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Museum Manners: The Sensory Life of the Early Museum Author(s): Constance Classen Source: Journal of Social History

, Vol. 40, No. 4 (Summer, 2007), pp. 895-914 Published by: Oxford University Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25096398 . Accessed: 06/08/2013 19:55
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MUSEUM MANNERS: THE SENSORY LIFE OF THE EARLY MUSEUM
By Constance Classen Concordia University

In The BoyWho Breathed on the Glass in theBritish Museum H.M. Bateman de a is the of who arrested for story picts breathing on one of the display cases boy in the BritishMuseum.1 While purely fictional, this picture book highlights the
popular notion of the museum even are as inviolable have might the traditional (A and preservation porary museums with where a breath a site of pristine untouchable, contem effects. Many damaging 'hands off ethos of the museum example is the 'Touch Me'

exhibit at theVictoria & Albert Museum
govern ever,

innovative,

challenging interactive exhibitions.

recent

to the rule of sensory to is generally still exceptions restraint which expected visitors. Artefacts the behavior of museum for the most part are only to not tasted. How be seen, not felt, smelt, sounded and certainly intrinsic, how museums is this rule of sensory restraint were behave? What their of earlier to the museum? sensory How did and visitors to the first expectations experiences?3 and

inLondon.)2 Yet such exhibitions are

One of themost difficult subjects foran historian to investigate is that of the
corporeal they

ing,while
are

practices little

laden with social significance, are often so taken for granted that
commented on by their practitioners. It takes a very thorough

eras. Ways

of walking,

eating,

smelling

touch

observer to record the ordinary bodily motions of daily life. Often it is in the descriptions of travellers,who find local customs foreign and thereforeworthy
of note, past England practice that one we was comes times. Thus learn from a Frenchman's that customs of the corporeal of descriptions account of his eighteenth-century visit to in the House at that time the customary of Commons to stand "with their legs one knee somewhat straddling, the best as if they were reminiscences to fence."4 Another going of individuals who have pass away and of the long-lived potential lived long therefore make across

for orators

bent, and one arm extended, source of information is the

seen the customs to have enough note of them as curiosities. From

Mary Berry, we on tiptoe for example, learn that Horace to the walked Walpole according custom of elegant source Another of informa gentlemen. eighteenth-century

of their youth the recollections

mined byNorbert Elias inThe Civilizing Process, tion, and one which was richly is the etiquette guide. Such guides reveal both contemporary ideals of proper
among which the classes were deemed to which to require are addressed common and certain they correction. For example, the frequency

behavior practices

with which readers ofmedieval instructions are advised to clean theirhands be fore dipping them into the communal pot indicates that people frequently ate with unwashed hands.5 Justas it isoften difficult to know what people of past eras did with their bod ies, it isdifficult to know what theydid with the things around them.One can
not assume that the function

mere fact tells us nothing about chair is evidently designed for sittingon but this

of an object

is evident

in its design.

For

example,

a

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The central site for this investigation is theAshmolean Museum ofOxford.8 This approach can fruitfully to include the sensory lifeof things. may for her to tell example. practices corporeal and eighteenth that do crop up in seventeenth by. finding the hair of a stuffedreindeer "almost as stifas horse-hair" while that of a Turkish goat is "as softas silk. founded in 1683. 6 Aug 2013 19:55:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . in order to uncover objects to to the end of the eighteenth century. Simply looking to the empty one would chair be when able by looking at a dinner table fromour own era that. no con The sensory practices. he gave them a fine gold Meddals given to on bygone is often hard information noted. This to another) Conrad we learn that at least certain exhibits who in the museum were is confirmed by a 1710 account of a visit to theAshmolean von Uffenbach.204. leaves birds beasts and flowers."13 Part of the attraction of museums and of the cabinets of curiosities which This content downloaded from 209. While dominant particularly in the interested sensory experiences in examining what of visitors visual perception often played a collections.or theways inwhich objects are experienced clothing. a German traveller. and imbued with tained in museums. such as furniture or for dining. tion of visitors role and curators with collections from the mid-sixteenth to such hundreds I am be extended the constitution of the social world. Yet from the references were not ex accounts it is evident that early museums of museum visits. century with were two fine great Chaines of the same. institutional any case?as I have As come collections one finds and similar public visitor collections?a behaviour distinction problematic in all these sites. may removed a social and sensory history which be frozen in time and space. in future and even father was used absent.10 For the purpose of this study I have not distinguished between private collections frequented by the public.105 on Tue. there are several Loadstones and it is pretty to see how stands it on top att some distance the needles the steele clings or follows it. Fiennes of a visit to theAshmolean Museum inOxford around 1694: to it being a cav that was a great benefactor [T]here is a picture of a Gentleman sorts of figures is with all wood all carved of his the frame very finely alier. in that chair. one was all curious hollow worke which to him by some prince beyond sea. Yet they too have here the interac merits It iswith that I investigate this aim in mind exploration. itwas customarily employed as a place for storage how and work. there is solid heavy thing but if you take it in your hands a dwarfe shoe and boote.76.11 in Take. there is a Cane which looks like a its as light as a feather. cannot tell us that a dutiful daughter in the eighteen-hundreds might curtsy father seated Similarly.7 matter centuries. hold towards it as it rises and falls.9 meaning objects through diverse seem to as they are from ordinary social use. picture or silver gilt. quite upright hold it on either side itmoves From this run-on description (which mimics the experience of rushing fromone exhibit Zacharias hands on.896 the have social and performed to her journal of social history summer 2007 people chair. comments on certain by tactile properties of the exhibits. for example the following description byCelia clusively hands-off affairs.6 or about acts of chairs function the other symbolic a nineteenth-century at with them. This site is supplemented by other museums and collections in seventeenth and eighteenth century England. rather than being primarily Scholars of material culture are increasingly investigating the social life of things. may have done else museum-goers besides look.

