
.

10
m
3
MPa day

\

.


0.305m
3
( )
1ft
3
5.614ft
3
1RB
14.7psi
0.1MPa
= 1171psi
Grading: 5 points correct PI
5 points units conversion
c. (5 points) Give the flowing well pressure in psi if the average pressure is 4500 psia.
Solution: From the definition
AP P P
wf
P
wf
= P AP = 4500psia 1171psia = 3329psi
Grading: 5 points
d. (5 points) Give the sand face pressure
p(r
w
, t) in psia if the pressure drop across the
skin is 100 psi.
Solution: From the definition of pressure drop across the skin
P r
w
, t
( )
= P
wf
+ AP
skin
= 3329psi +100psi = 3429psia
Grading: 5 points
2. Gas Material Balance. The figure below shows the depletion (F vs.
E
g
) of two
reservoirs A and B undergoing primary recovery. The fluid is a dry gas.
a. (5 points) Which of the two has a water drive?
Solution: Reservoir A has a water drive since this data does not plot as a straight line.
reservoir B is volumetric.
Grading: 5 points
b. (10 points) For the reservoir undergoing volumetric depletion, estimate the original
gas in place.
Solution: The original gas in place is the slope of the straight line. For reservoir B
G =
F
E
g
=
20 10
6
RB
0.3
RB
Mcf
= 67.7 10
6
Mscf = 67.6Bcf
Grading: 5 points units
5 points answer
c. (15 points) Estimate the average reservoir pressure at F=20 MMRB is the gas is ideal.
The initial pressure is 4000 psi and the reservoir temperature is 180 F.
Solution: From the definition of the gas expansion factor
E
g
= B
g
B
gi
E
g
= z
P
s
P
T
T
s
z
P
s
P
i
T
T
s
For an ideal gas
E
g
=
P
s
P
T
T
s
P
s
P
i
T
T
s
Let us solve this for the average pressure
P
s
P
T
T
s
= E
g
+
P
s
P
i
T
T
s
P
s
T
T
s
= P E
g
+
P
s
P
i
T
T
s

\

.

P =
P
s
T
T
s
E
g
+
P
s
P
i
T
T
s

\

.

and then inserting the vaues
E
g
= 0.3
RB
Mcf
5.614ft
3
1RB
1Mcf
10
3
ft
3
= 0.00168
then
P =
P
s
T
T
s
E
g
+
P
s
P
i
T
T
s

\

.

=
14.7psia
( )
180 + 460
( )
F
60 + 460
( )
F

\

.

0.00168 +
14.7psia
( )
4000psia
( )
180 + 460
( )
F
60 + 460
( )
F

\

.


\

.


= 2915psia
Grading: 5 points definition of expansion factor
5 points ideal gas/ formation volume factor
5 points calculation
3. Microscopic Balance.
a. (5 points) Write the microscopic continuity equation (material balance) for 1
dimensional flow of a singlephase fluid in a medium whose crosssectional area
A x
( )
changes with position x. You need not derive it, just write it down.
Solution: We gave this in class. It is
1
o
cP
ct
+
1
A x
( )
c
cx
A x
( )
cP
cx

\

.

= 0
Grading: 5 points
b. (15 points) Solve the equation in part a for steadystate flow if the pressure at x=L is
P
o
and the pressure at the well x=0 is
P
wf
. Take
A x
( )
=
A
o
x
where
A
o
and
are
positive constants. You may neglect the pressure drop across the skin.
Solution: For steady state flow the time derivative is zero
d
dx
A
o
x
dP
dx

\

.

= 0
Integrating
d
dx
A
o
x
dP
dx

\

.

= 0
1
x
dP
dx

\

.

= C
1
dP = C
1
x
dx
P = C
1
x
+1
+1
+ C
2
Now to evaluate the boundary conditions
P 0
( )
= C
1
0
+1
+1
+ C
2
= P
wf
= C
2
P L
( )
= C
1
L
+1
+1
+ C
2
= C
1
L
+1
+1
+ P
wf
= P
o
C
1
=
+1
L
+1
P
o
P
wf
( )
The final answer is
P =
+1
L
+1
P
o
P
wf
( )
x
+1
+1
+ P
wf
P x
( )
= P
o
P
wf
( )
x
L

\

.

+1
+ P
wf
Grading: 5 points steady state flow
10 points solution
4. Flow Regimes. In this problems reservoirs A, B, and C are on semisteady state,
steady state and infinite acting flow, respectively.
a. (15 points) On the figure below sketch
P r, t
( )
for radial flow.
Solution:
Grading: 5 points pressure equal to Pi for C
5 points pressure derivative equal to zero for A
5 points pressure equal to Pi for B
b. (20 points) On the figure below sketch
P x, t
( )
for linear flow.
Solution:
Grading: 5 points pressure equal to Pi for C
5 points pressure derivative equal to zero for A
5 points pressure equal to Pi for B
5 points straight line for B
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