Noel Francis T.

Galinato En12-SO6

Prof. Louie Jon A. Sanchez September 14, 2013

Virtual Fandom

I. INTRODUCTION Over the past few years, the word „like‟ has found a new position in society. From a word that denotes interest, „like‟ is now the interest of many. Since its revolution from social networking site Facebook, „like‟ has emerged in the many fields of study such as marketing, psychology, and economics. A study conducted by Baker, Brison, and Byon, all professors from the University of Georgia, discusses how the decision on „like-gating‟ (a marketing strategy to have consumers like a fan page) by NAD, an institution involved in advertising, affect the sports marketing industry (Baker et al. 2013). A psychological study by Kosinski, Stillwell, and Graepel, the first two from the University of Cambridge and the latter from Microsoft Research, determines the correlation between Facebook „likes‟ and personal characteristics (psychologytoday.com). In the field of economics, a study entitled “The Like Ecnomoy: The Social Web Transition” by Gerlitz and Helmond each from University of London and University of Amsterdam respectively was also conducted. Other than like, the growing interest of today‟s society is „following‟. „Following‟ started out most popular with the social network site Twitter. Eventually with the rising popularity of twitter and its „follow‟ feature, it was observed that Facebook added its own version, the „subscribe‟ button which was later renamed to its current name – „follow‟ (decvelopers.facebook.com) The impact of „following‟ in society, especially in the business world, has been tremendous for the past few years. According to a journal by Eun Sook Kwon and Yongjun Sun, Dell, a major computer company, generated $6.5 million through Twitter accounts. Facebook‟s own version of following also provides many avenues for growth and development to different people of different professions – businessmen, entrepreneurs, celebrities, models, and fans. Anyone who follows a Facebook account gets the chance to view the account‟s day-to-day public posts in his or her newsfeed or Facebook Home Page. The growing influence of „like‟ and „follow‟ has greatly affected many aspects and areas in society yet only few studies have been conducted about its significance to the world of fandom. Browsing through online academic journals, it is a challenge to look for a study showing the relationship between fandom and Facebook‟s „like‟, or „follow‟ feature. Studies for „like‟, or „follow‟ are always mostly related to marketing and psychology. Although it may be implied that one is a fan of something or someone if he or she „likes‟ or „follows‟ a particular person or object, it is still quite vague whether or not „liking‟ and „following‟ really reflect fandom. This is because of the many aspects that there is in fandom.

1

The first objective is that this paper aims to investigate if fandom is a result of mass media. The first wave of scholars. Collectively. as well as define the „Like‟ and „Follow‟ features of Facebook and their significance in today‟s society particularly in the fandom subculture. This paper is guided by a set of objectives that collectively prove the claim. but also the howling teenage boys or adult men who watch the annual NBA Season Finals or the quadrennial FIFA World Cup. Camille Bacon-Smith. a media text such as a movie. Many fan clubs are continuously growing in the country such as KathNiel for the love team of Daniel Padilla and Kathryn Bernardo. Other than positive regards 2 . According to the book. person. based on such criteria. Furthermore. or activity such as sports like basketball and football (Ott et al 249). the main argument of this paper is that Facebook‟s „like‟ and „follow‟ feature reflect the fandom and the performances of fans of celebrities Daniel Padilla. movie fandom is a weak form of fandom (McQuail 121). and off the web. editor of the book The Adoring Audience: Fan Culture and Popular Media. sighing or even crying teenage fan girls. A. the fan is a result of the current modern celebrity system and mass media. The definition of a fan given to us by authors Brian Ott and Robert Mack of the book Critical Media Studies: An Introduction is that a fan is someone who is enthusiastic and shows a special form of loyalty towards a particular celebrity. Another book entitled Audience Analysis gave a categorization of the word fandom. gives the origin of this modern subculture. as stated in the book Critical Media Studies: An Introduction. the weakest form of fandom is one that is centered on the attraction of a particular medium. Arbitrarily. and fan statistics. the researcher would like to analyze the significance of „liking‟ and „following‟ towards fandom in association to the reason behind the actions of their fans. Lisa Lewis. Perhaps their popularity can be considered as phenomenal through the different performances of their fans on the web. non-fans are people who do not possess such characteristics. fans form a specific aspect in the pop culture known as fandom. given the status quo. while the strongest form of fandom is one that is centered on the attraction and loyalty towards a media personality. the objectives include the definition of different performances of fandom and. view fandom as “interpretative communities whose creative and productive activities empowered fans and challenged the hegemonic culture. The fan is described to be a response or a result of the celebrity who is attributed or characterized to be someone who is passive and is simply brought into the world by these two parties (Lewis). These two celebrities are among the most popular Filipino celebrities. As such. Hence. definition of Facebook‟s role in the arena of fandom. fans do not merely include the frantic teenage girls. Fandom Popular Filipino celebrities have divided the country into two parties: fans and non-fans. and Constance Penley (Ott et al 250). and Anne Curtis. Many scholars and books have provided definitions for fandom. and Anne Curtis such as basic information.Hence. a TV series. the researcher will include in this paper specific information of celebrities Daniel Padilla. Hence. or a song.” These scholars were John Fiske. Henry Jenkins. Fans are often associated with screaming. Moreover.

