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Classification of Industrial fabric:
1. According to fabric construction: a. Woven fabric b. Knitted fabric c. Braided fabric d. Bonded fabric 2. According to materials: a. Cloth b. Lace 3. According to width of fabric: a. Broad/Lag width fabric – Canvas b. Narrow fabric – Ribbon, Belt, Tape.
Classification of fabric on the basis of end use:
a. Apparel fabric – Clothing, Shirting and Suiting. b. Decorative fabric – Wall cover, Curtain, Table cloth. c. Industrial fabric – Belt, Tape.
Methods of fabric production:
1. Weaving: a. Fabric weaving b. Carpet weaving c. Pile fabric weaving
Prepared by: Shameem, Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch
Special Fabric Production
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d. Non – pile fabric weaving e. Narrow fabric weaving
2. Knitting: a. Warp knitting b. Weft knitting
3. Other methods: a. Tufting b. Manufacturing of wedding & felting c. Needle felting or needle punching d. Stitch bonding e. Non – woven f. Lace g. Embroidery h. Braiding i. Lappet weaving j. Swivel weaving
Prepared by: Shameem, Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch
Special Fabric Production
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A woven narrow fabric, generally plain weave used in non – load – bearing applications and the reinforcing of fabrics to resist wear and deformation.
The general features of tape are: It is a single ply woven narrow fabric. Usually plain weave is used & also simple twill or zigzag twill can be used. Width maximum 18” in UK std. and 12” in USA std. Weight less than webbing 850 gm/100 m of 25mm width. Used in non-load-bearing application. Materials used for tape are – Cotton, Polyester, Nylon, Glass-fibre.
a. Multiple shuttle loom. b. Needle loom.
End – use:
a. Electrical insulation – Made from glass fibre.
Prepared by: Shameem, Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch
Special Fabric Production
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b. Dimensional stable – Nylon tape coated with Poly–urethane is used as dividing tape. c. Used as wicks. d. Identification of garments in laundering. e. For spindle drive in ring spinning. f. For binding tape as file covers.
Give a detailed classification of Textile fabrics and Made up goods:
Textile fabrics are basically classifying into the following two types: 1. Woven fabric 2. Non – woven fabric. Non woven fabrics are mainly two types: 1. Knitted fabrics 2. Fleted or bonded fabrics. Non woven fabrics are also classified as follows: 1. Tufting fabrics. 2. Flocking 3. Wadding 4. Needle punching 5. Stitching bonding 6. Lace Woven fabrics are mainly two types: 1. Biaxial (Ordinary fabric consisting of one set warp & one set weft) 2. Tri axial (Special fabric consisting of two sets of warp & one set of weft)
Prepared by: Shameem, Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch
Special Fabric Production
Page | 5 Made – up goods are classified as follows: 1. Apparel textile 9. Medical textile 4. Bed covering 2. Fool wear textile 2. Geo – textile 5. Kitchen textile Prepared by: Shameem. Towel 4. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . Agricultural textile House hold textiles are classified as follows: 1. Blankets 3. Aero textile 6. Marine textile 8. House hold textile 3. Table linen 5. Industrial textile 7.
Sling (Hanging of Micro surgery of hand) Elastic purpose. Multiple plies fabric. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . Page | 6 Webbing Definition: Webbing is a woven narrow fabric. End uses: Load bearing application. Belt. Width 450 mm. the prime function of which is load bearing.3 kg/100m of 25mm width. It is generally of coarse weave & multiple plies. Aero-plane parachute. Prepared by: Shameem. Features: It is a narrow fabric woven coarsely. Weight should be greater than 1. Spun yarn is used.
garments trimming. plain or twill can be used. The products have a fused edge. characterized in the higher quality by fine warp yarns and high warp density and usually of lustrous appearance. High thread density. End use: Hair tie – up. Mainly satin weave. Page | 7 Ribbon Definition: Ribbon is attractive woven narrow fabric. Opening Packing Decorative purpose. Lustrous appearance. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . Fine filaments are used. Prepared by: Shameem. Features/Characteristics: The features or characteristics of Ribbon are: It is an attractive narrow fabric.
6. 5. 4. Mechanism: 1. Shuttle Wooden h f Pivot Cam Pivot Bottom shaft Bowl Treadle lever Fig: Multi shuttle loom’s picking system. Two treadle lever which is pivoted in both side of the loom. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . Shuttles are traverses on belt. 3. Tapes are placed on race board groove. of tape = No. Two picking cams are placed in the bottom shaft. No. 2. More than one tape is produced. 2. of shuttle. Page | 8 Looms Multiple Shuttle loom: (Multi – piece shuttle loom) 1. Length of shuttle = 3”. Prepared by: Shameem. length of pirn = 2” Seasoning up to 30 hrs. More than one shuttle is used.
of tapes/one loom obtained. Page | 9 3. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . 2 picks/shed. 2. Prepared by: Shameem. Needle loom: Feature: 1. No. One angular needle always carries the yarn horizontally. When bottom shaft rotate the eccentric of picking cam pushes the treadle lever and the shuttle is placed on sley race level. Latch needle makes the loop at one side of the selvedge. Thus alternatively picking is done. 3. Shuttles are placed on a wooden shaft and the wooden shaft traverses by belt and belts are joined with the treadle lever. 5. Weft yarn comes from the top of the m/c. 4. Warp Weft insertion needle Pivot Latch Needle Fig: Needle loom’s weft insertion mechanism. 4.
Page | 10 Mechanism: 1. There is an angular needle in one side of the loom for inserting the weft yarn. Prepared by: Shameem. The angular needle is pivoted at one end and the other end carry yarn. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . 4. Latch needle is on another side for making loops in one side of the fabric selvedge. When shed produced the needle enter into the shed with yarn and the latch needle hold the yarn by looping and then the needle return to its original position. thus 2 picks/shed is given. 3. 2.
Float braid b. Page | 11 Braid Definition: Braid is one kind of narrow fabric. Non elastic braid (Core material is wire or a bundle of thread) 2. According to elastic use: a. State the classification of braid: Braid mainly of two types: 1. Solid braid Describe the structure of various forms of braid: The structures of various forms braid are described below: Prepared by: Shameem. Braid for fabric use is formed on braiding m/c by interlacing three or more strands of yarn. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . According to the shape or formation: a. c. Elastic braid (Core material is rubber) b. Round or tubular braid. The process of interlacing three or more threads is in such a way that they cross one another & are laid together in diagonal formation.
Jute. Tubular braid is used in fire brigade water pipe. Silk etc. Solid braid: It contains core & sheath and more than one sheath is possible. Flat braid Tubular braid Solid braid Mention the properties and uses of braid: The properties of braid are given below: 1. Rounded braids are tubular in form which may be hollow or have a center core of some material. Prepared by: Shameem. 3 1 Twill The raw material for sheath may be cotton. Uses: Trimmings. the core is empty. Core may be rubber. Binding (Cotton. Jute). Flat braids are produced in the form of strips or narrow flat tapes. 1 Twill. Page | 12 Flat Braid: There is no core only sheath. 1 Weave: In sheath 1 2 Plain. Tubular braid: It contains core & sheath. In core yarn is used without any weave. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . 2 2 Twill. wire or bundle of thread. mmf. Breaking load: Breaking load of braiding is at least 50% more than that of component yarns due to interlacement of each other.
Smoothness: Braid has smoother surface than cord. 5. sash cord. fancy trimmings. Breaking length: Breaking length of braid is 50% greater than single yarn of which it is composed. General areas of uses: Shoe lace. tube reinforcement. There is a different twist direction in braid. Growth areas: Surgical. parachute and shock absorber cords. If plait/cm increases braiding angle increases and smoothness also increases. Smoothness depends on the plait/cm. finishing line & netting cords. fashion. 6. electrical wire & cable covering. End use: Braids are used in domestic. clothing. Flexibility: Greater than that of cord produced by the some component yarn. Braid contraction: Braid contraction = Strand length – Braid length. wire flexible sleeving. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . cloth lines. wicking ties. packing cords. suture. Snarling & Untwisting: Snarling & untwisting is comparatively better than cord. Breaking extension: At least four times greater than that of component yarns. girdles. flat & elastic tape. as a result the twist is frequently changes. industrial. tube reinforcement. State the technical difficulties in braid production and how can you solve it? The technical problems that are arises in braid production are- Prepared by: Shameem. depend on the braiding angle. 3. medical & sporting areas. ropes and cords of wide varieties. 7. 4. Page | 13 2.
