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PGE 323k

Fundamentals of Primary Hydrocarbon Recovery


Exam 2 Key

Open book, notes. Read each problem carefully and show all notes. 1-1/2 hour time
limit. No laptops or cell phones allowed. Put your sections unique number on the front
of the exam: 19455 for morning section and 19460 for afternoon section.

1. Productivity Indices. The figure below shows the variation of the productivity index
(PI) of a vertical well flowing at a constant rate from the center of a cylindrical drainage
volume. The units on the PI are m
3
/MPa-day.



a. (10 points) Indicate on the plot the end of transient (infinite-acting) and the start of
stabilized flow.

Solution: See plot.

Grading:
5 points start of stabilized flow when PI is constant
5 points end of transient before start of stabilized flow (cant tell exactly)

b. (10 points) Give the drawdown pressure in psi during the stabilized flow period if the
well is producing at 500 RB/day.

Solution: This is as much as anything a units conversion problem. From definition of PI



AP =
q
J
= 10
m
3
MPa day


AP =
q
J
=
500
RB
day
|
\

|
.
|
10
m
3
MPa day
|
\

|
.
|
|
0.305m
3
( )
1ft
3
5.614ft
3
1RB
14.7psi
0.1MPa

= 1171psi


Grading: 5 points correct PI
5 points units conversion




c. (5 points) Give the flowing well pressure in psi if the average pressure is 4500 psia.

Solution: From the definition


AP P P
wf



P
wf
= P AP = 4500psia 1171psia = 3329psi

Grading: 5 points

d. (5 points) Give the sand face pressure

p(r
w
, t) in psia if the pressure drop across the
skin is 100 psi.

Solution: From the definition of pressure drop across the skin


P r
w
, t
( )
= P
wf
+ AP
skin
= 3329psi +100psi = 3429psia

Grading: 5 points

2. Gas Material Balance. The figure below shows the depletion (F vs.

E
g
) of two
reservoirs A and B undergoing primary recovery. The fluid is a dry gas.




a. (5 points) Which of the two has a water drive?

Solution: Reservoir A has a water drive since this data does not plot as a straight line.
reservoir B is volumetric.

Grading: 5 points

b. (10 points) For the reservoir undergoing volumetric depletion, estimate the original
gas in place.

Solution: The original gas in place is the slope of the straight line. For reservoir B


G =
F
E
g
=
20 10
6
RB
0.3
RB
Mcf
= 67.7 10
6
Mscf = 67.6Bcf

Grading: 5 points units
5 points answer

c. (15 points) Estimate the average reservoir pressure at F=20 MMRB is the gas is ideal.
The initial pressure is 4000 psi and the reservoir temperature is 180 F.

Solution: From the definition of the gas expansion factor


E
g
= B
g
B
gi
E
g
= z
P
s
P
T
T
s
z
P
s
P
i
T
T
s


For an ideal gas


E
g
=
P
s
P
T
T
s

P
s
P
i
T
T
s


Let us solve this for the average pressure


P
s
P
T
T
s
= E
g
+
P
s
P
i
T
T
s
P
s
T
T
s
= P E
g
+
P
s
P
i
T
T
s
|
\

|
.
|
P =
P
s
T
T
s
E
g
+
P
s
P
i
T
T
s
|
\

|
.
|

and then inserting the vaues


E
g
= 0.3
RB
Mcf
5.614ft
3
1RB
1Mcf
10
3
ft
3

= 0.00168

then


P =
P
s
T
T
s
E
g
+
P
s
P
i
T
T
s
|
\

|
.
|
=
14.7psia
( )
180 + 460
( )
F
60 + 460
( )
F
|
\

|
.
|
0.00168 +
14.7psia
( )
4000psia
( )
180 + 460
( )
F
60 + 460
( )
F
|
\

|
.
|
|
\

|
.
|
|
= 2915psia



Grading: 5 points definition of expansion factor
5 points ideal gas/ formation volume factor
5 points calculation


3. Microscopic Balance.

a. (5 points) Write the microscopic continuity equation (material balance) for 1-
dimensional flow of a single-phase fluid in a medium whose cross-sectional area

A x
( )

changes with position x. You need not derive it, just write it down.

Solution: We gave this in class. It is


1
o
cP
ct
+
1
A x
( )
c
cx
A x
( )
cP
cx
|
\

|
.
|
= 0

Grading: 5 points

b. (15 points) Solve the equation in part a for steady-state flow if the pressure at x=L is

P
o
and the pressure at the well x=0 is

P
wf
. Take

A x
( )
=
A
o
x

where

A
o
and

are
positive constants. You may neglect the pressure drop across the skin.


Solution: For steady state flow the time derivative is zero


d
dx
A
o
x

dP
dx
|
\

|
.
|
= 0

Integrating

d
dx
A
o
x

dP
dx
|
\

|
.
|
= 0
1
x

dP
dx
|
\

|
.
|
= C
1
dP = C
1
x

dx
P = C
1
x
+1
+1
+ C
2


Now to evaluate the boundary conditions


P 0
( )
= C
1
0
+1
+1
+ C
2
= P
wf
= C
2



P L
( )
= C
1
L
+1
+1
+ C
2
= C
1
L
+1
+1
+ P
wf
= P
o
C
1
=
+1
L
+1
P
o
P
wf
( )

The final answer is


P =
+1
L
+1
P
o
P
wf
( )
x
+1
+1
+ P
wf


P x
( )
= P
o
P
wf
( )
x
L
|
\

|
.
|
+1
+ P
wf



Grading: 5 points steady state flow
10 points solution


4. Flow Regimes. In this problems reservoirs A, B, and C are on semi-steady state,
steady state and infinite acting flow, respectively.

a. (15 points) On the figure below sketch

P r, t
( )
for radial flow.



Solution:


Grading: 5 points pressure equal to Pi for C
5 points pressure derivative equal to zero for A
5 points pressure equal to Pi for B

b. (20 points) On the figure below sketch

P x, t
( )
for linear flow.



Solution:


Grading: 5 points pressure equal to Pi for C
5 points pressure derivative equal to zero for A
5 points pressure equal to Pi for B
5 points straight line for B