Potmodernity also plays an important role in media.” Manovich‟s definition provides no limitation to new media. information has become readily accessible.” The book also explores the five key trends that affect the mass media in the era of postmodernity (Ott et al 8) The first trend being convergence is the erasure of the boundaries of the different types of media. (Ott et al 2). people learn in 2 different ways. Mass Media In the first chapter of the book Critical Media Studies: An Introduction. and skin known as somatic learning. tongue. Examples of learning through mediators are learning through a book. it will slowly include all other forms of media and therefore becoming a meaningless category. On the other hand. The first obstacle was the noise associated with the analog signal waves which was later solved through the digitalization of the analog signals. nose. New Media takes pride in acquiring the attention of many scholars because of its wide scope and vague definition. Nonetheless. Mass media divides itself into four categories: Print Media. all these definitions fall into one common point saying that fandom is a collective aspect in society and culture. As defined by Brian Ott and Robert Mack. New Media. “postmodernity describes the historical epoch that began to emerge in the 1960s as the economic mode of production in most Western societies slowly shifted from goods-based manufacturing to information-based services. as the computing technology grows. a teacher. the definition of mass media is that it is a medium for communication brought to the people in remote locations through advancement of technology (Ott et al 3). the other type of learning is achieved through mediators known as symbolic learning. The second 3 . Broadcast Media. However. an apparatus.of fandom. and Motion Picture or Sound Recording with the latter being the most famous in today‟s society. a medium is defined as objects or people that mediate in the learning process. Amongst all the categories of media given by the book. the convergence of mass media was considered to be a visionary when pioneers of this convergence. ears. In the book. two obstacles had to be faced by this convergence. Nicholas Negroponte and others at the MIT Media Lab. The birth of mass media started when Johannes Gutenberg invented the movable printer that resulted in an easier spread of information. overlapping of media into an integrated platform. B. With the rise of technology. According to the book. The first way of learning is accomplished through the sense organs such as the eyes. Hence. An example of an icon for the motion picture and sound recording industry is Hollywood who pioneered the “talkies” or the synchronized motion pictures and sound in films (Ott et al 2). Hence. During the 1980‟s. started studying multimedia systems. a thesis from the UP Diliman College of Mass Communication stated that another theorist or scholar named Henry Jackson (1992) views fandom in a pathological perspective where it is considered as a symptom for social dysfunction (Martinez). Lev Manovich defines new media as “cultural objects which use digital computer technology for distribution and circulation. etc. the collective “critical media studies” is given a much academic definition.