2. Methods of making braid: There are two methods: 1. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . & tensioner for each yarn. The possible causes are Bobbin diameter. By using lubricants at the braiding point. In this case yarn may hairy and breaks. Ric – rac method 2. Remedies: By using spring type tension. Distance between braiding point and several carriers. Inter thread friction at the point of braid formation. Prepared by: Shameem. Tension differences in strands pulled from the end coils of a long bobbin and those from the bobbin which results in a limit on the bobbin length employed. By using dead wt. By using ratchet & pawl. Page | 14 1. Edge – loop method. Remedies: By using separate yarn guide. Variation of inter yarn friction. Thread withdrawal point on a bobbin.
Horn gear shifts the position of spur gear. There is no drive in horn gear. Horn gear transfers the bobbin in the crossing point of the two tracks. Illustrate the working principle of sliding carrier braiding m/c with simple sketch: Fixed gear Movable gear Fig: Sliding carrier braiding principle Sliding carrier circular braiding m/c: Circular braiding m/c is one kind of sliding carriers type m/c. Page | 15 Types of braiding m/c: There are two types of braiding m/c: 1. Supported carrier m/c. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . By this moveable gear the bobbin carriers move opposite direction in two track. Prepared by: Shameem. Sliding carrier m/c. Clockwise and anti clockwise. 2. Two sets of horn gear shift the spur gear in two directions. it is performed only to support the carrier. Bobbin carriers are supported by a thick plate & is driven beneath by a horn gear. Here fixed gear gets continuous drive and moveable gear gets drive from it.
Page | 16 Flat braid Flanged bobbin is used in this m/c and tubular or round braid is produced in this m/c. As a result there produce flat braid. e→ Horn gear. Components of a braiding m/c: a elastic a→ Elastic bobbin. b b→ Braiding point c→ Spindle. c e f→ m/c pulley.For producing flat braid one of the horn gear is released from the m/c. the bobbin carrier is fully supported by horn gear which are placed either at the top of the m/c or at the same level with the top plate. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . d f h g Prepared by: Shameem. Supported carrier braiding m/c: In this type of m/c. d→ Spur gear. g→ Motor pulley.
3. It is produced on braiding m/c ELASTICATED TAPE 1. 2. It is one kind of tape consisting of elastic. 4. 2. Spandex yarn or textured yarn is used as weft yarn. There is no yarn in weft way direction. Braided narrow fabric. At least. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . 5. Woven narrow fabric. It is produced on narrow loom Prepared by: Shameem. 5. Conventional m/c: For flat braid: 13-49 bobbins For tubular braid: 12-48 bobbins. Consisting of one set of warp & one set of weft and elastic is as the same direction of warp. It is one kind of braid consisting of elastic. Page | 17 Capacity of the m/c: 1. 2. 4. three warp in one set and elastic is as the same direction of warp. Modern m/c: For flat braid: 9-81 bobbins For tubular braid: 8-80 bobbins What are the differences between elasticated braid and elasticated tape? The main differences between elasticated braid and elasticated tape are: ELASTICATED BRAID 1. 3.
Prepared by: Shameem. supported carrier type. Page | 18 of sliding carrier type or of multi shuttle loom or needle loom. 6. It is generally flat. 6. round or tubular or solid. It may be flat. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production .
lowering the insulating properly. a fabric is combined with polyurethane. & thickness of fabric. Bonding by an adhesive: Here an adhesive is used to combine the sheet of foam with the fabric. Non-woven or knitted) to a sheet of polyurethane (most common) or polyester or polyurethane foam is called laminating & the product is called laminate or laminated fabric. Methods of lamination: 1. The use of adhesive increase the little wt. Sewing or stitching: In this method. Prepared by: Shameem. Page | 19 Laminated fabric Laminated fabric: The permanent bonding of a fabric (Woven. The pore causes the poor appearance at outside. polyester foam or another material by sewing or stitching. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . Laminated fabric is a material composed of two or more layers at least one of which is a textile fabric bonded closely together by means of adhesive. It has higher strength as anchoring is occurred here. Main advantage is that due to use of adhesive the open end is sealed & the air permeability decreased. 2. The sewing causes pores in the fabric which causes air permeability & hence heat may pass easily. Bonded or coated fabric: A layer of fabric structure where a face fabric is joined to a back fabric with an adhesive that does not significantly add to the thickness of combined fabric is called bonded or coated fabric.
Polyether 4. The permanent bonding of a fabric (Woven. Material for lamination: 1. film of adhesive & the fabric through a calendar. Lather 6. is used. the film is heated by using flame below & after calendaring the combined sheet of laminated fabric is obtained. polyester etc. BODED FABRIC 1. 4. Polyester 3. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . Polyurethane (mostly used) 2. Rubber Distinguish between bonded fabric and laminated fabric: The differences are as follows: LAMINATE FABRIC 1. Before passing the three sheets of foam layer. Non-woven. foam material is Prepared by: Shameem. A layer of fabric structure where a face fabric is joined to a back fabric with an adhesive is Knitted) to a sheet of poly urethane or poly ether or known as bonded fabric. Welding with high frequency electrical current: The poly urethane sheet or polyester sheet is combined with fabric by high frequency electrical current welding & no other mtl. Page | 20 3. The air permeability is not good. Welding by fame: The film sheet is used to combine the fabric & the foam sheet. Polyurea 5.
Having good tailoring property. Wrinkle resistance or crease recovery is low. Higher stability. 3. Not comfortable to wear. High adhesiveness to practically all materials. Good thermal insulation. lamination is called and the laminated 2. Wrinkle resistance or crease recovery is high. 5. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . 5. Page | 21 called product fabric. 3. 2. Prepared by: Shameem. Comfortable to wear. High degree of elasticity. Advantages of polyurethane sheet over polyether & polyester: Weak solubility in conventional organic solvent. Write down the superior qualities of polyurethane sheet over polyester sheet for lamination. 4. Or. Resistance to elevated temp. List the advantage of polyurethane foam sheet for laminated fabric. Tailoring property is not so good. 4. Lightness. Having low stability.
For synthetic fibre – Mechanical wash. The maintenance of laminated fabrics are: Polyether: Sensitive to chemical cleaning. Does not bunch. Odorless or non-odor retaining. It is perspiration proof. – 20-350c. The following care is performed on laminated fabric: a. Higher dimensional stability. shrink or stretched. Excellent sound proofing quality. For natural fibre – Hand wash with care. Polyester: Washed or chemically cleaned. Write a note on the care and uses of laminates. Washing or Wet cleaning: Ionic detergent: 5 gm/l (Concentrated) Optimum temp: 400c. non toxic and non allergic. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . Polyurethane: Washing & chemical cleaning. Page | 22 Resistance to creasing. melt. Drying temp. wash only. Lower centrifugal force is required for m/c washing & rpm is 1500. They may be given any degree of elasticity. Prepared by: Shameem. Does not support growth of bacteria.
The product is as like as woolen type. Washing temp. Because there is air pocket in the foam which will obstact the transfer of heat. 3. So. as a result the fabric is warmth in nature. Page | 23 b. Chemical cleaning or Dry cleaning: If heavily soiled fabric then: Per chloro ethylene or white spirit with an added chemical cleaning agent. Due to adhesive used in laminated fabric. the resulting thickness of laminated fabric will increased. 4. of trapped air in laminated fabric is more. this will increase the thermal insulation property. laminated fabric has good thermal property. – 20-250c Centrifugal force – 400 rpm Optimum drying temp. Thermal insulation of fabric will increase due to the uses of polyurethane foam. Write down the various use of laminated fabric: Furnishing: Prepared by: Shameem. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . 5. – 450c Explain the reasons for good thermal insulation property of laminate: 1. Due to the polymer the fabric has good thermal insulation property. No. 2.
