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Classical control has matured to the point where off-the-shelf control solutions , forlinear time-invariant systems, are easily

available from most major control ven-dors. In the relentless drive for improved regulatory performance due to in creas-ing energy costs, higher quality speci cations and competition, advanced too lsfor monitoring closed-loop performance are becoming available. Such measuresof closed-loop control performance can now be readily computed in an on-linemanner .Performance metrics, from routine operating data, give an indication of closedloop performance with respect to user-de ned benchmarks, such as minimum vari-ance benchmark, or a historical benchmark of satisfactory performance or a desiredse ttling time benchmark. Conversely, such benchmarks also provide an indication of the dif culty of controlling a process. However, the diagnosis of poor performanc eis an area with many challenges. Poor closed-system performance may be due to a variety of reasons, for example, poor controller tuning, improper controller con g u-ration, process operating condition changes, process constraints, actuator pro blemssuch as valve stiction or saturation and so on. The diagnosis of poor perfo rmance isa non-trivial problem.Access to routine process data is now a norm. The purpose of this book is tointroduce novel tools in the analysis of such data to determine the diagnosis of poorcontroller performance. The main material in the book is concerned with the detec-tion, diagnosis and quanti cation of process non linearities. Process changes suchas saturation constraints, sticky valves and no nlinear operating regimes introducenonlinearities in control signals. The very s peci c focus of this book is on detectingprocess nonlinearities and diagnosing and quanti cation of the source of such non-linearities. The main tool for the detect ion of such nonlinearities are higher-orderstatistics, in particular third-order cumulants and the bispectrum, as the spectralcounterpart of the third-order mom ents of the distribution of a signal. Speci cally,this text provides answers to qu estions such as the following: Are the process data well-conditioned for analysis in the rst place? Well-conditi oned data are an indispensable part of computing any performance met-ric. It is futile to compute performance metrics and make diagnosis conclusionson poorly co nditioned data, as the results may lead to erroneous conclusions.This book dwell s on checking the integrity of archived data prior to using such ix Preface data for computing performance metrics. For example, methods for estimatingdata compression factors and sensor quantization estimates are considered in thisbook . How to determine a measure of process nonlinearity from process data? Such ametr ic may indeed give a clue to the degree of dif culty in controlling a givenprocess . If the process is diagnosed to be strongly nonlinear than the suggestedremedia l action would be to consider a nonlinear control algorithm. How to check if the actuator is performing satisfactorily? Statistics from sever allarge-scale industrial studies have con rmed that as many as 40% of the controll oops do not perform well because of valve problems. In this respect, an impor-ta nt part of this book is focussed on developing a reliable test for the detection of valve stiction. A signi cant portion of this monograph is devoted towards data -based modelling of valve dynamics and the detection and diagnosis of valve orac tuator problems from routine operating data. Many simulation examples andover a dozen industrial case studies are provided to illustrate the application of high er-order statistical tools developed in this book. Are there plant-wide oscillations and if so how to detect loops with commonoscil lations and diagnose the possible source of the oscillations? It is not uncom-mo n, as evident from the three industrial case studies considered here, for manylo ops to have common oscillations. Because of the highly integrated nature of mode rn plants, oscillations that may arise in one loop due to overly tuned con-troll

er gains or a sticky valve or an oscillatory disturbance, can easily propagateto many other loops downstream as well as upstream due to the presence of re-cycle s. Newly developed tools for the detection and diagnosis of such problemsare pre sented towards the end of this book