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Mehul Motani

1. Introduction to Communication Systems • Communication systems send information electronically over communication channels. We usually modulate analog signals or digital bits for transmission over the channel. The channel is the medium which separates the transmitter from the receiver. • Goal of the system design is to recreate the original information at the receiver with the highest possible quality. This is done by designing the transmitter (modulator) and receiver (demodulator) to mitigate noise introduced by channel. • The performance metric for analog systems is ﬁdelity, meaning how does the transmitted signal m(t) compare with the recovered signal mˆ (t). • The metrics for digital systems are data rate (R bits/sec) and probability of bit error Pb . There is a tradeoﬀ between data rate and error probability. Usually, as the data rate increases, the error probability increases. For a ﬁxed data rate, Pb depends on the signal power, noise power, and channel characteristics. • Data rates over channels with noise and distortion have a fundamental capacity limit. This is the Shannon capacity C , which is deﬁned as the maximum data rate at which information can be transmitted without errors. For a channel with received signal power S , additive white noise with received noise power N , and bandwidth B : C = B log2 (1 + S/N ) bps. 2. On Bandwidth • Signal Bandwidth - For bandlimited signals, bandwidth B deﬁned as range of positive frequencies for which the Fourier transform |X (f )| > 0. • In practice all signals are time-limited and therefore are not band-limited. So we need alternate deﬁnitions of bandwidth that indicate how much spectrum a signal occupies. Common deﬁnitions include null-to-null and 3dB bandwidth deﬁnitions. When a real baseband signal is upconverted or modulated to a carrier frequency, its bandwidth (under any deﬁnition) typically doubles. 3. Sampling and Nyquist Theorem • Sampling in time is multiplication by a delta function train: in frequency, this is a convolution with a delta function train (spectrum repeated periodically at the sampling rate). • Nyquist Sampling Theorem: A signal that is bandlimited between [−B, B ] can be recovered from its samples taken every 0.5/B seconds. The Nyquist rate for this signal is 2B samples/sec. • Signal can be recovered from its samples by passing the sampled signal through a low pass ﬁlter of bandwidth B . We can equivalently recover a signal from its samples using sinc interpolation in time (which is the same as low pass ﬁltering in frequency). • Bandlimited signals sampled at their Nyquist rate can be recovered from their samples. Signals that are not sampled faster than the Nyquist rate have aliasing or distortion and cannot be recovered from samples. • Generalized Sampling Theorem: The sampling rate must be greater than twice the bandwidth. • For a lowpass (or baseband) signal, the bandwidth is equal to the maximum positive frequency fmax , and so the sampling rate, must be twice that. We call this lowpass sampling. • For a bandpass (modulated) signal in the frequency band [f1 , f2 ], the bandwidth is equal to f2 − f1 , and so the sampling rate must be twice that. We call this bandpass sampling. • We could have treated the bandpass signal as a lowpass signal and sampled at the ”lowpass” Nyquist rate of 2f2 , but the generalized sampling theorem tells us that we don’t need to sample so fast. 4. What is Noise? • White noise - Characterized by a power spectral density (PSD) that is constant over all frequencies: Swhite (f ) = N0 /2. Its autocorrelation is Rwhite (τ ) = 0.5N0 δ (τ ). • Two samples of white noise separated by very small time period are uncorrelated, meaning white noise changes very fast. 1

• The key to understanding the above results is that if you signal with pulses of width T0 in a bandwidth of approximately W0 . Passband digital modulation encodes bits in the amplitude. and 1900 MHz. pulse characteristics (PAM). For example. PAM represents each bit by a Nyquist pulse of duration Tb (the bit time) with amplitude A for a ’1’ bit and 0 (on-oﬀ modulation) or −A (polar modulation) for a ’0’ bit. 6. Multilevel PAM or M-ary PAM . The most common baseband digital modulation is Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM). • The minimum required bandwidth for transmission of a signal is a function of the symbol rate. Data rate is R = 1/T b. • Passband Digital Modulation is used to send digital information in a given range of passband frequencies. then the symbol duration is T = 1/R sec and Wmin = R/2 Hz.• White noise has inﬁnite average power. say cos(2πfc t). frequency (FM). or frequency of carrier signal. • Sanity check: For baseband (PAM) signals. So over a large duration Tbig . a symbol rate of R = 1/T requires a bandwidth of W = 1/T = R. The information is not modulated to any carrier frequency. then u(t) cos(2πfc t) has a nominal bandwidth 2W . Minimum Bandwidth Required for No ISI • The sinc pulse (from the sampling theorem) is remarkable for two reasons: ﬁrst the shifts of the sinc pulse are orthogonal. or amplitude and phase (MQAM) of the carrier. phase (PSK). Digital Modulation • Baseband Digital Modulation means sending the digital information on the channel in the bandwidth |f | < W for some bandwidth W . then there are 2W0 T0 degrees of freedom. These two properties mean there is no intersymbol interference (ISI) and this allows the modulated values to be recaptured at the receiver through ﬁrst ﬁltering and then sampling. This scheme is actually very wasteful of bandwidth. 5. • Passband Example: M-QAM . Modulation Basics • Modulation is the process of encoding a message signal or bits onto a carrier signal. a symbol rate of R = 1/T requires a bandwidth of W = 1/(2T ) = R/2.For an information rate of R bps. there are 2W0 T0 orthogonal signals of duration T0 and bandwidth W0 . the symbol rate is Rs = R/ log2 M and Wmin = Rs . which is the same as 2W Tbig real symbols. the sinc pulse has the value 0 at all sampling points other than at time 0. In other words.Suppose the information rate is R bps. Most systems transmit in a set of passband frequencies allowed by regulatory agencies. going from fc − W to fc + W (assuming that f c > W ). the minimum bandwidth Wmin needed is: Baseband transmission: Wmin = R/2 = 1/(2T ) Hz Passband transmission: Wmin = R = 1/T Hz • Baseband Examples: Binary PAM . Such pulses are called Nyquist pulses. Intuitively. or phase (PM) of the carrier c(t). This is precisely what is done by QAM.If we allow M levels in the PAM. • White noise is a good approximation to noise encountered in practice. 2 . a bitrate of R bps corresponds to a symbol rate of Rs = R/ log2 M and Wmin = Rs /2.5N0 |H (f )|2 . we can send RTbig = W Tbig complex symbols. and there are many others besides the sinc. cellular telephony uses passbands around 800 MHz. FOR QAM. we can send RTbig = 2W Tbig real symbols. 1800 MHz. 7. there are two real degrees of freedom per unit time and bandwidth. The basic idea is to vary a carrier signal c(t) = Ac cos(2πfc t) relative to an analog waveform m(t) or bits {bn }. since additional data could be sent by in the same band by modulating it by sin(2πfc t). • Digital modulation varies the amplitude (M-AM). • Analog modulation varies the amplitude (AM). The ﬁlter introduces correlation. The baseband signal may be ﬁltered to shape the spectrum and to reduce bandwidth (pulse shaping). phase. • Common forms of passband modulation include Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) and Phase Shift Keying (PSK). • White noise passed through a ﬁlter h(t) has PSD: 0. If the baseband signalling pulse is a Nyquist pulse with a nominal bandwidth W = 1/2T . If Nyquist pulses are used (no ISI condition) and the symbol rate in symbols per second is R = 1/T (where T is the symbol duration). • Modulation to a carrier frequency can be accomplished simply by multiplying a baseband waveform u(t) by a sinuosoid. and second. So over a large time Tbig .

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