in contact with appreciable concentrations of
water vapor, nor in instruments that are not provided with special brass chambers or fittings.
Butyl phthalate has low vapor pressure and forms a satisfactory meniscus. It has a relatively low
freezing point. It absorbs air readily to a degree which may be troublesome, but no quantitative
data were found.
Liquid mixtures such as alcohol-water, alcohol-glycol, and liquids which absorb water readily,
such as glycol, alcohol, and glycerin do not hold their initial densities in a manometer open to the
air and therefore must be used with caution.
Many organic liquids, such as the petroleum derivatives, Halowax oil and others, have densities
which vary from lot to lot. The petroleum derivatives are mixtures, while the organic liquids in the
technical grades contain impurities to a degree sufficient to affect the density. The densities
given are therefore approximate and should be determined for each lot if pressures are to be

16

ISA-RP2.1-1978

measured accurately. Comparison of manometers containing liquids of unknown density against


a water column is a convenient method of determining their density.
4.11 Table 11. Expansion coefficients of scale materials. The length of the scale is
determined from the coefficients of linear expansion of scale materials by the relation
L = Lo(1+at)
L = Lo{1+b(t32)}

for t in deg C
for t in deg F

where L is the length at temperature t, Lo is the length at 0C or 32F, and a and b are the
expansion coefficients per C and per F respectively.
The above relation is not exact, but the error is tolerable for the small temperature ranges
ordinarily experienced by manometers. In fact, if the scale length is known at some other
temperature than 0C, the above relations can be written without serious loss in accuracy as
follows:
L = L1{1+a(tt1)}
L = L1{1+b(tt1)}

for t in deg C
for t in deg F

where L1 is the length measured at t1 and the other terms are defined as above.
It is obvious for precise measurements, that the variations in the coefficients for a given material
are such that the coefficient of expansion of the scale material must be measured. Knowledge of
the composition of the scale material, and of the degree of cold work for metals, may often serve
to pick up a reasonably accurate value from the literature on the subject.
4.12 Table 12. Conversion factors for water columns at various temperatures. For a
number of temperatures of the water column, the equivalent psi is given for one inch of water, and
the equivalent height of a mercury column at 32F and of water columns at 60F, 68F (20C),
and 77F (25C) are given for unit height of a water column in any unit as cm, in., etc. The table
must be entered in all cases with the true height, that is, the indicated height must be corrected
for scale errors and for the effect of temperature on the scale, and any other errors, if significant.
If psi corresponding to one cm of water are desired, multiply the given values in psi by 0.3937.
As an example, find the equivalent psi, in. of mercury and in. of water at 68F of 35 in. of water at
75F. Entering the table at 75F there is obtained
35 x 0.036031 = 1.261 psi
35 x 0.073359 = 2.568 in. of mercury at 0C
35 x 0.9991 = 34.97 in. of water at 68F

ISA-RP2.1-1978

17

4.13 Tables 13 and 14. Temperature corrections for water manometers with brass scales
to obtain reading at 68F (20C) and at 60F. These tables were constructed from the following
relation:

DD
Correction = ----------------o- + s ( t t o ) h
Do
where D is density of water at temperature t; Do the density at the reference temperature to which
is 68F in Table 13 and 60F in Table 14; s is the linear coefficient of expansion of brass; and h is
the indicated height of the water column at temperature t after correction for scale error. The
temperatures are in degrees Fahrenheit.
This form of the equation has to be used rather than equation (4) of the section on "Temperature
Errors," because the coefficient of expansion of water varies too much with temperature to be
assumed constant.
Table 11 shows that the coefficient s varies for brass. The value was taken as 10.2 x 106 per
degree F following the usual practice in barometry. A deviation in s of 10 percent from the value
chosen will on the average affect the corrections in the order of 1 percent. The density of water
was obtained from Table 7.
Either table may be entered with the height of the column in inches or mm, or any other unit, to
obtain the temperature correction in the same unit. Also, it has been assumed that the scales are
graduated to indicate correctly at 68F in Table 13, and 60F in Table 14. The tables can be used
nevertheless if the effect of deviations from this assumption can be lumped in with the scale error.
As an example, assume a manometer with a brass scale to read 720 mm at a manometer
temperature of 82F, to obtain the height of the water column at 68F. Assume the scale
correction to be 1 mm when calibrated at 68F. Applying this correction gives a reading of 719
mm. Enter Table 13 successively with 700, 100 and 900 mm, and interpolate between 80 and
85F. The temperature correction is then, properly locating the decimal point, 1.24 + 0.02 + 0.02
or 1.28 mm, and the reading corrected for temperature is 717.7 mm.
4.14 Tables 15A and 15B. Equivalents in psi of water columns at various temperatures in
inches and in feet and inches. These tables were constructed from the conversion factors given
in Table 9. The tables are entered with the true height of the water column at the designated
temperature, that is, entered with manometer readings corrected for all errors.
As an example of the use of Table 15B, 8 ft 11 in. of water at 95F = 3.447 + 0.395 + 0.018 =
3.860 psi.
4.15 Table 16. Conversion factors for mercury columns at various temperatures. The
table presents the equivalent of one inch of mercury in psi at the designated temperature, and the
factor for converting the height of a mercury column at the designated temperature to the height
of a mercury column at 32F (0C) and to the height of a water column at any one of the three
temperatures, 60, 68, or 77F. The conversion factor can be used to convert the mercury column
in any unit of height to obtain the height in the same unit of the desired liquid column. The table
should be entered with the true height of the mercury column at the designated temperature.
The computations are based on the data given in Tables 6, 7, and 9.

18

ISA-RP2.1-1978

As an example, convert 25.00 mm of mercury at 85F to psi, to a mercury column at 32F, and to
a water column at 68F.
(a) 25 x 0.48854 = 12.21 psi
(b) 25 x 0.9947 = 24.87 mm of mercury at 32F
(c) 25 x 13.547 = 338.7 mm of water at 68F
To obtain psi for 1 mm of mercury, multiply the psi factor given in the table by 0.03937.
4.16 Tables 17 and 18. Temperature corrections for mercury manometers and barometers
with brass scales to obtain readings at 0C (32F). The two tables are alike except that one is
for deg C and the other is for deg F. The indicated column heights given in the tables were
selected for convenience: if temperatures are measured in deg C, the manometer is more likely
to be graduated in millimeters; in deg F, in inches. However, either table may be entered with the
liquid height either in millimeters or inches, or any other unit, to obtain the temperature correction
in the same unit.
The corrections were computed from equation (4) of the section on "Temperature Errors."

s ( t to ) m (t t o )
Correction = ------------------------------------------------ H t
1 + m ( t to )
where

Ht
t
to
m
s

= reading of the manometer at temperature t corrected for scale error.


= temperature of the manometer in deg C for Table 17, in deg F for Table 18.
= 0C for Table 17, 32F for Table 18.
= coefficient of expansion of mercury, 0.0001818 per deg C for Table 17,
0.0001010 for Table 18.
= linear coefficient of expansion for the brass scale, 0.0000184 for deg C for Table
17, 0.0000102 per deg F for Table 18.

It is obvious that the correction is linear with the reading and very nearly so with temperature,
sufficiently for the purposes of interpolation in the tables.
Brass scales will not necessarily have the value given above for the coefficient of expansion,
which is that commonly used in barometry. A deviation of as much as 10 percent from the value
used will introduce an error of about 1 percent in the correction.
It will be noted that the brass scale has been assumed accurate at 32F or 0C. Such is not
generally the case, but the corrections will still apply with high accuracy if the error due to this
assumption is merged with the scale error. This procedure is facilitated by the common practice
of calibrating a manometer against a "standard" manometer.
Table 17 for deg C is identical with the barometer temperature correction table for deg C in the
Smithsonian Meteorological Tables (SMT). Table 18 for deg F differs from that in the SMT in that
the brass scale is assumed calibrated correctly at 62F (to in the term s(tto) in the equation
above equals 62F) in SMT, instead of 32F as here assumed. Since neither temperature is in
correspondence with normal practice, it seems more practical and convenient to use 32F.
The corrections apply only to manometers and barometers in which the scale is read at both
liquid levels, or the zero of the scale and the lower liquid level are brought to coincidence. In
instruments of the design, including the cistern type, where the scale is calibrated to take care of
the rise or fall of one of the liquid surfaces, the corrections given in the tables do not apply. The
effect on the reading of the expansion of the mercury in the cistern, or below the lowest surface of
the mercury, is not covered by the equation given above. However, the corrections can be used
for cistern type instruments if the reading with which the table is entered be increased roughly by

ISA-RP2.1-1978

19

the height of the mercury in the cistern at zero differential pressure. The exact amount of this
increase must be determined by tests at two temperatures.
As an example, assume that a U-tube manometer with a brass scale at 75F reads 22.21 inches
of mercury after correction for scale error. From Table 18 the correction is 0.078 + 0.42 x 0.019
or 0.086 inch. The corrected reading is 22.21 0.09 or 22.12 inches of mercury.
4.17 Table 19. Equivalents in psi of mercury columns in inches of mercury at various
temperatures. This table was computed from the data given in Tables 6 and 9. The heights of
the mercury column are in true inches of mercury at the temperature designated, and should be
in terms of the height under the condition of standard gravity.
4.18 Tables 20A and 20B. Equivalents of mercury columns at various temperatures to
water columns at 20C (68F) and at 60F. These tables are computed from the data given in
Tables 6 and 7. They can be entered with true inches of mercury at the designated temperature,
either before or after correcting the height for gravity error. If the mercury height is uncorrected
for gravity error, the equivalent water column will be also.
4.19 Table 21. Density of kerosine and equivalent pressures in psi of kerosine columns at
various temperatures. This table is for kerosine of specific gravity 0.8200 at 60/60 (41.06 API
degrees Baume). The densities at various temperatures are based on the specific gravity data
given in the National Standard Petroleum Tables, National Bureau of Standards
Circular 410, 1936.
In practice, it is necessary to select the kerosine to have a specific gravity of 0.8200 at 60/60 in
order for the table to apply. Evaporation of any components of the kerosine will affect the density,
but data on this possibility are not available.
Where the height, one inch or 100 mm, is specified, the heights are in true inches at the
temperature designated, corrected for gravity error for which Tables 8A and 8B are applicable.
As an example, a kerosine column of 52.08 true mm at 75F equals
(a) 52.08 x 0.00157 = 0.06026 psi
(b) 52.08 x 0.8134 = 42.36 g/ sq cm
4.20 Table 22. Equivalents in psi of columns of kerosine in inches at various
temperatures. The definition of the kerosine and basic data for the table are as indicated in
Table 21.
The heights of the kerosine column are in true inches at the temperature designated, corrected
for gravity error, for which Tables 8A and 8B are applicable.
As an example, a kerosine column of 45.28 inches at 75F, with all corrections applied, equals
1.176 + 0.147 + 0.006 + 0.002 = 1.331 psi
4.21 Table 23. Equivalents in inches of water at 60F of kerosine columns in mm at
various temperatures. This table is for kerosine of the same density as for Tables 21 and 22.
The table was computed with the aid of Table 3 of NBS Circular 410, National Standard
Petroleum Tables.
The table must be entered with heights in true mm and inches. Conversion may be made before
or after applying correction for gravity, as convenient.
As an example, 115 mm of kerosine at 75F equals 3.205 + 0.320 + 0.161 or 3.686 inches of
water at 60F.

20

ISA-RP2.1-1978

4.22 Table 24. Equivalents in inches of water at 60F of gage oil columns at various
temperatures. This oil is a kerosine known commercially as "Ellison Gage Oil." The data given
are based on a coefficient of volume expansion of the oil about 4 percent less than for an oil of
the same specific gravity 60/60 given in NBS Handbook C410. The spread in the densities with
temperature is therefore about 4 percent greater in the table.
The table serves equally well to convert oil columns in any unit of height to water columns in the
same unit of height, as mm of oil to mm of water.
The table must be entered only with true inches or other units of height at the designated
temperature. Gravity corrections can be applied before or after conversion.
As an example, 18.72 inches (or mm) of oil at 75F equals 8.282 + 6.625 + 0.584 + 0.017 or
15.51 inches (or mm) of water at 60F.
4.23 Table 25. Equivalents in inches of water at 60F of alcohol columns at various
temperatures. This table is for 100 percent ethyl alcohol which, unfortunately, is not easily
obtained or maintained in manometers. For 95 percent alcohol by weight, the remainder water,
the density increases about 2 percent and correspondingly increases the equivalent column,
height in inches of water.
The table can be used equally well to convert alcohol columns in any unit of height to water
columns in the same unit of height, as mm of alcohol to mm of water.
The table applies only to true inches or other units of height at the designated temperatures.
As an example, 20.52 inches (or mm) of alcohol at 75F equals 15.74 + 0.39 + 0.02 or 16.15
inches (or mm) of water.
4.24 Table 26. Equivalents in inches of water at 60F of alcohol-glycol columns at various
temperatures. This mixture is so chosen that the specific gravity is the same as that of water at
60F, but as indicated in the table differs significantly from the specific gravity of water at other
temperatures. It is useful when the manometer temperature is below 32F. At these
temperatures, the use of carbitol or butyl phthalate, or perhaps alcohol alone, may be preferable.
See Table 10.
The application of the table to other units of height and the restriction to true heights are as stated
under Table 25.
As an example, 29.22 inches (or mm) of alcohol-glycol at 75F equals 19.87 + 8.94 + 0.20 + 0.02
or 29.03 inches (or mm) of water at 60F.
4.25 Table 27. Equivalents in inches of water at 60F of dibromobenzene columns at
various temperatures. The Handbook of Physics and Chemistry gives the specific gravity of
20.5
o-dibromobenzene as 1.9557 ----------4
69
which equals 1.9576 ------ . It has the serious drawback of being hydrolyzed by water and
60
becoming slightly acidic. It should be used only in glass tubes or instruments with brass
chambers and fittings.
The application of the table to other units of height and the restriction to true heights are as stated
under Table 25.
As an example, 29.22 inches (or mm) of dibromobenzene at 75F equals 39.06 + 17.58 + 0.39 +
0.04 or 57.07 inches (or mm) of water.

ISA-RP2.1-1978

21

4.26 Table 28. Equivalents in psi of dibromobenzene columns at various temperatures.


The height of the column should be entered with true inches at the designated temperature with
corrections applied for all errors.
As an example, 29.22 inches of dibromobenzene at 75F equals 1.410 + 0.635 + 0.014 + 0.001
or 2.060 psi.
4.27 Table 29. Equivalents in inches of water at 60F of dibromoethane (also known as
ethylidene bromide) columns at various temperatures. The Handbook of Chemistry and
20.5
69
Physics gives 2.089 ----------- equals 2.09 ------ for the specific gravity and 108-110C (226-230F) for
4
60
70
the boiling point. In Table 29 the specific gravity is 2.045 ------ which is 2.2 percent less than the
60
above value. The lower value apparently applies to the technical grade of the liquid.
Dibromoethane like dibromobenzene is hydrolyzed by water and becomes slightly acidic. The
same restrictions apply as to the use of glass tubes, or brass, in manometers.
The application of the table to other units of height and the restriction to true heights are as stated
under Table 25.
As an example, 29.22 inches (or mm) of dibromoethane at 75F equals 40.79 + 18.36 + 0.41 +
0.04 or 59.60 inches (or mm) of water at 60F.
4.28 Table 30. Equivalents in psi of dibromoethane columns at various temperatures.
The table should be entered with true inches at the designated temperature with corrections
applied for all errors.
As an example, 29.22 inches of dibromoethane at 75F equals 1.472 + 0.663 + 0.015 + 0.002 or
2.152 psi.
4.29 Table 31. Equivalents in inches of water at 60F of columns of acetylene
tetrabromide at various temperatures. The Handbook of Chemistry and Physics gives the
20
specific gravity of 1, 1, 2, 2-tetrabromoethane (or acetylene tetrabromide) as 2.9368 -----4
68
68
equivalent to 2.9667 ------ . In Table 31 it is 2.9614 ------ which is 0.17 percent lower than for the
60
60
presumably pure chemical.
The application of the table to other units of height and the restriction to true heights are stated
under Table 25.
As an example, 29.22 inches (or mm) of acetylene tetrabromide at 75F equals 59.04 + 26.57 +
0.59 + 0.06 or 86.26 inches (or mm) of water at 60F.
4.30 Table 32. Equivalents in psi of acetylene tetrabromide at various temperatures. The
table should be entered with true inches at the designated temperature with corrections applied
for all errors.
In spite of a greater degree of bromination, tetrabromoethane appears to be somewhat more
stable and less reactive than dibromoethane, but not sufficiently so to permit use in contact with
appreciable concentrations of water vapor, nor in instruments that are not provided with special
brass chambers or fittings.
As an example 29.22 inches of acetylene tetrabromide at 75F equals 2.131 + 0.959 + 0.021 +
0.002 or 3.113 psi.