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Carpets, Rugs – Foam thickness 6mm. Laminate weight – 45 – 60kg/m3. Curtains – Sound proofing quality, used in hotel, schools, hospitals, automobile bodies. Furniture fabrics may be laminated to decrease permanent deformation in use Lighter than laminated fabric. Foam thickness 2-3 mm. Clothing: 1. Cotton types: Cotton type coat suitable for spring & autumn. Heavy and light jackets. Waist coat & ladies coat.
1 Weave: 1 Plain, 2 2 Twill
2. Woolen type: Used as winter coat. Low breaking strength after lamination. Added thermal insulation. Increase in durability. Foam thickness 1.5 – 2mm and weight 30 kg/m3. 3. Knitted fabric type: Ladies coat, children cloth, waist coat.
Prepared by: Shameem, Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch
Special Fabric Production
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Mens heavy and light jacket. 30-40% lower wt. for laminated than conventional laminated fabric for same thickness. Knitted fabric provide good adhesive properties. Lamination reduces shrinkage of knitted fabric by 1-2%. Wearing properties good than woven fabric & comfortable.
Describe the method of adhesive lamination with figure:
Techniques for lamination:
1. Cloth r/r. Conveyor belt. Polywrethane foam. Adhesive regulator. Adhesive r/r. Intermediate & winding r/r. pressing r/r. Drying chamber. Pressing r/r. Take –up r/r.
1. 8 7 9
2. 3. 4.
Seasoning up to 30 hrs.
Description: The fabric is carried by a conveyor belt. The raw fabric is set on cloth r/r. At the upper position there is polyurethane foam. The polyurethane foam is carried by some guide r/r. The whole system is as such as the foam makes a coating at the upper side of the fabric. Before coating, adhesive is lying on the foam from the adhesive tray. Then pressing r/r pressed the foam and fabric unis only before drying. When fabric is dried, then pressing is done again and finally
Prepared by: Shameem, Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch
Special Fabric Production
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the delivered fabric is wound. Thus the fabric is laminated by poly –urethane foam.
Other methods of laminating or bonding:
1. In this case, a flame is applied below the foam before being bonded with the fabric. The fame causes melting of the foam at the flame touching point. When this foam & fabric passes through the nip of the pressing roller the laminated fabric is obtained.
Foam sheet Intermediate r/r.
Pressing r/r. Laminated fabric. Fabric.
2. In this case, adhesive is applied by adhesive roller at the underside of the fabric & then the fabric is bonded together by pressing roller. The preliminary bonded fabric is then dried in dryer. A final pressing is done to the fabric for good bonding.
Face fabric Drying chamber Pressing r/r
Adhesive tray Pressing r/r Bonded fabric Back fabric
Prepared by: Shameem, Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch
Special Fabric Production
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3. In this case, adhesive in polymer foam is sprayed in the fabric. Then the fabric layer is pressed together by pressing roller. The pressed fabric is then passed through the heating chamber. Where the polymer adhesive sprayed previously is melted & the two fabric layer is bonded together.
Face fabric Heating chamber Pressing r/r Adhesive spray Pressing r/r
Bonded fabric Back fabric
4. In this case, a thin film of adhesive layer in between, the face & back layer of the fabric is supplied. Before pressing of the applying flame on its way to pressing roller which presses the film layer & fabric layer to get a bonded fabric which is rolled by take up roller.
Face fabric Pressing r/r Film
Bonded fabric Back fabric
Prepared by: Shameem, Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch
Special Fabric Production
In laminated fabric: 1. Page | 28 Quality requirements for gts. It should posses better air & water permeability according to nature of garments. 2. It must posses the permissible disappearance of foam. The foam should not causes the chemical break down of fibres. 3. 6. Durability of bonding must be good so that the bonds should not separate due to rubbing or friction. 8. It should not affect the drape & handle. The foam thickness should not exceed 1. 5. then fabric posses the characteristics of foam. 7. The fabric must be shrinkage proof.5-2mm & also in proper preparation because if foam is in high amount. 4. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . It must resist discoloration of fabric. Prepared by: Shameem.
Belts are multilayer fabric which is called treble cloth. Page | 29 Belt Definition: A generic term covering all forms of belt & roots of material from which belts are made up that are designed for the transmission of power or for the purpose of covering or elevating. Types of belt: There are mainly two types of belt. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . They are: 1. Stitching: Extra warp per two repeat. Weave: Face & back twill weave.4-1. Solid woven belting Prepared by: Shameem. Width = 0. Endless woven belting 2. centre = Plain weave. In treble cloth there are three series of warp and weft threads which form three distinct fabrics one above the other. Specification of belt: 2-7 ply fabric.5 m Thickness =3-10mm Finishes = PVC coated.
Endless woven belting: A woven narrow fabric usually in plain or 2/2 twill weave in which the warp consists of one continuous thread wound in a helix to the required length & woven without join. the plies being interlocked in the weave or bound together by binding threads in the course of weaving (Minimum three ply). Prepared by: Shameem. By stitching with the help of stitching thread. Page | 30 1. Solid woven belting: A belting consists of more than one ply. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . It should be sufficiently flexible to permit easy bending when running over pulleys. By thread interchanging 3. 2. What are the critical requirements of driving belt? The critical requirements of driving belt are: 1. of materials without undue sagging between supports. By cloth interchanging 2. 3. So that the first and last picks are adjacent. It should be rigid enough to carry considerable wt. The construction of a belt must also be such that it will not permit undue stretching under load. 2. Types of binding: Binding is of following three types: 1.
Here. More robust loom is required. Explain the designing problem of belt: The stress suffered by a belt upon bending are due to the forces of expansion and contraction between the outer and inner faces of a belt and are defined by diagram & general formula given below: Suppose a belt is running over a pulley at bending position contacted belt from θ angle with the center of pulley. Single or double warp beam is required. It may be multilayer: 2-7 layers. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . Often chemical finishes are applied to impart many desired properties. Sometimes adhesive & filler materials are used between two layers of fabrics to increase thickness & weight. Page | 31 Requirements of loom for producing belt or characteristics: The requirements or characteristics are: More power is required to weave the belt. t = Total thickness of belt a = Inner contact length of belt with pulley Prepared by: Shameem. Heavy beat up force required. θ = Angle of lap r = Radius of pulley. Usual shedding mechanism mostly dobby is required. Multiple box motion is required.
Page | 32 b = Centre contact length c = Outer contact length o t r θ a b c We know. θ = b r+ t 2 t⎞ ⎛ b = ⎜ r + ⎟θ 2⎠ ⎝ Similarly. C = (r + t) θ So. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . Angle = arc radius θ = a r a = rθ Again. Strain in the centre of belt = b−a a Prepared by: Shameem.
t = 2 cm then Strain at b = 2 = 0. V-belt. Page | 33 t⎞ ⎛ ⎜ r + ⎟θ − θr 2⎠ =⎝ rθ t = 2r Strain in the total belt = c−a a = (r + t )θ − θr rθ = t r Say.1 2 × 10 So. End uses: Power transmission: Flat belt. of the pulley. r= 20. r = 20 cm. Conveying purpose: Mainly flat belt (Speed 6-210 m/min) Safety belt: Aircraft & car. Strain at b = 3 = 0. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production .075 2 × 20 If. t = 2 then Strain at b = 2 2 × 20 1 20 = 0.05 = Again. t = 3 cm then. we can say that belt problem increases with the increase in thickness of belt but decreases with dia. r = 10. Prepared by: Shameem.