. Anna Jameson.16 Although this particular essay. They and for acquiring and conveying an air of cultural a cool on a hot day or a may authority. The popular corporeal practices of earlier eras as simply the result of a lack of discipline and education words. Fiennes. does with it is the focus of solely concern not and eighteenth actvities. as today. the practice Jameson's was remark the had indicates eliciting of eating with one's hands of centuries earlier."17 Fiennes John's offers the "great Curiosity much spo full-bodied approach to sight-seeing is especially notable during her visit toOx ford'sPhysic Garden. indeed.. argued hands. misleading. Corpus Christi Colege isnoted for its "very good bread and beare" Trinity College Chapel isdistinguished by its wainscotting in a "fine sweet wood . With Elias same begun that by the mid-nineteenth-century custom that the time-honoured disapproval to incur among the upper one's classes a couple senses be seen as might ac of sight.204. ment ken of": a portrait ofCharles is all written hand like cedar. added Paintings precisely people something at which to look as theywalked. However. museum com for example. in private houses involved the first galleries employed were to these galleries to give in order for walking. or "bad manners". which in some ways formed the botanical counterpart to the Ashmolean with its collection of rare and curious plants: This content downloaded from 209. were with other integrated of the museum exhibits centuries.105 on Tue. While modern often decry the amount of walking quiet gallery-goers were in seeing a museum. in fact. Celia bined her visit to theAshmolean with a tour of theOxford Colleges.MUSEUM MANNERS physical character encounter with rare and may curious have objects." and and St I inwhich "the whole lines of face hand and gar contains the whole Common prayer. as not was that fitted to them customs such as eating with regard to premodern it is that insufficent and. These "as something ingful and necessary how early museums. suggestively even strutted about the ornaments?and the days when "touching gallery-goers museum once a common the pictures!"14 While pieces was apparently touching phenomenon. the sensory history the interactions of visitors and curators visits in the seventeenth Furthermore. such as in the case of the cane at the Ashmolean described by Fi ennes "which looks like a solid heavy thing but ifyou take it in your hands its as light as a feather. resided In certain cases 897 the curious preceded them. She found Magdalen College remarkable for its "very fine gravel walk [on which] two or 3 may walke abreast". .. practices the needs of these people and that seemed mean in exactly to In terms of the visitors this form." that In these cases the non-visual providing counts indicate a necessary adjunct even artefacts to the sense piece in a quality imperceptible to paintings?might qualities?including wrote in 1840 that everyone could remember critic.76. seemed to be their ability to offervisitors an intimate of a museum the eye. 6 Aug 2013 19:55:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . contemporary with no apparently distinctive non-visual art be touched by visitors."15 artefacts but be un something context of their derstood which interactions with their multisensory might or "childish" a matter of "bad" behaviour simply and necessary to them within the cultural time? Museums the evident meaningful and have served a number of purposes other than galleries always to appreciate visitors of enabling their collections of art and are a site for social interaction artefacts. They provide place one retreat. Norbert to characterize the must in Elias 's rather be explored..

Contemporary notions of civility evidently included being allowed to handle museum carried enough weight that. to others. hence. There tigations piece senses within of the necessity of subduing one's collection overall settings. Physick Garden one a week.105 on Tue. it pieces the first museums to the public had their origins in private collections. manual may Let us look then at theways inwhich the sensesmight be engaged in the early sense of touch. Wormwood From Fiennes' inves of these sites we can see that her museological descriptions a is no suggestion with her observations of elsewhere. curators were often not assidu and eighteenth-century seventeenthhowever. for example.. a narrow the flavour is strong of sage long leafe full of ribbs. which Iwas some to do. In actual and display for the preservation tuted a safe place fact. ... 6 Aug 2013 19:55:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . vation.. lest anything be lost by that means.."20 The underkeeper further notes that while the lady was requirements museum consti in the mind of donors?the In the public's mind?and of rare objects. it could be expected that of the customs of the latter would were was guided be continued through in the former.. a curator. she had handled as in the Cabinet the Curiosities and examin'd the Museum long as she pleas'd. the few remarakable and plants would have entertained things I took . even small items stored away in drawers. Itwas noted of theAshmolean in 1753. that she might inspect them more a pieces. the curator did grant the ladyher wish and allowed her "to have some of them in her hand. that This content downloaded from 209.76.. just the part of the in an account open many visitors visitors as guests might be guided through a private collection by a host. was (and is) customary forcollectors to handle their private collection.. which she perceiving unwilling she told me that Iwas not quite so civil as might be. there is also the Humble after some tyme opens abroad again plant that grows on a long slender stalke and do but strike it. and and thumb and squeeze . in this case. in your mouth to the taste. access and with one the wonders how early cura of conser narrowly. the Sensible notice off was take but a leafe between [Mimosa].898 The journal of social history summer 2007 afforded great diversion the variety of flowers and pleasure. one key trait customarily As regards the is that of possession. by to early museums the collection For example. This describes a museum to take the Glass from off several of the Drawers. Handling tors balanced practices of the day. it falls flatt on the ground stalke and all. is often associated with for tactile the demands damage. Alllowing to touch who the artefacts the role curator. The appeal to civility inspecting the objects in the drawer he was kept busy handing "Curiosities" to gentleman visitor.. finger plant it and it immediately curies up together as ifpained. visitor's the from 1760 in which insistence She desired me what played on manual the underkeeper of the Ashmolean access: on an expected mark of courtesy comes out clearly of the host. and after some tyme revives againe and stands up . there is theWormwood . As associated one owns. that the last time she had seen .204.. The a site has to offer and is of a lively exploration of whatever impression particular were the more interactive museum. is free to touch what One license as a sign of favour. even according to the primitive ous conservers conservation of their collections. this privilege further extend and to allow favoured guests the same privilege. In the case with One of a that happens to be the better.

Von Uffen bach wrote thathe "should much have liked to scrape offa little" of this famous stone with his knife but "dared not. ciate Museum goers the collection was frequently and properly lamented not time constraints having would enough certainly time to appre are have limited that the amount touching one of tactile In his tour of English museums and collections. where historical of St.204." In 1780 a report proclaimed that: "Nothing can equal the negligence with which theAshmolean Museum was kept.27 kept?coronation This content downloaded from 209. In order to minimize required objects that only one safeguarded in glass group in early museums fragile objects cases. It is impossible to know exactly how much early collections were handled by visitors. the underkeeper's lost by that means". seventeenth Breakage century collector Cardinal Mazerin attempted to keep his collection intactwith out making it untouchable by delicately reminding guests that "these pieces break if they fall. collections that theyhad no reservations regarding the interaction of visitorswith exhibits. and even have concern. so commonplace. not. Though incidents with the gem in this case was such as this would have returned put a quick to the museum. That place was the Chapel Abbey.25 regulations allowed visitors to handle artefacts Apparently was considered ficient importance that itoutweighed the risks to the integrityto the collection which it entailed. ac the eighteenth-century who was Ashmolean underkeeper a visitor manual to allow access to the con uncivil for hesitating was not motivated might "be report of the incident was written to explain the loss of an (unidentified) gem suspected she had Things was pocketed by the eager Iwent visitor.105 on Tue."21 an often irreverent attitude towards the objects under Despite were not so unconcerned curators the preservation of their about was a major concern for collection keepers."26A hint ofmodern museum policy is suggested here. and even worse 899 if possi ble by the conduct of some Keepers and their understrappers. Theft constituted another be admitted at a time would major the risk of theft the first statutes of the Ash of visitors and that molean the doors be closed behind them. cused of being tents of a cabinet a fear that which he in turn. 6 Aug 2013 19:55:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .23The displacement of (more or less) carefully arranged Significantly. for one is liable to punishment for even sitting on one of these chairs. annoyance by visitors. one might museum in which something a concern over but by by potential damage In fact. commonplace the indications However. Von Uffenbach makes note of place where his various sense of touch was restricted rather artefacts than were those where itwas engagement possible.MUSEUM MANNERS the founding collection was "much the worse for wear. After many left the Museum had been displaced immediately by her.76. end tactile to hands-on access think that tours. was a constant for curators. The great their care. as to escape customarily mention. except that the restrictions apparently did not go so far as to forbid all formsof touch for Von Uffenbach records the heaviness of a sword kept in the same chapel."22Undoubtedly museum visitors would have required many reminders usually of this been sort as well. but could to adjust the Drawers not find the Gem. Yet of suf as late as 1827 theAshmolean the curator's permission. Edward the Confessor and legendary in Westminster chairs and "the famous stone of the Patriarch Jacob" among others.