An example given by Ott and Mack is the instance when you wanted to see a film you had to go to the theaters. etc. rather than the media source go to the people. mobility which is evident in the act of downloading data from the Internet. It is a rare occasion for a celebrity to hold fan conventions in rural or under-developed areas. This brings about the second trend. one can always find spring notebooks wherein the cover is a famous Filipino celebrity such as Jolina Magdangal. The book gives the origin of the current concept of simulation that is it is from the book Simulacra and Simulation by Jean Baudrillard who describes it as hyperreality. Many fan collectibles can be found in the Philippines. Fandom is also manifested through the various forms of media such as print. Now. Manifestations like these are executed to show the intensity of the fan‟s loyalty towards a particular celebrity. Simulation is the fifth trend described by the book. An example given by the book is the increase in cable channels that diversifies the audience. Fragmentation is the third trend which is a result of the growth in media creating a more and more diverse audience that move towards the “de-massiciation” of media as coined by Alvin Toffler. 4 . Given the various definitions and categories of mass media. Fan conventions are also held but it is most commonly practiced in the more urban places of the country. etc.” With globalization. Performances of fandom The manifestations and performances of fandom are often the usual fan conventions. Fandom can mostly be expressed through new media as it fosters a sense of community and self-expression. motion. these manifestations fall as strong. fan fiction. multinational corporations that own media companies have the ability to bring their cultural products to the vast market. no doubt one can conclude that fandom is one of its results. globalization is according to Brian Ott and Robert Mack “the complex set of social. and perhaps cosplay for the anime fans (Ott et al 249). In bookstores.obstacle was that the bandwidth limitations prevented the transfer of large data. and economic processes in which the physical boundaries and structural policies that previously reinforced the autonomy of the nation state are collapsing in favor of instantaneous and flexible worldwide social relations. there were only 3 TV channels or TV programs that would monopolize the 24 hours catering to the huge mass of audience. The book states that the concept of simulation is important because it is fueled by the mass media. It required that people go to the media source. Historically. political. or fans with faces of politicians. mass media wasn‟t very mobile or movable. with the development of various microprocessors and wireless technology. This problem was also solved through the expansion of the bandwidth and the improvement of data compression. the public has the capability to bring media to their footsteps. Notebook covers are dedicated to celebrities and fans choose these notebooks because of the cover. The fourth trend. Before. collectibles such as fan shirts and fan action figures. E. fan art. In the light of the weak and strong categories of fandom.

acquaintances. In 2006. Over the decades „like‟ branched out to the fields of marketing. 5 . A. enjoyable. adverb. Facebook has reached a member database of over 500 million (Khan 174). „Like‟ was able to give the marketers an empirical measure on the effectiveness of their advertising. a likable ad is encoded in the brain as a pre-cognitive desire (thenewinquiry. Many scholars argue that Facebook‟s addition of the „like‟ button devalues or degrades level of empathy in humans through one click. uploading an unlimited number of photos. Founder Mark Zuckerberg originally designed Facebook for the students of the Harvard University as a platform where they can share their university experiences online. Facebook attracts users through its features that provide avenues for building relationships. The invitation-only strategies used by the SNSs allow people to meet other strangers online as they expand and communicate with their friends.Social networking sites (SNSs) is a web-based service that gives people the opportunity to interact with one another as they create a public or semi-public profile. It also provides the user a personalized privacy setting which is based on the preference of the user (Khan 174).g. while some may argue that the „like‟ button provides benefits to the society. adjective. B. Facebook was opened to the public aged 13 and above. and to the fans of the aforementioned celebrities: Daniel Padilla and Anne Curtis. DISCUSSION The researcher will discuss the involvement of Facebook in the field of fandom. Facebook has changed the value of like. The existence of online celebrity fan pages. conjunction. The verb „like‟ takes its origin from the Old English word of Germanic roots līcian which means „be pleasing. 2004. Facebook: what it is and how it all began Among all social networking sites. The history of Facebook began at its launching on February 4. Now. Facebook ranks number one. Marketing professionals employ „like‟ to measure the effectiveness of their advertisements and promotions with the end result: likability of their product. with the verb form being the subject of this paper. writing notes. and opportunities for business expansion. I like bananas). or verb. providing entertainment. the modern day fan. Social networking sites fall under the category of new media – the use of computer technology in distributing or circulating information.‟ Līcian is also related to the Dutch word likjen. And currently. II. and colleagues (Khan 174). The importance of Facebook‟s “Like” and “Follow” feature and its significance in today‟s society. Hence.com). and Facebook accounts all support this claim. noun. Facebook features include creating a personal profile. in the 21st century. Liking: from what it was to what it is The word „like‟ can be used either as a preposition. and sending personal messages. or satisfactory for someone (e. The verb „like‟ according to the Oxford American Dictionaries pertains to an object that is agreeable.