22

ISA-RP2.1-1978

Table 1 Abbreviations
Term

Abbreviations

Term

absolute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . abs

Abbreviations
micron (0.001 mm) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . or mu

atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . atm

milliliter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ml

boiling point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bp

millimeter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .mm

centimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cm

millimeters of mercury. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .mm Hg


millimeters of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .mm H 2 O
ounce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .oz

cubic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cu
cubic centimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cu cm or cm
cubic foot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cu ft

ounce avoirdupois . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .oz avdp


ounces per square inch. . . . . . . . . . . . . .oz/sq in. or oz/. in

cubic inch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cu in.


cubic meter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cu m or m
foot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ft

pound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .lb
pounds per cubic inch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .lb/cu in.

freezing point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fp

pounds per cubic foot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .lb/cu ft

gram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . g

pounds per square foot . . . . . . . . . . . . . .psf


pounds per square inch . . . . . . . . . . . . .psi

grams per cubic centimeter . . . . . . . . . . g/cu cm or g/ cm


grams per square centimeter . . . . . . . . . g/sq cm or g/ cm

3
2

pounds per square inch gage . . . . . . . . .psig


pounds per square inch absolute . . . . . .psia

inch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in.

specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sp gr

inches of mercury. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in. Hg

square centimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sq cm or cm


square foot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sq ft

inches of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in. H 2 O


kilogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kg
kilograms per square meter . . . . . . . . . . kg/sq m or kg/ m

square inch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sq in.


2

melting point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mp

square meter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sq m or m


2
square millimeter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sq mm or mm

millibars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mb

temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .temp

ISA-RP2.1-1978

23

Table 2 Fundamental constants and conversion factors


Largely from Units of Weight and Measure
National Bureau of Standards Misc. Publ. No. M233
Fundamental constants are underlined
1 cm = 0.3937 inches
1 meter = 39.37 inches
1 meter = 3.280840 feet

1 inch = 2.54 cm

1 sq cm = 0.1550003 sq inch
1 sq meter = 10.76391 cu feet

1 sq inch = 6.4516 sq inch


1 sq foot = 929.0304 sq cm

1 cu cm = 0.06102374 cu inch
1 cu meter = 35.31467 cu feet

1 cu inch - 16.387064 cu cm
1 cu foot = 0.028316847 cu meter

1 kilogram = 2.204623 pounds


1 gram = 0.03527397 ounce

1 pound = 453.59237 grams


1 ounce = 28.349523 grams

1 liter = 1000.028 cu cm
1 liter = 61.02545 cu inches
1 cu cm = 0.9999720 liter

1 cu inch = 0.01638661 liter

1 gram/cu cm = 62.4280 lb/cu foot


1 gram/cu cm = 0.0361273 lb/cu inch
1 gram/ml = 0.9999730 gram/cu cm

1 lb/cu foot = 0.0160185 gram/cu cm


1 lb/cu inch = 27.6799 gram/cu cm
1 gram/cu cm = 1.000028 grams/ml

1 foot = 30.48 cm

Standard acceleration of gravity = 980.665 cm/sec2 = 32.1740 ft sec2


(International value in physics and engineering)

24

ISA-RP2.1-1978

Table 3 Decimal equivalents of fractions of one inch


1-64

0.015625

17-64

0.265625

33-64

0.515625

49-64

0.765625

1-32

0.031250

9-32

0.281250

17-32

0.531250

25-32

0.781250

3-64

0.046875

19-64

0.296875

35-64

0.546875

51-64

0.796875

1-16

0.062500

5-16

0.312500

9-16

0.562500

13-16

0.812500

5-64

0.078125

21-64

0.328125

37-64

0.578125

53-64

0.828125

3-32

0.093750

11-32

0.343750

19-32

0.593750

27-32

0.843750

7-64

0.109375

23-64

0.359375

39-64

0.609375

55-64

0.859375

1-8

0.125000

3-8

0.375000

5-8

0.625000

7-8

0.875000

9-64

0.140625

25-64

0.390625

41-64

0.640625

57-64

0.890625

5-32

0.156250

13-32

0.406250

21-32

0.656250

29-32

0.906250

11-64

0.171875

27-64

0.421875

43-64

0.671875

59-64

0.921875

3-16

0.187500

7-16

0.437500

11-16

0.687500

15-16

0.937500

13-64

0.203125

29-64

0.453125

45-64

0.703125

61-64

0.953125

7-32

0.218750

15-32

0.468750

23-32

0.718750

31-32

0.968750

15-64

0.234375

31-64

0.484375

47-64

0.734375

63-64

0.984375

1-4

0.250000

1-2

0.500000

3-4

0.750000

Table 4 Millimeter equivalents of inches


Millimeters
Inches
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

0
0.00
25.40
50.80
76.20
101.60
127.00
152.40
177.80
203.20
228.60
254.00

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

2.54
27.94
53.34
78.74
104.14
129.54
154.94
180.34
205.74
231.14
256.54

5.08
30.48
55.88
81.28
106.68
132.08
157.48
182.88
208.28
233.68
259.08

7.62
33.02
58.42
83.82
109.22
134.62
160.02
185.42
210.22
236.22
261.32

10.16
35.56
60.96
86.36
111.76
137.16
162.56
187.96
213.36
238.76
264.16

12.70
38.10
63.50
88.90
114.30
139.70
165.10
190.50
215.90
241.30
266.70

15.24
40.64
66.04
91.44
116.84
142.24
167.64
193.04
218.44
243.84
269.24

17.78
43.18
68.58
93.98
119.35
144.78
170.18
195.58
220.98
246.38
271.78

20.32
45.72
71.12
96.52
121.92
147.32
172.72
198.12
223.52
248.92
274.32

22.86
48.26
73.66
99.06
124.46
149.86
175.26
200.66
226.06
251.46
276.86

Table 5 Inch equivalents of millimeters


Inches
mm

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

0.0000
0.3937
0.7874
1.1811
1.5748
1.9685
2.3622
2.7559
3.1496
3.5433
3.9370

0.0394
0.4331
0.8268
1.2205
1.6124
2.0079
2.4016
2.7953
3.1890
3.5827
3.9764

0.0787
0.4724
0.8661
1.2598
1.6535
2.0472
2.4409
2.8346
3.2283
3.6220
4.0157

0.1181
0.5118
0.9055
1.2992
1.6929
2.0866
2.4803
2.8740
3.2677
3.6614
4.0551

0.1575
0.5512
0.9449
1.3386
1.7323
2.1260
2.5197
2.9134
3.3071
3.7008
4.0945

0.1969
0.5906
0.9842
1.3780
1.7717
2.1654
2.5590
2.9528
3.3464
3.7402
4.1338

0.2362
0.6299
1.0236
1.4173
1.8110
2.2047
2.5984
2.9921
3.3858
3.7795
4.1732

0.2756
0.6693
1.0630
1.4567
1.8504
2.2441
2.6378
3.0315
3.4252
3.8189
4.2126

0.3150
0.7087
1.0124
1.4961
1.8898
2.2835
2.6772
3.0709
3.4646
3.8583
4.2520

0.3543
0.7480
1.1417
1.5354
1.9291
2.3228
2.7165
3.1102
3.5039
3.8976
4.2913

ISA-RP2.1-1978

25

Table 6 Density of mercury


At 0C (32F)

=13.5951 grams per cu cm


= 0.491157 lb weight per cu in.
= 848.719 lb weight per cu ft

At other temperatures the density can be from the following:


V
D

=Vo (1 + 0.0001818 t) where t is in deg C (1)


= V [1 + 0.0001010 (t32)] where t is in deg F (2)
= 1/V (3)

where

V
= specific volume at temperature t
Vo
= specific volume at 0C or 32F in the same unit as V
D
= the mass per unit volume
Density of mercury from Smithsonian Physical Tables. These values agree with those computed from formulas (1) and (3) above.

.
Temperature
deg C deg F
20
4
10
14
0
32
5
41
10
50
15
59
20
68
25
77
30
86
35
95
40
104
45
113
50
122
60
140
70
158
80
176
90
194
100
212

Density
g per cu cm
13.6446
13.6198
13.5951
13.5827
13.5704
13.5581
13.5458
13.5336
13.5214
13.5091
13.4970
13.4847
13.4725
13.4482
13.4240
13.3998
13.3775
13.3515
Density

Temperature deg F
0
10
20
32
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200

26

lb per cu in.
0.49275
0.49225
0.49175
0.491157
0.49076
0.49026
0.48977
0.48928
0.48879
0.48830
0.48780
0.48732
0.48683
0.48634
0.48585
0.48536
0.48488
0.48439
0.48391
0.48342
2.48293

g per cu cm
13.6391
13.6253
13.6116
13.5951
13.5841
13.5704
13.5568
13.5431
13.5295
13.5159
13.5023
13.4888
13.4753
13.4617
13.4482
13.4347
13.4213
13.4079
13.3944
13.3809
13.3675

ISA-RP2.1-1978

Table 7 Density of water


Distilled and free from air
From NBS Jnl. of Research, v. 18, Feb. 1937, RP 971 and from Table 93, volume on "WaterSubstance" by N. E. Dorsey, 1940
Density
Temperature deg C

g per cu cm

lb per cu in.

0.999841
0.999973
0.999965

0.0361218
0.0361265
0.0361262

10
15
20
25
30

0.999701
0.999102
0.998207
0.997048
0.995651

0.0361167
0.0360951
0.0360627
0.0360209
0.0359704

35
40
45
50
60

0.994037
0.992221
0.99021
0.98804
0.98324

0.0359121
0.0358465
0.035774
0.035695
0.035522

Temperature deg F

lb per cu in.

g per cu cm

35
40
45
50
55
60
65
68
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
130
140
150
200

0.0361232
0.0361265
0.0361236
0.0361167
0.0361060
0.0360919
0.0360746
0.0360627
0.0360542
0.0360309
0.0360050
0.0359764
0.0359454
0.0359121
0.0358764
0.0358387
0.035799
0.035757
0.035713
0.035622
0.035522
0.035414
0.034792

0.999882
0.999971
0.999892
0.999701
0.999406
0.999015
0.998536
0.998207
0.997971
0.997327
0.996608
0.995819
0.994960
0.994037
0.993051
0.992006
0.99090
0.98974
0.98854
0.98600
0.98324
0.98025
0.96304

0
3.98
5

Density

ISA-RP2.1-1978

27

Table 8A Gravity corrections at sea level at various latitudes for manometers


filled with any liquid
Latitude

Gravity

degrees

cm/sec2

20

Height of liquid column in any unit


40

60

80

100

978.036

0.054

0.107

0.161

0.214

0.268

10

978.191

0.050

0.101

0.151

0.201

0.252

20

978.638

0.041

0.083

0.124

0.165

0.207

25

978.955

0.035

0.070

0.104

0.139

0.174

30

979.324

0.027

0.055

0.082

0.110

0.137

35

979.731

0.019

0.038

0.057

0.076

0.095

40

980.167

0.010

0.020

0.030

0.040

0.051

45

980.616

0.001

0.002

0.003

0.004

0.005

980.665

50

981.065

+0.008

+0.017

+0.025

+0.033

+0.041

55

981.500

+0.017

+0.034

+0.052

+0.069

+0.086

60

981.911

+0.025

+0.051

+0.076

+0.102

+0.127

65

982.281

+0.033

+0.066

+0.099

+0.132

+0.166

70

982.601

+0.040

+0.079

+0.119

+0.158

+0.197

80

983.051

+0.049

+0.097

+0.146

+0.195

+0.243

90

983.208

+0.052

+0.104

+0.156

+0.207

+0.259

Table 8B Gravity corrections for manometers filled with any liquid


Gravity

28

Height of liquid column in any unit

cm/sec2

20

40

60

80

100

978.0
978.5
979.0
979.5
980.0
980.5
980.665
981.0
981.5
982.0
982.5
983.0
983.5

0.054
0.044
0.034
0.024
0.014
0.003
0
+0.007
+0.017
+0.027
+0.037
+0.048
+0.058

0.109
0.088
0.068
0.048
0.027
0.007
0
+0.014
+0.034
+0.054
+0.075
+0.095
+0.116

0.162
0.132
0.102
0.071
0.041
0.010
0
+0.021
+0.051
+0.082
+0.112
+0.143
+0.174

0.217
0.177
0.136
0.095
0.054
0.013
0
+0.027
+0.068
+0.109
+0.150
+0.191
+0.231

0.272
0.221
0.170
0.119
0.068
0.017
0
+0.034
+0.085
+0.136
+0.187
+0.238
+0.289

ISA-RP2.1-1978

ISA-RP2.1-1978

Table 9 Conversion factors for various pressure units


Equivalent value in various units
Pressure
unit value

mm
mercury
0C

inches
mercury
0C

millibars

pounds
per sq. in.

pounds
per sq. ft.

ounces
per sq in.

grams
per sq cm

cm water
60F

in water
60F

cm water
20C

in water
20C

cm water
25C

in water
25C

atmosphere

mm mercury

0.03937

1.3332

0.019337

2.7845

0.30939

1.3595

1.3609

0.53577

1.3619

0.53620

1.3635

0.53682

1.31579 x 103

in. mercury

25.400

33.864

0.49115

70.726

7.8585

34.531

34.566

13.609

34.593

13.619

34.634

13.635

0.0334210

millibars

0.75006

0.029530

0.014504

2.0885

0.23206

1.0197

1.0207

0.40186

1.0215

0.40218

1.0227

0.40265

9.86923 x 104

lb per sq in.

51.715

2.0360

68.948

144

16

70.307

70.376

27.707

70.433

27.730

70.515

27.762

0.0680460

lb per sq ft.

0.35913

0.014139

0.47880

0.0069444

0.11111

0.48824

0.48872

0.19241

0.48912

0.19257

0.48969

0.19279

4.72540 x 104

oz per sq in.