Problem of belt production: The problem of belt production is: Undue stretching due to contraction at inner surface. Page | 34 Sorting purpose: Speed 6-10 m/min. Military. Expansion at outer surface. For reinforcing load carrying capability or toughness of luggage bag. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . The stitching yarns binds the layers effectively to prevent any layer to creep in respect of another which is undesirable as it promotes the tendency to ply separation. Quick wear. Waist band: Police. Illustrate the construction of 3-Ply belt with drafting and lifting plan: Three ply structures of the type described is illustrated in the form of a weft section at B in the figure and weave structure at C. The weave of each layer is indicated by Prepared by: Shameem. In the section only one warp end of the 3-thread twill is shown in the face and back layers to preserve the clarity of the structure. Design problem. Stitching problem. Sagging. Carrying purpose: Bag.
The ends and picks are designed by the face. Page | 35 the distinctive marks. back and stitches. The draft for the structure is shown at D and lifting plan at in figure. centre. Weave: Face 2 1 1 1 twill Centre Plain Back 1 2 twill Face Back X X X X X X X X X X B C F B C F B C F B C F B C F B C F X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X F B C S F B S X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X C F B X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Prepared by: Shameem. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production .
Cotton 3.Pile weft Types of pile: Pile is of two types: 1. a. Warp pile fabric: If pile thread used as a warp thread then called warp pile fabric. Natural: 1.F: 1. Prepared by: Shameem. Poly propylene (Most commonly used) 4. Mainly both sided loop pile.Ground warp . Cut pile 2. It may be cut pile and loop pile. Viscose. Acrylic 2. It may one side cut and one side loop.Ground weft Weft pile fabric .Pile warp . Nylon 3.F and natural fibre both are use to produce pile fabric as raw material. Polyester 5.M. Terry towel is one of warp pile class. b. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . Silk 5. Jute 2.Ground warp . M. Hemp. Page | 36 Pile fabric Pile Fabric Warp pile fabric .Ground weft . Loop pile Raw material: M. Wool 4.M.
According to different size & shape: a. Floor covering Classification of floor covering: 1. Mainly cut pile is used to produce design. Pile direction b. Room size rugs. Runners e. Page | 37 All carpets are warp pile fabric. Scatter rugs 2. Cut & loop pile f. Pile density e. One level cut pile h. Pile thickness d. Carpet may be loop pile and cut pile. d. Area rugs f. According to surface texture: a. Pile height c. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . Multi level loop pile Prepared by: Shameem. Wall to wall carpet b. Carpet may produce combination of cut pile and loop pile. Yarn twist pile g. Carpet modulus c. One level loop pile i.
Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . Tufting floor covering c. Carpet Pile interchange: There are two systems of pile interchange: 1. Needle punching floor covering Classification of warp pile: Warp pile fabrics are two types: 1. According to manufacturing method: a. ii. Terry pile ( Two set warp. Woven floor covering i. Multi level loop & cut pile 3. Flocked floor covering f. Fusion bonding floor covering e. Hand woven carpet M/c woven carpet a) Axminister weaving b) Face to face weaving c) Wilton weaving d. South German pile interchange: Prepared by: Shameem. one set weft used as towel) 2. Hand knotted floor covering b. Page | 38 j.
Wire loom principle: Features of wire loom carpet 1. It may be cut or loop pile 2. hotels etc) Prepared by: Shameem. Page | 39 Sharp line will not be produced. More compact structure. Sharp line will be produced. 1. 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 2. 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 2 3 1 2 3 1 3 Techniques of carpet weaving / State the basic systems available for the production of woven carpets: There are mainly three systems for producing woven carpet. Bunghard – Vossen pile interchange: Less compact fabric. offices. Axminister weaving (For high quality multi color carpet with cut pile) 1. There are mainly heavy carpet for the contract market(shops. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . Face to face weaving (Only cut pile) 3. Wire loom principle (Cut or loop pile or both) 2.
dobby shedding or jacquard shedding. when the wire withdrawn from the fabric. 5. Pile yarns may be fed by separate beams or by creels when a large number of colors are used. Page | 40 3. 4. Ground weave Plain weave either with equal or unequal tension. Two color carpet is indicated a two frame carpet. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . Plain wire or looping wire: There is no knife at any end. Types of wire used in wire loom There are two types of wire used in the wire loom. Ground warp is known as chain warp. Pile height is determined by the wire dimension. 6. 2. the loop is cut in a cut pile. Shedding of ground warp is cam shedding. Combination of a 2 2 rib with 1 1 plain weave. Ground warp yarns are threaded in the back shaft. Shedding of pile warp is cam shedding. Cutting wire: These wires have a knife at the top. They are: 1. They are: Prepared by: Shameem. It may be three or two colour fabric. Types of wire loom principle: This principle is of two types.
After insertion of wires. is used & the structure is deep. Page | 41 a. there coarser mtl. A construction of carpet by producing this principle is given below: Metal wire Pile warp Ground warp Ground weft Both loop & cut pile Loop pile with dead pile Wire loom mechanism: Prepared by: Shameem. Here. Brussels carpet: Loop pile fabric with 2 shot or 2 picks wire carpet structure i. is used & the piles are less deep. softer & more flexible then bussels carpet In wire loom principle at the reed beat up following the wire insertion. Brussels carpet b. finer. Coarser yarns are used in this system. Wilton carpet a. finer mtl. The pile height depends on wire dimension. b. the wire farthest away from the shafts is withdrawn from the carpet. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . Wilton carpet: Cut pile fabrics with 3 shot to 1 wire being cutting wire.e 2 picks to 1 wire using plain weave. The wires stay in the carpet over same cycles. They are used in hanging. The fabric handle is lighten. a loop is formed over the wire at the cloth fell.
the pile warp may require to be from 5-12 times length of group warp on the pile yarn. if plain wires are used or cut if the wire has cut blade at its tip end. it can be achieved either by the use of tappet with a stroke bigger than that of the ground warp tappets or by suitable leverage connections to the heald shaft which controls the pile warp. The mechanism requires at the side of the loom a space which is at least equal to the width of the woven cloth. 12.5-25 mm. the temples act only a selvedge. In dobby or jacquard shedding. 5. 11. the wire furthest away from the cloth fall is withdrawn leaving the loops which were formed over its shank. To produce the pile. 6. Page | 42 1. a wire is inserted across the width of the warp into a shed formed only by the pile ends. 10. The wire is inserted into a special high shed formed by the pile yarns & simultaneously the shuttle inserts the weft into a low shed formed by the ground yarn. the pile will not be injured. The circular cross-section wire is only suitable for the production of short pile. 4. The depth of the wires differs from 1. of wires between the two points is necessary mainly to prevent the loops being pulled back by the tension on the pile yarn. 2. the high shed for wire insertion is obtained by special lifting arrangements. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . long pile is produced on wires with a rectangular cross-section. In all over pile structure. Prepared by: Shameem. 8. Dimension of the wire determine the height of pile. 7. In cam shedding. 9. 3. The large no. The pile may be looped. After the insertion of a number of picks & wires. During weaving in order that.
In winding the cloth on to the cloth roller the underside is brought in contact with the friction roller. Pile yarns are perpendicular between two ground fabrics The difference between the bottom and top fabrics determined the pile height. Page | 43 13. Disadvantages Lower production due to wire insertion Over heating may be occurred due to friction. The pile height is changed is changed by adjusting this distance. Prepared by: Shameem. No mirror image effect due to face to face weaving and for using two or three color. 2. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . Face to face weaving: Features: A carpet produced on the face to face principle is formed by cutting through a double fabric. Advantages of wire loom: Cut and loop pile carpet is possible. If plain or looping wire is used then produce loop pile and if cutting wire having a knife at the top is used then produce cut pile. Pile height is easily adjustable because pile height is determined by the wire dimension.
Here only one shed is formed. so a loop is formed on every pick. The looms are less wide then wire looms since there is no system for wire insertion. Once cut through the carpet don’t greatly differ from carpets produced with the aid of wires from a weave technical point of view. Simultaneously one for the top & one for the bottom fabrics. Page | 44 The pile yarns are cut through by means of a transversely reciprocating knife. The dead pile yarns can be woven in both fabrics High productivity for carpet & warp velvet weaving Always cut pile no loop pile is possible. Principles of face to face weaving: There are two principles of face to face weaving. Single shuttle principle b. So that two weft picks are inserted. Single shuttle principle: Single shuttle principle uses only one mechanism for the weft insertion on the loom. Double shuttle principle a. b. a loop is formed for every 2 or 3 picks. They are: a. Here also. Double shuttle principle: Here two sheds are formed in the formation of fabrics & there are two mechanisms for the weft insertion. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . thus forming two fabrics with facing piles. A weft yarn is Prepared by: Shameem. It is also possible to work with exclusion of weft on the double shuttle technique.
Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . Page | 45 inserted alternately in the top & bottom fabrics while the other insertion mechanism inserts no weft yarn. Supply of pile warp: Spring Compensating roller Dropper Front rest Guide roller Delivery roller Free roller Heald shaft Pile warp beam Guide roller Prepared by: Shameem.
4. 1 1 unequal tension 3. 3 3 Combined with 2 1 the warp yarns of the later weave highly tensioned. 2 2 twill Prepared by: Shameem. V-Weave b. 2 2 2 2 Hop sack weave. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . 3. Plain weave with equal or unequal tension 2. Page | 46 Commonly used weave for face to face weaving: The commonly used weaves are 1. 1 1 equal tension 2. U weave c. W weave Ground weave: 1. Pile weave: a. Combined with 1 1 with the warp yarns of the later weave highly tensioned.
More stress & shedding. Disadvantages of face to face weaving: 1. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . 3. 2. What are the differences between wire principle and face to face principle? The differences are as below: Prepared by: Shameem. Back side appearance is not nice. The carpet is thicken & comfortable. 2 1 equal tension 5. More expensive jacquard m/c is required. No supplementary treatment is needed to remove the floating pile. 3. Page | 47 4. 4. Greater dimensional stability. 2 2 + 3 1 Advantages of face to face weaving: 1. 2 1 unequal tension 6. 2. Top & bottom carpets are equal in weight.
The looms are less wide than wire loom since there is no system for wire insertion. 2. 3. 4. 4. There is mainly heavy carpet for the contract marker (Shops. The looms are very wide. Here no warp beam is used creel used instead of warp beam There are three types of Axminster weaving. Always cut pile no loop pile is possible. Page | 48 WIRE LOOM PRINCIPLE 1. hostels etc. They are: Prepared by: Shameem. offices. The piles are cut by the wire which has a knife at the top. 3. 3. 6. 5. 6. Axminster weaving Technique: An Axminster carpet is a single cloth woven carpet whose pile yarns are laid in the fabric between the double weft with a length determined before hand. In wire loom principle pile is formed by the insertion of wire. It may be cut or loop pile. The pile height is determined by the wire dimension.) 5. In this principle carpet is formed by cutting through a double fabric. The piles are cut by means of a traversely reciprocating knife. FACE TO FACE PRINCIPLE 1. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . Pile height is determined by the distance between top & bottom fabrics. There are mainly carpet & warp velvet. 2.
Gripper Axminster b. The grippers move to their top & bottom position. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . Spool gripper Axminster a. In their upward movements the grippers are open and on reaching in top position. Page | 49 a. Spool Axminster c. The necessary distance away from the carriers or by similarly withdrawing the fabric in which the carriers are mounted from the points of the grippers. As many yarns are provided. The thread is then cut by a knife which traverses the comb to the length. Then a sufficient length of thread is formed in front of the carriers to give required height of pile either by moving the grippers. Prepared by: Shameem. as there are tufts of pile formed in a line across the width that is one of which longitudinal line of pile & to each split of the reed. the dyed pile thread being wound separately upon bobbins which are placed in creel frames behind the loom. Gripper Axminster weaving: In the gripper system. the tufts are inserted just into the grooves of the carriers & close on the projecting ends of the pile threads. From the bobbins the threads pass between horizontal guide bars & through holes in a guide board to slots in yarn carriers.
Prepared by: Shameem. Disadvantages: The only disadvantage is the productivity is loss. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . Page | 50 Gripper Slotted bpard Tufted yarn Fig. Gripper axminster weaving Cut pile Chain warp Stuffer yarn Weft yarn Advantages of Gripper Axminster weaving: It saves the raw material Pile length let same by using different yarn Density of pile will keep same by using coarse yarn.
Spool Axminster weaving: A carpet in which the yarn for each weft wise row is wound on a separate spool according to the design is called spool axminister weaving. figuring pile and ground figuring or figuring with one series of pile threads. Wrap pile fabrics produced with the aid of wires depending on the surface effect. Spool gripper Axminster weaving: A carpet in which the yarns for each weft wise row are wound on a spool as in spool Axminster weaving allowing for unlimited use of colour is called spool gripper axminster weaving. Cut pile Chain warp Weft yarn Stuffer yarn c. Prepared by: Shameem. They are: All over or continuous pile effects Figured effects with one series of pile threads which may loop or cut pile. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . The tufts served from the yarns are inserted at the point of weaving by grippers as in gripper Axminster weaving. This allows in an unlimited number of colours to be used in the design. Page | 51 b.
Thermo plastic fibre is used for embossing design. Page | 52 Figure constructions with up to five series of differentially coloured threads in which the ornament is chiefly due to color /figuring with several series of pile thread. 2. b. Other modification may include a combination of smalll dia looping wires with fall cutting wires and so on. Stripe effect: By using differently colored pile threads. During Manufacturing: a. Ornamentation of continuous or all over warp pile fabrics: Ornamentation of all over warp pile fabrics may done by the following stages: 1. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . During finishing a. Stepped or waves Or d. Horizontal bar effects: Which add considerable interest to the appearance of the cloth can be obtained by employing both cutting and looping wires which may be arranged in different sequences such as 8 to 10 cutting or looping wires. c. By pressing heated embossing r/r on the fabric. Prepared by: Shameem.
By this operation a smooth appearance will be obtained. Tip shearing: It is one type of brushing and it is done for raising. Prepared by: Shameem. The pile and it cuts the irregular pile. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . Stuffer passes through the two shot without interlacement. Finishing Treatment of carpet: The following treatments are performed on carpeta. 2 2 W e a v e s tru c tu re 3 – Shot structure: In three shot structure there is a chain warp series running alternately over three shots. Brushing: In order to raise the pile brushing is performed. Page | 53 2 – Shot structure: In two shot structure carpet. To increase the softness brushing is done. b. there is a chain warp series running alternately over two shots.
This fault is pile height carpet thickness etc. by taking necessary steps. Prepared by: Shameem. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . Page | 54 c. Inspection table: In this testing any visual fault of carpet is find out and removed.
Page | 55 Weft pile fabric Features: Weft pile fabrics structures also termed velveteen is very high density of shoting which is the finest fabrics may reach 200 pick/cm. The weave used can be a weft satin or a warp rib weave. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . No special weaving m/c are needed to weave weft pile fabric Weft pile yarns have large floats at the tip side of the fabric. Prepared by: Shameem. 2. Weft pile fabric usually have a short pile The pile height is determined by the length of the floats of the pile weft yarn. Manchester: This is a weft pile fabric with closely woven weft often used for work trousers. Some well known weft pile fabric 1. The pile is formed by cutting through the weft yarns of course not all weft yarns are cut through since the fabric would have no more coherence. Velveteen: There is no pile here over the entire fabric surface but the pile forms ribs on the fabric hair is present over the entire fabric surface. Ground weft yarns bind the fabric & this provides coherence to the fabric plain/twill weave is used.
Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . This makes the fabric elastic in length direction. Page | 56 3. 5. Prepared by: Shameem. Corduroy: Fin rib quality after used for woven wear used in ladies dresses. 4. Baby roy: Very fine rib quality used in ladies dresses. Stretch cord: This is a weft pile fabric with a great number of elastomers yarn in the warp.