the pages a person likes on Facebook may give clues for a person‟s sexual orientation. send a prewritten letter to a politician. donate money to a campaign. and fandom The modern day fan can still be defined through the classical definition stated in the earlier sections of this paper: a fan is someone who is enthusiastic and shows a special form of loyalty towards a particular media text (Ott et al 249). and Gender – 93%. Democrat vs. Muslim – 82%. particularly Facebook. constitutionally protected… That many people today choose to convey what they like or which political candidates they support by “Liking” a Web page rather than by writing the actual words. Lesbian vs.org). once branded as a luxury.com).com is the list of accuracy for their predictions using the „like‟ feature on Facebook: Single – 63%. “I like this Web page” or “I like this candidate. According to their study. sign a petition. The ease of these actions does not negate their expressive nature. That is exactly what the First Amendment protects. intelligence. All of these acts are. Smokes Cigarette – 73%." 6 . Straight Man – 88%. The only difference between the modern day fan and the classical fan are the advancements in technology. affixing a bumper sticker to your car. forward an email. and Thore Graepel of Microsoft Research has found a major significance in Facebook‟s „Like‟ feature and the society. and therefore not entitled to constitutional protection because of the minimal effort these actions require. and drug use (psychologytoday. Whether someone presses a “Like” button to express those thoughts or presses the buttons on a keyboard to write out those words. Take for example the growth of Internet.A study by Michal Kosinski and David Stillwell from the University of Cambridge. of course. Black -95%. They argue that: “With “one click of a button. are becoming more and more popular among the masses. It is a very effective medium for communication especially now that almost everyone has access to the Internet and that social networking sites. Taken from PsychologyToday. however that information is conveyed. or do a myriad of other indisputably expressive activities. under the district court‟s reasoning. Indeed. the modern day fan. race. and opinions. Republican – 85%. Liking. This gives substantial evidence that „like‟ does reflect a person‟s personality. The installation of the „like‟ button or the „like‟ feature in Facebook provides a wider avenue for expression and communication. interests. or placing a sign on of your lawn would be devoid of meaning absent further information. the end result is the same: one is telling the world about one‟s personal beliefs. Straight Woman – 75%. The advancements of the technology greatly decrease the barriers to communication in an inter-fan basis. Gay vs. C.” is immaterial. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) argues to the American Appeals Court that Facebook‟s „like‟ is a form of expression and freedom of speech and that it is covered under the First Amendment of the US Constitution (aclu.com). Christian vs. pinning a campaign pin to your shirt. Drinks Alcohol – 70%. White vs. it is now considered as a basic human right by the United Nations (globalpost.” an Internet user can upload or view a video. Parents together at 21 – 80%.