3.2322

0.12725

4.3092

0.0625

4.3942

4.3985

1.7317

4.4021

1.7331

4.4072

1.7351

4.25286 x 103

grams per sq
cm

0.73556

0.028959

0.98067

0.014223

2.0482

0.22757

1.0010

0.39409

1.0018

0.39441

1.0030

0.39487

9.67842 X 104

cm water 60F

0.73483

0.028930

0.97970

0.014209

2.0461

0.22735

0.99901

0.3937

1.0008

0.39402

1.0020

0.39448

9.66887 x 104

in. water 60F

1.8665

0.073483

2.4884

0.036092

5.1972

0.57747

2.5375

2.5400

2.5421

1.0008

2.5450

1.0020

2.45589 x 103

cm water 20C

0.73424

0.028907

0.97891

0.014198

2.0444

0.22717

0.99821

0.99919

0.39338

0.3937

1.0012

0.39416

9.66105 x 104

in. water 20C

1.8650

0.073424

2.4864

0.036063

5.1930

0.57700

2.5354

2.5380

0.99919

2.5400

2.5430

1.0012

2.45392 x 103

cm water 25C

0.73339

0.028873

0.97777

0.014181

2.0421

0.22690

0.99705

0.99803

0.39292

0.99884

0.39324

0.3937

9.64984 X 104

in. water 25C

1.8628

0.03339

2.4835

0.036021

5.1870

0.57633

2.5325

2.5350

0.99803

2.5371

0.99884

2.5400

2.45106 X 103

atmosphere

760

29.9213

1013.250

14.69595

2116.22

235.136

1033.227

1034.25

407.184

1035.08

407.511

1036.29

407.987

1 millibar = 1000 dynes per sq cm


1 kg per sq meter = 0.1 gram per sq cm
1 kg per sq cm = 1000 grams per sq cm
1 gram per sq meter = 0.0001 gram per sq cm

29

30

Table 10 Properties of manometric liquids


Liquid

Specific
gravity
20/20

Action with
water vapor

Coefficient of thermal expansion


per deg F
x 106

per deg C
x 106

Range
deg F

Melting
Point
deg F

Boiling
Point
deg F

Flash
Point
deg F

43.9

600

1080

50-86

179

173

55

Vapor
pressure at
68 F
mmHg

ISA-RP2.1-1978

1. Ethyl Alcohol, C 2H6O

0.7939

absorbs

2. Kerosine, 41 API at 60 F

0.8200 60/60

negligible

480

864

30-100

20

300+

120

3. Ellison Gage Oil

0.8340 60/60

negligible

466

839

30-100

300+

140

4. Benzene (Benzol), C6H6

0.8794

negligible

74.7

687

1237

68

42

176

12

5. Butyl Cellosolve C6H14O2


(Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl
Ether)

0.9019

absorbs

0.85

100

340

165

6. Water

1.000

17.5

115

207

68

32

212

non-inflam.

7. Alcohol Glycol

1.000

absorbs

427

769

30-100

60

173

70

8. Carbitol, C6H14O3 (Diethylene


Glycol Monoethyl Ether)

1.024-30

absorbs

76

202

210

9. n-Butyl Phthalate, C16H22O 4

1.0477

negligible

104

433

780

31

644

340

10. Ethylene Glycol (Glycol),


C 2 H 6 O2

1.1155 20/4

absorbs
slowly

0.09

354

638

68

+0.8

387

241

11. Halowax Oil

1.19-1.25

0.3-50 C

367

660

24- 42

12. Glycerine (Glycerol), C3H8O3

1.260 20/4

absorbs

low

281

505

68

64

554

320

13. o-Dibromobenzene, C6H4Br2

1.956 20/4

negligible

432

778

30-100

35.2

430

150+

14. 1, l-Dibromoethane, C2H4Br2

2.089 20/4

negligible

34.7

532

958

30-100

40

230

75+

15. Acetylene tetrabromide


(Tetra bromoethane), C2H2Br4

2.964 20/4

absorbs
slightly

370

660

non-inflam.

16. Mercury

13.570

negligible

0.0012

101

181.8

-20 to 250

38

679

non-inflam.

203

Table 11 Expansion coefficients of scale materials


Material

Coefficient of linear expansion

Observer or source

Temperature
range
deg C

Per degree C
x 106

Per degree F
x 106

20 to 100

6.3 to 8.8

3.5 to 4.9

0 to 100

9.4

5.2

Watertown Arsenal

Ordinary temp.

10.4

5.8

Adie

20 to 200

1.6 to 19.6

0.9 to 10.9

Along Grain

1. to 11.

0.6 to 6.

Various observers

Across Grain

32. to 73.

18. to 41.

Various observers

Glass

0 to 300

0.8 to 12.8

0.4 to 7.1

Corning Glass Works

Quartz, fused

20 to 60

0.40

0.22

Souder and Hidnert

Iron

25 to 100

12.0

6.7

Souder and Hidnert

Wrought Iron

25 to 100

12.1

6.7

Circular NBS C447

Cast Iron

20 to 100

8.7 to 11.1

4.8 to 6.2

Circular NBS C447

Steel (carbon)

20 to 100

9.4 to 12.5

5.2 to 6.9

Metals Handbook (1939)

12 Cr

20 to 100

10.0

5.6

Hidnert

18 Cr, 9 Ni

20 to 60

16.1

8.9

Hidnert

Brass

20 to 100

16.9 to 19.4

9.4 to 10.8

Hidnert

Bronze

20 to 100

16.8 to 19.1

9.3 to 10.6

NBS Research Paper RP 1518

Bakelite

20 to 60

21. to 33.

12. to 18.

Souder and Hidnert

Aluminum

0 to 60

23.2

12.9

50. to 84.

28. to 47.

Slate

Porcelain

Griffiths

Souder and Hidnert

Wood

Stainless Steel

Hard Rubber b

Hidnert
Proc. Rubber Technology
Conference, London, England
(1938)

a. Various temperature ranges between 2 and 100 C


b. Includes terms "ebonite" and "vulcanite"
c. Various temperature ranges between 0 and 100 C

ISA-RP2.1-1978

31

Table 12 Conversion factors for water columns at various temperatures


Factor for Converting Water Column Height at Various Temperatures to:

Observed
Temperature
of Water

32

Equiv. Psi of
1 in. of water

deg F

deg C

32
35
39.2
45
50
55
60
65
68
70
75
77
80
85
90
95
100
110
120
130
140
150
200

0.00
1.67
3.98
7.22
10.00
12.78
15.56
18.33
20.00
21.11
23.89
25.00
26.67
29.44
32.22
35.00
37.78
43.33
48.89
54.44
60.00
65.56
93.33

0.036122
0.036123
0.036126
0.036124
0.036117
0.036106
0.036092
0.036075
0.036063
0.036054
0.036031
0.036021
0.036005
0.035976
0.035945
0.035912
0.035876
0.035799
0.035713
0.035622
0.035522
0.035414
0.034792

Mercury
Column

Water Column

at 32 F

at 60 F

at 68 F

at 77 F

0.073544
0.073547
0.073554
0.073548
0.073534
0.073512
0.073483
0.073448
0.073424
0.073407
0.073359
0.073339
0.073306
0.073248
0.073185
0.073117
0.073045
0.072887
0.072713
0.072526
0.072323
0.072103
0.070837

1.0008
1.0009
1.0010
1.0009
1.0007
10004
1.0000
0.9995
0.9992
0.9990
0.9983
0.9980
0.9976
0.9968
0.9959
0.9950
0.9940
0.9919
0.9895
0.9870
0.9842
0.9812
0.9640

1.0016
1.0017
1.0018
1.0017
1.0015
1.0012
1.0008
1.0003
1.0000
0.9998
0.9991
0.9988
0.9984
0.9976
0.9967
0.9958
0.9948
0.9927
0.9903
0.9878
0.9850
0.9820
0.9648

1.0028
1.0028
1.0029
1.0028
1.0027
1.0024
1.0020
1.0015
1.0012
1.0009
1.0003
1.0000
0.9996
0.9988
0.9979
0.9970
0.9960
0.9938
0.9915
0.9989
0.9862
0.9832
0.9659

ISA-RP2.1-1978

ISA-RP2.1-1978

Table 13 Temperature corrections for water manometers with brass scales to obtain reading at 68F
Plus corrections are to be added to, minus corrections to be subtracted from reading.
Temperature
deg F

deg C

Enter with indicated column height (mm or inches) and its temperature.
100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

550

600

650

700

750

800

850

900

950

1000

33

32

0.00

+0.13

+0.19

+0.25

+0.32

+0.38

+0.44

+0.51

+0.57

+0.63

+0.70

+0.76

+0.82

+0.89

+0.95

+1.02

+1.08

+1.14

+1.21

+1.27

35

1.67

0.13

0.20

0.27

0.34

0.40

0.47

0.54

0.60

0.67

0.74

0.80

0.87

0.94

1.01

1.07

1.14

1.21

1.27

1.34

40

4.44

0.15

0.22

0.30

0.37

0.44

0.52

0.59

0.67

0.74

0.81

0.89

0.96

1.04

1.11

1.18

1.26

1.33

1.41

1.48

45

7.22

0.15

0.22

0.29

0.36

0.44

0.51

0.58

0.65

0.73

0.80

0.87

0.94

1.02

1.09

1.16

1.24

1.31

1.38

1.46

50

10.00

0.13

0.20

0.26

0.33

0.39

0.46

0.53

0.59

0.66

0.72

0.79

0.85

0.92

0.98

1.05

1.12

1.18

1.25

1.32

55

12.78

0.11

0.16

0.21

0.27

0.32

0.37

0.43

0.48

0.53

0.59

0.64

0.69

0.75

0.80

0.85

0.91

0.96

1.01

1.07

60

15.56

0.07

0.11

0.15

0.18

0.22

0.25

0.29

0.33

0.36

0.40

0.44

0.47

0.51

0.55

0.58

0.62

0.65

0.69

0.73

65

18.33

+0.03

+0.04

+0.06

+0.07

+0.09

+0.10

+0.12

+0.13

+0.15

+0.16

+0.18

+0.19

+0.21

+0.22

+0.24

+0.25

+0.27

+0.28

+0.30

68

20.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

70

21.11

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.08

0.09

0.10

0.11

0.12

0.13

0.14

0.15

0.16

0.17

0.18

0.19

0.21

-0.22

75

23.89

0.08

0.12

0.16

0.20

0.24

0.28

0.32

0.36

0.41

0.45

0.49

0.53

0.57

0.61

0.65

0.69

0.73

0.77

0.81

77

25.00

0.11

0.16

0.21

0.27

0.32

0.37

0.43

0.48

0.53

0.59

0.64

0.69

0.75

0.80

0.85

0.91

0.96

1.02

1.07

80

26.67

0.15

0.22

0.30

0.37

0.44

0.52

0.59

0.67

0.74

0.81

0.89

0.96

1.04

1.11

1.18

1.26

1.33

1.41

1.48

85

29.44

0.22

0.33

0.44

0.55

0.67

0.78

0.89

1.00

1.11

1.22

1.33

1.44

1.55

1.66

1.78

1.89

2.00

2.11

2.22

90

32.22

0.30

0.45

0.61

0.76

0.91

1.06

1.21

1.36

1.51

1.67

1.82

1.97

2.12

2.27

2.42

2.57

2.73

2.88

3.03

95

35.00

0.39

0.59

0.78

0.98

1.17

1.37

1.56

1.76

1.95

2.15

2.34

2.54

2.73

2.93

3.12

3.32

3.51

3.71

3.90

100

37.78

0.48

0.73

0.97

1.21

1.45

1.69

1.94

2.18

2.42

2.66

2.90

3.15

3.39

3.63

3.87

4.11

4.36

4.60

4.84

105

40.56

0.58

0.88

1.17

1.46

1.75

2.04

2.33

2.63

2.92

3.21

3.50

3.79

4.08

4.38

4.67

4.96

5.25

5.54

5.83

110

43.33

0.69

1.03

1.38

1.72

2.07

2.41

2.76

3.10

3.45

3.79

4.14

4.48

4.82

5.17

5.51

5.86

6.20

6.55

6.89

115

46.11

0.80

1.20

1.60

2.00

2.40

2.80

3.20

3.60

4.00

4.40

4.80

5.20

5.60

6.00

6.40

6.80

7.20

7.60

8.00

120

48.89

0.92

1.37

1.83

2.29

2.75

3.20

3.66

4.12

4.58

5.03

5.49

5.95

6.41

6.87

7.32

7.78

8.24

8.70

9.15

34

Table 14 Temperature corrections for water manometers with brass scales to obtain reading at 60F
Plus corrections are to be added to, minus corrections to be subtracted from reading.
Temperature
deg F

deg C

Enter with indicated column height (mm or inches) and its temperature.
100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

550

600

650

700

750

800

850

900

950

1000

ISA-RP2.1-1978

32

0.00

+0.06

+0.08

+0.11

+0.14

+0.17

+0.19

+0.22

+0.25

+0.28

+0.30

+0.33

+0.36

+0.39

+0.41

+0.44

+0.47

+0.50

+0.52

+0.54

35

1.67

0.06

0.09

0.12

0.15

0.18

0.21

0.25

0.28

0.31

0.34

0.37

0.40

0.43

0.46

0.49

0.52

0.55

0.58

0.61

40

4.44

0.08

0.11

0.15

0.19

0.23

0.26

0.30

0.34

0.38

0.41

0.45

0.49

0.53

0.56

0.60

0.64

0.68

0.72

0.75

45

7.22

0.07

0.11

0.14

0.18

0.22

0.25

0.29

0.33

0.36

0.40

0.43

0.47

0.51

0.54

0.58

0.62

0.65

0.69

0.72

50

10.00

0.06

0.09

0.12

0.15

0.18

0.20

0.23

0.26

0.29

0.32

0.35

0.38

0.41

0.44

0.47

0.50

0.53

0.56

0.58

55

12.78

+0.03

+0.05

+0.07

+0.08

+0.10

+0.12

+0.14

+0.15

+0.17

+0.19

+0.20

+0.22

+0.24

+0.26

+0.27

+0.29

+0.31

+0.32

+0.34

60

15.56

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

65

18.33

0.04

0.06

0.09

0.11

0.13

0.15

0.17

0.19

0.21

0.24

0.26

0.28

0.30

0.32

0.34

0.36

0.39

0.41

0.43

68

20.00

0.07

0.11

0.15

0.18

0.22

0.25

0.29

0.33

0.36

0.40

0.44

0.47

0.51

0.55

0.58

0.62

0.65

0.69

0.73

70

21.11

0.09

0.14

0.19

0.24

0.28

0.33

0.38

0.42

0.47

0.52

0.57

0.61

0.66

0.71

0.75

0.80

0.85

0.90

0.94

75

23.89

0.15

0.23

0.31

0.38

0.46

0.54

0.61

0.69

0.77

0.85

0.92

1.00

1.08

1.15

1.23

1.31

1.38

1.46

1.54

77

25.00

0.18

0.27

0.36

0.45

0.54

0.63

0.72

0.81

0.90

0.99

1.08

1.17

1.26

1.35

1.44

1.53

1.62

1.71

1.80

80

26.67

0.22

0.33

0.44

0.55

0.66

0.77

0.88

0.99

1.10

1.21

1.32

1.43

1.54

1.65

1.76

1.87

1.98

2.09

2.21

85

29.44

0.29

0.44

0.59

0.74

0.88

1.03

1.18

1.32

1.47

1.62

1.77

1.91

2.06

2.21

2.36

2.50

2.65

2.80

2.94

90

32.22

0.38

0.56

0.75

0.94

1.13

1.31

1.50

1.69

1.88

2.06

2.25

2.44

2.63

2.81

3.00

3.19

3.38

3.57

3.75

95

35.00

0.46

0.69

0.93

1.16

1.39

1.62

1.85

2.08

2.31

2.54

2.78

3.01

3.24

3.47

3.70

3.93

4.16

4.39

4.63

100

37.78

0.56

0.83

1.11

1.39

1.67

1.95

2.22

2.50

2.78

3.06

3.34

3.62

3.89

4.17

4.45

4.73

5.01

5.28

5.56

105

40.56

0.66

0.98

1.31

1.64

1.97

2.29

2.62

2.95

3.28

3.61

3.93

4.26

4.59

4.92

5.25

5.57

5.90

6.23

6.56

110

43.33

0.76

1.14

1.52

1.90

2.28

2.66

3.05

3.43

3.81

4.19

4.57

4.95

5.33

5.71

6.09

6.47

6.85

7.23

7.61

115

46.11

0.87

1.31

1.74

2.18

2.62

3.05

3.49

3.93

4.36

4.80

5.23

5.67

6.11

6.54

6.98

7.41

7.85

8.29

8.72

120

48.89

0.99

1.48

1.97

2.47

2.96

3.46

3.95

4.44

4.94

5.43

5.92

6.42

6.91

7.40

7.90

8.39

8.89

9.38

9.87

Table 15A Equivalents in psi, of water columns in inches at


various temperatures
Temperature of water in deg F
Inches
Water

40

50

60

68

70

80

90

100

150

200

psi

psi

psi

psi

psi

psi

psi

psi

psi

psi

0.1

0.0036

0.0036

0.0036

0.0036

0.0036

0.0036

0.0036

0.0036

0.0035

0.0035

0.2

0.0072

0.0072

0.0072

0.0072

0.0072

0.0072

0.0072

0.0072

0.0071

0.0070

0.3

0.0108

0.0108

0.0108

0.0108

0.0108

0.0108

0.0108

0.0108

0.0106

0.0104

0.4

0.0145

0.0144

0.0144

0.0144

0.0144

0.0144

0.0144

0.0144

0.0142

0.0139

0.5

0.0181

0.0181

0.0180

0.0180

0.0180

0.0180

0.0180

0.0179

0.0177

0.0174

0.6

0.0217

0.0217

0.0217

0.0216

0.0216

0.0216

0.0216

0.0215

0.0213

0.0209

0.7

0.0253

0.0253

0.0253

0.0252

0.0252

0.0252

0.0252

0.0251

0.0248

0.0244

0.8

0.0289

0.0289

0.0289

0.0288

0.0288

0.0288

0.0288

0.0287

0.0283

0.0278

0.9

0.0325

0.0325

0.0325

0.0325

0.0324

0.0324

0.0323

0.0323

0.0319

0.0313

0.0348

1.0

0.0361

0.0361

0.0361

0.0361

0.0361

0.0360

0.0359

0.0359

0.0354

2.

