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CHAPTER 12

_____________________________________________________________________________ _ 11. REASONING AND SOLUTION The steel in the bridge expands according to Equation 12.2, L = L0 T . Solving for L0 and using the value for the coefficient of thermal expansion of steel given in Table 12.1, we find that the approximate length of the Golden Gate bridge is

21. REASONING AND SOLUTION Recall that = 2 / T (Equation 10.6), where is the angular frequency of the pendulum and T is the period. Using this fact and Equation 10.16, we know that the period of the pendulum before the temperature rise is given by T1 = 2 L0 / g , where L0 is the length of the pendulum. After the temperature has risen, the period becomes (using Equation 12.2), T2 = 2 [L 0 + L0 T ]/ g . Dividing these expressions, solving for T2 , and taking the coefficient of thermal expansion of brass from Table 12.1, we find that

41. REASONING The cavity that contains the liquid in either Pyrex thermometer expands according to Equation 12.3, Vg = gV0 T . On the other hand, the volume of mercury expands by an amount Vm = mV0 T , while the volume of alcohol expands by an amount Va = a V0 T . Therefore, the net change in volume for the mercury thermometer is

Vm Vg = ( m g )V0 T

while the net change in volume for the alcohol thermometer is

Va Vg = ( a g )V0 T

TEMPERATUREANDHEAT

In each case, this volume change is related to a movement of the liquid into a cylindrical region of the thermometer with volume r2 h , where r is the radius of the region and h is the height of the region. For the mercury thermometer, therefore,

hm =

Similarly, for the alcohol thermometer

( m g )V0 T r

2

ha =

( a g )V0 T r2

These two expressions can be combined to give the ratio of the heights, ha /hm . SOLUTION Taking the values for the coefficients of volumetric expansion for methyl alcohol, Pyrex glass, and mercury from Table 12.1, we divide the two expressions for the heights of the liquids in the thermometers and find that

ha hm

a g m g

Therefore, the degree marks are 6.9 times further apart on the alcohol thermometer than on the mercury thermometer. _____________________________________________________________________________ _ 69. REASONING The system is comprised of the unknown material, the glycerin, and the aluminum calorimeter. From the principle of energy conservation, the heat gained by the unknown material is equal to the heat lost by the glycerin and the calorimeter. The heat gained by the unknown material is used to melt the material and then raise its temperature from the initial value of 25.0 C to the final equilibrium temperature of Teq = 20.0 C . SOLUTION Qgained by = Qlost by + Qlost by

unknown glycerine

calorimeter

m u Lf + c u mu Tu

c gl m gl Tgl + c al m al Tal

Taking values for the specific heat capacities of glycerin and aluminum from Table 12.2, we have

Chapter12 Problems 3

(0.10 kg)Lf + [160 J/(kg C )](0.10 kg)(45.0 C ) = [2410 J/(kg C )](0.100 kg)(7.0 C ) 2 + [9.0 10 J/(kg C )](0.150 kg)(7.0 C ) Solving for Lf yields, Lf = 1.9 104 J/kg _____________________________________________________________________________ _

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