Polypropylene is used for its cheapest value. Prepared by: Shameem. Resistance to different micro surgery organism & insects. Easy clean. Large knot must be avoided. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . Pile / Face yarn Primary backing Adhesive /Precoat Secondary backing Basic elements – of tufted carpet: 1. Pile yarn: Man made fibre or wool is used. After further treatment for example. Good dyeing property. Properties: Well wear resistance. Page | 57 Tufted carpet Tufting consists in piecing yarns through a primary support fabric by means of needles in such a way that piles (Cut & loop) are formed on the support fabric. anchoring the pile by means of a pre coat & applying a secondary backing a complete finished tufted carpet is obtained. Uniform cross section.
Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . Page | 58 2. polyester and of natural fibre jute is used.e. There is one pick in every shed. Primary backing: Man made fibre such as polypropylene. 3. Distance between loop & primary support. Gauge: 1/10” for finer. Two series of yarn are used in warp & weft yarn.e Pile. 1/8-5/32” for coarser. warp & weft Prepared by: Shameem. 2. HESSIAN CLOTH 1. CARPET 1. synthetic latex. 2. Pile height: 3-40mm What are the differences between carpet & Hessian cloth? The differences between Hessian cloth and carpet are given below. 1/10” & 1/8” gauge are most widely used. carpet backing cloth which is made from jute is used widely. Depth of needle. Secondary support: Man made fibre. Pile height depends on: Feeding of pile yarn. Adhesive or pre coat: Natural. 4. synthetic rubber coating is used. There may two or three pick in every shed. At least three series of yarn are used i. natural or CBC i.
Whiteness. 3. Moisture Regain should be high for not to produce static electricity when use. What are the factors to be considered for selecting carpet pile yarn? 1. Page | 59 yarn. Production cost is very low. Maximum three beams are used 4. It is used for floor covering. Good dye affinity. 3. heavy cotton etc. 5. No tuft is used. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . 2. 3. 4. Having strength at dry and wet condition both. 5. Prepared by: Shameem. 8. Wire may be required for pile formation. 7. 9. 8. 6. 7. Only one warp beam is used. 5. Good resiliency. Warmth handling. Special type of tappet is used. 6. 6. Tuft is used. It is used for canvas. 4. 9. It is light fabric. Very high production cost. There is no necessity of wire for pile formation. It is heavy fabric. Generally tappet is used.
Specific gravity should be preferatively low. Prepared by: Shameem. Easy to clean. 8. 14. 10. Page | 60 7. 12. 15. Not affected by pest & micro organism. 11. Fibre in the yarn not to be so straight and smooth for not producing slippery surface. Unaffected by dry cleaning solvent. Unaffected due to heat & light. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . Flame resistance. 13. 9. Not easily wet and should have easy to dry. Soiling resistance.
Classification of terry towel: 1. They need no ironing. 3. Terry fabrics are easy in maintenance. Moreover. Terry with ordered standing loop piles (Regular loop pile) – Unsized dyed warp yarn is used for pile 2. Terry with cut piles – Cotton ring yarn. The loop warp yarn always binding around the 2nd weft after the full reed beat up. b. This makes this type of fabric is really suited for towels. Page | 61 Terry fabric Terry fabric (Toweling): Terry fabrics belong to the group of pile fabrics. pile ½ or 2/1 twill. dyed & sized yarn is used. sized yarn. They also have a higher specific surface which increases absorbency. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . For both types of terry weave the following rules are applied: 1. after treatment required. bathmats. Prepared by: Shameem. 4 Pick terry: Mat/ Basket weave for ground 1/3 or 3/1 for pile. Weave: Two types of terry are available: a. bathrobes are warm clothes since terry fabrics contain a lot of air. The thickness of terry fabric is higher than with that fabric. Terry with irregular loop piles – Raw yarn. dyed single yarn. 3 Pick terry: Ground warp ½ rib.
There must be a shed crossing of the ground warp yarn after the full reed beat up in order to avoid slippage back of the weft yarns. Shedding used: Normally cam shedding is used in Terry but for decorative weaving cross border dobby and jacquard shedding are used. Prepared by: Shameem. 4. 5. 3. Weft: Normally cotton. Yarn used in weft and warp: a. Pile yarn: Always cotton. Weft: Mainly Ring & Rotor yarn having low twist and hairy yarns are used to reduce slippage. Page | 62 2. Fibre: For water absorbency Cotton. c. For example: 2/1 Raw material for Terry: 1. It depends on pile height. Warp: As ground warp highly twisted Ring & Rotor yarn are used. b. Yarn used: Ground warp: Normally cotton. Polyester Cotton blended fibres are used 2. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . Yarn: If yarn is used as raw material it is low twisted yarn. Pile: For pile warp Ring yarn is mainly used but Rotor is also used. Fabric construction: Loose woven structure.
Page | 63 Beat – up: There are two types of beat up: 1. this system is out dated 2.B 3 4 L. Short beat up 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 S. A moveable front/breast beam referred to as fabric control. Different amplitude of the sley movement 3. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . Short beat up 1. Moving the reed in the sley. Prepared by: Shameem. Long beat up 2.B There are 3 systems for altering a series of shorter beat up with a normal beat – up: 1.B 1 2 3 2. Long beat up 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 L.
The cam follower system can freely rotate around the sley shaft. The transmission mechanism from the cams to the reed has a shaft mechanism that can be buckled via a cam. This frame can be brought in to motion mechanically or electrically. The breast beam & temples are moveable. Page | 64 Principle of Terry fabric production: The reed is mounted in a special frame. In this way borders without pile are woven across the full fabric. Controlling the movement of the breast beam is done by means of cam. the fabric is pull forward at the particular beat up. The loom drive is achieved by means of conjugated cams. So that the wefts are not beaten up to the cloth fell. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . Disengaging the clutch will stop the breast beam movement. A short reed beat up given in buckled position of this shaft mechanism. this means that wefts will be beaten up to the cloth fell. When switching from 3 to 4 pick terry. Explain the loop formation technique of Terry pile fabric by special beat up mechanism The variable beat up motions are an essential part of the terry pile weaving and they fall in to two main categories To create a gap between the cloth fell and the first two picks of a pile forming a group of picks termed ‘loose picks” and the picks beaten up fully which are known as ‘fast picks’ The two reed positions are shown at the figure a and b respectively Prepared by: Shameem. If the shaft mechanism is not buckled weft yarns are beaten up to the cloth fell. the cam has to be changed.
When pile less headings are produced the loose pick action is necessary and must be disengaged. All the above motions must be capable of precise adjustment to vary the size of the gap in order to produce shorter or longer loop it pile. In a 3 pick structure two loose picks are followed by one fast one in a 4 pick terry the order of operation are two loose. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . On the third pick the cloth is brought forward again so that the three picks of a group join together with the previously woven cloth at the normal cloth fell point. Page | 65 Fig: a Fig: b To create the gap on the loose picks the cloth itself is drawn away from the advancing reed so that the two loose picks can not reach the normal cloth fell position. two fast and so on. Prepared by: Shameem.
As the clockwise movements of the warp threads takes place under the ground warp line & the action occurs between picks two points become obvious: 1. Prepared by: Shameem. The figuring threads are controlled by needle bar between the reed & fell with the amount of side traverse given to the needle bar being controlled by a pattern wheel Ground warp ground weft Whip thread In forming the figure. No interlacing at the float is possible in the middle of the traverse. Page | 66 Lappet weaving Lappet Weaving A fabric in which figure is achieved by introducing extra warp threads is called whip thread. these longitudinal threads are traversed in a horizontal direction on the face side of the fabric & are bound to the face side latter by a weft pick only at the extremity of each traverse. The fabric is woven face side down. 2. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production .
Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . Features of lappet weaving 1. 7. It is warp figuring fabric 2. Whip thread is closely attached with fabric. Provide links between the spot designs. Page | 67 Two distinct & independent movements of whip treads are necessary. Figuring thread moves in warp direction 3. Horizontal & figuring movements which produces the float & at the end of each traverse a vertical or stitching movement which binds this float to the ground cloth. Multicolor designs across the width can be produced by using warp beam of the designed colours. 8. The face side of the fabric is the technical back side. Maximum traverse length of whip thread is 10cm 12. 9. 11. Figuring thread remains at an angle with the weft 4. Figuring thread is called whip thread. Figuring thread comes from a separate warp yarn beam/package. 5. Figuring thread is moved by a shifter bar needle & needle bar mechanism. Prepared by: Shameem. 6. Whip threads are stitched at each end of traverse. 10.
5. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . Consists of pattern wheel. Horizontal vertical movement of whip thread 3. iii.Shifter bar and needle bar 4. Used for lappet weaving 2. Needle bar provided side way movement. Lappet Mechanism: i. Figuring or whip thread movement Stitching movement Combination of these two movements completes a design. Illustrate the weaving mechanism of lappet fabric with figure The figure of the lappet fabric mechanism is illustrated below Whip thread Guide bar Needle Needle eye Pattern wheel Groove Shifter bar Needle bar Pattern chain Guide r/r Strap Treadle bar Tappet Bottom shaft Prepared by: Shameem. Whip thread pass through the needle eye. ii. Page | 68 Features of lappet weaving m/c: 1.
Pattern wheel is moved through one tooth on every two picks through the bottom shaft.Needles are set in the needle bar at a definite interval and needle bar is mounted on the shifter bar. The movement of the shifter bar horizontally causes to move the needle bar. This holds the shifter bar at a definite position. The movement of the shifter bar is controlled by pattern wheel. The pattern wheel is grooved and it varies according to the design. Write down the distinguishing features of lappet loom from an ordinary loom: LAPPET LOOM 1. treadle lever gets motion from bottom shaft through cum bowl. Whip threads are collected in a beam . There is no such movement. Spring loaded hooks are used for the proper movement of shifter bar. shifter bar moves to the right and when the right strap is lowered shifter bar moves to the left. Prepared by: Shameem. It is used only for lappet weaving. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . Shifter bar is connected to the treadle lever through a pair of straps whip threads can traverse up to 10cm horizontally. For changing the design the pattern wheel is changed. Page | 69 Mechanism: Each whip thread is passed separately into the needle eye. 2. The number of whip threads equal to the no. The movement of shifter bar increases with the decreases in teeth angle of the wheel. 2. It is used for producing light to heavy fabric. When the left strap is lowered. Horizontal & vertical ORDINARY LOOM 1. It is also known as figuring technique of lappet mechanism. of needles.
5. Generally beam. Consists of extra parts such as pattern wheel. needle bar etc. 3. There is no such type of parts. Prepared by: Shameem. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . only one warp 3. Needle is responsible for producing design. There is two warp beams. 4. 4. Page | 70 movements of whip thread producing design. shifter bar. By controlling the movement of heald shaft designs are produced. 5.
Face side float design. 11. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . Multicolor spot design can be produced across the width of the fabric as well as in each longitudinal line. Prepared by: Shameem. ribbons. Structurally more stable because of several stitching. 8. Characteristics/ features of swivel weaving: 1. 7. 6. Large width fabric. Figuring threads are parallel to the ground weft. 5. Color obtain is unlimited. tapes etc. Figuring threads are called swivel thread. 2. Here figures are produced by discontinuous yarn 3. Swivel fabric is a fabric in which figure is achieved by the introduction of additional weft thread is feed from a series of small shuttles mounted over the top of the weaving surface. were independently formed along side each other. It is weft figuring fabric. Figuring threads move in weft direction. Normally no links between the spot design. 10. 9. 4. Page | 71 Swivel weaving Definition: The term swivel was formerly applied to the type of loom in which several narrow fabric such as hat bands.
The motions mainly controlled by the Jacquard cards acting upon special hooks from which card & lever connections are made to the respective parts of the swivel mechanism. The small shuttles are carried in holders supported in frame which is mounted in front of the sley. Purpose of swivel weaving: 1. 4. 13. Page | 72 12. The ground pick is inserted as an ordinary cloth & the figuring thread is picked after the insertion of the ground weft intricately. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . Fly shuttle is also used with swivel shuttle. 4. Prepared by: Shameem. Normally it is used for saree. 14. Low productivity. To produce a richer appearance to the cloth. Both end bounded selvedges. Stable design. Extra weft yarn inserted only when and where required with little or not extended material between the figure. 3. 2. 2. In swivel weaving pick at will mechanism is used. 3. To produce designs with various types of weft color yarn. To minimize costly figuring weft waste%. Thus the firm spot is obtained in the position at the formation of shed. 5. 6. Discuss in detail the basic operations of swivel weaving with sketch: 1.
6. 9. When the ground weave is woven. Then the carrying frame is raised out of the way & during the beating up of the swivel picks. Rack & pinion arrangement. After the insertion & beating up of each pick of ground weft in the ordinary manner. the ends are raised. Each shuttle is moved from one holder to another through the shed made for it and inserts a separate pick of weft. Circular track & pusher rod system. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . Difference between lappet & swivel weaving: The differences between lappet & swivel weaving are: Prepared by: Shameem. 11. while the ordinary picking motion is thrown out of action. that the swivel weft has to pass under the frame that carries the swivel shuttle is lowered into the shed opening. 7. The swivel shuttle propulsion can be done by two ways: 10. 8. Page | 73 5. Fig: Basic operation of swivel weaving. the take up motion is rendered in operative. swivel shuttle remains at the top.
Figuring thread comes from the pirn in swivel shuttle. 8. 5. Multiple color design across the width can be produced by 6. 7. 2. Lower structural stability. 3. Figuring thread is called swivel thread. Production is lower. Figuring threads move 3. Figuring threads move in weft diversion 2. 10. Figuring thread is called whip thread 8. Figuring threads remain at an angle with the weft. 10. Multiple produced color by design swivel Prepared by: Shameem. Provide links between the spot. 5. Higher structural stability. Figuring thread comes from a large warp package on beam. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . Page | 74 LAPPET WEAVING 1. 7. Figuring threads move in weft direction. 4. 9. Figuring thread in laid by a shifter bar & needle bar 4. Warp figuring fabric SWIVEL WEAVING 1. There is no link between the spot. Production is high 9. Figuring threads move in warp direction. 6. Figuring thread is laid by a swivel shuttle. mechanism.
6. Foundation cloth is required. 6. 4. Figuring threads put in 5. Ornamentation on woven fabric by embroidery m/c. Ornamentation by weaving. Prepared by: Shameem. 3. Design float on both side. Embroidery threads may at any angle. threads put in interlacement. shuttle. Design ornamentation thread is known as embroidery thread. 5. Page | 75 using warp beam. Swivel threads always traverse parallel with the weft of 2. 3. required. Comparison between swivel & embroidery ornamentation: SWIVEL 1. 7. Stable design due to stitching. Design float on face side. foundation cloth & at right angle to the warp threads. 2. EMBROIDERY 1. Design ornamentation thread is called swivel thread. No foundation cloth is 4. Figuring wrapping. Less stable design for no stitching. 7. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production .
Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . threads move by swivel shuttle. Figuring threads move by 8. Page | 76 8. Prepared by: Shameem. Figuring needle.
plasters. The application. clothing. Absorbency: They will absorb many times then their own weight. wipes. may be termed as Medical textile. 4. Extracorporeal devices: Artificial kidney. Retention: They will retain the absorbed liquid when subjected to pressure. more & composite fabrics. Health care/ Hygiene products: Bedding. even when under pressure. Yarn properties: Prepared by: Shameem. Classification: 1. Non implantable materials: Wound dressings. 2. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . 3. Swelling: They will swell many times as they absorb fluids. Page | 77 Medical textile Introduction: Textile medicals used in the medical is related with health care & hygienic section. liver. 4. operating rum garments. Extraction: They extract moisture from non aqueous fluids or a liquid. 3. importance & function etc. bandages. Material used in medical textile includes fibres. 2. Fibre properties: 1. Implantable materials: Artificial joints. lung etc. These are used in a number of separate & specialized applications.