0.0723

0.0722

0.0722

0.0721

0.0721

0.0720

0.0719

0.0718

0.0708

0.0696

3.

0.1084

0.1084

0.1083

0.1082

0.1082

0.1080

0.1078

0.1076

0.1062

0.1044

4.

0.1445

0.1445

0.1444

0.1443

0.1442

0.1440

0.1438

0.1435

0.1417

0.1392

5.

0.1806

0.1806

0.1805

0.1803

0.1803

0.1800

0.1797

0.1794

0.1771

0.1740

6.

0.2168

0.2167

0.2166

0.2164

0.2163

0.2160

0.2157

0.2153

0.2125

0.2088

7.

0.2529

0.2528

0.2526

0.2524

0.2524

0.2520

0.2516

0.2511

0.2479

0.2435

8.

0.2890

0.2889

0.2887

0.2885

0.2884

0.2880

0.2876

0.2870

0.2833

0.2783

9.

0.3251

0.3251

0.3248

0.3246

0.3245

0.3240

0.3235

0.3229

0.3187

0.3131

10.

0.3613

0.3612

0.3609

0.3606

0.3605

0.3600

0.3595

0.3588

0.3541

0.3479

20.

0.7225

0.7223

0.7218

0.7213

0.7211

0.7201

0.7189

0.7175

0.7083

0.6958

30.

1.0838

1.0835

1.0828

1.0819

1.0816

1.0802

1.0784

1.0763

1.0624

1.0438

40

1.4451

1.4447

1.4437

1.4425

1.4422

1.4402

1.4378

1.4351

1.4166

1.3917

50.

1.8063

1.8058

1.8046

1.8031

1.8027

1.8002

1.7973

1.7938

1.7707

1.7396

60.

2.1676

2.1670

2.1655

2.1638

2.1632

2.1603

2.1567

2.1526

2.1248

2.0875

70.

2.5289

2.5282

2.5264

2.5244

2.5238

2.5204

2.5162

2.5113

2.4790

2.4354

80.

2.8901

2.8893

2.8874

2.8850

2.8843

2.8804

2.8756

2.8701

2.8331

2.7834

90.

3.2514

3.2505

3.2483

3.2456

3.2449

3.2404

3.2351

3.2289

3.1873

3.1313

100.

3.6126

3.6117

3.6092

3.6063

3.6054

3.6005

3.5945

3.5876

3.5414

3.4792

ISA-RP2.1-1978

35

Table 15B Equivalents in psi, of water columns in feet and inches at


various temperatures
Temperature of water columns in deg F
Water
Column

40

50

60

68

70

80

90

100

150

200

In.

psi

psi

psi

psi

psi

psi

psi

psi

psi

psi

1/8

0.0045

0.0045

0.0045

0.0045

0.0045

0.0045

0.0045

0.0045

0.0044

0.0043

1/4

0.0090

0.0090

0.0090

0.0090

0.0090

0.0090

0.0090

0.0090

0.0089

0.0087

3/8

0.0135

0.0135

0.0135

0.0135

0.0135

0.0135

0.0135

0.0135

0.0133

0.0130

1/2

0.0181

0.0181

0.0180

0.0180

0.0180

0.0180

0.1880

0.0179

0.0177

0.0174

5/8

0.0226

0.0226

0.0226

0.0225

0.0225

0.0225

0.0225

0.0224

0.0221

0.0217

3/4

0.0271

0.0271

0.0271

0.0270

0.0270

0.0270

0.0270

0.0269

0.0266

0.0261

7/8

0.0316

0.0316

0.0316

0.0316

0.0315

0.0315

0.0315

0.0314

0.0310

0.0304

0.0361

0.0361

0.0361

0.0361

0.0361

0.0360

0.0359

0.0359

0.0354

0.0348

0.0722

0.0722

0.0722

0.0721

0.0721

0.0720

0.0719

0.0718

0.0708

0.0696

0.1084

0.1084

0.1083

0.1082

0.1082

0.1080

0.1078

0.1076

0.1062

0.1044

0.1445

0.1445

0.1444

0.1443

0.1442

0.1440

0.1438

0.1435

0.1417

0.1392

0.1806

0.1806

0.1805

0.1803

0.1803

0.1800

0.1797

0.1794

0.1771

0.1740

0.2168

0.2167

0.2166

0.2164

0.2163

0.2160

0.2157

0.2153

0.2125

0.2088

0.2529

0.2528

0.2526

0.2524

0.2524

0.2520

0.2516

0.2511

0.2479

0.2435

0.2890

0.2889

0.2887

0.2885

0.2884

0.2880

0.2876

0.2870

0.2833

0.2783

0.3251

0.3251

0.3248

0.3246

0.3245

0.3240

0.3235

0.3229

0.3187

0.3131

10

0.3613

0.3612

0.3609

0.3606

0.3605

0.3600

0.3595

0.3588

0.3541

0.3479

11

0.3974

0.3973

0.3970

0.3967

0.3966

0.3961

0.3954

0.3946

0.3896

0.3827

12

0.4335

0.4334

0.4331

0.4328

0.4326

0.4321

0.4313

0.4305

0.4250

0.4175

0.4335

0.4334

0.4331

0.4328

0.4326

0.4321

0.4313

0.4305

0.4250

0.4175

0.8670

0.8668

0.8662

0.8655

0.8653

0.8641

0.8627

0.8610

0.8499

0.8350

1.3005

1.3002

1.2993

1.2983

1.2979

1.2962

1.2940

1.2915

1.2749

1.2525

1.7340

1.7336

1.7324

1.7310

1.7306

1.7882

1.7254

1.7220

1.6999

1.6700

2.1676

2.1670

2.1655

2.1638

2.1632

2.1603

2.1567

2.1526

2.1248

2.0875

2.6011

2.6004

2.5968

2.5965

2.5959

2.5924

2.5880

2.5831

2.5498

2.5050

Feet

3.0346

3.0338

3.0317

3.0293

3.0285

3.0244

3.0194

3.0136

2.9748

2.9225

3.4681

3.4672

3.4648

3.4620

3.4612

3.4565

3.4507

3.4441

3.3997

3.3400

3.9016

3.9006

3.8979

3.8948

3.8938

3.8885

3.8821

3.8746

3.8248

3.7575

10

4.3351

4.3340

4.3310

4.3276

4.3265

4.3206

4.3134

4.3051

4.2497

4.1750

11

4.7686

4.7674

4.7641

4.7603

4.7591

4.7527

4.7447

4.7356

4.6746

4.5925

12

5.2021

5.2008

5.1972

5.1931

5.1918

5.1847

5.1761

5.1661

5.0996

5.0100

36

ISA-RP2.1-1978

Table 16 Conversion factors for mercury columns at various temperatures


Mercury
temperature

Factor for converting mercury column


height of various temperatures to:

deg F

deg C

Equiv. psi of 1
in. Hg

Mercury
column at 32
F

at 60 F

68 F

77 F

17.78

0.49275

1.0032

13.652

13.663

13.680

10

12.22

0.49225

1.0022

13.638

13.649

13.665

20

6.67

0.49175

1.0012

13.625

13.636

13.652

30

1.11

0.49126

1.0002

13.611

13.622

13.638

32

0.00

1.49116

1.0000

13.609

13.620

13.635

35

1.67

0.49101

0.9997

13.604

13.615

13.631

40

4.44

0.49076

0.9992

13.598

13.609

13.624

45

7.22

0.49051

0.9987

13.591

13.602

13.618

50

10.00

0.49026

0.9982

13.584

13.595

13.611

55

12.78

0.40002

0.9977

13.577

13.588

13.604

60

15.56

0.48977

0.9972

13.570

13.581

13.597

65

18.33

0.48952

0.9967

13.564

13.575

13.590

68

20.00

0.48938

0.9964

13.560

13.570

13.586

70

21.11

0.48928

0.9962

13.557

13.568

13.584

75

23.89

0.48904

0.9957

13.550

13.561

13.577

77

25.00

0.48894

0.9955

13.547

13.558

13.574

80

26.67

0.48879

0.9952

13.543

13.554

13.570

85

29.44

0.48854

0.9947

13.536

13.547

13.563

90

32.22

0.48830

0.9942

13.530

13.541

13.556

95

35.00

0.48805

0.9937

13.523

13.534

13.549

100

37.78

0.48780

0.9932

13.516

13.527

13.543

110

43.33

0.48732

0.9922

13.502

13.513

13.529

120

48.89

0.48683

0.9912

13.489

13.500

13.515

130

54.44

0.48634

0.9902

13.475

13.486

13.502

140

60.00

0.48585

0.9892

13.462

13.472

13.488

150

65.56

0.48536

0.9882

13.448

13.459

13.475

160

71.11

0.48488

0.9872

13.434

13.445

13.461

170

76.67

0.48439

0.9862

13.421

13.432

13.447

180

82.22

0.48391

0.9852

13.407

13.418

13.434

190

87.78

0.48342

0.9842

13.393

13.404

13.420

200

93.33

0.48293

0.9832

13.380

13.391

13.406

ISA-RP2.1-1978

Water column

37

38

Table 17 Temperature corrections for mercury manometers and barometers with brass scales to obtain reading at 0C
All corrections are to be subtracted
Enter with indicated column height (mm, in., of mb) and its temperature
Temperature
deg C
100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