)30 out of hand's reach. Uffenbach such was the statue ofHenry VII which impressedmany of London. "29 (This was who visited apparently the Tower the later that you can evidently. everything as well... a was did. throughwhich strangerscan view the things. played of a sculpture."He adds. however. 6 Aug 2013 19:55:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . describes putting his hands through the grate and picking up the caged animals Even jewels. yetwhich was taken out of itscase for the benefit of visitors."32 to the Tower Other perfect safety.900 Exhibits hanging in museums on walls or journal of social history and collections on which were placed out likely tables?were summer 2007 in the open? to be touched? but even exhibits indrawers and cases might be taken out and handled. recorded collection that all "Then. Smaller objects might be handled in order to enable them to be When visitingHans Sloane's better seen?turned around or held up to the light.but Iwill say no more_"33 to below. William of other visitors Hutton. the described have been related may figure's codpiece..204.The jewels were now displayed behind a "trelliswork of strong iron . surprising" sense in most collection of touch role evident the the by Generally. "seeing" "seeing" they sense or to to mean to encounter in a general "to see" could be used In a description various of and could well include sensory modalities. The lions kept touch them with a satisfactory viewing in the Tower's famous were there. One eighteenth-century notes: "If you press the place where it has been soldered.28The mere fact of an artefact being placed under glass hence did not necessarily museums as now.."31 For Von involved handling. could be complemented by a tactile impression of its smoothness. A the floor with visiting you will Frenchman see something coyly sur objects were enlivened by me visitors a spot on The "something prising with regard to this figure."34 Touch had settings was that of supplementing vision. so that opinion the crown were tame others. not in the century.. Certain objects displayed inmuseums and collections were interactive by nature.105 on Tue. A visual impression of the smoothness certainty. but it shows no sign of chanical devices.76. collection inLondon Von Uffenbach describes holding a shell up to the light so that he could see "the concham lyingconcealed within it. perceive can to it be assumed visitors Nor that when signify untouchability. indeed. Von Uf fenbach describes "a calculus as big as a hen's egg" in the collection of St John's College which was considered precious enough tomerit "a carefully designed gold casket with a crystal lid". that it is still possible "to get one's hand through and pick up the articles to feel theirweight. for example. menagerie said to be "so and for can still be seen tolerably.which can be unscrewed and inwhich is painted a golden hourglass" and a block of wood with a movable brass ring displayed in the collection of theAnatomy School inOxford: "not only can itbe turned completely round. Examples of this noted by Von Uffenbach were the sword kept in the Bodleian Library collection which had "a large knob of crystal. your feet. arranged particularly a visit to theTower of London in 1710 Von Uffenbach notes that an attempted robberyhad resulted in the crown jewels kept there being less accessible to vis itors. drou pointed out inhis history of earlymodern France: an advantage over sight in that itwas understood to be the sense of This content downloaded from 209. an association symbolically grounded in the biblical tale of Thomas. As Robert Man who needed to touch the risenChrist to believe inhis reality.

it.40 In the case of humans sensory able might elicited representations stone?a hard ever. Attempting composition. widely as ample.41 and of At that contradiction to actually that never the same time itallowed people to vicariously handle what theywould rarely."31 The sense of touch not only verfied sight. strength required was a ascertain not matter the weight of something by lifting it.with their life-like forms. It verified giving solidity to the impressions provided by the other senses. often lifted objects to Pepys went to see two oversized children on display at Charing Cross in 1667 he "tried toweigh them in [his] arms.43 collector in Rome. themost remarkable item in the Bodleian collection according toVon Uffenbach was a framed image of a lizard inwhite marble set in a black mar ble.When describing the collection in theTower of London Von Uffenbach stressed the importance of being able to pick up the crown jewels and feel theirweight."39 The weight of an object might be taken as an indication of thematerial of its or of the to wield to of its value. there were stillmany who considered touch "to have the best and final access to theworld that sense reveals.76. the seventeenth it is likely thatmany statues were handled thisway in eighteenth This content downloaded from 209. just of data gathering. in the ancient myth of Pygmalion One was reputed and prominent seventeenth-century to embrace and kiss the centuries. 6 Aug 2013 19:55:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . might also elicit a sensuous desire for tactile intimacy. sculp a tactile a French As courtier response.204. were not as reliable.as depicted.MUSEUM MANNERS Until senses. touch remained one of the master and confirmed what sight could only bring to one's notice. such as might otherwise and with better accuracy have been exhibits While enabled visitors to acquire an embodied be understanding of the nature of only inanimate showpieces subjected to this treatment. if touch?emperors goddesses lions. forexample. at people began looking sculptures by the sense of touch gave notice that the looked lost and so real were its power in fact made to fascinate. for example. but of bodily knowledge. He wrote that although this looked like a work of nature the eye might be deceived by skilful artifice. It checked in the eye-minded when vision was lauded 901 Even the basis of all intellectual cognition. provided reliable evidence of the natural origin of the image: "a blind man even though he could not see could yet feel that this is a natural vein (palpando experiri potest). statues in his Hippolito Far collection. Visitors to collections. When Samuel accomplished with scales.105 on Tue.42 frombeing exceptional.38 Nor were to the eye. however. tainly sculptures. Cer and Galatea. have been century. In 1646 John Evelyn recorded liftingan antler in a Swiss collection to test itsweight ("one branch of them was as much as I could well lift")."36 Such assertions are borne eighteenth-century. the eighteenth century at least. For ex ascertain theirweight. it also provided informationnot accessible out by the use of touch by visitors to early museums. Vitellesco. When visiting theAshmolean Fiennes tested theweight of a cane. which perception. in a museum anything seems to have in particular in the mid-seventeenth noted ture touching them. of sculpture and animals the subject of a visitor's touch. however.Touch. A hands-on approach to the display.