e.com). As argued by the ACLU. the end result of „like‟ is expression of oneself. The intensity of the fandom of Daniel Padilla‟s fans can be found in one of his more recent issues.‟ The person is given an avenue to communicate with other fans. one can form a mental image of who the fans of Daniel Padilla are. This is results in the transformation of the fan page into an integrate platform for different people with unique or similar declarations. During one of his visits in Pamapanga. The concern of the fan is not on social change but rather on expression of self.a concise method of expressing or writing down a person‟s interests. Philippines. and. and rapid spread of information. an informal derogatory term for an obsessive female fan (oxforddictionaries. On the note of selfexpression. How „like‟ affects and reflects the performance of fandom of Daniel Padilla‟s fans can be found in the different opportunities the button offers. Based on related articles and performances of fans of Daniel Padilla. The prevalence of new media in this society contributes to the current characteristics of the fans of Daniel Padilla. Fans declare to the world that they like this particular celebrity by „liking‟ his or her page and in doing so. and sense of community.com). The Cybercrime Act caused great turmoil among the online community. As a person „likes‟ a page. Daniel Padilla and the ‘like’ Daniel Padilla is one of the most popular teen Filipino celebrities (myxph. His fans fit the definition of a fangirl. negative comments towards government) (forbes. Majority of the display photos of Filipino Facebook users were replaced with merely a black images in response to the said Act. the fans. a fan is able to express and declare his or her wants through „like.com. „Like‟ is a tool for empowerment given the different avenues it gives for the fulfillment of the concerns of the fan.‟ As stated by the ACLU. „like‟ is a form 7 .This recognition of „like‟ as a form of freedom of speech empowers the Internet users. The major key factors in raising the awareness towards the Cybercrime Act and changing the display photos were the „like‟ buttons on Facebook raising awareness and creating Internet traffic. A very socially relevant example of this is the Cybercrime Act issue in the Philippines that impedes the rights of freedom of expression of the Filipinos by penalizing online activities that are considered to be violations of its libel provision (i.000+ likes. he or she can view the different activities that occur within the page and among the page „likers. D. as well as get more information about activities regarding their community. He is both an actor and recording artist who became popular from the Filipino TV series “Princess and I. it provides an avenue for expression . girls even as young as 8 years old packed the whole venue (sunstar. of course.com).com). His official Facebook page currently has 983.” Frantic fan girls often follow him and attend his fan conventions. Fans of the teen actor believed that the Judy Ann‟s show should be cancelled due to poor ratings and its impediment to Daniel Padilla‟s upcoming show Got to Believe (philstar.ph). The consequences of „liking‟ are contribution to increased Internet traffic. First. How „like‟ empowers the modern day fan requires a much more specific discourse. the fan has become part of a community. His fans recently bashed veteran Filipina actress Judy Ann Santos-Agoncillo due to her show Huwag Ka Lang Mawawala.

of self-expression. This allows the follower to get public updates or information that is being posted by a specific person (simplesocialmedia. through self-expression and sense of community. „Follow. Figure 1 Fan interaction within Daniel Padilla Fan Page www. again. Similar to the other fans and the other Facebook users.facebook. fans of Daniel Padilla get to express their selves on Facebook through this tool. As they click „like.000.). is also used in many social networking sites such as tumblr. This figure also shows the self-expression of fans online. At the same time.com. pinterest. the declaration of their being a fan through the act of liking. Following: from past to present The American Oxford Dictionaries defines „follow‟ as a verb that denotes the act of going after a person or thing that is proceeding ahead (e. fans have access to updates on activities such as fan conventions. Below is a screenshot from the fan page of Daniel Padilla which shows the interaction between the fans. and contentment as well.com. which is their love for the actor.com. With these. „Follow‟ has evolved from a simple verb to another medium of expression.g. It takes its roots from the old English term of Germanic origins folgian which is related to the Dutch volgen and the German folgen. This gives the sense of community among the „likers‟ of the page.‟ they integrate themselves into a community of fans and the „likers‟ of the actor‟s fan page all posses one common characteristic.tv).com/OfficialDanielPadilla As shown in Figure 1. I will follow Louie Jon as he goes into the path of wisdom and righteousness. one can gather substantial evidence to prove that Facebook‟s „like‟ does reflect the performances of Daniel Padilla‟s fan and their fandom.com/OfficialDanielPadilla Figure 2 Fan interaction within Daniel Padilla Fan Page www. in Figure 2. 8 . and instagram. E.facebook. fans get the opportunity to view posts related to Daniel Padilla. Facebook‟s “follow” button was originally the “subscribe” button. making the act of „liking‟ as a step to access information. The addition of such button is a convenience for people who have exceeded the limit to the number of friends on Facebook: 5.‟ pioneered by Twitter. The empowerment of individuals through this feature is.