5.woven fabrics containing super absorbed. It is also possible to locate them precisely into fabrics to give absorbency at specific point. High rate of liquid uptake. The absorbency properties are more dependent upon the OASIS. They can be knitted into stretch fabrics. 4. High absorbency even under pressure of a range of aqueous based fluids. They can also be twisted together to form ropes. Yarns are a very versatile form of super absorbent. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . 3. Non woven fabrics: The following factors that may be required for medical product can be built on to non. Prepared by: Shameem. 6. Currently yarns are commercially available in a range 50 to 2000 tex (0. 2.3 to 12S cotton count) containing up 50% OASIS. content than the spinning system used. Softness & flexibility otherwise it should not use. OASIS = Fibre trade name. OASIS is produced by cross link from Acrylic acid. It is possible to blend “OASIS” with natural synthetic fibres. Page | 78 1. Low migration of the super absorbent when dry and wet. Fabric dispersion when wet.
In order to obtain differing degrees of yarn recovery. 2. Prepared by: Shameem. Large amount of bloods & other aqueous slippage in operating theatre analytical laboratory or general hospital use. Page | 79 Weft knitting: A weft knitted fabric is ideal for medical textile application. This treatment will cause the elastane to contract & the effect is to bulk the ground yarn which is spun in a relaxed state. Application of textile in medical products: 1. Core spun yarn: The yarn is made with three separate threads being twisted together into one common knitting yarn. The main ground yarn is then twisted onto the threads & this completes the spinning process. where a flexible material is required as it is made by interlinking a series of loops on to a collective mesh formation. The recovery properties can be increased by introducing rubber or elastic threads to the main knitting yarn. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . it is necessary to use different widths of rubber. Disposable incontinence product: High levels of super absorbent fibre can be incorporated in to absorbent cares allowing the construction of thin product with high absorbency. Also an elastane thread can be used in an unrelaxed state which is then exposed to a steam treatment. Wipes & absorbent pads: Addition of OASIS to pads & wipes to improve their ability to rapidly immobilize. These are ideal for medical applications with active body part movements such as arms & legs. The centre core threads of the yarn can be either an elastane or rubber & this thread is covered by twisting a nylon thread onto its surface.
Page | 80 3. Wound core: OASIS can be included with in secondary wound core products to provide additional capacity to absorb wound exudates. Miscellaneous products: Head bands by sweat control surgeons. 4. This help to decrease the frequency of dressing changes. Dental pads. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . List the fibres used for Medical Textile: Fibres that are used for medical textile are listed below: Cotton Polypropylene Ploy ethylene Polytetrafluro ethylene Polyester Viscose Silk Prepared by: Shameem. 5. Diagnostic testing. Drapes: Protective garment with a high resistance to prevention of aqueous fluids can be produced from non woven fabrics. Disposal containers: Super absorbent non woven fabrics can be used as lining for containers designed for the disposal of items contaminated with hazardous fluids to prevent leakage.
Page | 81 Cambinie Carbon Graphite Nylon Prepared by: Shameem. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production .
Classification of Geo textile: Geo textiles should include constituent polymers or fibres elements. polypropylene. acrylic. non-woven and knitted fabrics can be used as Geo textile material. monofilament. Woven. weight and thickness. Materials and structures: Natural & synthetic materials can be used. reinforcement and stabilization purposes as an integral part of civil engineering structures of earth. According to polymers or fibrous elements: a. PP b. drainage. rayon. Absorbent cotton. substitute. 1. rock or other construction materials. Page | 82 Geo-textile Definition: Textiles used in the ground are termed “Geo – textiles”. end use and engineering properties. Any permeable textile materials used for filtration. Nylon Prepared by: Shameem. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . PE c. engineering function. separation. Jute. the form or method of construction. PES d. spun yarn and thermoplastic yarn can be used.
3. The individual yarns in the warp knitted weft insertion geo textiles are straight when incorporated. Knitted fabric a. Strength: For strength they are lighter than woven geo textiles using the same yarn. This makes for easier handling & laying on site. Additional strength can be designed & built in to the weft insertion. According to form or method: a. Warp knitted fabric b. Needle punched e. Resin bonded f. 2. What functions are performed by Geo textiles? Prepared by: Shameem. Weft knitted fabric Warp knitted weft insertion geo textiles offer the following advantages when compared to woven geo textile: 1. the fabric being simply knitted in. Combined non woven technique. Knitted geo textile has exceptional tear strength. thus transport & labour costs are less in real terms. Non woven d. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . Page | 83 2. So. 4. Woven c. Melt bonded Fabric b. Knitted geo textiles can be incorporate as additional fabric to form a true composite geo textile. 3. they are able to take up the strain immediately on loading.
Page | 84 The functions are: Filtration Separation Drainage Protective shield against erosion Reinforcement Land stabilization/support Earth filling Moisturizer Discuss the potential areas of application of Geo textile: Applications are: 1. Marine erosion control 10. 7. Canal and river lining 9. Road surface: For the reinforcement of asphall in road surface. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . 5. Construction of new land area Prepared by: Shameem. Foundation for industrial development 6. Waste disposal: Cover and seal in waste. Area stabilization: Swam plants. 4. Rail road: To prevent upward pushing of mud. 3. Road construction: Construction of road over soft land (Link road) 2. Ground drainage 8.
Composite geo textiles: Filters mesh fabric and plastic pipe. Prepared by: Shameem. Slope embankment reinforcement. Page | 85 11. Geo membrane: A barrier of very low permeability which may or may not incorporate textile reinforcement used to control the flow of fluids. Harbour & dock construction 12. Geo strands: Core of filament enclosed in a plastic sheath. Mats Geo nets: Angle 60-900. Webbings: Coarse woven fabric made of strips. Properties: More strength More absorbency power Weight & thickness: 70-100oz/yd2 Engineering properties: Tensile strength: 5-30 lb/inch Elongation: 7-500% Modulus: 5000-20000 lb/inch2 Special Geo textiles: Geo grid: A network of integrally connected tensile elements used to reinforcement & stabilize civil engineering structures. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production .
Give the typical specification of Geo Jute: Raw materials: Cuttings. Caddis & lowest part of long jute. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production .5 Weft/10cm: 4.5 Width: 122 cm Weight: 600 gm/linear meter 1000 gm/linear meter What are the prime functions of Geo Jute? The functions are: 1. 2. Control erosion of base soil allows the formation of vegetation to give long term protection. Mesh structure of jute forms micro tarraus which controls rates of flows. On initial rainfall jute will absorb up to 2. Prepared by: Shameem. 3.5 lift of water per square of geo jute. Helps to reduce loss of grass seeds 4. 5. Prevents dehydration of soil. so reduces over land flow. Page | 86 Geo Jute Introduction: It is a biodegradable soil stabilizing blanket to control erosion on disturbed earth surface while encouraging the growth of protective negotiation. Warp/10 cm: 6.
Green ward development in sports ground. Drainage. canal & river banks. medium strips. bridge alentments. Page | 87 End use: Road & railway slopes. Farm & forestry. culvert and table drain out let Lake. ditches. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . Prepared by: Shameem. housing estates etc. Sand dune. airports. stabilization.
Shedding: Jacquard shedding is used. Rapier. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . trade mark etc which are pre requisite information for any type of garments & also for export quality garments. fibre composition. Loom used: Air jet. Sub label: Sub labels are three types: Prepared by: Shameem. Woven label 2. Raw material: Polyester yarn. Printed label Types of woven label: Woven labels are classified according to use: 1.8” Types: There are two types of label 1. 2. Page | 88 Label Introduction: Label is garment accessories and also a narrow fabric. company name. Main label: It includes the trade name of buyer. country of origin. Label size: Ranges from 1/4 “. It is the most important component of carpet quality garments because it contains garments size. care information.
Size label 4. Care label 5. Prepared by: Shameem. Sub label 3. Murshed & Kamal 28th Batch Special Fabric Production . 5. Taffeta: 1/1. Size label: It indicates the size of the garments 4. 5/1. Page | 89 3. Main label 2. Composition label 6. Satin: 4/1. Composition label: It contains fibre composition. 2/2. Care label: It contains care instruction. Structure: Weave design 7. 2/1. 3/1. Printed label: 1. 6/1 8.
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