Lehigh Preserve
Teses and Dissertations
111996
Te axisymmetric crack problem in a semiinfnite
nonhomogeneous medium
Ali Sahin
Lehigh University
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Sahin, Ali, "Te axisymmetric crack problem in a semiinfnite nonhomogeneous medium" (1996). Teses and Dissertations. Paper 451.
Sahin, Ali
The Axisymmetric
Crack Problem in
a SemiInfinite
Nonhomogeneous
Medium
January 12, 1997
THE AXISYMMETRIC CRACK
PROBLEM IN A SEMIINFINITE
NONHOMOGENEOUS MEDIUM
by
Ali SARIN
AThesis
Presented to the Graduate and Research Committee
of Lehigh University
in Candidacy for the Degree of
Master of Science
in
Applied Mathematics
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics
Lehigh University
December 1996
Acknowledgements
First of all, I would like to express my thanks to Professor Fazil Erdogan and his
outstanding guidance and support during my graduate studies and of my thesis research.
I want to thank to Dr. Murat Ozturk for his assistance and consideration. AlSo, I
want to especially mention the support of my wife and my family from back home during
my graduate studies.
ill
Contents
Acknowledgements iii
List of Tables vi
List of Figures ix
Abstract 1
Chapter 1 Introduction 2
1.1 Introduction.................................................................................. 2
1.2 The Organization 4
Chapter 2 Formulation of the Problem 6
Chapter 3 The Integral Equations 14
3.1 Derivation ofthe Integral Equations 14
3.2 The Fundamental Function 23
Chapter 4 Numerical Procedure 26
Chapter 5 The Results 37
Chapter 6 Conclusions and Future Work 69
IV
References
Appendix A
Appendix B
Appendix C
Vita
72
Expressions for Various Functions that Appear in Chapter 2 and
Chapter 3 75
Asymptotic Analysis of Kernels 79
Examination of the Logaritmic Kernels 87
93
v
List of Tables
5.1 Loading conditions used and the corresponding stress intensity factors for the
homogeneous medium (n =0). 37
5.2 The variation of stress intensity factors with an for various loading conditions
shown in TableS.!, lJ =0.3, h/a = 10, O"zz(r, 0) = P
l
(r), O"rz(r,O) =0 41
5.3 The variation of stress intensity factors with an for various loading conditions
shown in TableS.!, lJ =0.3, h/a =10, O"zz(r, 0) =0, O"rz(r, 0) =P2 41
5.4 The variation of stress intensity factors with an for various loading conditions
shown in TableS.!, lJ =0.3, h/a =5, O"zz(r, 0) = P
l
(r), O"rz(r,O) =0 42
5.5 The variation of stress intensity factors with an for various loading conditions
shown in Table5.1,lJ =0.3, h/a =5, O"zz(r, 0) =0, O"rz(r,O) = P2 42
5.6 The variation of stress intensity factors with an for various loading conditions
shown in TableS.!, lJ =0.3, h/a =2, O"zz(r, 0) =P
1
(r), O"rz(r,O) =0 43
5.7 The variation of stress intensity factors with an for various loading conditions
shown in TableS.!, lJ =0.3, h/a =2, O"zz(r, 0) =0, O"rz(r,O) =P
2
43
5.8 The variation of stress intensity factors with an for various loading conditions
shown in Table5.l, lJ =0.3, h/a = 1, l1
zz
(r, 0) =Pl(r), O"rz(r,O) = 0 44
5.9 The variation of stress intensity factors with an for various loading conditions
shown in Table5.l, lJ =0.3, h/a =1, l1
zz
(r, 0) =0, O"rz(r,O) = P
2
44
vi
5.10 The variation of stress intensity factors with aa for various loading conditions
shown in TableS.1, v = 0.3, h/a =0.75, O"zz(r, 0) = P
1
(r), O"rz(r,O) =0 45
5.11 The variation of stress intensity factors with aa for various loading conditions
shown in TableS.1, v = 0.3, h/a =0.75, O"zz(r, 0) = 0, 17
rz
(r,O) = P
2
45
5.12 The variation of stress intensity factors with aa for various loading conditions
shown in TableS.1, v = 0.3, h/a =0.50, O"zz(r,O) = P1(r), O"rz(r,O) =0 46
5.13 The variation of stress intensity factors with aa for various loading conditions
shown in TableS.1, v =0.3, h/a =0.50, O"zz(r, 0) =0, 17
rz
(r,O) = P
2
46
5.14 The variation of stress intensity factors with aa for various loading conditions
shown in TableS.1, v =0.3, h/a =0.25, O"zz(r, 0) = P
1
(r), O"rz(r, O) =0 47
5.15 The variation of stress intensity factors with aa for various loading conditions
shown in TableS.1, v = 0.3, h/a =0.25, O"zz(r, 0) =0, 17
rz
(r,O) = P2 47
5.16 The variation of stress intensity factors with aa for various loading conditions
shown in TableS.1, v = 0.3, h/a =0.1, O"zz(r, 0) = P1(r), O"rz(r,O) =0 48
5.17 The variation of stress intensity factors with aa for various loading conditions
shown in TableS.1, v =0.3, h/a =0.1, O"zz(r, 0) =0, O"rz(r,O) = P
2
48
5.18 The variation of stress intensity factors with v for various loading conditions
shown in Table 5.1, h/a = 10, O"zz(r, 0) =  Po, O"rz(r,O) =O. 49
5.19 The variation of stress intensity factors with v for various loading conditions
shown in Table 5.1, h/a = 10, 17
zz
(r, 0) =0, O"rz(r,O) =  qo. 49
5.20 The variation of stress intensity factors with v for various loading conditions
shown in Table 5.1, h/a = 2, O"zz(r, 0) =  Po, O"rAr, O) =O. 50
5.21 The variation of stress intensity factors with v for various loading conditions
shown in Table 5.1, h/a = 2, O"zz(r, 0) =0, O"rz(r,O) =  qo. 50
Vll
5.22 The variation of stress intensity factors with 1) for various loading conditions
shown in Table 5.1, h/a = 1, O"zz(r, 0) =  Po, O"rz(r,O) =O. 51
5.23 The variation of stress intensity factors with 1) for various loading conditions
shown in Table 5.1, h/a =1, O"zz(r, 0) =0, O"rz(r,O) =  qQ. 52
5.24 The variation of stress intensity factors with 1) for various loading conditions
shown in Table 5.1, h/a =0.50, O"zz(r, 0) =  Po, O"rz(r,O) =O. 52
5.25 The variation of stress intensity factors with 1) for various loading conditions
shown in Table 5.1, h/a =0.50, O"zz(r, 0) =0, O"rz(r,O) =  qo. 52
5.26 The variation of stress intensity factors with 1) for various loading conditions
shown in Table 5.1, h/a =0.25, O"zz(r, 0) =  Po, O"rz(r,O) = O. 53
5.27 The variation of stress intensity factors with 1) for various loading conditions
shown in Table 5.1, h/a =0.25, O"zz(r, 0) =0, O"rz(r,O) =  qQ. 53
Vill
List of Figures
6
54
ProblemGeometry
Normalized stress intensity factors for various hia values when O"zz(r, 0) =  Po,
k
1
O"rz(r,O) =0, ~ vs aa (a> 0).