The comments are visible to all the other followers. has now become an integrated platform where fans react to a post. being the common point. Her Twitter account at the same time officially has 5.com. Being able to have a glimpse of the day-to-day activity of Anne Curtis provides contentment and a sense of satisfaction for the fan. can be considered as the most famous female celebrity of this generation.com).ph). Figure 3 Fan self-expression through following www. The photo below shows how the fans express their love for Anne Curtis through following her and commenting on her posts.com). anything that the celebrity chooses to publicly post is visible on the follower‟s news feed. Anne Curtis as a model covers the fashion enthusiasts sector of the society. Self-expression as a fan of Anne Curtis through Facebook can be found in the opportunities of „following‟ as well. or share their interests. Anne Curtis–Smith. The celebrity.263.„Following‟ a celebrity gives the „follower‟ a chance to see how the everyday life of this particular celebrity is.110 making her the only Filipino to have reached a million followers on twitter. Anne Curtis emerged as a new icon and symbol mainly through her album launch of Annebisyosa and as a show host of noontime show Showtime. her concert Annebisyosa: No Other Concert was still sold out as written by Ricky L. and comment or react to the celebrity‟s follow post. It can be observed that her fans are composed of both men and women who mostly admire her of her beauty and physique. The fans of Anne Curtis cover a wider scope of the population. Her Facebook account has 117. Calderon of the Philippine Star (femalenetwork. and can be commented by the follower. Even more. F.com/AnneCurtisSmithOfficialAccount 9 . Despite her not being a strong pillar in the Philippine music industry. while reacting to a post by Anne Curtis is an avenue for self-expression of the fan. She holds the status of the first Filipina celebrity to have caught the attention of E! News Asia Special. Following Anne Curtis Perhaps.facebook. From a young Filipino teen movie actress. and as one of FHM‟s sexiest women has captured the male sector of the society.000++ followers (facebook.com/AnneCurtisSmithOfficialAccount). thus the common point here is the celebrity. popularly known as Anne Curtis. at the same time as a cover girl for a magazine. and one of Twitter’s top 200 personalities while surpassing the rankings of other famous celebrities such as US First Lady Michelle Obama and champion tennis player Rafael Nadal (sunstar. a TV program that features famous celebrities (philstar.