550

600

650

700

750

800

850

900

950

1000

1050

1100

1150

1200

0.00
0.08

0.00
0.12

0.00
0.16

0.00
0.20

0.00
0.24

0.00
0.29

0.00
0.33

0.00
0.37

0.00
0.41

0.00
0.45

0.00
0.49

0.00
0.53

0.00
0.57

0.00
0.61

0.00
0.65

0.00
0.69

0.00
0.73

0.00
0.78

0.00
0.82

0.00
0.86

0.00
0.90

0.00
0.94

0.00
0.98

10
11
12
13
14

0.16
0.18
0.20
0.21
0.23

0.24
0.27
0.29
0.32
0.34

0.33
0.36
0.39
0.42
0.46

0.41
0.45
0.49
0.53
0.57

0.49
0.54
0.59
0.64
0.68

0.57
0.63
0.68
0.74
0.80

0.65
0.72
0.78
0.85
0.91

0.73
0.81
0.88
0.95
1.03

0.82
0.90
0.98
1.06
1.14

0.90
0.99
1.08
1.17
1.25

0.98
1.08
1.17
1.27
1.37

1.06
1.17
1.27
1.38
1.48

1.14
1.26
1.37
1.48
1.60

1.22
1.35
1.47
1.59
1.71

1.30
1.44
1.57
1.70
1.83

1.39
1.52
1.66
1.80
1.94

1.47
1.61
1.76
1.91
2.05

1.55
1.70
1.86
2.01
2.17

1.63
1.79
1.96
2.12
2.28

1.71
1.88
2.05
2.23
2.40

1.79
1.97
2.15
2.33
2.51

1.88
2.06
2.25
2.44
2.62

1.96
2.15
2.35
2.54
2.74

15
16
17
18
19

0.24
0.26
0.28
0.29
0.31

0.37
0.39
0.42
0.44
0.46

0.49
0.52
0.55
0.59
0.62

0.61
0.65
0.69
0.73
0.77

0.73
0.78
0.83
0.88
0.93

0.86
0.91
0.97
1.03
1.08

0.98
1.04
1.11
1.17
1.24

1.10
1.17
1.25
1.32
1.39

1.22
1.30
1.38
1.47
1.55

1.34
1.43
1.52
1.61
1.70

1.47
1.56
1.66
1.78
1.86

1.59
1.69
1.80
1.91
2.01

1.71
1.82
1.94
2.05
2.17

1.83
1.96
2.08
2.20
2.32

1.96
2.09
2.22
2.35
2.48

2.08
2.22
2.35
2.49
2.63

2.20
2.35
2.49
2.64
2.78

2.32
2.48
2.63
2.79
2.94

2.44
2.61
2.77
2.93
3.09

2.57
2.74
2.91
3.08
3.25

2.69
2.87
3.05
3.22
3.40

2.81
3.00
3.18
3.37
3.56

2.93
3.13
3.32
3.52
3.71

20
21
22
23
24

0.33
0.34
0.36
0.37
0.39

0.49
0.51
0.54
0.56
0.59

0.65
0.68
0.72
0.75
0.78

0.81
0.85
0.90
0.94
0.98

0.98
1.03
1.07
1.12
1.17

1.14
1.20
1.25
1.31
1.37

1.30
1.37
1.43
1.50
1.56

1.47
1.54
1.61
1.68
1.76

1.63
1.71
1.79
1.87
1.95

1.79
1.88
1.97
2.06
2.15

1.95
2.05
2.15
2.25
2.34

2.12
2.22
2.33
2.43
2.54

2.28
2.39
2.51
2.62
2.73

2.44
2.56
2.69
2.81
2.93

2.60
2.73
2.86
2.99
3.12

2.77
2.91
3.04
3.18
3.32

2.93
3.08
3.22
3.37
3.51

3.09
3.25
3.40
3.56
3.71

3.26
3.42
3.58
3.74
3.90

3.42
3.59
3.76
3.93
4.10

3.58
3.76
3.94
4.12
4.30

3.74
3.93
4.12
4.30
4.49

3.91
4.10
4.30
4.49
4.69

25
26
27
28
29

0.41
0.42
0.44
0.46
0.47

0.61
0.63
0.66
0.68
0.71

0.81
0.85
0.88
0.91
0.94

1.02
1.06
1.10
1.14
1.18

1.22
1.27
1.32
1.37
1.41

1.42
1.48
1.54
1.59
1.65

1.63
1.69
1.76
1.82
1.89

1.83
1.90
1.98
2.05
2.12

2.03
2.11
2.20
2.28
2.36

2.24
2.33
2.41
2.50
2.59

2.44
2.54
2.63
2.73
2.83

2.64
2.75
2.85
2.96
3.06

2.85
2.96
3.07
3.19
3.30

3.05
3.17
3.29
3.41
3.54

3.25
3.38
3.51
3.64
3.77

3.46
3.59
3.73
3.87
4.01

3.66
3.81
3.95
4.10
4.24

3.86
4.02
4.17
4.32
4.48

4.07
4.23
4.39
4.55
4.71

4.27
4.44
4.61
4.78
4.95

4.47
4.65
4.83
5.01
5.19

4.68
4.86
5.05
5.23
5.42

4.88
5.07
5.27
5.46
5.66

30
31
32
33
34

0.49
0.50
0.52
0.54
0.55

0.73
0.76
0.78
0.80
0.83

0.98
1.01
1.04
1.07
1.10

1.22
1.26
1.30
1.34
1.38

1.46
1.51
1.56
1.61
1.66

1.71
1.76
1.82
1.88
1.93

1.95
2.01
2.08
2.14
2.21

2.19
2.27
2.34
2.41
2.48

2.44
2.52
2.60
2.68
2.76

2.68
2.77
2.86
2.95
3.04

2.93
3.02
3.12
3.22
3.31

3.17
3.27
3.38
3.48
3.59

3.41
3.53
3.64
3.75
3.87

3.66
3.78
3.90
4.02
4.14

3.90
4.03
4.16
4.29
4.42

4.14
4.28
4.42
4.56
4.69

4.39
4.53
4.68
4.82
4.97

4.63
4.79
4.94
5.09
5.25

4.88
5.04
5.20
5.36
5.52

5.12
5.29
5.46
5.63
5.80

5.36
5.54
5.72
5.90
6.07

5.61
5.79
5.98
6.16
6.35

5.85
6.04
6.24
6.43
6.63

35
36
37
38
39

0.57
0.58
0.60
0.62
0.63

0.85
0.88
0.90
0.92
0.95

1.14
1.17
1.20
1.23
1.27

1.42
1.46
1.50
1.54
1.58

1.70
1.75
1.80
1.85
1.90

1.99
2.05
2.10
2.16
2.21

2.27
2.34
2.40
2.47
2.53

2.56
2.63
2.70
2.77
2.85

2.84
2.92
3.00
3.08
3.16

3.13
3.21
3.30
3.39
3.48

3.41
3.51
3.60
3.70
3.80

3.69
3.80
3.90
4.01
4.11

3.98
4.09
4.20
4.32
4.43

4.26
4.38
4.50
4.62
4.75

4.55
4.68
4.80
4.93
5.06

4.83
4.97
5.10
5.24
5.38

5.11
5.26
5.40
5.55
5.69

5.40
5.55
5.71
5.86
6.01

5.68
5.84
6.01
6.17
6.33

5.97
6.14
6.31
6.47
6.64

6.25
6.43
6.61
6.78
6.96

6.54
6.72
6.91
7.09
7.28

6.82
7.01
7.21
7.40
7.59

40
45
50

0.65
0.73
0.81

0.97
1.09
1.21

1.30
1.46
1.62

1.62
1.82
2.02

1.95
2.19
2.43

2.27
2.55
2.83

2.60
2.92
3.24

2.92
3.28
3.64

3.24
3.65
4.05

3.57
4.01
4.45

3.89
4.38
4.86

4.22
4.74
5.26

4.54
5.11
5.67

4.87
5.47
6.07

5.19
5.83
6.48

5.52
6.20
6.88

5.84
6.56
7.29

6.16
6.93
7.69

6.49
7.29
8.10

6.81
7.66
8.50

7.14
8.02
8.91

7.46
8.39
9.31

7.79
8.75
9.73

0
5

ISA-RP2.1-1978

Table 18 Temperature corrections for mercury manometers and barometers with


brass scales to obtain readings at 32F
All corrections are to be subtracted
Enter with indicated column height (mm, in., or mb) and its temperature:
Temperature
deg F

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

70

80

90

100

32

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

35

0.003

0.004

0.005

0.007

0.008

0.009

0.011

0.012

0.014

0.015

0.016

0.019

0.022

0.024

0.027

40

0.007

0.011

0.014

0.018

0.022

0.025

0.029

0.033

0.036

0.040

0.044

0.051

0.058

0.065

0.072

45

0.012

0.018

0.024

0.029

0.035

0.041

0.047

0.053

0.059

0.065

0.071

0.082

0.094

0.106

0.118

50

0.016

0.024

0.033

0.041

0.049

0.057

0.065

0.073

0.081

0.090

0.098

0.114

0.130

0.147

0.163

51

0.017

0.026

0.034

0.043

0.052

0.060

0.069

0.077

0.086

0.095

0.103

0.120

0.138

0.155

0.172

52

0.018

0.027

0.036

0.045

0.054

0.063

0.072

0.081

0.090

0.100

0.109

0.127

0.145

0.163

0.181

53

0.019

0.028

0.038

0.048

0.057

0.066

0.076

0.086

0.095

0.104

0.114

0.133

0.152

0.171

0.190

54

0.020

0.030

0.040

0.050

0.060

0.070

0.080

0.090

0.099

0.109

0.119

0.139

0.159

0.179

0.199

55

0.021

0.031

0.042

0.052

0.062

0.073

0.083

0.094

0.104

0.114

0.125

0.146

0.166

0.187

0.208

56

0.022

0.033

0.043

0.054

0.065

0.076

0.087

0.098

0.108

0.119

0.130

0.152

0.174

0.196

0.217

57

0.023

0.034

0.045

0.056

0.068

0.079

0.090

0.102

0.113

0.124

0.136

0.158

0.181

0.204

0.226

58

0.024

0.035

0.047

0.059

0.070

0.082

0.094

0.106

0.117

0.129

0.141

0.164

0.188

0.212

0.235

59

0.024

0.037

0.049

0.061

0.073

0.086

0.098

0.110

0.122

0.134

0.147

0.171

0.196

0.220

0.244

60

0.025

0.038

0.051

0.064

0.076

0.089

0.102

0.114

0.127

0.139

0.152

0.178

0.203

0.228

0.254

61

0.026

0.039

0.053

0.066

0.079

0.092

0.105

0.118

0.131

0.144

0.158

0.184

0.210

0.236

0.263

62

0.027

0.041

0.054

0.068

0.082

0.095

0.109

0.122

0.135

0.149

0.163

0.190

0.218

0.244

0.272

63

0.028

0.042

0.056

0.070

0.084

0.098

0.112

0.126

0.140

0.154

0.169

0.197

0.225

0.252

0.281

64

0.029

0.044

0.058

0.072

0.087

0.102

0.116

0.130

0.145

0.159

0.174

0.203

0.232

0.260

0.290

65

0.030

0.045

0.060

0.075

0.090

0.105

0.120

0.134

0.149

0.164

0.179

0.209

0.239

0.268

0.299

66

0.031

0.046

0.062

0.077

0.092

0.108

0.123

0.139

0.154

0.169

0.185

0.216

0.246

0.277

0.308

67

0.032

0.048

0.063

0.079

0.095

0.111

0.127

0.143

0.158

0.174

0.190

0.222

0.253

0.285

0.317

68

0.033

0.049

0.065

0.081

0.098

0.114

0.130

0.147

0.163

0.179

0.195

0.228

0.260

0.293

0.326

69

0.034

0.050

0.067

0.084

0.100

0.117

0.134

0.151

0.167

0.184

0.201

0.234

0.268

0.301

0.335

70

0.034

0.052

0.069

0.086

0.103

0.120

0.138

0.155

0.172

0.189

0.206

0.241

0.275

0.310

0.344

71

0.035

0.053

0.071

0.088

0.106

0.124

0.141

0.159

0.176

0.194

0.212

0.247

0.282

0.318

0.353

72

0.036

0.054

0.072

0.090

0.109

0.127

0.145

0.163

0.181

0.199

0.217

0.253

0.290

0.326

0.362

73

0.037

0.056

0.074

0.093

0.111

0.130

0.148

0.167

0.185

0.204

0.223

0.260

0.297

0.334

0.371

74

0.038

0.057

0.076

0.095

0.114

0.133

0.152

0.171

0.190

0.209

0.228

0.266

0.304

0.341

0.380

75

0.039

0.059

0.078

0.097

0.117

0.136

0.156

0.175

0.194

0.214

0.233

0.272

0.311

0.349

0.389

76

0.040

0.060

0.080

0.100

0.119

0.139

0.159

0.179

0.199

0.219

0.239

0.279

0.318

0.358

0.398

77

0.041

0.061

0.081

0.102

0.122

0.142

0.163

0.183

0.203

0.224

0.244

0.285

0.325

0.366

0.407

78

0.042

0.062

0.083

0.104

0.125

0.146

0.166

0.187

0.208

0.229

0.250

0.291

0.333

0.374

0.416

79

0.042

0.064

0.085

0.106

0.128

0.149

0.170

0.191

0.212

0.234

0.255

0.298

0.340

0.383

0.425

80

0.043

0.065

0.087

0.108

0.130

0.152

0.174

0.195

0.217

0.239

0.260

0.304

0.347

0.391

0.434

81

0.044

0.066

0.089

0.111

0.133

0.155

0.177

0.199

0.221

0.244

0.266

0.310

0.354

0.399

0.443

82

0.045

0.068

0.090

0.113

0.136

0.158

0.181

0.203

0.226

0.249

0.271

0.316

0.362

0.407

0.452

83

0.046

0.069

0.092

0.115

0.138

0.161

0.184

0.207

0.230

0.254

0.277

0.323

0.369

0.415

0.461

ISA-RP2.1-1978

39

Table 18 (continued from previous page)


Temperature
deg F

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

70

80

90

100

84

0.047

0.070

0.094

0.118

0.141

0.164

0.188

0.211

0.235

0.258

0.282

0.329

0.376

0.423

0.470

85

0.048

0.072

0.096

0.120

0.144

0.168

0.192

0.215

0.239

0.263

0.287

0.335

0.383

0.431

0.479

86

0.049

0.073

0.098

0.122

0.146

0.171

0.195

0.219

0.244

0.268

0.293

0.341

0.390

0.439

0.488

87

0.050

0.075

0.099

0.124

0.149

0.174

0.199

0.224

0.248

0.273

0.298

0.348

0.397

0.447

0.497

88

0.050

0.076

0.101

0.126

0.152

0.177

0.202

0.227

0.252

0.278

0.303

0.354

0.404

0.455

0.505

89

0.051

0.077

0.103

0.128

0.154

0.180

0.206

0.231

0.257

0.283

0.308

0.360

0.411

0.463

0.514

90

0.052

0.078

0.105

0.131

0.157

0.183

0.209

0.235

0.261

0.288

0.314

0.366

0.418

0.471

0.523

91

0.053

0.080

0.106

0.133

0.160

0.186

0.213

0.239

0.266

0.293

0.319

0.372

0.426

0.479

0.532

92

0.054

0.081

0.108

0.135

0.162

0.189

0.216

0.243

0.270

0.298

0.324

0.379

0.433

0.487

0.541

93

0.055

0.082

0.110

0.138

0.165

0.192

0.220

0.248

0.275

0.302

0.330

0.385

0.440

0.495

0.550

94

0.056

0.084

0.112

0.140

0.168

0.196

0.224

0.252

0.279

0.307

0.335

0.391

0.447

0.503

0.559

95

0.057

0.085

0.114

0.142

0.170

0.199

0.227

0.256

0.284

0.312

0.341

0.398

0.455

0.511

0.568

96

0.058

0.087

0.115

0.144

0.173

0.202

0.231

0.260

0.288

0.317

0.346

0.404

0.462

0.519

0.577

97

0.059

0.088

0.117

0.146

0.176

0.205

0.234

0.264

0.293

0.322

0.352

0.410

0.469

0.527

0.586

98

0.060

0.089

0.119

0.149

0.178

0.208

0.233

0.268

0.297

0.327

0.357

0.416

0.476

0.535

0.595

99

0.060

0.091

0.121

0.151

0.181

0.211

0.242

0.272

0.302

0.332

0.362

0.423

0.483

0.544

0.604

100

0.061

0.092

0.123

0.153

0.184

0.215

0.245

0.276

0.306

0.337

0.368

0.429

0.490

0.552

0.613

101

0.062

0.093

0.124

0.156

0.187

0.218

0.249

0.280

0.311

0.342

0.373

0.435

0.497

0.560

0.622

102

0.063

0.095

0.126

0.158

0.189

0.221

0.252

0.284

0.315

0.347

0.379

0.442

0.505

0.568

0.631

103

0.064

0.096

0.128

0.160

0.192

0.224

0.256

0.288

0.320

0.352

0.384

0.448

0.512

0.576

0.640

104

0.065

0.097

0.130

0.162

0.195

0.227

0.260

0.292

0.324

0.357

0.389

0.454

0.519

0.584

0.649

105

0.066

0.099

0.132

0.164

0.197

0.230

0.263

0.296

0.329

0.362

0.395

0.461

0.526

0.592

0.658

106

0.067

0.100

0.133

0.167

0.200

0.233

0.266

0.300

0.333

0.366

0.400

0.466

0.533

0.599

0.666

107

0.068

0.101

0.135

0.169

0.203

0.236

0.270

0.304

0.338

0.371

0.405

0.472

0.540

0.607

0.675

108

0.068

0.103

0.137

0.171

0.205

0.239

0.274

0.308

0.342

0.376

0.410

0.479

0.547

0.616

0.684

109

0.069

0.104

0.139

0.173

0.208

0.243

0.277

0.312

0.347

0.381

0.416

0.485

0.554

0.624

0.693

110

0.070

0.105

0.140

0.176

0.211

0.246

0.281

0.316

0.351

0.386

0.421

0.491

0.562

0.632

0.702

111

0.071

0.107

0.142

0.178

0.213

0.249

0.284

0.320

0.356

0.391

0.427

0.498

0.569

0.640

0.711

112

0.072

0.108

0.144

0.180

0.216

0.252

0.288

0.324

0.360

0.396

0.432

0.504

0.576

0.648

0.720

113

0.073

0.109

0.146

0.182

0.219

0.255

0.292

0.328

0.365

0.401

0.438

0.511

0.583

0.656

0.729

114

0.074

0.111

0.148

0.184

0.221

0.258

0.295

0.332

0.369

0.406

0.443

0.517

0.590

0.664

0.738

115

0.075

0.112

0.149

0.187

0.224

0.261

0.299

0.336

0.374

0.411

0.448

0.523

0.598

0.672

0.747

116

0.076

0.113

0.151

0.189

0.227

0.265

0.302

0.340

0.378

0.416

0.454

0.529

0.605

0.680

0.756

117

0.076

0.115

0.153

0.191

0.230

0.268

0.306

0.344

0.383

0.421

0.459

0.536

0.612

0.689

0.765

118

0.077

0.116

0.155

0.194

0.232

0.271

0.310

0.348

0.387

0.426

0.464

0.542

0.619

0.697

0.774

119

0.078

0.117

0.157

0.196

0.235

0.274

0.313

0.352

0.392

0.431

0.470

0.548

0.626

0.705

0.783

120

0.079

0.119

0.158

0.198

0.238

0.277

0.317

0.356

0.396

0.436

0.475

0.554

0.634

0.713

0.792

40

ISA-RP2.1-1978

Table 19 Equivalents in psi of mercury columns in inches of mercury at


various temperatures
Mercury temperature of water in deg F
Mercury
inches

20

30

32

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

psi

psi

psi

psi

psi

psi

psi

psi

psi

psi

0.1

0.0492

0.0491

0.0491

0.0491

0.0490

0.0490

0.0489

0.0489

0.0488

0.0488

0.2

0.0984

0.0983

0.0982

0.0982

0.0981

0.0980

0.0979

0.0978

0.0977

0.0976

0.3

0.1475

0.1474

0.1474

0.1472

0.1471

0.1469

0.1468

0.1468

0.1465

0.1463

0.4

0.1967

0.1965

0.1965

0.1963

0.1961

0.1959

0.1957

0.1955

0.1953

0.1951

0.5

0.2459

0.2456

0.2456

0.2454

0.2451

0.2449

0.2446

0.2444

0.2442

0.2439

0.6

0.2951

0.2948

0.2947

0.2945

0.2942

0.2939

0.2936

0.2933

0.2930

0.2927

0.7

0.3442

0.3439

0.3438

0.3435

0.3432

0.3428

0.3425

0.3422

0.3418

0.3415

0.8

0.3934

0.3930

0.3929

0.3926

0.3922

0.3918

0.3914

0.3910

0.3906

0.3902

0.9

0.4426

0.4421

0.4420

0.4417

0.4412

0.4408

0.4404

0.4399

0.4395

0.4390

1.0

0.4918

0.4913

0.4912

0.4908

0.4903

0.4898

0.4893

0.4888

0.4883

0.4878

0.9835

0.9825

0.9823

0.9815

0.9805

0.9795

0.9786

0.9776

0.9766

0.9756

1.4753

1.4738

1.4735

1.4723

1.4708

1.4693

1.4678

1.4664

1.4649

1.4634

1.9670

1.9650

1.9646

1.9630

1.9611

1.9591

1.9571

1.9551

1.9532

1.9512

2.4588

2.4563

2.4558

2.4538

2.4513

2.4489

2.4464

2.4439

2.4415

2.4390

2.9505

2.9475

2.9469

2.9446

2.9416

2.9386

2.9357

2.9327

2.9298

2.9268

3.4423

3.4388

3.4381

3.4353

3.4319

3.4284

3.4249

3.4215

3.4181

3.4146

3.9340

3.9300

3.9293

3.9261

3.9221

9.9182

3.9142

3.9103

3.9064

3.9024

4.4258

4.4213

4.4204

4.4168

4.4124

4.4080

4.4035

4.3991

4.3947

4.3902

10

4.9175

4.9126

4.9116

4.9076

4.9026

4.8977

4.8928

4.8879

4.8830

4.8780

20

9.8351

9.8251

9.8231

9.8152

9.8053

9.7955

9.7856

9.7757

9.7659

9.7561

30

14.753

14.738

14.735

14.723

14.708

14.693

14.678

14.664

14.649

14.634

40

19.670

19.650

19.646

19.630

19.611

19.591

19.571

19.551

19.532

19.512

50

24.588

24.563

24.558

24.538

24.513

24.489

24.464

24.439

24.415

24.390

60

29.505

29.475

29.469

29.446

29.416

29.386

29.357

29.327

29.298

29.268

70

34.423

34.388

34.381

34.353

34.319

34.284

34.249

34.215

34.181

34.146

80

39.340

39.300

39.293

39.261

39.221

39.182

39.142

39.103

39.064

39.024

90

44.258

44.213

44.204

44.168

44.124

44.080

44.035

43.991

43.947

43.902

49.175

49.126

49.116

49.076

49.026

48.997

48.928

48.879

48.830

48.780

100

Example: 48.36 in. of mercury at 85 F = (19.542 + 3.908 + 0.146 + 0.029) = 23.625 psi.