Poya
2.1
5.1
5.2 Normalized stress intensity factors for various hiavalues when O"zz(r, 0) =0,
k
1
O"rz(r,O) =  qo, ~ vs aa (a > 0).
qoya
54
55
5.3 Normalized stress intensity factors for various hiavalues when 0"zz (r, 0) =  Po,
k2
O"rz(r,O) = 0, ~ vs aa (a> 0).
Poya
5.4 Normalized stress intensity factors for various hiavalues when O"zz(r, 0) = 0,
k
2
O"rz(r,O) =  qo, ~ vs aa (a > 0).
qoya
55
56
5.5 Normalized stress intensity factors for various hlavalues when O"zz(r, 0) =  Po,
k
1
O"rz(r,O) = 0, ~ vs aa ( 5 < a < 5).
Poya
5.6 Normalized stress intensity factors for various hla values when O"zz(r, 0) = 0,
~
0"rz (r , 0) =  qo, ~ vs aa ( 5 < a < 5).
qoya
56
57
5.7 Normalized stress intensity factors for various aa values when O"zz(r, 0) =  Po,
kl
O"rz(r,O) = 0, ~ vs hla.
Poya
IX
 Po,
5.8
5.9
Nonnalized stress intensity factors for various aa values when O"zz(r, 0) =0,
k
1
O"rz(r,O) =  qQ, ~ vs hla.
qQya
Nonnalized stress intensity factors for various aa values when 0"zz (r, 0) =
k
2
O"rz(r,O) =0, ~ vs hia.
Poya
57
58
58
5.10 Nonnalized stress intensity factors for various aa values when O"zz(r, 0) =0,
~
O"rz(r,O) =  qQ, ~ vs hla.
qQya
5.11 r component of the normalized crack opening displacement for various hiavalues
in case ofthe external loading O"zAr, 0) = 0, O"rAr,O) =  qQ, aa =O. 59
5.12 r component of the normalized crack opening displacement for various hIa values
in case of the external loading O"zz(r, 0) =0, O"rz(r, 0) =  qQ, aa =0.50. 59
5.13 r component of the normalized crack opening displacement for various hia values
in case of the external loading O"zAr, 0) =0, O"rz(r, 0) =  qQ, aa =1.0. 60
5.14 r component of the normalized crack opening displacement for various hia values
in case of the external loading O"zz(r, 0) = 0, O"rz(r, 0) =  qo, aa =1.5. 60
5.15 r component ofthe normalized crack opening displacement for various hia values
in case of the external loading O"zz(r, 0) =0, O"rz(r,O) =  qo, aa =2.0. 61
5.16 r component of the normalized crack opening displacement for various h/a values
in case of the external loading O"zz(r, 0) =0, O"rz(r, 0) =  qo, aa =3.0. 61
5.17 r component of the normalized crack opening displacement for various aa values
in case ofthe external loading O"zz(r, 0) =0, O"rz(r,O) =  qQ, hla =5.0. 62
5.18 r component of the normalized crack opening displacement for various aa values
in case ofthe external loading O"zz(r, 0) = 0, O"rz(r, 0) =  qQ, hia = 1.0. 62
5.19 r component of the normalized crack opening displacement for various aa values
in case of the external loading O"zz(r, 0) =0, O"rz(r,O) =  qQ, hla =0.75. 63
x
5.20 r component of the normalized crack opening displacement for various aa values
in case of the external loading O'zz(r, 0) =0, O'rz(r,O) =  qo, hia =0.50. 63
5.21 z component of the normalized crack opening displacement for various hla values
in case ofthe external loading O'zAr, 0) =  Po, O'rz(r, 0) =0, aa =O. 64
5.22 z component of the normalized crack opening displacement for various hia values
in case of the external loading O'zz(r, 0) =  Po, O'rz(r, 0) =0, aa =0.5. 64
5.23 z component of the normalized crack opening displacement for various hia values
in case of the external loading O'zz(r, 0) =  Po, O'rz(r,O) =0, aa =1.0. 65
5.24 z component of the normalized, crack opening displacement for various hiavalues
in case of the external loading O ' z ~ ( r , 0) =  Po, O'rz(r, 0) =0, aa =1.5. 65
5.25 z component of the normalized crack opening displacement for various hia values
in case of the external loading O'zz(r, 0) =  Po, O'rz(r,O) =0, aa =2.0. 66
5.26 z component ofthe normalized crack opening displacement for various hlavalues
in case of the external loading O'zz(r, 0) =  Po, O'rz(r, 0) =0, aa =3.5. 66
5.27 z component of the normalized crack opening displacement for various aa values
in case of the external loading O'zz(r, 0) =  Po, O'rz(r,O) =0, hia =5.0. 67
5.28 z component of the normalized crack opening displacement for various aa values
in case of the external loading O'zz(r, 0) =  Po, O'rz(r, 0) =0, hla =1.0. 67
5.29 z component of the normalized crack opening displacement for various aa values
in case of the external loading O'zz(r, 0) =  Po, O'rz(r, 0) =0, hla =0.75. 68
5.30 z component of the normalized crack opening displacement for various aa values
in case ofthe external loading O'zz(r, 0) =  Po, O'rz(r, 0) =0, hla =0.50. 68
Xl
ABSTRACT
In this study, the basic axisyrrunetric crack problem in a nonhomogeneous semi
infinite medium with continuously varying elastic properties is examined. The problem is
encountered in studying the fracture mechanics of functionally graded materials which are
mostly twophase particulate composites with continuously varying volume fractions. The
objective of this study is to determine the effect of the material nonhomogeneity
parameters on the stress intensity factors in functionally graded materials containing an
axisymmetric crack parallel to the surface.