but it has also changed the characteristics of human specie as well. and react to the posts empowering them with the right to freedom of expression.co. Facebook‟s “Like” and “Follow” feature reflect fandom because of the different avenues and possibilities that “liking” or “following” a page or person offers to a fan. Anne Curtis‟s timeline account has become the integrated platform for the interaction of her different fans. the Internet has now also penetrated through the different levels of social classes. Though there isn‟t enough evidence to support the claim that fans interact with each other through her account. A study conducted by the Stanford University showed that students prefer texting rather than face-to-face interaction with their peers because it is “less awkward” or “less risky.In providing a sense of community. which is Anne Curtis herself. Cultural Implications With the penetration of fandom in the online world and social networking site. The fan is able to interact with other fans within a fan page through various announcements and fan-related posts. A significant portion of the fans of Daniel Padilla. Many movements in society are often done with the aid of the online social media and social networking sites. Humans have developed a new way of socializing. and define the necessary terms. Also. and „follow‟ feature empower the fans as it is a form of self-expression. Today‟s average person is equipped with portable gadgets such as the smartphone.yahoo. It can be observed in today‟s crowd that there are a significant number of people who own a smartphone and use its games and applications to kill time. SUMMARY AND CULTURAL IMPLICATIONS A. The fan is also able to give messages. the article stipulated that people are incredibly hooked on the Internet. This implies that the people belonging to social classes C and D (lower middle class.com). Candy Crush Saga is considered as the world‟s most addictive game according to Yahoo! Finance (finance. Before. Facebook users react to current political issues by posting propagandas online and changing their display photos. the new digital age has not only changed how people work or play.” Also. and the right to Internet. or tablet. the „like‟. and a platform for the development of a community. attain the objectives. her „followers‟ share one common interest. B. Filipino Facebook users changing their display photos in response to the Cybercrime Law in the Philippines exemplifies this. and some studies say that the pre- 10 . One study from the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Wuhan showed that there is a physical change in brain in frequent web users.com). no doubt that technology is continuously taking part more and more of people‟s lives. Moreover. In relation with the growing technology. and poor) have easy access. III. and Anne Curtis belong to these social classes. it was branded as a luxury but now the United Nations even considers the Internet as a basic human right (globalpost. Summary The researcher was able to prove the claim. laptop. According to an article by Telegraph.uk. That then provides the evidence that fandom is reflected through „following‟ her account.

2013. 2013. <http://www. "Like It or Not.com. Coastal Contacts Case Set Guidelines for 'Like-Gating' on Facebook. 30 Aug. Works Cited: "An Evening with Teen Sensation Daniel Padilla. 2013. Web. 2012. n. n.. 2013." Philstar. Baker. 13 Sept. This reflection of fandom provides a cultural implication that society is becoming more and more dependent with technology.p. <https://www.com.d. N. Bell.2013." Www. pag. Web. Web. Web." Sport Marketing Quarterly 22 (2013): n. 30 Jan.p. III.. the “Like” and “Follow” features of Facebook reflect the performance of fandom towards celebrities Daniel Padilla.philstar.p. 1 Sept. N. Says "Dreams Do Really Come True""Female Network.d.p. Brison. CONCLUSION In conclusion to this paper.femalenetwork.com/AnneCurtisSmithOfficialAccount?fref=ts>.. Thomas A.sunstar. Byon. Ebscohost. Natasha T. is also experiencing physical changes (telegraph. "American Civil Liberties Union. Technology has reshaped culture to the extent that it has affected our biological makeup as well. "Anne Curtis-Smith | Facebook.aclu.ebscohost. Web.frontal cortex. These features thus reflect the growth of fandom as a whole – fandom from the real world to the virtual world. and Anne Curtis." Anne Curtis-Smith | Facebook... and Kevin K.com. N." American Civil Liberties Union.co. Web.d. <http://ehis.sunstar. N.facebook. 30 Aug. 2013. <http://www. 13 Sept.uk).com/celebrities/anne-curtis-performs-to-sold-outcrowd-says-dreams-do-really-come-true>.. 2013. fandom would have been expressed differently. "E! News Asia Turns the Spotlight on Anne Curtis. "Anne Curtis Performs for Sold-Out Crowd. N. Josh..ph/pampanga/entertainment/2013/06/09/eveningteen-sensation-daniel-padilla-286651>.com/entertainment/2013/09/01/1157331/e-news-asiaturns-spotlight-anne-curtis>.p. 13 Sept. which is responsible for decision making. <https://www..org/blog/free-speech-technology-andliberty/aclu-facebook-tell-appeals-court-free-speech>. <http://www. IV. 30 Aug.ph. Without these features. n.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=f94a3642-78fa-48fab5f3-04d3b949ca14%40sessionmgr11&vid=1&hid=17>. These features are popular because of their convenience and easy-to-access characteristics. 11 .