ISA-RP2.1-1978

41

Table 20A Equivalents of mercury columns at various temperatures to water


columns at 20C (68F) height of water column
Temperature of mercury column deg F
Mercury
Height

32

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

0.1

1.362

1.361

1.359

1.358

1.357

1.355

1.354

1.353

0.2

2.724

2.722

2.719

2.716

2.713

2.711

2.708

2.705

0.3

4.086

4.083

7.078

4.074

4.070

4.066

4.062

4.058

0.4

5.448

5.443

5.438

5.432

5.427

5.422

5.416

5.411

0.5

6.810

6.804

6.797

6.791

6.784

6.777

6.770

6.763

0.6

8.172

8.165

8.157

8.149

8.140

8.132

8.124

8.116

0.7

9.534

9.526

9.516

9.507

9.497

9.488

9.478

9.469

0.8

10.896

10.887

10.876

10.865

10.854

10.843

10.832

10.821

0.9

12.258

12.248

12.235

12.223

12.211

12.198

12.186

12.174

13.620

13.608

13.595

13.581

13.567

13.554

13.540

13.527

27.239

27.217

27.190

27.162

27.135

27.108

27.080

27.053

40.859

40.826

40.784

40.743

40.702

40.661

40.621

40.580

54.478

54.434

54.379

54.325

54.270

54.215

54.161

54.106

68.098

68.042

68.974

67.906

67.837

67.769

67.701

67.633

81.717

81.651

81.569

81.487

81.405

81.323

81.241

81.159

95.337

95.260

95.163

95.068

94.972

94.877

94.781

94.686

108.956

108.868

108.758

108.649

108.539

108.430

108.321

108.212

122.576

122.476

122.353

122.230

122.107

121.984

121.862

121.739

10

136.195

136.085

135.948

135.812

135.674

135.538

135.402

135.266

20

272.390

272.170

271.896

271.623

271.349

271.076

270.804

270.531

30

408.586

408.255

407.843

407.434

407.023

406.614

406.205

405.797

40

544.781

544.340

543.791

543.246

542.697

542.152

541.607

541.062

50

680.976

680.425

679.739

679.058

678.372

677.690

677.009

676.328

60

817.171

816.510

815.687

814.869

814.046

813.228

812.411

811.593

70

953.366

952.595

951.635

950.680

949.720

948.766

947.813

946.859

80

1089.56

1088.68

1087.58

1086.49

1085.39

1084.30

1083.21

1082.12

90

1225.76

1224.76

1223.53

1222.30

1221.07

1219.84

1218.62

1217.39

100

1361.95

1360.85

1359.48

1358.12

1356.74

1355.38

1354.02

1352.66

The table can be used for any consistent unit of column height.
Example: 150 in. or mm of mercury at 70 F = 1356.74 + 678.37 = 2035.11 in. or mm of water at 68 F.

42

ISA-RP2.1-1978

Table 20B Equivalents of mercury columns at various temperatures to water


columns at 60F height of water column
Temperature of mercury column deg F
Mercury
Height

32

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

0.1

1.361

1.360

1.358

1.357

1.356

1.354

1.353

1.352

0.2

2.722

2.719

2.717

2.714

2.711

2.709

2.706

2.703

0.3

4.083

4.079

4.075

4.071

4.067

4.063

4.059

4.055

0.4

5.443

5.439

5.434

5.428

5.423

5.417

5.412

5.406

0.5

6.804

6.799

6.792

6.785

6.778

6.771

6.765

6.758

0.6

8.165

8.158

8.150

8.142

8.134

8.126

8.118

8.109

0.7

9.526

9.518

9.509

9.499

9.490

9.480

9.470

9.461

0.8

10.887

10.878

10.867

10.856

10.845

10.834

10.823

10.812

0.9

12.248

12.238

12.225

12.213

12.201

12.189

12.176

12.164

13.609

13.597

13.584

13.570

13.556

13.543

13.529

13.516

27.217

27.195

27.168

27.140

27.113

27.086

27.058

27.031

40.826

40.792

40.751

40.711

40.669

40.629

40.558

40.547

54.434

54.390

54.335

54.281

54.226

54.171

54.117

54.062

68.043

67.987

67.919

67.851

67.782

67.714

67.646

67.578

81.651

81.585

81.503

81.421

81.339

81.257

81.175

81.094

95.260

95.182

95.086

94.991

94.895

94.800

94.705

94.609

108.868

108.780

108.670

108.561

108.452

108.343

108.234

108.125

122.477

122.377

122.254

122.132

122.008

122.886

121.763

121.640

10

136.085

135.975

135.838

135.702

135.565

135.428

135.292

135.156

20

272.170

271.950

271.676

271.403

271.129

270.857

270.585

270.312

30

408.255

407.925

407.513

407.105

406.694

406.285

405.877

405.468

40

544.340

543.900

543.351

542.807

542.258

541.714

541.169

540.624

50

680.425

679.874

679.189

678.508

677.823

677.142

676.461

675.781

60

816.510

815.849

815.027

814.210

813.387

812.570

811.754

810.937

70

952.595

951.824

950.865

949.912

948.952

947.999

947.046

946.093

80

1088.68

1087.80

1086.70

1085.61

1084.52

1083.43

1082.34

1081.25

90

1224.77

1223.77

1222.54

1221.32

1220.08

1218.86

1217.63

1216.40

100

1360.85

1359.75

1358.38

1357.02

1355.65

1354.28

1352.92

1351.56

The table can be used for any consistent unit of column height.
Example: 150 in. or mm of mercury at 70 F = 1355.65 + 677.82 = 2033.47 in. or mm of water at 60 F.

ISA-RP2.1-1978

43

Table 21 Density of kerosine and equivalent pressures in psi of kerosine


columns at various temperatures*
Kerosine temp.
deg F

Density
lb per cu ft

Density **
g per cm 3

Specific
gravity***

Equiv. psi
of one inch

Equiv. psi
of 100 mm

-20

53.10

0.8505

0.8513

0.03073

0.1210

-15

52.98

0.8486

0.8494

0.03066

0.1207

-10

52.85

0.8466

0.8474

0.03058

0.1204

-5

52.73

0.8447

0.8455

0.03052

0.1201

52.61

0.8427

0.8435

0.03044

0.1199

52.49

0.8408

0.8416

0.03038

0.1196

10

52.37

0.8389

0.8397

0.03031

0.1193

15

52.25

0.8369

0.8377

0.03023

0.1190

20

52.12

0.8348

0.8356

0.03016

0.1187

25

52.00

0.8330

0.8338

0.03009

0.1185

30

51.88

0.8310

0.8318

0.03002

0.1182

35

51.75

0.8290

0.8298

0.02995

0.1179

40

51.63

0.8271

0.8279

0.02988

0.1176

45

51.51

0.8251

0.8259

0.02981

0.1174

50

51.38

0.8231

0.8239

0.02974

0.1171

55

51.27

0.8212

0.8220

0.02967

0.1168

60

51.14

0.8192

0.8200

0.02960

0.1165

65

51.02

0.8172

0.8180

0.02952

0.1162

70

50.90

0.8153

0.8161

0.02945

0.1160

75

50.78

0.8134

0.8142

0.02939

0.1157

80

50.65

0.8113

0.8121

0.02931

0.1154

85

50.53

0.8094

0.8102

0.02924

0.1151

90

50.40

0.8074

0.8082

0.02917

0.1148

95

50.28

0.8054

0.8062

0.02910

0.1146

100

50.17

0.8036

0.8044

0.02903

0.1143

Kerosine specific gravity 0.820 at 60/60; or 41.06 API.

** Pressure equivalent in g sq cm of 1 cm column of kerosine.


*** Specific gravity referred to water at 60 F.

44

ISA-RP2.1-1978

Table 22 Equivalents in psi of columns of kerosine in inches at


various temperatures
Temperature of kerosine column in deg F
Inches
Kerosine

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

psi

psi

psi

psi

psi

psi

psi

psi

psi

psi

psi

0.1

0.003

0.003

0.003

0.003

0.003

0.003

0.003

0.003

0.003

0.003

0.003

0.2

0.006

0.006

0.006

0.006

0.006

0.006

0.006

0.006

0.006

0.006

0.006

0.3

0.009

0.009

0.009

0.009

0.009

0.009

0.009

0.009

0.009

0.009

0.009

0.4

0.012

0.012

0.012

0.012

0.012

0.012

0.012

0.012

0.012

0.012

0.012

0.5

0.015

0.015

0.015

0.015

0.015

0.015

0.015

0.015

0.015

0.015

0.015

0.6

0.018

0.018

0.018

0.018

0.018

0.018

0.018

0.018

0.018

0.018

0.017

0.7

0.021

0.021

0.021

0.021

0.021

0.021

0.021

0.021

0.021

0.020

0.020

0.8

0.024

0.024

0.024

0.024

0.024

0.024

0.024

0.024

0.024

0.023

0.023

0.9

0.027

0.027

0.027

0.027

0.027

0.027

0.027

0.027

0.026

0.026

0.026

0.030

0.030

0.030

0.030

0.030

0.030

0.030

0.029

0.029

0.029

0.029

0.061

0.061

0.060

0.060

0.060

0.060

0.059

0.059

0.059

0.058

0.058

0.091

0.091

0.090

0.090

0.090

0.089

0.089

0.088

0.088

0.088

0.087

0.122

0.121

0.121

0.120

0.120

0.119

0.118

0.118

0.117

0.117

0.116

0.152

0.152

0.151

0.150

0.149

0.149

0.148

0.147

0.147

0.146

0.145

0.183

0.182

0.181

0.180

0.179

0.178

0.178

0.177

0.176

0.175

0.174

0.213

0.212

0.211

0.210

0.209

0.208

0.207

0.206

0.205

0.204

0.203

0.244

0.242

0.241

0.240

0.239

0.238

0.237

0.236

0.235

0.233

0.232

0.274

0.273

0.271

0.270

0.269

0.268

0.266

0.265

0.264

0.263

0.261

10

0.304

0.303

0.302

0.300

0.299

0.297

0.296

0.295

0.293

0.292

0.290

20

0.609

0.606

0.603

0.600

0.598

0.595

0.592

0.589

0.586

0.584

0.581

30

0.913

0.909

0.905

0.901

0.896

0.892

0.888

0.884

0.879

0.875

0.871

40

1.218

1.212

1.206

1.201

1.195

1.190

1.184

1.178

1.173

1.167

1.161

50

1.522

1.516

1.508

1.501

1.494

1.487

1.480

1.473

1.466

1.459

1.452

60

1.826

1.819

1.810

1.801

1.793

1.784

1.776

1.767

1.759

1.750

1.742

70

2.131

2.122

2.111

2.101

2.092

2.082

2.072

2.062

2.052

2.042

2.032

80

2.435

2.425

2.413

2.402

2.391

2.379

2.368

2.356

2.345

2.334

2.322

90

2.740

2.728

2.714

2.702

2.689

2.676

2.664

2.651

2.638

2.626

2.613

100

3.044

3.031

3.016

3.002

2.988

2.974

2.960

2.945

2.931

2.917

2.903

ISA-RP2.1-1978

45

Table 23 Equivalents in inches of water at 60F of kerosine columns in mm at


various temperatures
Temperature of kerosine column in deg F
mm
Kerosene

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Inches of water
1

0.033

0.033

0.033

0.033

0.033

0.032

0.032

0.032

0.032

0.032

0.032

0.066

0.066

0.066

0.065

0.065

0.065

0.065

0.064

0.064

0.064

0.063

0.100

0.099

0.099

0.098

0.098

0.097

0.097

0.096

0.096

0.095

0.095

0.133

0.132

0.132

0.131

0.130

0.130

0.129

0.129

0.128

0.127

0.127

0.166

0.165

0.164

0.164

0.163

0.162

0.161

0.161

0.160

0.159

0.158

0.199

0.198

0.197

0.196

0.196

0.195

0.194

0.193

0.192

0.191

0.190

0.232

0.231

0.230

0.229

0.228

0.227

0.226

0.225

0.224

0.223

0.222

0.266

0.264

0.263

0.262

0.261

0.259

0.258

0.257

0.256

0.255

0.253

0.299

0.298

0.296

0.295

0.293

0.292

0.291

0.289

0.288

0.286

0.285

10

0.332

0.331

0.329

0.327

0.326

0.324

0.323

0.321

0.320

0.318

0.317

20

0.664

0.661

0.658

0.655

0.652

0.649

0.646

0.643

0.639

0.636

0.633

30

0.996

0.992

0.987

0.982

0.978

0.973

0.968

0.964

0.959

0.955

0.950

40

1.328

1.322

1.316

1.310

1.304

1.297

1.291

1.285

1.279

1.273

1.267

50

1.660

1.653

1.645

1.637

1.630

1.622

1.614

1.606

1.599

1.591

1.583

60

1.993

1.984

1.974

1.965

1.956

1.946

1.937

1.928

1.918

1.909

1.900

70

2.325

2.314

2.303

2.292

2.282

2.271

2.260

2.249

2.238

2.227

2.217

80

2.657

2.645

2.632

2.620

2.608

2.595

2.583

2.570

2.558

2.546

2.534

90

2.989

2.975

2.961

2.947

2.933

2.919

2.905

2.892

2.877

2.864

2.850

100

3.321

3.306

3.290

3.275

3.259

3.244

3.228

3.213

3.197

3.182

3.167

200

6.642

6.612

6.580

6.550

6.519

6.487

6.457

6.426

6.394

6.364

6.334

300

9.963

9.918

9.869

9.824

9.778

9.731

9.685

9.639

9.592

9.546

9.507

400

13.284

13.224

13.159

13.099

13.038

12.975

12.913

12.852

12.789

12.728

12.668

500

16.604

16.530

16.449

16.374

16.297

16.218

16.142

16.065

15.986

15.910

15.834

600

19.925

19.835

19.739

19.649

19.556

19.462

19.370

19.278

19.183

19.091

19.001

700

23.246

23.141

23.029

22.924

22.816

22.706

22.598

22.491

22.380

22.273

22.168

800

26.567

26.447

26.318

26.198

26.075

25.950

25.826

25.704

25.578

25.455

25.335

900

29.888

29.753

29.608

29.473

29.335

29.193

29.055

28.917

28.775

28.637

28.502

000

33.209

33.059

32.898

32.748

32.594

32.437

32.283

32.130

31.972

31.819

31.669

46

ISA-RP2.1-1978

Table 24 Equivalents in inches of water at 60F, of gage oil* columns at


various temperatures
Temperature of gage oil column in deg F
Inches
Oil

20

10

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Inches of water
0.01

0.009

0.009

0.009

0.009

0.009

0.009

0.009

0.008

0.008

0.008

0.008

0.008

0.008

0.02

0.017

0.017

0.017

0.017

0.017

0.017

0.017

0.017

0.017

0.017

0.017

0.017

0.016

0.03

0.026

0.026

0.026

0.026

0.026

0.025

0.025

0.025

0.025

0.025

0.025

0.025

0.025

0.04

0.035

0.035

0.034

0.034

0.034

0.034

0.034

0.034

0.033

0.033

0.033

0.033

0.033

0.05

0.043

0.043

0.043

0.043

0.043

0.042

0.042

0.042

0.042

0.042

0.041

0.041

0.041

0.06

0.052

0.052

0.051

0.051

0.051

0.051

0.051

0.050

0.050

0.050

0.050

0.049

0.049

0.07

0.061

0.060

0.060

0.060

0.060

0.059

0.059

0.059

0.058

0.058

0.058

0.058

0.057

0.08

0.069

0.069

0.069

0.068

0.068

0.068

0.067

0.067

0.067

0.066

0.066

0.066

0.066

0.09

0.078

0.078

0.077

0.077

0.077

0.076

0.076

0.075

0.075

0.075

0.074

0.074

0.074

0.1

0.087

0.086

0.086

0.085

0.085

0.085

0.084

0.084

0.083

0.083

0.083

0.082

0.082

0.2

0.173

0.172

0.172

0.171

0.170

0.169

0.168

0.168

0.167

0.166

0.165

0.165

0.164

0.3

0.260

0.258

0.257

0.256

0.255

0.254

0.253

0.251

0.250

0.249

0.248

0.247

0.246

0.4

0.346

0.345

0.343

0.341

0.340

0.338

0.337

0.335

0.334

0.332

0.331

0.329

0.327

0.5

0.433

0.431

0.429

0.427

0.425

0.423

0.421

0.419

0.417

0.415

0.413

0.411

0.409

0.6

0.519

0.517

0.514

0.512

0.510

0.507

0.505

0.503

0.500

0.498

0.496

0.493

0.491

0.7

0.606

0.603

0.600

0.597

0.595

0.592

0.589

0.587

0.584

0.581

0.578

0.576

0.573

0.8

0.692

0.689

0.686

0.683

0.680

0.677

0.673

0.670

0.667

0.664

0.661

0.659

0.655

0.9

0.779

0.775

0.772

0.768

0.765

0.761

0.758

0.754

0.751

0.747

0.744

0.740

0.737

1.

0.865

0.861

0.857

0.853

0.850

0.846

0.842

0.839

0.834

0.830

0.826

0.822

0.818

2.

1.730

1.722

1.715

1.707

1.699

1.691

1.684

1.676

1.668

1.660

1.653

1.645

1.637

3.

2.595

2.584

2.572

2.560

2.549

2.537

2.525

2.514

2.502

2.490

2.479

2.467

2.455

4.

3.460

3.445

3.429

3.414

3.398

3.383

3.367

3.352

3.336

3.320

3.305

3.289

3.274

5.

4.325

4.306

4.287

4.267

4.248

4.228

4.209

4.190

4.170

4.151

4.131

4.112

4.092

6.

5.191

5.167

5.144

5.121

5.097

5.074

5.051

5.027

5.004

4.981

4.957

4.934

4.911

7.

6.056

6.028

6.001

5.974

5.947

5.920

5.892

5.865

5.838

5.811

5.784

5.756

5.729

8.

6.921

6.890

6.859

6.827

6.796

6.765

6.734

6.703

6.672

6.641

6.610

6.579

6.548

9.

7.786

7.751

7.716

7.681

7.646

7.611

7.576

7.541

7.506

7.471

7.436

7.401

7.366

10.

8.651

8.612

8.573

8.534

8.495

8.457

8.418

8.379

8.340

8.301

8.262

8.223

8.185

*Specifically, "Ellison Gage Oil" for inclined gages: spec. grav. 60/60 =0.834
ISA-RP2.1-1978

47

Table 25 Equivalents in inches of water at 60F, of alcohol columns at various


temperatures (100% ethyl alcohol)
Temperature of alcohol-glycol column in deg F
Inches
Alcohol

30

20

10

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

Inches of water

48

0.01

0.008

0.008

0.008

0.008

0.008

0.008

0.008

0.008

0.008

0.008

0.008

0.008

0.008

0.02

0.017

0.017

0.017

0.016

0.016

0.016

0.016

0.016

0.016

0.016

0.016

0.016

0.016

0.03

0.025

0.025

0.025

0.025

0.025

0.024

0.024

0.024

0.024

0.024

0.024

0.024

0.023

0.04

0.034

0.033

0.033

0.033

0.033

0.033

0.032

0.032

0.032

0.032

0.032

0.031

0.031

0.05

0.042

0.042

0.041

0.041

0.041

0.041

0.040

0.040

0.040

0.040

0.040

0.039

0.039

0.06

0.050

0.050

0.050

0.049

0.049

0.049

0.049

0.048

0.048

0.048

0.047

0.047

0.047

0.07

0.059

0.058

0.058

0.058

0.057

0.057

0.057

0.056

0.056

0.056

0.055

0.055

0.055

0.08

0.067

0.067

0.066

0.066

0.065

0.065

0.065

0.064

0.064

0.064

0.063

0.063

0.062

0.09

0.075

0.075

0.074

0.074

0.074

0.073

0.073

0.072

0.072

0.072

0.071

0.071

0.070

0.1

0.084

0.083

0.083

0.082

0.082

0.081

0.081

0.080

0.080

0.079

0.079

0.079

0.078

0.2

0.167

0.166

0.165

0.164

0.164

0.163

0.162

0.161

0.160

0.159

0.159

0.157

0.156

0.3

0.251

0.250

0.248

0.247

0.245

0.244

0.242

0.241

0.240

0.238

0.237

0.235

0.234

0.4

0.335

0.333

0.331

0.329

0.327

0.325

0.323

0.321

0.319

0.318

0.316

0.314

0.312

0.5

0.418

0.416

0.414

0.411

0.409

0.406

0.404

0.402

0.399

0.397

0.395

0.392

0.390

0.6

0.502

0.499

0.496

0.493

0.491

0.488

0.485

0.482

0.479

0.476

0.474

0.471

0.468

0.7

0.585

0.582

0.579

0.576

0.572

0.569

0.566

0.562

0.559

0.556

0.552

0.549

0.546

0.8

0.669

0.665

0.662

0.658

0.654

0.650

0.646

0.643

0.639

0.635

0.631

0.628

0.624

0.9

0.753

0.749

0.744

0.740

0.736

0.732

0.727

0.723

0.719

0.715

0.710

0.706

0.702

1.

0.836

0.832

0.827

0.822

0.818

0.813

0.808

0.803

0.799

0.794

0.789

0.785

0.780

2.

1.673

1.663

1.654

1.644

1.635

1.626

1.616

1.607

1.597

1.588

1.578

1.569

1.560

3.

2.509

2.495

2.481

2.467

2.452

2.438

2.424

2.410

2.396

2.382

2.368

2.353

2.339

4.

3.345

3.327

3.308

3.289

3.270

3.251

3.232

3.213

3.194

3.176

3.157

3.138

3.119

5.

4.182

4.158

4.135

4.111

4.087

4.064

4.040

4.017

3.993

3.970

3.946

3.922

3.899

6.

5.018

4.990

4.961

4.933

4.905

4.877

4.848

4.820

4.792

4.763

4.735

4.707

4.679

7.

5.854

5.821

5.788

5.755

5.722

5.689

5.656

5.623

5.590

5.557

5.524

5.491

5.458

8.

6.691

6.653

6.615

6.578

6.540

6.502

6.464

6.427

6.389

6.351

6.313

6.276

6.238

9.

7.527

7.485

7.442

7.400

7.357

7.315

7.272

7.230

7.188

7.145

7.103

7.060

7.018

10.

8.363

8.316

8.269

8.222

8.175

8.128

8.081

8.033

7.986

7.939

7.892

7.945

7.798

ISA-RP2.1-1978

Table 26 Equivalents in inches of water at 60F, of alcohol-glycol columns at


various temperatures
Temperature of alcohol-glycol column in deg F
Inches
40
Alcohol-Glycol

30

20

-10

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

100

0.1

0.104

0.104

0.103

0.103

0.103

0.102

0.102

0.101

0.101

0.100

0.100

0.100

0.099

0.098

0.2

0.209

0.208

0.207

0.206

0.205

0.204

0.203

0.203

0.202

0.201

0.200

0.199

0.198

0.197

0.3

0.313

0.312

0.310

0.309

0.308

0.306

0.305

0.304

0.303

0.301

0.300

0.299

0.297

0.295

0.4

0.417

0.415

0.414

0.412

0.410

0.409

0.407

0.405

0.403

0.402

0.400

0.398

0.397

0.393

0.5

0.521

0.519

0.517

0.515

0.513

0.511

0.509

0.506

0.504

0.502

0.500

0.498

0.496

0.492

0.6

0.626

0.623

0.621

0.618

0.615

0.613

0.610

0.608

0.605

0.603

0.600

0.597

0.595

0.590

0.7

0.730

0.727

0.724

0.721

0.718

0.715

0.712

0.709

0.706

0.703

0.700

0.697

0.694

0.688

0.8

0.834

0.831

0.827

0.824

0.821

0.817

0.814

0.810

0.807

0.803

0.800

0.797

0.793

0.786

0.9

0.938

0.935

0.931

0.927

0.923

0.919

0.916

0.912

0.908

0.904

0.900

0.896

0.892

0.885

1.0

1.043

1.038

1.034

1.030

1.026

1.021

1.017

1.013

1.009

1.004

1.000

0.996

0.992

0.983

2.085

2.077

2.068

2.060

2.052

2.043

2.034

2.026

2.017

2.009

2.000

1.992

1.983

1.966

3.128

3.115

3.103

3.090

3.077

3.064

3.051

3.038

3.026

3.013

3.000

2.987

2.974

2.949

4.171

4.154

4.137

4.120

4.103

4.085

4.068

4.051

4.034

4.017

4.000

3.983

3.966

3.932

5.214

5.192

5.171

5.150

5.128

5.107

5.085

5.064

5.043

5.021

5.000

4.979

4.957

4.915

6.256

6.231

6.205

6.179

6.154

6.128

6.103

6.077

6.051

6.026

6.000

5.974

5.949

5.898

7.299

7.269

7.239

7.209

7.179

7.150

7.120

7.090

7.060

7.030

7.000

6.970

6.940

6.880

8.342

8.307

8.273

8.239

8.205

8.171

8.137

8.103

8.068

8.034

8.000

7.966

7.932

7.863

9.384

9.346

9.307

9.269

9.231

9.192

9.154

9.115

9.077

9.038

9.000

8.962

8.923

8.846

10

10.427

10.384

10.342

10.299

10.256

10.214

10.171

10.128

10.085

10.043

10.000

9.957

9.915

9.829

20

20.854

20.769

20.683

20.598

20.512

20.427

20.342

20.256

20.171

20.085

20.000

19.915

19.829

19.658

30

31.281

31.153

31.025

30.897

30.769

30.641

30.512

30.384

30.256

30.128

30.000

29.872

29.744

29.488

40

41.708

41.537

41.366

41.196

41.025

40.854

40.683

40.512

40.342

40.171

40.000

39.830

39.658

39.317

50

52.135

51.922

51.708

51.495

51.281

51.068

50.854

50.641

50.427

50.214

50.000

49.787

49.573

49.146

60

62.562

62.306

62.050

61.793

61.537

61.281

61.025

60.769

60.512

60.256

60.000

59.744

59.488

58.975

70

72.989

72.690

72.391

72.092

71.793

71.495

71.196

70.897

70.598

70.299

70.000

69.701

69.402

68.804

80

83.416

83.074

82.733

82.391

82.050

81.708

81.366

81.025

80.683

80.342

80.000

79.658

79.317

78.633

90

93.843

93.456

93.074

92.690

92.306

91.922

91.537

91.153

90.769

90.384

90.000

89.616

89.231

88.463

100

104.27

103.84

103.42

102.99

102.56

102.14

101.71

101.28

100.85

100.43

100.00

99.573

99.146

98.292

* 36% by volume ethyl alcohol; 64% ethylene glycol; specific gravity at 60F = 1.000

ISA-RP2.1-1978

49

Table 27 Equivalents in inches of water at 60F, of dibromobenzene*


columns at various temperatures
Temperature of dibromobenzene columns in deg F
Inches
Dibromobenzene

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

Inches of water
0.01

0.020

0.020

0.020

0.020

0.020

0.019

0.019

0.019

0.019

0.02

0.040

0.040

0.039

0.039

0.039

0.039

0.039

0.039

0.038

0.03

0.060

0.059

0.059

0.059

0.059

0.058

0.058

0.058

0.058

0.04

0.080

0.079

0.079

0.079

0.078

0.078

0.078

0.077

0.077

0.05

0.100

0.099

0.099

0.098

0.098

0.097

0.097

0.097

0.096

0.06

0.120

0.119

0.118

0.118

0.117

0.117

0.116

0.116

0.115

0.07

0.139

0.139

0.138

0.138

0.137

0.136

0.136

0.135

0.135

0.08

0.159

0.159

0.158

0.157

0.157

0.156

0.155

0.155

0.154

0.09

0.179

0.178

0.178

0.177

0.176

0.175

0.175

0.174

0.173

0.1

0.199

0.198

0.197

0.197

0.196

0.195

0.194

0.193

0.192

0.2

0.398

0.397

0.395

0.393

0.392

0.390

0.388

0.386

0.385

0.3

0.597

0.595

0.592

0.590

0.587

0.585

0.582

0.580

0.577

0.4

0.797

0.793

0.790

0.786

0.783

0.780

0.776

0.773

0.769

0.5

0.996

0.992

0.987

0.983

0.979

0.975

0.970

0.966

0.962

0.6

1.195

1.190

1.185

1.180

1.175

1.169

1.164

1.159

1.154

0.7

1.394

1.388

1.382

1.376

1.370

1.364

1.358

1.352

1.347

0.8

1.593

1.586

1.580

1.573

1.566

1.559

1.552

1.546

1.539

0.9

1.792

1.785

1.777

1.769

1.762

1.754

1.747

1.739

1.731

1.0

1.992

1.983

1.974

1.966

1.958

1.949

1.941

1.932

1.924

3.983

3.966

3.949

3.932

3.915

3.898

3.881

3.864

3.847

5.974

5.949

5.923

5.898

5.873

5.847

5.822

5.796

5.771

7.965

7.932

7.898

7.864

7.830

7.796

7.762

7.728

7.694

9.957

9.915

9.872

9.830

9.788

9.745

9.703

9.660

9.618

11.949

11.898

11.847

11.796

11.745

11.694

11.643

11.592

11.541

13.940

13.881

13.821

13.762

13.703

13.643

13.584

13.524

13.465

15.932

15.864

15.796

15.728

15.660

15.592

15.524

15.456

15.388

17.923

17.847

17.770

17.694

17.618

17.541

17.465

17.388

17.312

10

19.915

19.830

19.745

19.660

19.575

19.490

19.405

19.320

19.235

* ortho-dibromobenzene: spec. gravity at 60/60 = 1.9660; m.p. = 30 F.

50

ISA-RP2.1-1978

Table 28 Equivalents in psi, of dibromobenzene columns at various temperatures


Temperature of dibromobenzene column in deg F
Inches

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

Dibromobenzene
psi
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9

0.007
0.014
0.022
0.029
0.036
0.043
0.050
0.058
0.065

0.007
0.014
0.022
0.029
0.036
0.043
0.050
0.057
0.064

0.007
0.014
0.021
0.029
0.036
0.043
0.050
0.057
0.064

0.007
0.014
0.021
0.028
0.036
0.043
0.050
0.057
0.064

0.007
0.014
0.021
0.028
0.035
0.042
0.050
0.057
0.064

0.007
0.014
0.021
0.028
0.035
0.042
0.049
0.056
0.063

0.007
0.014
0.021
0.028
0.035
0.042
0.049
0.056
0.063

0.007
0.014
0.021
0.028
0.035
0.042
0.049
0.056
0.063

0.007
0.014
0.021
0.028
0.035
0.042
0.049
0.056
0.063

1.0
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

0.072
0.144
0.216
0.288
0.359
0.431
0.503
0.575
0.647

0.072
0.143
0.215
0.286
0.358
0.429
0.501
0.573
0.644

0.071
0.143
0.214
0.285
0.356
0.428
0.499
0.570
0.641

0.071
0.142
0.213
0.284
0.355
0.426
0.497
0.568
0.639

0.071
0.141
0.212
0.283
0.353
0.424
0.495
0.565
0.636

0.070
0.141
0.211
0.281
0.352
0.422
0.492
0.563
0.633

0.070
0.140
0.210
0.280
0.350
0.420
0.490
0.560
0.630

0.070
0.140
0.209
0.279
0.349
0.419
0.488
0.558
0.628

0.069
0.139
0.208
0.278
0.347
0.417
0.486
0.555
0.625

10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90

0.719
1.437
2.156
2.875
3.594
4.312
5.031
5.750
6.469

0.716
1.431
2.147
2.863
3.578
4.294
5.010
5.725
6.441

0.713
1.425
2.138
2.850
3.563
4.276
4.988
5.701
6.413

0.710
1.419
2.129
2.838
3.548
4.257
4.967
5.676
6.386

0.706
1.413
2.119
2.826
3.532
4.239
4.945
5.652
6.358

0.703
1.407
2.110
2.814
3.517
4.220
4.924
5.627
6.331

0.700
1.400
2.101
2.801
3.502
4.202
4.902
5.603
6.303

0.697
1.395
2.092
2.789
3.486
4.184
4.881
5.578
6.275

0.694
1.388
2.083
2.777
3.471
4.165
4.859
5.554
6.248

100

7.187

7.157

7.126

7.095

7.065

7.034

7.003

6.972

6.942

ISA-RP2.1-1978

51

Table 29 Equivalents in inches of water at 60F, of dibromoethane*


columns at various temperatures
Temperature of dibromoethane column in deg F
Inches

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Dibromoethane
Inches of Water
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09

0.021
0.042
0.063
0.084
0.105
0.127
0.148
0.169
0.190

0.021
0.042
0.063
0.084
0.105
0.126
0.147
0.168
0.189

0.021
0.042
0.063
0.084
0.104
0.126
0.146
0.167
0.188

0.021
0.042
0.062
0.083
0.104
0.125
0.146
0.166
0.187

0.021
0.041
0.062
0.083
0.103
0.124
0.145
0.165
0.186

0.021
0.041
0.062
0.082
0.103
0.123
0.144
0.165
0.185

0.021
0.041
0.061
0.082
0.102
0.123
0.143
0.164
0.184

0.020
0.041
0.061
0.081
0.102
0.122
0.142
0.163
0.183

0.020
0.041
0.061
0.081
0.101
0.121
0.142
0.162
0.182

0.020
0.041
0.060
0.081
0.101
0.121
0.141
0.161
0.181

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9

0.211
0.422
0.633
0.844
1.055
1.266
1.478
1.689
1.900

0.210
0.420
0.630
0.840
1.050
1.260
1.470
1.680
1.890

0.209
0.418
0.627
0.836
1.044
1.253
1.462
1.671
1.880

0.208
0.416
0.623
0.831
1.039
1.247
1.455
1.662
1.870

0.207
0.413
0.620
0.827
1.034
1.240
1.447
1.654
1.860

0.206
0.411
0.617
0.822
1.028
1.234
1.439
1.645
1.850

0.205
0.409
0.614
0.818
1.023
1.227
1.436
1.636
1.841

0.203
0.407
0.610
0.814
1.017
1.221
1.424
1.627
1.831

0.202
0.405
0.607
0.809
1.012
1.214
1.416
1.619
1.821

0.201
0.403
0.604
0.805
1.006
1.207
1.409
1.610
1.811

1.0
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

2.111
4.221
6.332
8.443
10.553
12.664
14.775
16.886
18.996

2.100
4.200
6.299
8.399
10.499
12.599
14.698
16.798
18.898

2.088
4.178
6.266
8.355
10.444
12.533
14.622
16.710
18.799

2.078
4.156
6.234
8.312
10.389
12.467
14.545
16.623
18.701

2.067
4.134
6.201
8.268
10.335
12.402
14.469
16.536
18.602

2.056
4.112
6.168
8.224
10.280
12.336
14.392
16.448
18.504

2.045
4.090
6.135
8.180
10.225
12.270
14.315
16.360
18.406

2.034
4.068
6.102
8.136
10.171
12.205
14.239
16.273
18.307

2.023
4.046
6.070
8.093
10.116
12.139
14.162
16.186
18.209

2.012
4.025
6.037
8.049
10.061
12.074
14.086
16.098
18.110

21.107

20.998

20.888

20.779

20.669

20.560

20.451

20.341

20.232

20.123

10

*1,1 Dibromoethane: spec gravity, 2.056 at 60/60.


52

ISA-RP2.1-1978

Table 30 Equivalents in psi, of dibromoethane columns at various


temperatures
Inches Dibromoethane

Temperature of dibromoethane column in deg F

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9

0.007
0.015
0.023
0.031
0.038
0.046
0.053
0.061
0.069

0.007
0.015
0.023
0.030
0.038
0.046
0.053
0.061
0.068

0.007
0.015
0.023
0.030
0.038
0.045
0.053
0.060
0.068

0.007
0.015
0.023
0.030
0.038
0.045
0.053
0.060
0.068

psi
0.007
0.015
0.022
0.030
0.037
0.045
0.052
0.060
0.067

0.007
0.015
0.022
0.030
0.037
0.045
0.052
0.059
0.067

0.007
0.015
0.022
0.030
0.037
0.044
0.052
0.059
0.066

0.007
0.015
0.022
0.029
0.037
0.044
0.051
0.059
0.066

0.007
0.015
0.022
0.029
0.037
0.044
0.051
0.058
0.066

0.007
0.015
0.022
0.029
0.036
0.044
0.051
0.058
0.065

1.0
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

0.076
0.152
0.229
0.305
0.381
0.457
0.533
0.609
0.686

0.076
0.152
0.227
0.303
0.379
0.455
0.531
0.606
0.682

0.075
0.151
0.226
0.302
0.377
0.452
0.528
0.603
0.679

0.075
0.150
0.225
0.300
0.375
0.450
0.525
0.600
0.675

0.075
0.149
0.224
0.298
0.373
0.448
0.522
0.597
0.671

0.074
0.148
0.223
0.297
0.371
0.445
0.519
0.594
0.668

0.074
0.148
0.221
0.295
0.369
0.443
0.517
0.591
0.664

0.073
0.147
0.220
0.294
0.367
0.441
0.514
0.587
0.661

0.073
0.146
0.219
0.292
0.365
0.438
0.511
0.584
0.657

0.073
0.145
0.218
0.291
0.363
0.436
0.508
0.581
0.654

10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90

0.762
1.524
2.285
3.047
3.809
4.571
5.332
6.094
6.856

0.758
1.516
2.273
3.031
3.789
4.547
5.305
6.062
6.820

0.754
1.508
2.262
3.015
3.769
4.523
5.277
6.031
6.785

0.750
1.500
2.250
3.000
3.750
4.499
5.249
5.999
6.749

0.746
1.492
2.238
2.984
3.730
4.476
5.222
5.968
6.714

0.742
1.484
2.226
2.968
3.710
4.452
5.194
5.936
6.678

0.738
1.476
2.214
2.952
3.690
4.428
5.166
5.905
6.643

0.734
1.468
2.202
2.936
3.671
4.405
5.139
5.873
6.607

0.730
1.460
2.191
2.921
3.651
4.381
5.111
5.841
6.572

0.726
1.452
2.179
2.905
3.631
4.357
5.084
5.810
6.536

100

7.618

7.578

7.539

7.499

7.460

7.420

7.381

7.341

7.302

7.262

ISA-RP2.1-1978

53

Table 31 Equivalents in inches of water at 60F, of columns of acetylene


tetrabromide* at various temperatures
Inches acetylene tetrabromide
0

10

20

Temperature of acetylene tetrabromide column in deg F


30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Inches of Water

0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09

0.031
0.061
0.091
0.122
0.152
0.183
0.213
0.244
0.274

0.030
0.061
0.091
0.121
0.152
0.182
0.212
0.243
0.273

0.030
0.061
0.091
0.121
0.151
0.182
0.212
0.242
0.272

0.030
0.060
0.090
0.121
0.151
0.181
0.211
0.241
0.271

0.030
0.060
0.090
0.120
0.150
0.180
0.210
0.240
0.270

0.030
0.060
0.090
0.119
0.149
0.179
0.209
0.239
0.269

0.030
0.059
0.089
0.119
0.149
0.178
0.208
0.238
0.268

0.030
0.059
0.089
0.118
0.148
0.178
0.207
0.237
0.266

0.030
0.059
0.088
0.118
0.147
0.177
0.206
0.236
0.265

0.029
0.059
0.088
0.117
0.147
0.176
0.205
0.235
0.264

0.029
0.058
0.088
0.117
0.146
0.175
0.204
0.234
0.263

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9

0.305
0.610
0.914
1.221
1.526
1.830
2.136
2.441
2.746

0.304
0.607
0.911
1.216
1.519
1.822
2.126
2.431
2.734

0.303
0.605
0.907
1.210
1.512
1.815
2.117
2.420
2.722

0.301
0.602
0.904
1.205
1.506
1.807
2.108
2.409
2.710

0.300
0.600
0.900
1.200
1.500
1.799
2.099
2.399
2.699

0.299
0.597
0.896
1.194
1.493
1.791
2.090
2.388
2.687

0.297
0.594
0.892
1.189
1.486
1.783
2.080
2.378
2.675

0.296
0.592
0.888
1.184
1.479
1.775
2.071
2.367
2.663

0.295
0.589
0.884
1.178
1.473
1.767
2.062
2.357
2.651

0.293
0.587
0.880
1.173
1.466
1.760
2.053
2.346
2.639

0.292
0.584
0.876
1.168
1.460
1.752
2.044
2.335
2.527

3.051
6.102
9.153
12.204
15.255
18.306
21.357
24.408
27.459
30.510

3.038
6.076
9.114
12.151
15.189
18.227
21.265
24.303
27.341
30.379

3.025
6.049
9.074
12.099
15.123
18.148
21.173
24.197
27.222
30.247

3.012
6.023
9.035
12.046
15.058
18.069
21.081
24.092
27.104
30.115

2.998
5.997
8.995
11.993
14.992
17.990
20.988
23.987
26.985
29.983

2.985
5.970
8.956
11.941
14.926
17.911
20.896
23.881
26.867
29.852

2.972
5.994
8.916
11.888
14.860
17.832
20.804
23.776
26.748
29.720

2.959
5.918
8.876
11.835
14.794
17.753
20.712
23.670
26.629
29.588

2.946
5.891
8.837
11.783
14.728
17.674
20.619
23.565
26.511
29.456

2.932
5.865
8.797
11.730
14.662
17.595
20.527
23.460
26.392
29.325

2.919
5.839
8.758
11.677
14.597
17.516
20.435
23.354
26.274
29.193

1.0
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

*1,1,2,2Tetrabromoethane: spec.grav.2.972 at 60/60.

54

ISA-RP2.1-1978

Table 32 Equivalents in psi of acetylene tetrabromide at various temperatures


Inches acetylene
tetrabromide

Temperature of acetylene tetrabromide column in deg F

10

20

30

40

50
psi

60

70

80

90

100

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9

0.011
0.022
0.033
0.044
0.055
0.066
0.077
0.088
0.099

0.011
0.022
0.033
0.044
0.055
0.066
0.077
0.088
0.099

0.011
0.022
0.033
0.044
0.055
0.066
0.076
0.087
0.098

0.011
0.022
0.033
0.043
0.054
0.065
0.076
0.087
0.098

0.011
0.022
0.032
0.043
0.054
0.065
0.076
0.087
0.097

0.011
0.022
0.032
0.043
0.054
0.065
0.075
0.086
0.097

0.011
0.021
0.032
0.043
0.054
0.064
0.075
0.086
0.097

0.011
0.021
0.032
0.043
0.053
0.064
0.075
0.085
0.096

0.011
0.021
0.032
0.043
0.053
0.064
0.074
0.085
0.096

0.011
0.021
0.032
0.042
0.053
0.064
0.074
0.085
0.095

0.011
0.021
0.032
0.042
0.053
0.063
0.074
0.084
0.095

1.0
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

0.110
0.220
0.330
0.440
0.550
0.660
0.770
0.880
0.990

0.110
0.219
0.329
0.438
0.548
0.657
0.767
0.876
0.986

0.109
0.218
0.327
0.437
0.546
0.655
0.764
0.873
0.982

0.109
0.217
0.326
0.435
0.543
0.652
0.761
0.869
0.978

0.108
0.216
0.325
0.433
0.541
0.649
0.757
0.866
0.974

0.108
0.215
0.323
0.431
0.539
0.646
0.754
0.862
0.970

0.107
0.215
0.322
0.429
0.536
0.644
0.751
0.858
0.965

0.107
0.214
0.320
0.427
0.534
0.641
0.747
0.854
0.961

0.106
0.213
0.319
0.425
0.532
0.638
0.744
0.850
0.957

0.106
0.212
0.318
0.423
0.529
0.635
0.741
0.847
0.953

0.105
0.211
0.316
0.421
0.527
0.632
0.738
0.843
0.948

10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90

1.101
2.202
3.303
4.404
5.506
6.607
7.708
8.809
9.910

1.096
2.193
3.289
4.385
5.482
6.578
7.675
8.771
9.867

1.092
2.183
3.275
4.366
5.458
6.550
7.641
8.733
9.824

1.087
2.174
3.261
4.347
5.434
6.521
7.608
8.695
9.782

1.082
2.164
3.246
4.328
5.411
6.493
7.575
8.657
9.739

1.077
2.155
3.232
4.309
5.387
6.464
7.542
8.619
9.696

1.073
2.145
3.218
4.290
5.363
6.436
7.508
8.581
9.653

1.068
2.136
3.204
4.271
5.339
6.407
7.475
8.543
9.611

1.063
2.126
3.189
4.252
5.315
6.379
7.442
8.505
9.568

1.058
2.117
3.175
4.233
5.292
6.350
7.408
8.467
9.525

1.054
2.107
3.161
4.214
5.268
6.322
7.375
8.429
9.482

100

11.011

10.964

10.916

10.869

10.821

10.774

10.726

10.678

10.631

10.583

10.536

ISA-RP2.1-1978

55

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ISBN: 0-87664-325-X