Using Hankel integral transforms for the displacements in the axisyrrunetric crack
problem, the mixed boundary conditions are analytically reduced to a system of dual
integral equations, and then, by a systematic approach, to a system of singular integral
equations. After converting the system of singular integral equations to a system of
functional equations, such physically important quantities as stress intensity factors and
crack opening displacements are obtained numerically by using certain approximate
techniques.
1
Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1 Introduction
The various fonns of composites and bonded materials have always been widely
used in technological applications such as power generation, transportation, aerospace,
and microelectronics. However, for the demands of future technologies, the use of
homogeneous materials and standard composites is becoming more and more difficult so
that a greater emphasis in current research is placed on material design; more speeificaly,
on developing new materials or material systems tailored for specific applications.
Increasing concerns with mechanical failure initiating at the interfacial regions require a
better understanding of the interaction between flaws that may exist in these regions and
applied loads and the other enviromental factors. The conventional approach of studying
the thermomechanics of such materials is based on the assumption that the composite
medium is piecewise homogeneous and the flaws may be represented by plane cuts or
cracks. On the other hand, in most bonded materials the interfacial region appears to have
2
a structure which is generally different than that of the adjacent materials. In many cases,
such as in plasma spray coating, sputtering, ion plating and in some diffusion bonded
materials, the thermomechanical properties of the region are graded in the sense that the
interfacial region is a nonhomogeneous continuum of finite thickness with very steep
property gradients.
In the 1980's the concept of functionally graded materials (FGMs) was proposed in
Japan to process thermal barrier coatings that may be used to shield the high temperature
components of the space plane. FGMs for this application are composite materials With a
gradual compositional variation from ceramic to metal from one surface to the other.
These continuous changes result in property gradients which can be adjusted by
controlling the composition. In this sense, material property grading is just another means
to get optimal performance from the material. Generally, the objective of the optimal
design is to provide such properties as sitiffness, strength, toughness, ductility, hardness
and wear, corrosion and temperature resistance wherever needed in the structural
component. In this respect the concept of FGM provides the engineer with a highly
versatile tool. One of the important potential applications of FGMs is, for example, their
use as an interfacial zone in bonding dissimilar materials. By eliminating the abrupt change
in thermomechanical properties along the interface through property grading, it is possible
not only to reduce or eliminate the stress concentrations but also to increase the bonding
strength quite considerably. [1][9]
In this study the axisysmetric crack problem for a nonhomogeneous elastic half
space is considered. It is assumed that the external loads as well as geometry are
axisymmetric. A brief review of the fracture problems in conventional composite materials
3
may be found in [10]. Delale and Erdogan considered the crack problem for a
nonhomogeneous plane [11] and the interface crack in a nonhomogeneous medium [12].
The axisymmetric crack problem for a nonhomogeneous infinite medium and two semi
infinite homogeneous halfspaces bonded through a nonhomogeneous interfacial zone
were considered by Ozturk and Erdogan [13][14].
In this study, it is assumed that the shear modulus is a function of z approximated
by
/l(Z) = /loexp(az) .
This is a simple simulation of materials and interfacial zones with intentionally or naturally
graded properties. With the application to fracture mechanics in mind, the main result
given in this study are the stress intensity factors as a function of the nonhomogeneity
parameter a and the dimensionless length parameter h/ a for various loading conditions.
Some sample results showing the crack opening displacements are also given.
1.2 The Organization
The statement of the problem and the description of the geometric and material
parameters used in this study are given in Chapter 2 which includes formulation of the
problem by using the governing differential equations and the boundary conditions. The
solution of the differential equations and the derivation of the dual integral equations are
given in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4 the numerical procedure used in this study is described.
The results of this study which consist of crack opening displacements, normalized stress
4
intensity factors and the effect of Poisson's ratio on stress intensity factors are given in
Chapter 5. Finally, some analytical details, including the asymptotic examination of the
kernels are given in the Appendices.
5
'Chapter 2
Formulation of the Problem
r
h
c::
a a
Figure 2.1: Crack geometry and notation
Consider the axisymmetric crack problemin a nonhomogeneous semiinfinite medium. It is
assumed that the elastic moduli are functions of z only and are given by
p,(z) =p,oexp(az) , A(Z) = AOexp(az). (2.1)
From the kinematic relations and the Hooke's law for the axisymmetric problem the
nonzero stress components may be expressed as
6
U (8U 8W)
0'00 = (2J.L + A) + A  +  ,
r 8r 8z
(
8U 8W)
a
rz
=J.L 8z + 8r .
(2.2)
(2.3)
(2.4)
(2.5)
where J.L and A are Lame's constants. In cyclindrical coordinates , the equilibrium
equations are
8aro ! 80'90 8aoz ~ + _ 0
8r + r 8e + 8z + r arO + Jr  ,
(2.6)
(2.7)
(2.8)
In the absence of body forces, the equilibriumequations for the axisymmetric problemcan
be reduced to
8arr 8arz 1(
8+8 + arrO'oo) =0,
r z r
80'rz 8azz ! _0
8
+ 8 + O'rz  .
r z r
(2.9)
(2.10)
Substituting stresses which are found from equations (2.2)(2.5) into the equilibrium
equations (2.9) and (2.10), the following systemof equations can be obtained
(
8
2
U l8u U 8
2
w) (8U 8W)
( ~ + l ) ++ + ( ~  l ) a +
8r
2
r 8r r
2
8r8z 8z 8r
7
(
02u lou 02
W
) (OU U)
(K+1) ++ (3K)a +
oroz r OZ oz2 or. r
_ (K  1) (OU _ow) = O.
r OZ or
(2.11)
(2.12)
where K = 3  4l1, A/p, = 2l1/(1 2l1), II being the Poisson's ratio. Now, to solve the
differential equations (2.11) and (2.12) we use the following Hankel transforms
F(z,p) =/.00u(r,z)rJ
1
(rp)dp,
G(z,p) = /.00w(r,z)rJo(rp)dp.
(2.13)
(2.14)
The functions u(r, z) and w(r, z) are the r and z components of the displacement vector
which are given by the following inverse transformations [15]:
u(r, z) =/.00F(z,p)pJ
1
(rp) dp,
w(r,z) = /.00G(z,p)pJo(rp)dp.
(2.15)
(2.16)
where Jo and J1 are the Bessel functions of the first kind. Substituting (2.15) and (2.16)
into (2.11) and (2.12) yields the following system of differential equations with constant
coefficients.
8
d
2
F dF 2 dG
(K, +1) dz
2
+a(K,  1) dz  (K, +l)p F  2p dz  a(K,  l)pG =0, (2.17)
d
2
G dG dF
(K, +1) dz
2
+a(K, +1)d",;""  (K,  l)p
2
G+2pd",;"" +a(3  K,)pF = O. (2.18)
where the following relationships have been used:
(
d2 1 d 1 ) 2
 +   Jl(rp) =  p Jl(rp),
dr
2
r dr r
2
Assuming a solution of the form
F(z, p) = A(p)e
mz
,
G(z, p) = B(p)e
mz
,
after substituting (2.22) and (2.23) into (2.17) and (2.18) , we obtain
4
F(z, p) = LAk(p )e
mkZ
,
k=l
4
G(z,p) =
k=l
where mk, (k = 1,2,3,4) satisfies the following characteristic equation:
3K,
8
 K,+I'
The roots of the characteristic equation are given by
9
(2.19)
(2.20)
(2.21)
(2.22)
(2.23)
(2.24)
(2.25)
(2.26)
(2.27)
m2 = ~ (  a  Ja
2
+4p2 +4ia8p),
2
m3 = ~ (  a + Ja
2
+ 4p2  4ia8p),
m4 = ~ ( a  Ja
2
+ 4p2  4ia8p) .
2
From (2.27)(2.30), it may be seen that
ml = m3 = ~ (  a +Ja
2
+4p2 +4ia8p),
m2 =m4 = ~ ( a  Ja
2
+4p2 +4ia8p) .
2
(2.28)
(2.29)
(2.30)
(2.31)
(2.32)
The arbitrary unknown functions Ak (p) and B
k
(p) are not independent of each other. The
relationship between them can be found by substituting (2.24) and (2.25) into (2.18) as
follows:
where
and
2mk +a(3  /1,)
ak(p) =  2p +ia(l +/1,)8'
(k = 1,2,3,4)
(k=1,2,3,4)
(2.33)
(2.34)
Using the relationship between Ak(p) and Bk(p), we find
4
F(z,p) =LAk(p)e
mkZ
,
k=l
4
G(z,p) =Lak(p)Ak(p)emkZ.
k=l
10
(2.35)
(2.36)
(2.37)
By observing that > 0 and < o,since both uand wvanish as
r
2
+z2 + 00 , we must delete terms involving A
2
and A
4
for z < O. Thus (2.36) and
(2.37) reduce to
4
F
1
(z,p) =LAlk(p)e
mkZ
,
k=1
4
G
1
(Z,p) = Lak(p)A
lk
(p)e
mkZ
,
k=1
o z < h,
o Z < h,
00 < z 0,
00 < z O.
(2.38)
(2.39)
(2.40)
(2.41)
The coefficients A
lk
and A
2j
, (k = 1,2,3,4), (j = 1,3), can be obtained by using the
following boundary and continuity conditions
(1)
(J"ZZ (r,h) = 0,
(1)
(J"rz (r, h) = 0,
(1) ) (2)(
(J"zz (r,O = (J"zz r,O),
(1) (2) (
(J"rz (r,O) = (J"rz r,O),
w(1)(r,0) w(2)(r,0) =0,
u(1) (r, 0)  u(2) (r, 0) =0,
= P1(r),
0) = P
2
(r),
a < r < 00,
a < r < 00,
o r < a,
o r < a.
(2.42)
(2.43)
(2.44)
(2.45)
(2.46)
(2.47)
(2.48)
(2.49)
From (2.42),(2.43),(2.4) and (2.5) it follows that
11
oG
l
(1'1, +1) oz +p(3  K,)F
l
= 0, (2.50)
oF
l
oz  pGl = O. (2.51)
Similarly, from the equality of stresses at z = and Irl > 0, it can be shown that
o
(1'1, +1) oz (G
l
 G
2
) +p(3  K,)(F
l
 F
2
) = 0, (2.52)
o
oz (F
l
 F
2
)  p(G
l
 G
2
) =O. (2.53)
Now, by substituting from (2.38)(2.41) into (2.46)(2.49) we obtain
4
L:(mkak(K, +1) +p(3  K,))Alke
mkh
=0,
k=l
4
L:(mk  pak)Alkemkh = 0,
k=l
4
L:(mkak(K, +1) +p(3  K,))A
lk
k=l
(2.54)
(2.55)
4
L:(mk  pak)A
lk
 (ml  pal)A
2l
 (m3  pa3)A23 = O.
k=l
The solution of this systemof equations is,
All = +
+ +
12
(2.57)
(2.58)
(2.59)
A
13
= +
+ + (2.60)
(2.61)
where the expression for A21. A
23
Ell E
2
, All A2 and are given in the Appendix A. The
unknowns A
21
and A
23
may be determined from the mixed boundary conditions (2.46)
(2.49)
13
Chapter 3
The Integral Equations
3.1 Derivation of the Integral Equations
Referring to the previous chapter, the two remaining unknown functions A
21
(p) and
A
23
(p) must be obtained by using the following mixed boundary conditions:
U(1) (r, +0) = u(2) (r,  0),
w(1) (r, +0) = w(2) (r,  0),
(1) (2) () ( )
O'zz (r,O) = O'zz r,O = P1 r ,
(1) (2)() ()
0'rz (r, 0) = 0'rz r, 0 = P
2
r ,
(a < r < (0),
(a < r < (0),
(0 ~ r < a),
(0 ~ r < a).
(3.1)
(3.2)
(3.3)
(3.4)
To reduce these conditions to a system of integral equations, we first define the following
new unknown functions:
a
(h(r) = ar (w(r, +0)  w(r,  0)),
14
(0 ~ r < (0), (3.5)
where
1 a
cP2(r) = a(ru(r, +0)  ru(r,  0)),
r r
(0::; r < 00), (3.6)
O::;r<a,
a < r < 00.
(3.7)
(3.8)
cP (r) = { cP2 (r) 0 ::; r < a ,
2 0 a < r < 00.
After substituting the equations (2.38)(2.41) into (3.7) and (3.8), cP1 and cP2 may be
expressed as
,/>J(r) = :r (1.
00
G, (0, p)pJo(rp) dp  1.
00
G, (0, p)pJo(rp) d
P
). (3.9)
<p,(r) =; :J1.
oo
F,(O,p)prJo(rp) dp  1.
00
F,(O, p)prJo(rp) d
P
). (3.10)
By using the following properties of Bessel functions [16]
a
ar Jo(rp) =  pJ1(rp),
; :r [rJ1(rp)] = pJo(rp).
it can be shown that
cP1 (r) =1.
00
{ G2(0, p)  G
1
(0, p) }p2J
1
(rp) dp,
cP2(r) =1.
00
{F
1
(0, p)  F
2
(0, p) }p2Jo(rp) dp.
Using inverse Hankel transformation, from (3.13) and (3.14) we find
15
(3.11)
(3.12)
(3.13)
(3.14)
(3.15)
(3.16)
Also by defining
l1
a
<P2(p) =  2(r)rJ
O
(rp) dr.
p 0
from (3.7),(3.8),(3.15) and (3.16) it follows that
G
2
(0,p)  G1(0,p) =<Pl(p),
F1(0,p)  F2(0,p) = <P2(p).
Now, by substituting from (2.38)(2.41) into (3.19) and (3.20) it may be seen that
(3.17)
(3.18)
(3.19)
(3.20)
Thus, from (2.54)(2.57), (3.21) and (3.22), we obtain
or
(3.23)
(3.24)
(3.25)
(3.26)
where the functions b
1
and b2 are defined in Appendix A. Now, by using the stress
displacement relations, (3.5) and (3.6) may be written as
16
(8U 8W) 1 .
lim  +  = P
2
(r).
z;a 8z 8r /La
Then, from (2.15),(2.16),(3.27) and (3.28) it follows that
1
00
( 8G
2
) (K  1)
lim (K +1)8 +(3  K)pF
2
pJa(rp) dp = P1(r),
z;a a Z /La
1
00
(8F
2
) 1
lim 8  pG
2
pJ1(rp) dp = P
2
(r).
z;a a Z /La
(3.27)
(3.28)
(3.29)
(3.30)
Now, by substituting from (2.40) and (2.41) into equations (3.29) and (3.30), after some
manipulations we obtain
(3.31)
(3.32)
where the function dij are given in Appendix A. Referring to (3.17) and (3.18), from
(3.31) and (3.32) we finally obtain the following integral equations for the unknown
functions cPl and cP2 as follows:
(0 :::; r < a), (3.33)
(0 :::; r < a), (3.34)
17
Kn(s,r) =fa00 d
n
(p)J
O
(rp)J
1
(sp) dp,
K12(S,r) =1
00
d
12
(p)Jo(rp)Jo(sp)dp,
K
21
(s,r)  fa00
K
22
(S, r) = 1
00
dp.
(3.35)
(3.36)
(3.37)
(3.38)
To make the asymptotic expansions somewhat more convenient we define d
ij
=
, (i, j = 1, 2). The kernels of the integral equations may then be written as
Kn(s,r) = fa00
K
1
2(S, r) =fa00
K
21
(s,r) = faooc41(p)Jl(rp)Jl(sP)PdP,
K
22
(s,r) =faoo c42(p)J
1
(rp)Jo(sp)pdp.
(3.39)
(3.40)
(3.41)
(3.42)
where (i, j = 1,2), are defined in Appendix B. Now, by using the asymptotic results
given in Appendix B the kernels of the integral equations (3.33) and (3.34) may be
expressed as
Kn(s,r) =
d';; (faoo  1) Jo (rp)J
1
(8p)p dp +faooJo (rp)J
1
(8p)p d
P
) (3.43)
18
(3.44)
(3.45)
Also, defining the functions D
ij
, (i, j =1,2) by (see Appendix B)
,
()
dn (p)
Dn p = d'oo  1,
n
,
()
d12 (p)
D12 P = d'oo ,
n
,
()
d21 (p)
D21 P = d'oo ,
22
()
d ~ 2 (p)
D22 P = d' 00  1,
22
equations (3.33) and (3.34) become
f (!OOOD
ll
{P)J
O
(rp)J
1
(sp)pdp)Sl(S) ds
19
(3.49)
(3.50)
(3.51)
(3.52)
+I."(/.OODI,(p)Jo(rp)Jo(sp)pdp)S</>,(S) ds
+ r ( roo Jo(rp)J
1
(sp)p d
P
) S1 (s) ds = ( ~ + 1) PI (r), (3.53)
io io 2po
I."(/.ooD'I (p )J
I
(rp)J
I
(sp)p d
P
) S</>I (s) ds
+I."(/.ooD,,(p)JI(rp)Jo(sp)pdp)s</>,(s) ds
+ r( roo Jl(rp)JO(SP)Pd
P
)S2(S)dS = _ ( ~ + 1 ) P
2
(r). (3.54)
io io 2po
By examining the singular behaviour of the kernels and by separating the leading tenns,
the integral equations (3.53) and (3.54) may now be expressed as (see Appendix C)
1i
a
(1 1) 11
a
2
  +  </>1(S) ds +  Lk1j (s,r)j(s) ds
1f 0 S r s +r 1f 0 j=1
_ ( ~ + l ) p ( )
 l
r
,
2po
1i
a
(1 1) 11
a
2
    2(S) ds + Lk!j(s, r)j(s) ds
1f 0 S r s +r 1f 0 j=1
= _ ( ~ + 1) P
2
(r),
2po
where
M2(s,r) 1 M2(s,r) 1 1
00
kn(s,r) = + +1fS D
n
(p)J
O
(rp)J
1
(sp)pdp,
sr s+r 0
20
(3.55)
(3.56)
(3.57)
(3.58)
~ l ( s , r ) = 7rS/.00D
21
(p)J
1
(rp)J
1
(sp)p dp,
M4 (s, r)  1 M4 (s, r)  1 1
00
k
22
(s,r) =  +7rS D2
2
(p)J
1
(rp)Jo(sp)pdp;
sr s+r 0
(3.59)
(3.60)
and M
2
(s, r) and M
4
(s, r) are defined in Appendix C. Note that the dominant kernels of
the system of integral equations (3.55) and (3.56) are ofthe generalized Cauchy type [17].
The domain of integration can be extended from (0, a) to (  a, a) by using the following
symmetry properties of functions <Pl (s) and <1>2 (s )
<Pl(S) =  <Pl(  s),
<l>2(S) = <P2(  s).
Thus, by observing that
li
a
(1 1) lja <Pl (s )
 + <l>l(s)ds= ds.
7r 0 s  r s +r 7r a S  r
li
a
(1 1) lja <P2 (s )
    <P2(s)ds =  ds.
7r 0 s  r s + r 7r a S  r
The integral equations (3.55) and (3.56) may be expressed as follows:
(3.61)
(3.62)
(3.63)
(3.64)
O::;r<a (3.65)
21
(3.66)
where the Fredholm kernels kij(s, r), (i, j = 1,2), are given by (3.57)(3.60). In solving
equations such as (3.65) and (3.66), the accuracy is very higly dependent on the correct
evaluation of the kernels kij, (i, j =1,2). For this, it is necessary that the asymptotic
behavior of k
ij
for st r be examined and the weak singularities, if any, be separated.
Referring to Appendix C, the complete elliptic integral of the first kind has the behavior
[18]
4
K(77) = log J 2
177
for 77 t 1. (3.67)
Thus, as str, it was shown in Appendix C that the kernels k
ij
have logarithmic
singularities which may be extracted as follows:
_M_
2
,(s_,r,)__1 = __llogls  rl +m22(s,r),
s  r 2r r
M
4
(s, r)  1 1 1
= 2logls  rl + (2 logy 8r) + m22(s, r),
s  r r r
a (X)
+7rS
2
Jo Jo(rp)Jo(sp)dp,
22
(3.68)
(3.69)
(3.70)
(3.71)
where the integrals of Bessel functions are given in Appendix C which, by virtue of (3.67),
are also seen to have logarithmic singularities and m22 and m44 are known functions
which are bounded in the closed interval 0 ~ (s 1 r) ~ a.
3.2 The Fundamental Function
In equations (3.65) and (3.66), j and k
ij
, (i,j = 1,2), are Hcontinuous functions [19].
Also second terms in equations (3.65) and (3.66) are bounded f u n ~ t i o n s of r. Hence, the
singular behavior of may be obtained by studying only the dominant part of (3.65) and
(3.66), namely
.!. r(s) ds = P(r),
7fJ.c s  r
= (  a, a), r E , (3.72)
where P(r) contains the input function Pj, (j = 1,2), and the terms coming from the part
of the integral equations with Fredholmkernels. Let
ep(z) = ~ r (s) ds.
2m J.c s  z
(3.73)
The boundary values of the sectionally holomorphic function, ep(z), are related by the
following Plemelj formulas [19]:
ep+(r)  ep(r) = (r),
ep+(r) +ep(r) = ~ r(s) ds.
mJ.cs  r
From the equation (3.72)(3.75) it may be seen that
= ( a, a),
23
r E .
(3.74)
(3.75)
(3.76)
The solution of the RiemannHilbert problem vanishing at infinity may easily be expressed
as
X(z) r per)
<l>(z) =  ~ i (s _ r)X+(s) ds +Cn(z)X(z),
(3.77)
where X(z) is the fundamental solution of the problem satisfying the following
homogeneous boundary conditions
X+(r)  X(r) =0,
X+(r) +X(r) = 0,
The solution for X(z), is found to be
(Irl > a),
(Irl < a).
(3.78)
(3.79)
(3.80)
. log e
iTi
1
Ql +~ ( 3 1 = 27T"i = 2'
. log e
iTi
1
Q2 +~ f 3 2 = 27T"i =  2'
(3.81)
where X(z) will be taken as the branch for which ZA\,\ X(z)+l as z+oo. The index of
the problem, 1'" is given by [20]
where A's are integers. For this problem index K, =1. As ztends to infinity,
X(z)+ 1,
(3.82)
(3.83)
meaning that Cn(z) is a constant, C. On the other hand, from equations (3.74) and (3.77)
the solution of the integral equation (3.72) is found to be
24
+ _ + X+(r) f P(s)
(r) = <I> (r)  <I> (r) = 20X (r)  7r if, (s _ r)X+(s) ds,
r E ', (3.84)
where from equations (3.80) and (3.81) for K = 1, the fundamental function of the
singular integral equation is seen to be
1
X(z) = (z2  a
2
)2 .
After the normalization of the problemthe real function may be obtained by
(3.85)
(3.86)
Since the function has integrable singularities at ends, then A1 =  1,'\2 = 0in
equation (3.80). Hence, equation (3.82),(3.84) and (3.86) lead to
K = 1, X(z) = (Z2  It
1
,
25
(3.87)
Chapter 4
Numerical Procedure
The integral equations (3.63) and (3.64) can be solved by using the properties of
Chebyshev polynomials of the first and the second kind, Tn and Un, respectively. In the
previous chapter, the fundamental function X(z) was found as
(4.1)
or
(4.2)
To use Chebyshev polynomials for solving the integral equations (3.63) and (3.64), the
interval of integral from  a to a should be converted to from  1to 1. Let
Then, from ( 3.87)
,....
s = as,
'"
r = ar, and
,....
ap=p. (4.3)
(4.4)
becomes the corresponding weight function and the unknown functions 1 (s) and 2 (S )
may be expressed as follows:
26
A, (") _ F
1
(s)
'fI1 8  V ,,2 '
18
(1 <S < 1),
(1 <S < 1).
(4.5)
(4.6)
The bounded functions F1 (s) and F
2
(s) may be expressed as
00
F1(s) =LAmTm(s)"
m=O
00
F
2
(s) = LBmTm(s),
m=O
(4.7)
(4.8)
where Am and B
m
are unknown coefficients. By using the following conditions of
compatibility
j
1S<P2(S) as = 0,
1
(4.9)
(4.10)
and substituting, for example, the following representation of the density function <P1 (8) in
tenns of Chebychev polynomials
A, ("") = ~ A Tm(s)
'f'1 8 LJ m V ,,2 '
m=O 18
into (4.9), and noting that To(s) = 1, we obtain
27
(4.11)
(4.12)
Since the Chebychev polynomial of the first kind are orthogonal with respect to the weight
function V1 2' we conclude that
18
A
o
= o.
Similarly, substituting
into (4.10), noting that T
1
(s) = S, we obtain
Then, because of the orthogonality we obtain
(4.13)
(4.14)
(4.15)
(4.16)
By using symmetry considerations the bounded functions F
I
(s) and F
2
(s) may be
expanded as
00
F
I
(s) = LA
2n

I
T
2n

1
(s),
n=l
00
F
2
(s) = LB
2n
T
2n
(s).
n=O
28
(4.17)
(4.18)
Now substituting (4.17) and (4.18) into (3.65) and (3.66), truncating the series at Nth
term, the first part of the integral equations, which have the Cauchy type of singularity,
becomes
The integrals in (4.19) and (4.20) are given by [18]
(4.19)
(4.20)
0, j =0,  1 <r < 1,
1 <r < 1,
1<r<1.
(4.21)
For the second part of, for example, the integral equation (3.63), it can be shown that
(4.22)
where
..... k ("' .....) M2(as, ar)  1 M2(as, ar)  1
a 11 as, ar = .......... + ..... '" +
sr s+r
29
Let
Then
"k (" ") M2(a'8, ar)  1 M2(a'8, ar)  1
a 11 as, ar = "" + "" +
sr sr
Simlarly, if we let
it may be seen that
Also, we observe that
111 (" (" ") F
1
('8) "(" ") F
2
('8) ) f::'
=  k21 as,ar J ,,2 + k22 as,ar vi ,,2 as,
7r 0 ls ls
where
30
(4.23)
(4.24)
(4.25)
(4.26)
(4.27)
(4.28)
(4.29)
(4.30)
"'k ('" "') M4(as, aT')  1 M4(as, ciT)  1
a 22 as, ar = '" '"  '" "" +
sr s+r
Thus by letting
D2l ( ~ ) =D21(P),
D" ( ~ ) = D,,(p),
it may be seen that
""k ("" "') M4(as, aT')  1 M4(as, ciT)  1
a 22 as, ar = '" ""  "" "" +
sr s+r
(4.31)
(4.32)
(4.33)
(4.34)
(4.35)
Referring to (3.66) and (3.67), the kernels k
ij
, (i, j = 1,2), have the following asymptotic
behavior:
M
2
(dS,aT') 1 1 I"" "'I 1 ( r;::::::.) ("" "')
"" '" =  2 ",log as  ar  :;:;: 1  logy 8ar +m22 as, ar ,
sr M M
M (
"" "")
4 as, ar  1 1 "" '" 1 '" "" ""
"" '" = 2 ",loglas  arl +:;:;:(2 log)8ar) +m22(as, ar),
sr M M
31
(4.37)
(4.38)
where
ak12 (dB, aT) =7rS1OO (D
12
CP)'P  J
o
(rp)J
o
Csp) dp
+ 1
00
Jo (rp)Jo(sp) dp,
ak21(as, aT) = 7f8/.00 (D
21
(p) P J1(rp) J
1
(sp) dfi
+ 1
00
J1 (rp)J1(sp) dp,
......
a=aa.
(4.39)
(4.40)
Now, by using the equation (4.17) and (4.18), the integral equations may be approximated
by
N N 11 fTl (r.)
1 r. r. r. .L2n1 S
LA2n 1 U2n2 +LA2n 1 :; kll (as, aT) V r.2 dB
n=l n=l 0 1 s
1 tr. (r. r.)T2n 1(S)
U2n 1 + :; Jo k21 as, aT J r.2 uS
n=O n=l 0 1  s
32
(4.41)
(4.42)
Because of the nature of the problem it is necessary to increase the density of the
collocation points near the ends r = =r=l. Thus, these points may be selected as follows
[17]:
Using the definition of Chebyshev polynomial, Tn(t)
Tn(x) =cos(narccos(x)),
and letting
i = 1,2, ... ,N. (4.43)
(4.44)
'8 =cose,
equations (4.31) and (4.32) may be written as
N
LA2n 1
U
2n2(r)
n=l
(0 < e< 7r), (4.45)
NIL!!:
+LA
2n

1
 2 k
ll
(acos&, ar)cos[(2n 1)0] de
n=l 7r 0
N
L
B
2n U2nl(r)
n=l
33
(4.46)
NIL!!:
+2:A2n1  2/;21 (acos 0, ar)cos[(2n  1)0] dO
n=1 7f 0
~ ILL  ( ~ + 1 ) 
+L.JB
2n
 k
22
(acosO,ar)cos(2nO)dO =  2 P
2
(ar)
n=O 7f 0 /Lo
(4.47)
Finally, after evaluating the integrals 0 to i in (4.46) and (4.47), the problem
reduces to a system of algebraic equations of the form
N N
2:
A
2n1
a
inC
r
i) +2:
B
2n
b
inC
r
i) = P1 Cri),
n=1 n=O
N N
2:
A
2n1
C
inC
r
i) + 2:
B
2n
d
inC
r
i) = P2(ri),
n=1 n=O
(i=1,2, ..... ,N),
(i = 1, 2, ..... , N),
(4.48)
(4.49)
where ri, (i =1,2, .... , N) are appropriate collocation points. In order to obtain a 2N by
2N system of linear algebraic equations , the coefficient B
o
should be defined in terms of
B
2i
, (i =1,2,3, ... , N). Thus, by using the following equality:
~ B l
1Tn
(8)T
1
(S) dB = ~ B (( l)n)
L.J 2n .J 2 8 L.J 2n 4n2  1 '
n=O 0 18 n=O
from (4.15) it follows that
N ( l)n
Bo( 1) +2:B2n4n2 1 = 0,
n=l
and
34
(4.50)
(4.51)
(4.52)
Finally, we obtain the following system of linear algebraic equations such that
(i = 1, ... , N), (4.53)
(i = 1, ... , N), (4.54)
(4.55)
(4.56)
(4.57)
(4.58)
The solution of this system of algebraic equations would then give the coefficients A
2n

1
and B
2n
From the derivation of integral equations (3.65) and (3.66), we observe that the
right hand side of these integral equations represent (Jzz (r, 0) and (Jrz (r, 0) for a < r < 00
as well as for 0 ~ r < a. Thus, defining the modes I and II stress intensits factors by [9]
(4.59)
and by using the properties of Chebychev polynomials and (3.65),(3.66) it can be shown
that
35
00
kl =  ~ L A 2 n  1 ,
1
(4.60)
For a homogeneous infinite medium modes I and II crack problems are uncoupled and the
stress intensity factors are given by
(4.61)
(4.62)
36
Chapter 5
The Results
The main results of this study are the stress intensity factors calculated for various
loading conditions as functions of the nonhomogeneity constant ex defined by
fl(Z) = floexp(exZ) , and h/awhich is the basic dimensionless length parameter in the
problem. Table 5.1 shows the six different loading conditions used in the calculation.
Table 5.1: . Loading conditions used and the corresponding stress intensity factors for the
homogeneous infinite medium (ex = 0).
Pi(r)
Po

0 0 0
P2(r) 0 0 0

_ql 3 _
2 4 16
k
1 Pova
37f
P1va P2va
0 0 0
7f 157f
4 16 32
0 0 0
37f qova 157f qlva 357f q2va
This table also shows the corresponding modes I and II stress intensity factors in a
homogeneous medium containing a pennyshaped crack of radius a obtained from (4.61)
and (4.62). Comparing the results given in Table 5.2 and Table 5.3 with the results of
37
axisysmetric crack problem in a nonhomogeneous infinite medium obtained by Ozturk and
Erdogan [13], it may be seen that the stress intensity factors k
1
and ~ obtained from the
two solutions are almost the same for large values of the length parameter hj a.
For the problem under consideration the normalized stress intensity factors
calculated for constant Poisson1s ratio (v =0.3) and different hja values such as
(hja = 10.,2.,1.,0.75,0.50,0.25,0.10) are shown in Tables 5.2  5.17. Note that the
results given in these tables may be used to obtain the stress intensity factors for arbitrary
crack surface tractions by superposition to the extent that the tractions may be
approximated by a second degree polynomials in r.
After determining the coefficients A
2n

1
and B2n shown in (4.53) and (4.54), the
crack opening displacements may be obtained from (3.5) and (3.6) as follows:
a { } ~ + 1 ~ T2n 1(rja)
l(r) = ar w(r, +0)  w(r,  0) = 2po Lt
A2
n1 )1 (rja)2'
( )
I
f ~ + 1 ~ jf T2n1 (sja)
w(s, +0)  w(s,  0) = 2L.."A2n 1 ) _ ( j )2 ds,
a Po 1 a 1 s a
~ + 1 ~ jf/aaT2n_1('8)
w(r, + 0)  w(r,  0) = 2L.."A2n 1 ) .....2 as,
Po 1 1 1  s
by defining a new variable
(5.1)
(5.2)
(5.3)
'8 = cosO, 71" ~ 0 ~ arccos (rja), (5.4)
right side of the equation (5.3) becomes
38
a(K +1) 00 l
arccos
(Tla)
w(r, +0)  w(r,  0) =  2 2:A2n1 cos(2n  1)8 de,
/10 1 7r
then
( 0)
 ( 0) _ a(K+1) 2:
00
A sin{(2n1)arccos(r/a)}
w r, + w r, . 2 2n1 2 1 .
/10 1 n
Note that A
k
has the dimension of stress. By using the relation
U (t) = sin{(n +l)arccos t}
n . sin(arccos t) ,
it can be shown that zcomponent of the normalized crack opening displacement is,
(5.5)
(5.6)
(5.7)
W(r) = w(r, +0)  w(r,  0) = _ .J1 (r/a)2 ~ A 2 n  1 U
2n

2
(r/a) , (5.8)
Wo Y Pi 2n1
where
(K +1)
Wo= 2 api, (i=0,1,2).
/10
Similarly, by using the equation (3.6) we find
1 8 { } (K +1 ) ~ Tn (r/a)
2(r) = 8 ru(r, +0)  ru(r,  0) = ~ B 2 n .J '
r r. 2/10 0 1(r/a)2
( )
T (K +1 ) ~ jT sTn(s/a)
ru(s, +0)  ru(s,  0) = 2 ~ B 2 n vi ds,
. a /Lo 0 a 1  (s/a)2
{ }
a2(K +1) jT/a '8
r u(r, +0)  u(r,  0) = 2 Bo .J "....2 dB
/10 1 1  s
39
(5.9)
(5.10)
(5.11)
a
2
(K +1 ) ~ B jT/a '8T('8) ~
+ LJ 2n ..; 2
a8
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