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CHAPTER 11

FLUIDS

9.

REASONING The period T of a satellite is the time for it to make one complete revolution around the planet. The period is the circumference of the circular orbit (2 R) divided by the speed v of the satellite, so that T = (2 R)/v (see Equation 5.1). In Section 5.5 we saw that the centripetal force required to keep a satellite moving in a circular orbit is provided by the gravitational force. This relationship tells us that the speed of the satellite must be v = GM / R (Equation 5.5), where G is the universal gravitational constant and M is the mass of the planet. By combining this expression for the speed with that for the period, and using the definition of density, we can obtain the period of the satellite. SOLUTION The period of the satellite is 2 R 2 R R3 T= = = 2 v GM GM R According to Equation 11.1, the mass of the planet is equal to its density times its volume

expression for M into that for the period T gives

T = 2 R3 R3 3 = 2 = 3 4 GM G G 3 R

R 3 ) . Substituting this (4 3

The density of iron is = 7860 kg/m (see Table 11.1), so the period of the satellite is

T=

3 = G

)(

= 4240 s

45. REASONING According to Equation 11.1, the density of the life jacket is its mass divided by its volume. The volume is given. To obtain the mass, we note that the person wearing the life jacket is floating, so that the upward-acting buoyant force balances the downward-acting weight of the person and life jacket. The magnitude of the buoyant force is the weight of the displaced water, according to Archimedes principle. We can express each of the weights as mg (Equation 4.5) and then relate the mass of the displaced water to the density of water and the displaced volume by using Equation 11.1.

2 FLUIDS

J =

mJ VJ

(1)

Since the person wearing the life jacket is floating, the upward-acting buoyant force FB balances the downward-acting weight WP of the person and the weight WJ of the life jacket. The buoyant force has a magnitude that equals the weight WH 2O of the displaced water, as stated by Archimedes principle. Thus, we have FB = WH

2

= WP + WJ

(2)

In Equation (2), we can use Equation 4.5 to express each weight as mass m times the magnitude g of the acceleration due to gravity. Then, the mass of the water can be expressed as mH O = H OVH O (Equation 11.1). With these substitutions, Equation (2) becomes

2 2 2

mH O g = mP g + mJ g

2

or

( H OVH O ) g = mP g + mJ g

2 2

2

mP

Substituting this result into Equation (1) and noting that the volume of the displaced water is VH O = 3.1102 m3 + 6.2 10 2 m 3 gives

2

J =

H OVH

2

mP

VJ

77. REASONING AND SOLUTION a. If the water behaves as an ideal fluid, and since the pipe is horizontal and has the same radius throughout, the speed and pressure of the water are the same at all points in the pipe. Since the right end of the pipe is open to the atmosphere, the pressure at the right end is atmospheric pressure; therefore, the pressure at the left end is also atmospheric pressure, or

1.01 10 5 Pa .

Chapter11 Problems 3

b. If the water is treated as a viscous fluid, the volume flow rate Q is described by Poiseuille's law (Equation 11.14):

Q=

R 4 ( P2 P1 )

8 L

Let P1 represent the pressure at the right end of the pipe, and let P2 represent the pressure at the left end of the pipe. Solving for P2 (with P1 equal to atmospheric pressure), we obtain 8 LQ P2 = + P1 R4 Therefore, P2 = 8(1.00 10 3 Pa s)(1.3 m)(9.0 10 3 m 3 / s ) + 1.013 10 5 Pa = 1.19 10 5 Pa ( 6.4 10 3 m) 4

99. REASONING AND SOLUTION The pressure at the bottom of the container is P = Patm + wghw + mghm We want P = 2Patm, and we know h = hw + hm = 1.00 m. Using the above and rearranging gives hm = Patm w gh = 1.01 105 Pa 1.00 103 kg/m3 9.80 m/s 2 ( 1.00 m )

( m

w ) g

)(

)(

= 0.74 m

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