sunstar.sunstar. Kendall. 2013. n.com/dispatch/news/politics/diplomacy/120706/undeems-internet-access-basic-human-right-0> 12 .. 5 Feb. < http://www.. <http://finance. Paul. Web. Web. 30 Aug.p. Web. 25 July 2013. 27 March 2013. Ott.: n.. <http://thenewinquiry.. 1992. 2011. 11 July 2013.com/features/5290/daniel-padilla-is-myx-magazines-firstcover-artist-for-2013/>. <http://iskwiki.yahoo." DANIEL PADILLA Is MYX Magazine's First Cover Artist For 2013! N. Robert W.uk/technology/9913452/Is-thedigital-age-rewiring-us. Iskwiki. but Likely on Borrowed Time. Print. ed. The Adoring Audience: Fan Culture and Popular Media. N. Print." GlobalPost. Singapore: Ho Printing Singapore Pte..globalpost. Gehl.telegraph. 6 July 2012.d.p. 30 Aug.p.myxph. United States of America: SAGE Publications. McQuail. "MYX | Your Choice.tv/2013/02/05/facebook-addingthe-follow-button/>. 2013. 2013.com/essays/a-history-of-like/>. 15 Aug. 13 Sept. Web. 30 Aug.co. 2013. "Anne Curtis Now Has 5M Twitter Followers. Aaron.. N." Simple Social Media. 2013. 2013. <http://www.upd. Mack. "UN Deems Internet Access a Basic Human Right.p. 2012. Your Music. The Exchange. n. 13 Mar. "Psyched!" The Like Trail. 2013." The New Inquiry A History of Like Comments.d. 2013. "Is the Digital Age Rewriting Us?" The Telegraph.psychologytoday. Web. N.html>."Facebook: Adding The Follow Button.p.html>. "A History of Like. Brian L. University of the Philippines. N. 2013. 13 Sept.p. Martinez. N. Lisa A. 2013.ph/manila/entertainment/2013/07/25/anne-curtisnow-has-5m-twitter-followers-294348>. N. Fandom in Cyberspace: A Case Study on the Culture and Online Behavior of SJ United Philippines.p." Yahoo! Finance. Web. Print Pressman. Talia. Denis.com/blogs/the-exchange/candy-crush-insanelyaddictive-today-likely-borrowed-time-171103788. and Robert L.simplesocialmedia. <http://www. Chryl Bhefer M. Web. University of the Philippines. Thesis.p. n. 30 Aug.ph/flipbooks/FandomInCy1210/>. 1997.ph. Glaiza.. 30 Aug.com.edu. Web. Lewis.d. <http://www. <http://www. <http://www.com/blog/psyched/201303/the-trail>." Www. Web.d. N. London: Routledge. 2010.p.. Critical Media Studies: An Introduction. Ralph.. 13 Sept. Jarloc. Audience Analysis.com. "Candy Crush: Insanely Addictive Today. n..

13 Sept.p. Forbes Magazine.Rosen. Chuck.philstar.p.com/entertainment/2013/08/19/1108681/daniel-padillafans-lets-respect-judy-ann-veteran-actors>.com. Tassi. Web. 19 Aug. Veteran Actors.. < http://www.com/sites/insertcoin/2012/10/09/controversialcybercrime-prevention-act-suspended-by-philippines-court/>. 15 July 2012.forbes. N.com/blog/rewired-the-psychologytechnology/201207/the-power> Smith. <http://www."Philstar. N.psychologytoday. 2013. "Daniel Padilla to Fans: Let's Respect Judy Ann. 13 . 2013. 2013."Forbes. 2013. Larry. Paul. <http://www. Web. 09 Oct. "Controversial Cybercrime Prevention Act Suspended by Philippines Court.. 12 Sept. 2012. 13 Sept. Web. "The Power of "Like"" Psychology Today. PhD.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful