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Some basic concepts in chemistry




Classification of matter:



Mass:
S.I. Unit kg

Volume:
S.I. Unit m
3


Density:
S.I. Unit kg m
3



Temperature:
Three scales
C (degree Celsius)
F (degree Fahrenheit)
K (Kelvin)

S.I. Unit K

Relation between F and C
9
F C 32
5


Relation between K and C
K = C + 273.15


Significant figures:
Precision is the closeness of various measurements taken for the same quantity.
Accuracy is the agreement of a particular value to the true value of the result.





Rules to determine the number of significant figures:
All non-zero digits are significant.
Zeroes preceding the first non-zero digit are not significant. E.g., 0.045 has two
significant figures.
Zeroes between two non-zero digits are significant. E.g., 14.0054 has six
significant figures.
Zeroes at the end or right of a number are significant when they are on the right
side of the decimal point. E.g., 0.35000 has five significant figures.
Counting numbers of objects have infinite significant figures as these are exact
numbers. For example, 15 books can be represented as 15 = 15.000000


Addition and multiplication of significant figures:
The result must not have more digits to the right of the decimal point than either of the
original numbers.


Multiplication and division of significant figures:
The result must not have more significant figures than that of the original numbers with
the few significant figures.


Laws of chemical combination:

Five laws
Law of conservation of mass Matter can neither be created nor destroyed.
Law of definite proportions A compound always contains exactly the same
proportions of elements by weight.
Law of multiple proportions If two elements can combine to form more than
one compound, then the masses of one element that combine with a fixed mass
of the other element are in small whole number ratios.
Gay Lussacs law of gaseous volumes When gases combine or are produced in
a chemical reaction, they do so in a simple ratio by volume, provided all gases
are at same temperature and pressure.
Avogadro law At the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of all
gases contain equal number of molecules.


Daltons atomic theory:
Matter consists of indivisible atoms.
Atoms of a given element have identical properties including identical mass
while those of different elements have different masses.



Atoms of different elements combine in a fixed ratio to form a compound.
Atoms are neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction.


Atomic Mass
One atomic mass unit is defined as a mass exactly equal to one-twelfth the mass of one
carbon-12 atom.

Molecular Mass
Molecular mass is the sum of atomic masses of the elements present in a molecule.

Formula Mass
Formula mass is the mass of an ionic compound.

Mole:
One mole is the amount of a substance containing as many particles (atoms, ions,
molecules) as there are atoms in exactly 12 g of the
12
C isotope.


Percentage composition:

Mass % of an element =
Mass of that element in the compound
100
Molar mass of the compound



Empirical formula and molecular formula:

Empirical formula of a compound represents the simplest whole number ratio of
various atoms present in its molecule.
Molecular formula of a compound represents the exact number of different
types of atoms present in its molecule.


Limiting reagent (Limiting reactant):

Limiting reagent is the reactant present in the lesser amount, which gets consumed after
sometime. After that, no reaction takes place further, whatever is the amount of the
other reactant present.


Expression for concentration of a solution:

Mass per cent (w/w %)
Mass of solute
100%
Mass of solution





Mole fraction of A
No. of moles of A
No. of moles of solution

A
A B
n
n n


[Here, A and B are the components of the solution]

Molarity (M)
No. of moles of solute
Volume of solution in litres


Molality (m)
No. of moles of solute
Mass of solvent in kg