The their "fibrousand tough" quality of the paper. 'Maybe chance has preserved or Roman who so many centuries part of the dust from the fine eyes of a Greek lady. I as her great feeling pressed the grain of dust between my fingers tenderly.. with ashes of an urn on which a female figure was being mourned.. nounced critics The found such journal of social history tactile art interaction theorist and with sculpture too Vicenzio summer 2007 eenth-century Friedrich Schiller claimed that the use of touch foraesthetic ap preciation was a mark sixteenth-century the practice of touching kissing sen coarsely for de example. sculptures occur with a wide of this comes from an best description range of artefacts. or some part of it." (He This content downloaded from 209.76. to Ro utensils from Herculaneum belonging . Borghini. was in fact.902 Some suous."48 was most of sculpture tronsprobably did not attempt to justifytheir caresses of sculptures by reference to philosophies of aesthetics."47 In the late eighteenth century Goethe poet icily declared that by caressing flesh one comes to understand the tactile The notably upheld by theGerman philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder.. feel with for the aesthetic appreciation a seeing hand. as statues In the eight vulgar. their practices could nonetheless be encompassed by contemporary that motivated the patriarch ily thwarted theories of art. best friend might once have grasped her hand what household an intimate seen senses to attain them. Benedetto Varchi suggested that touch alone could appreciate the artifice involved in a sculpted work.. which refinement.105 on Tue.45 Others.. Jacob" owners by collection of items not deemed as While and to be this desire it was no doubt was customar that items curators. as when Von Uffenbach wished to scrape off a little of "the famous stone of in Westminster. man matrons these remains some amongst thinking meanwhile. considered sculpture to be the highest formof art precisely because it sense to to the of the touch afforded touch..)52 If they could not actually possess the objects on exhibit.44 held that sculptures might best be comprehended by the hands. ' ."51 When Von Uffenbach noted vis the Person ited the collection of historical records in Wakefield Tower inLondon he asked received use how account theGerman traveller Sophie de laRoche wrote of her 1786 visit to the BritishMuseum (established in 1753): With near Capua. original museum of redundant that the Keeper presents might make of extraordinary quality. also the case or fragments to visitors away items for and "to some Ashmolean decreed be given valuable might particularly or tokens statutes souvenirs The of the of esteem. just .49 While most museum pa The most damaging form of touch manifested by visitors to collections was by the desire to possess the object on display. Herder.204. There are mirrors too. with one of these mirrors inmy hand I looked amongst the urns.. a more of sculpture: of touch importance value to "see with a feeling eye.. . visitors did often a torn piece of a letter "of particular antiquity.. Nor could I restrain my desire to touch the ago surveyed herself in this mirror I felt it gently.. however. According perceptible philosopher. We with have engagement a desire also for tactile often elicited the same might intimacy. Lorenzo Ghiberti not com the eye would have of savagery. mented discovered.50 profound appreciation of beauty than sight. had not the hand sought it out. a Carthaginian sensations one handles helmet excavated .46 Referring to a famous ancient statue was known as that "there the greatest the Hermaphrodite. 6 Aug 2013 19:55:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

Of would course. was due not only and to the ex unicorns' ordering a world of natural and artificial objects. when and a collection contained visitors ancient seventeentheighteenth-century besides Certainly Von many La Roche must have felt a thrillat holding in theirhands what long-ago and far away people had held in theirhands. A number of the objects displayed in early museums and collections had religious. for example.54 Even in to many to be imbued with sacred or magical qualities. or of which had been touched something by a monarch. Even full of pins which ifno wonder-working were to visitors as given away fertility charms. royal or mythological associations and seemed quiring prestige. vital energy the During picted "a with the touch could was the belief lived on seventeenth that a sign of reverence and as a mode of receiving an influx of sacrality. reflectingupon it that I did kiss a Queen and that thiswas my birthday. monarchs is de collection intended have stuck be understood a cultural Bess's Queen chin. the velvet century moment meaningful The quasi-magical traordinary horns?but with royaltyexercised a powerful attraction forcollection visitors. intimate social emotional sensory connections contact. many social account. have to take romantic sensibilitywould have been foreign to themore Yet. The seventeenth-century Tradescant col objects they contained?royal to their role as microcosms. other with touch peoples one's own so many of the exhibits were from than long ago and did more create and and which had passed through a succession of distinguished hands in the past. he was allowed to touch the corpse Pepys toured ofQueen Katherine. with however. satire must transformative poem the impressing ruff that touched within as visitors to his or persons be sources of could objects extraordinary in popular in some cases in official practice. which was kept in a chest.105 on Tue. also Egyptian mummies. hands artefacts It was physical a way of ac artworks part to the cult of themuseum object could be found in the cult of the religious relic."58 Itwas obviously a for Pepys. kept in the collection of theTower of London. In fact. wife of Henry V.204. "[I] had the upper part of her body inmy hands.MUSEUM MANNERS 903 Itwas over a hundred years since theAshmolean first opened itsdoors when this experience was recorded at the BritishMuseum but the indication is that touch still had of visitor an developments had occurred during those years of which a more in-depth study behaviour important place inmuseum visits. and exotic in early museums Uffenbach."56 context in which the of a monarch. When Samuel Westminster Abbey in 1669. and sensory Sophie de laRoche's scientifically-minded artefacts. of touching places. Itwas also a means of transferring power.76.57 contact into close effects were coming expected. bringing together This content downloaded from 209. The seeming ability of touch to annihilate time and space gave it a particularly vital As and role an in the museum where imaginatively ressurected a former owner of the artefacts on faraway.55 Thus when Hans Sloane in an sacred eighteenth-century that touched pin. 6 Aug 2013 19:55:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . And I did kiss her mouth. lining ofHenry VIII's codpiece. The counter still practiced healing by touch in England. In her visit to the BritishMuseum Sophie de la Roche even display in order to establish direct contact with her throughher bodily remains. Touch helped bring themuseum to life. inwhich devotees frequently touched and kissed relics and icons both as Protestant England where the religious veneration of images and relicshad been suppressed. culture and and early eighteenth-century. in the eighteenth effects. nature of certain collections relics.

pieces were rience. there was today. burning in many museums. to Noah's curator collec of wonders Ark or vis which preserved the world inminiature during the Biblical flood. For those who ended his guided tourof his collection with coffee in the library. such have been common many disintegrating smell had more animal powerful remains..65 symbolic of early English collec of decay odour musty as the Ashmolean. brought food to eat within the collection space itself. whether visitors found the patter of their guides informative tedious. The sense of smell is usually mentioned by collection visitors with regard to scented woods by visitors. associations symbolic One might been importance. tions must Coal due also or strong-smelling animals of artefacts would the odours Ambient and odours smoke soot were on exhibit. Hearing exhibits that made played out to be fully appreciated. made I have thus journal of social history would also form as the nucleus tombstone the Ark on It was the Tradescant known as "a world summer 2007 of the Ashmolean in reference as owner. eight records.68In private collections. which could include natural objects. 6 Aug 2013 19:55:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . if so associations.105 on Tue. as the collection as multisensory experience might ex been have the sense of taste. the objects a master of the universe god-like. below. also played a characteristic a role feature A to the pervasive of coal for heating. their visit stillmight informed coupled by gustatory with meals.continuing so all thatnight till the raine came "virtues" as a have cluded be be . which and a larger ritual included role in early modernity than itwould have in later times.62 Musical instruments in particular required sounding this period. after either with the world in seventeenth in one's and that one hands. As shall be described or to be a sign of an object's person's this gave smell a chemical. When visiting the large collection of Claudius de Puy in London Von Uffenbach describes the "most agreeable sound" produced Indian Indeed by "an elegant organ. "67 Odour was understood or traits."63 were never heard?a instruments which the notion common of a collection of musical in modern enough situation museums?would probably have seemed bizarre inVon Uffenbach's day.69 wished for more meal and less museum. would to collec it is true that visitors while However." and manipulating one itor. Indeed. which tion.61 or artefacts. that during the entryof James II into women clad inwhite strewed fragrantherbs before the king's retinue "which made a verie great smell in all the street. it is to this sense Yet the other accounts.59Surveying in this microcosm. this sense's most owners to the accounts given by collection door. inclined. Hans museum visits might sometimes tions did not customarily go around tasting the exhibits. eight finds far concentrated role of touch eenth-century the most references no means important role was it was left behind in contemporary at the museum that of attending virtually or and guides. a unavoidable was also used senses were by In terms of hearing. from that experience.60 during sounds. accompaniment to listen to those to collection visits sight.76. for early moderns.66Anthony Wood Oxford in 1687. on the collections because.64 have Even been when not recorded often when the perceived in the collection expe handled. the owner. Don Saltero 's coffee house. was memorialized in one closet shut.204. forexample.. presume that. such as automata which music or talked. Just as occurs museums. a collation. however. such as the petrified egg with a rattlingyolkwhich JohnEvelyn describes. at least. intrinsic as well Generally. might provide Sloane customarily In early public visitors This content downloaded from 209.904 lection of curiosities.

)73 In the case their of exotic skins or before medicinal for ingesting pieces which shells of them had animals. exhibits were set up on and removed all from tables like the courses "[T]he same ish'd and of a meal. possessed a branch of the coffee treewith its leaves and berries in his collection. pol or engraved . many of them cast-offs from Sloane's museum.MUSEUM MANNERS objects. I took it for a gum or resin.76. gastronomic act of ownership. Uffenbach uses Von his sense of taste here as an instrument of which supplements sight and touch. When Sloane's museum in 1748.) specimens might comprehensive In fact.105 on Tue.75 The rare and wondrous also make pharmacopoeia While from such collectors medicinal. for example. the most part of a museum Though were collectibles in the museum when occurred of taste third course sampled. many at a museum. certain foods which had recently been introduced to England and for invalids. of rarities exhibited items in contemporary sailors by hungry were for imported a common reason effect was Others Characteristic included museum not just specimens of plants and animals. covered gems. that made an object a likely museum piece might there no doubt were many gustatory appropriation by visitors or at least part of them. the viewing of which would have provided an appro with which priate prelude for the subsequent partaking of coffee in the library favoured Central in exotic items were still considered later become enough commonplace to be interesting museum the rare and cu the eighteenth-century (It was pieces. Aside who literally ate their museums. but also such things as mummy flesh and even fossilsand stone axes?which would be taken inpowdered form. 6 Aug 2013 19:55:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .70 905 established by Sloane's former servant and embellished with a range of curious Not only might meals be taken within a museum." who eat investigation would Sloane. of gold and silver ornaments not a standard visit. public museums such as theAshmolean qualities it strong medicine." The from around the world. also the kinds were their presumed medicinal in museums. appearance and feeling. collection: for example. or scientific value. themuseum itself might the Prince and Princess ofWales visited be conceptualized as a meal. records the set after the modern sorts of jewels. But.by a bond with the Asian the birds' nests he also creates tasting I have "the nests "the nests that are eaten" become the nests: peoples eaten... was also interested in the cacao bush of (Sloane guests were honoured.. tables were consisted The first course precious course for a second or with was stones with carv'd as found in nature. rather than rious which prized by generally common in also be found which collections. Even museum were presumably safeguarded private from its the ultimate a museum piece was.204.74 arrived been America. museum were collectors and visitors. judging from its taste. Among is formed in the sea like the succino and used by the birds is said that the material to build their nests. Indeed. as a restorative his own brand of chocolate and even marketed eaten use. visiting Von Sloane's Uffenbach..71 direct involvement eaten or when themselves experience following It other things he pointed out to us the nests that are eaten as a delicacy. however. eating to eat the visitors who were unable This content downloaded from 209. fashion.. Although he doesn't make a point of it. perhaps.

Thus Robert Hooke." wrote Evelyn. ness. of the very things inspection themselves. in the Society's Experiments for example. philosophy. naturalist. part of for why This content downloaded from 209. dent were while men Elias and of science.76. or Brittleness. the Royal Soci etywas by no means unique in its sensorymethodology. Claminess. was a for example. or Slipperiness.with very little altering the tast of theAle. or Fineness. Rough or Dulness. curators at least of early museums.78 were Von Uffenbach... or Looseness. and wonder. The fellows of the Royal Society took such recommendations to heart.204. when he classfied the echoes produced byOxfordshire colleges and caves sons or noted the odours have visitors of fossils. For all its fascination or natural with op eighteenth-century science. items he cat tasted many at the Royal undertaken Soci physician alogued etymight also involve multisensory inquiry. who would become the first Keeper of the Ashmolean. Indeed."79 like pictures and diligent to admire . also keenly interested The strong as sociation to reinforce science between and museology served the use of multiple of botany senses when tic glasses. summer 2007 might have par taken of them in the past through their local apothecary. or Levity. still emphasized the importance ofmulti-sensorial investigation forunderstand ing the nature of the objects under study.. and proficient For Hooke such diligent study included noting such qualities as or Cold Stiffness. Fastness. When Von Uffenbach felt and tasted his way through collections he was employing current scientific methodology. tasted and felt" like "old cheddar or Parmesan cheese.. to museums. Coarseness. Grew. consequently. Royal curator of the of ob jects needed to be accompanied by the "manual handling He also warned that: is not able for divertisement The use of such a collection for children study of the most Society's "Repository" stated that the occular . or Pliableness. Heat.906 particular cary's "unicorns' itself often journal of social history horns" or Egyptian mummies with on its exotic display. .71 collections.84 not range of rea perhaps comprehensive. It is notable how many in England. Sloane.. "Of this I drank. interacting seventeenth with and museum pieces. The and botanist Nehemiah museum. it "meaningful found and and collections Here then we a wide. whereas today sightwould be a more serious way of comprehending sight might museum in the seventeenth museum or century have been pieces deemed than touch or the more su perficial or frivolous formof apprehension. 6 Aug 2013 19:55:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . in scientific matters. visitors such as Evelyn and Many chemistry. was an ardent stu founder of the Ashmolean. Sonorousness Smell or Taste. Ashmole. "& [it] seem'd tome to be of an agreeable amber scent. So was Robert Plot.. and physician for more than materia medica."83 While prominent in itspromotion of empirical philosophy. Gravity. and gazing and be pleased with."82 In 1681 Evelyn recorded which involved dissolving phospurus in ale. though to early museums being present at an experiment on phosphorus at the Royal Society.105 on Tue.The report of a 1679 experiment on hartshorn which had been softened by boiling noted that the result "smelt.76 Indeed the apothe shop resembled a museum might provide of the founders Hans a "feast" and Early just the eyes. considered smell. but for the most serious in natural philosophy.

themythical and themagical often mingled with the natu the historical. This characteristically premodern mingling of according all sensory channels. a museum museum reasons others due use. Elias Ashmole had an abiding interest in astrology and occultism. were favourite museum tapestry the museum?would means by the material in fact.87 As contact with museum pieces could no longer be justified by scientific values. This content downloaded from 209. had been the use generally relegated senses of smell. was museum-goer view of the ob As the number of visitors tomuseums grew so did the risk of damage to he collec increasing nineteenth-century concern for conservation. 6 Aug 2013 19:55:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . It was no doubt often the case original were or a different combi motives. context to the rise of new paradigms were Significantly. practice information or tasting spheres cosmos of knowledge was to which a of the accompanied by multisensory understanding was crucial information transmitted and discernible If the museum a multisensory world Due and view?and was a little cosmos of colours. The could important reasonably with thing in modernity was to see. and touch.MUSEUM MANNERS 907 with their exhibits than Elias's words?to engage using more necessary"?in on the interests and back reasons in any case would eyes. This move away fromphysical interactionwith museum pieces coincided the expect. Zacharias Von Uffenbach by scientific interest and Sophie de la Roche by a desire to establish an intimate with interactions the artefacts' that the of a visitor owners. this sensory shift meant that allowing visitors close jects on display. prompted by on the receive piece?a particular sculpture might icon a devo shell a scholarly touch. science and religion not as as they would come in the period under consideration clearly marked in late modernity.) vation.204.105 on Tue. objets d'art often min of appropriate to be gled with botanical and zoological specimens and historical and ethnographic artefacts.85 through as constituting could be regarded sounds and smells.86 By the taste of the nineteenth-century. In private and public collections. much changes expected and not end however. Indeed. a modern well-lit regards the museum. therefore. divisions among the fields of aesthetics.76. of the proximity to the realm of the nursery and the "savage. Hans Sloane upheld the efficacyof a number of wonder working remedies in his medical practice which would later be dismissed as su perstitious. and a religious which for interacting survived with would museum be pieces would or redi repressed of perception connection nation of motives. less sensuous in scientific to gather by sniffing the scientific in nature. Celia primar ground ilyby general curiosity inher sensory explorations. to technological developments theory." Civilized adults were deemed to comprehend the world primarily though sight and secondarily through hearing. natural objects which looked as though theyhad been crafted pieces. then it too textures. (Indeed. relevance within Some of these in modernity. such as the marble lizard mentioned above. depending an aesthetic touch. become as well scientist as to was by hand. Robert Plot was an alchemist. the nineteenth-century of microscopes under study. All to have that a clear. and measuring devices the non-visual senses would be given little role to play inmodern scientific inquiry. Soon. modern ral and Even in the "New Philosophy" with its emphasis on empirical obser adhered to bymany of the key figures in the development of the early museum. an exotic tional lose and rected touch. The depend particular seem to have been motivated Fiennes would of the visitor.

grandest personages . Von Uffenbach his class own manual as such. In the case of theAshmolean he noted with disgust that "even thewomen are allowed up here for sixpence. of more the development in the non-visual that resulted by the mid-nineteenth visually-oriented senses being century. tactile frisson. were definite untutored of the uncultured There handling of touch his in the museum. distinctions Uffenbach reserved ums. scorn greatest and gender distinctions women for lower-class who as well. I strode on mausoleums. to the custodians?it evidently signified a lack of or To Von Uffenbach?and der. the fear one that museums be a target might of nineteenth-century official mid-nineteenth-century over those fine works. a characteristic visiting a shut out act of revolution museum of toppled monuments in Paris in 1797: post-Revolutionary I walked on tombs. Lowered were brought down to my level. were under sensory impressions gathered by the (male) stood to be on a different plane from those became and to and open centuries nineteenth from handling Jameson by Anna more artefacts quote and classes seum and there was above?that frequented by the general public not only was there an increased also an increased the "vulgar" touch in the late eighteenth to of damage danger in the visitor of the common sense?manifested profaned the exhibits."89 What was the meaning of this "impetuous handling" by "country folk.105 on Tue. they runhere and there. factors just as also hands off policy. of the mu supported museums. Every rank and costume lay beneath the from their pedestals. I spared the face and bosoms of queens.76. my feet. In the world equal. as we know exhibits from against handling museum was saw to of he what he pieces. their mouths. grabbing at everything and While taking no rebuff from in the present the Sub-Custos it is clear .908 tions. to scenes such due Perhaps of working-class rage seemed in administrators England. vicarious possession and as the rough. pieces the cultural the modern models almost and political on emphasis of science mu authority conservation and aesthetics. considered reminiscent of the tradition of taking food by the hand from a common pot. came to be regarded by curators transition. 6 Aug 2013 19:55:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . I could touch their brows. Louis-Sebastian described entirely all." people who left no records of their museum visits? Perhaps a combination communal of manual participation? ex a role in this sensory played not everyone in the real world. and implicitly the social elite who acquired collections Indeed. explorations opposed masses. as had been dramatically illustratedduring the French Revolution. A necessity.. was summer 2007 as a practical On his firstvisit to the Ashmolean Von Uffenbach was dismayed to find the museum fullof "country folk"who "impetuously handle[d] everything."90 from contemporary connoisseur and of the common accounts As that museums the the museum Iwill not explore the implications of such class and gender divisions in essay scholar visitor..204. visited Von muse was not ploration. journal of social history hence. it may have been as much the desire of the elite to prevent the lower towards from showing disrespect were seen as to represent.92 one could see them "sitting as this. ever-present No wonder in the minds wrote with satisfaction of the workers in theNational Gallery of London wondering and marvelling that This content downloaded from 209.88 of Sociological the museum. Mercier After seum is the toppling of statues.

Bateman. University A Social History ofMuseums: theVisitors What Leicester. trans. This content downloaded from 209..204. on which and Humanities Fund. Science (New York. Arjun Appadurai. Pierre Norbert Jean Grosley.. "Salad Days Over forDinner Table."93This sounds remarkably like Robert Hookes' description placent rather handling" observed byVon Uffenbach in the art galleries Whatever the of her reasons our youth. 1967). 1975). T. of 1845-1945." National Post. 6. ed. Nugent. 1984). "Don't Touch! Hands Off! Art. Dissertation.105 on Tue. for example. 1772). p. 94. 9. Sarah Womack. 52. in See. 909 they have no notion of destroying them. The particularly in Fiona Candlin. Boy Who Breathed on theGlass in the British Museum (London. "Museology and Its Traditions: The British Empire. Men Were Different: Five Studies in Late Victorian Biography NY. 1999). 1994). See Lynne Teather. (London. 5. how theyhave perceived and interactedwith the exhibits. Leslie. pleased Certainly in theAshmolean shift." (Ph. The Social Life of Things: Commodities Cultural in the Social World Culture 1986). Kenneth Hudson. Things That Talk: Object Lessons from Art and (Buckingham.76. A Tour toLondon. The Civilizing Process: The History ofManners E. Lorraine Dixon. ed. H. Jephcott. ch. Material Perspective (Cambridge. 2004). 3. (Oxford: Blackwell. Body & Society 10 (2004): Thought (London. 2. 6 Aug 2013 19:55:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . p. as regards the visually role of touch in the contemporary museum. 7. for this of gawking children than contemptuous. Blindness and impaired. of a particular site." 71-90. and Civilization.M. trans. 4.D. (Freeport. 8.MUSEUM MANNERS and having no other feeling but that of pleasure with or astonishment. The subject of visitor response to museums has been treated by a number of scholars and administrators. Shane and State Formation Elias. but now the tone is com pictures there is no sign of the "impetuous or byAnna how Jameson have it also time and not behaved in museums. but rarely as regards sensory response. cultural sensory investigating people place practical within Department of Sociology and Anthropology Montreal QCH3G1M8 Canada ENDNOTES Part of the research cial Sciences Development 1. only furthers offers an excellent attained understanding of how example expression the of the development sensory values a key of the museum. 10 June 2005. is discussed the Conservation of Expertise. The this essay is based was made possible by grants from So Council of Canada Research and the CUPFA Professional 1976). Tim Dant.

Porter. p. 16. Cited Ovenell. Ashmolean inMartin The Ashmolean Museum. 126. 92. Kochan. Tradescant's 1983). 24. in 1710.. 34-35. The Journeys of Celia von Uffenbach. M. Oxford This content downloaded from 209. in by its Earliest Visitors. WH. Zacharias Conrad trans. and 14. 197. MA. 1928). p. Segregation and the Senses (Chapel Hill. p. Peter Charles ploring the Senses inHistory and Across Cultures Hoffer. see also Uffenbach. p. A. R. Empire of the Sensory Worlds Senses: The Sensual Culture Reader (Oxford. Mark 101. ed. p. London in 1710. 33. 25. Process.910 journal of social history 9. NJ. 22. London in 1710. 1985). in Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Europe The Cabinet ofCuriosities ofMuseums: Fiennes. 93. eds. 2003). p. p. 12. 1993). Fiennes. 1972). in R. p. 33-37. in Early America (Baltimore. Bauer. CT. ed. 1986). Elias. eds. 6 Aug 2013 19:55:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Quarrell and M. Smith. M. Corbett.. p.204.J. 1986). Mark M. 185. (Princeton. Rarities (Oxford. and trans. On Origins (Oxford. 17. 100 Fiennes. (Cambridge. David Howes. pp. Celia see Oliver the early history of museums eds. 1985). Conrad (Oxford. WH. House (London. p. 24. 28. Cited Journeys. 1978).. The Civilizing Girouard. 23. Fiennes (London. G. pp. reason to European to believe 11. (London. von Uffenbach. 1934). Quarrell by Frank Herrmann. p. I have thus far found no there were major differences. Museum (Oxford. pp. 26. pp.Cited 15. Mare. 147. How characteristic museums was of visitors the comportment of visitors to English museums in general is a subject for future research. 20. 58. 18. dealing with the cultural history of the senses include Alain the Fragrant: Odor and the French Social Imagination. Ovenell. p. Oxford in 1710. Paul MacGregor. The English as Collectors p. and W. 1949). Museum. Ashmolean Ashmolean Ashmolean Bernini's Visit to France. How Race is Made: Slavery. 147. Constance Classen. 147-148 Blunt and Ovenell.C. 19. 26. 10. Journeys. Ovenell. 2004). Diary of Cavali?re trans.E Ovenell. Works Foul and summer 2007 The Corbin.. The Impey and Arthur MacGregor. Life in theEnglish Country (New Haven. MD.. Museum. 21.105 on Tue. Museum.76. 55. 13. 68. Prendergast. Arthur Oxford in 1710. 27. 50." p. Zacharias trans. 2006). Von Uffenbach. ed. C. Von Uffenbach.C Quarell. Fr?art de Chantelou. as Described "The Ashmolean Welch. Worlds of Sense: Ex (London.

40. "Prologue: Breward and Jeremy Aynsley. in theYears 1761-1762. 13. pp. p. 235 42. 44G?raldine A. eds." of the Blind Man: Flesh: On Man. 53 David Summers. 6 Aug 2013 19:55:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . p. the Aesthetics and Education Schiller. 2nd ed. Madame 34. CT. Samuel ley. Phenomenology in Early Modern of Vividness Culture. 88. 195. p. On eds. p. of E. 13. VIII. Oxford (London. A Foreign View trans. [sic]. 36. p.D. 326. p. 1982). London of England 1952). ed.1500-1900 (NewHaven. von Muyden. The Diary vol. 1999): Memories. p. pp. "The Touch Art. This content downloaded from 209. Johnson. London in 1710.105 on Tue. de Beer. Von Uffenbach. in Italian Renaissance The Touch in Sensible Harvey. 182. The intimate p. Johnson. Von Uffenbach. Aubin. John Evelyn. Renaissance Naturalism and the Rise ofAes 37. The Diary of John Evelyn. and trans. Modern France: Introduction to Mandrou. 163. Hutton. 23. 40. Modern p. 1818). 1981). p. Wilde. 283 contacts France for example.76. "Touch. Wilkinson and L. 38. Frederick A Journey toLondon. (London. Italy" Theory.204. (Philadelphia. (Oxford.A. and the Reception to in A Art P. eds. vol. Diary ess Kielmansegg 32. de Saussure. Pepys. 326. 1976). Christopher 29-30. 1955). Von Uffenbach. p. Latham and W. Von Uffenbach. Diary. 2003): 238-239 47. Smith and C. C?sar in 1710. trans. (Oxford. See. Taste and theAntique: The in which took place between and sculptures gallery-goers are in of artist the the work Gabriel contemporary eighteenth-century depicted inMaterial From the Museum of Touch" de St.Oxford in 1710. 45. R. 64. 124-125. (London. (Berke Chantelou. Friedrich Willoughby. Evelyn. Hallmark. 186.MUSEUM MANNERS 911 29. Robert in 1710. Marius Kwint. in theReigns of George I and George U. William 31. 35. II. ed. p." p. 2002). trans. (Oxford. The Judgement of Sense: thetics (Cambridge. Companion in Early of Sculpture eds. of a Journey toEngland 1902).S. 1976). See Susan Stewart. (Oxford. Matthews. 185 Francis of Samuel Pepys. 39. p. 66. "Touch. Kielmansegge. Diary. 516. E. 33. Count 30. 41. 43. An Essay inHistorical Psychology. Haskell and Nicholas Penny. (New York.M. Jodi Cranston. E. Lure of Classical Sculpture.E. pp. R. 46. 1987). Tactility.

(Chicago. Anthony ?Wood. Sculpture: Some Observations malion's Creative Dream. (Cambridge. ed. 6 Aug 2013 19:55:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Evelyn. London in 1710. This content downloaded from 209. II. p. 65. Shows of London. 1961). and Museum. see Altick. ed. 66. 62. in Shape and Form from Pyg 49. See. 1999). vol. trans. 68. (London. Ovenell. Altick. p.204. Norton. p. trans. 52. De Beer. ed. 1974). Johann Wolfgang trans. Howes. pp. Shows of London. 2002). 502. Constance 56. 155. p. 1933). Powys. Welch. Diary. p. 6 (Ithaca. Sir Hans and the British Museum (London. For example. Sophie 108. (London. Keith Thomas.Gaiger. Von Uffenbach. Ashmolean Museum. pp. Tradescant's Rarities. don. 1570-1662 (Lon Their Plants. p. The Shows of Pepys. "Magical (Oxford. 88. 1978). on the side of anti-tactility. L. 257. ch. 2005): The Healing: 354-362. IX. Roman Elegies and Venetian summer 2007 Epigrams. 64. Sophie (London. Johann Gottfried Herder. Classen. Lind. 61. ch. p. In 1755 in 1710. Diary. 69. Gardens The Tradescants: Allan. 54. London Von Uffenbach. For a discussion of this issue. 89.R. Christopher 1901). 125 57.76. 457. 67. Diary.912 journal of social history von Goethe. Herder's Aesthetics and the European Enlightenment 1990). 55. Altick. 63. 1953). Nyrop. Aroma: The Cultural See Constance HistoryofSmell (London. 107? 53. The Kiss & Its History. 83. C.. weighted to the Present The World as Sculpture: The Changing Status of Sculpture from theRenaissance refers to many informative sources in his work.105 on Tue. p. WE Harvey. Von Uffenbach. 50. The Book of vol. The Life and Times of Anthony ? Wood. 50. Hall Day 51. See for example. L. 471 ch. Classen. and trans. NY. 45. Evelyn. J. 59. (London. and Anthony Synnott. inLondon. Cited Classen. 60. 48." in The Book of Touch. p. 4.2005). Williams. 88. see also Richard D. 1993). 1964). London MA. Sloane King's Touch. p. in 1710. of damaged "The Ashmolean David or decayed specimens had to be removed from the as Described by its Earliest Visitors. p. (Wichita. Mea vol. MacGregor. see James Hall. 3. the social history of the sense of touch On see Constance Touch (Oxford. inGavin R. II. ed. London 58. Robert E. p. p. a number Ashmolean. de La Roche. 41. KS.

"Skulls. pp. "[B]oth . 98. vol. 76. Mummies and Unicorns' Horns. which was one of the tourist attractions of seventeenthsee Michael and eighteenth-century London. 1985). Diary. eds. Hunter. vol. 80. Museum (Athens. Waller. p. Edward Brown R. Von Uffenbach. Europe.G. Caygill. This content downloaded from 209. 1671). 73. incurring the anger of his host. (London. 1. at once. A number of similar experiments work. p.L. British OH. London Shane. The History of the Royal Society of London 1756). That Noble Cabinet: A History 1974). London the composer George Frederic Han in 1740 he carelessly placed his buttered muffin on a precious manu Sloane script. p.. Sir Hans Sloane. 1971 ). inmuseums and their carapaces Iguana skins and crocodile heads were often survivors of meals. . 1970). 81. See further Arnold. are also recorded in this Thomas Birch.204." Wilma in the Seventeenth "Alive or Dead: Collections George. Millar. Miller. Overlooking as a sign that Sloane's exhibited 72. pp. When Von Uffenbach.W Anderson. ch. for example. pp.." Cenury 75. Works. inAn Account 77.MUSEUM MANNERS 913 68. 38-9. A. 181. "Skulls. 486. See Edward Miller. (Oxford. The Posthumous Works R. Ill. 36. ed. 40. records drinking out of a unicorn's horn kept in a Dutch collection (London. 72-73. Michael Levy. in De Beer. p. Sir Hans in 1710. 2003. 187. of Robert Hooke. pp." Eighteenth Century. p. vol. A. the symbolism of this carefully prepared royal feast. p. David Murray. M.76. (London. p. 184. 71. Mummies Chemistry in Enlightening the British: Knowledge.. For a history of the Royal Society's Repository. See also Evelyn. 6 Aug 2013 19:55:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . del visited See. De in Hudson. New Science:The Experienceof the the lishing Early Royal Society (Woodbridge. 335. lines 42-44 78." Robert Hooke. 26. Discovery and the in the Museum English Museums. 19. The That Noble account Cabinet. De Beer. MacGegor and L. 43. eds. 278. scene 1. p. 109-10. 110 land and sea turtles were delicacies and many of them ended up in the pot 74. Syson. 489. (Glagow. Horns: Medicinal and Unicorns' in Early 73. 8 69." Act 5. Social History ofMuseums. p. 4. p. IV. Ken Arnold.105 on Tue. Oliver Impey and Arthur MacGregor. pp. Zoological inThe Origins of in Sixteenth and Seventeenth Museums: The Cabinet ofCuriosities Century. (London.Suffolk. pp. Cited Hooke. of the 70. 50. in 1710. Estab 1989). of Several Travels through a Great Part of Germany in Romeo and Juliet had "in his needy Even Shakespeare's impoverished apothecary shop a tortoise hung/ An alligator stuff'd and other skins/ Of ill-shaped fishes. 82.. of this visit can be found 19-20. 133. De Beer sees it its space so that not everything could be collection had outgrown Beer. Museums: Their History and Use 1904). Sir Hans Sloane. A Brief History of theNational Gallery (London. 79.

Diary. public This content downloaded from 209. Politics (London. pp. pp. 87." in The Book of Touch. 106-127.914 journal of social history Evelyn. 1929). (Oxford. in 1710. ch. 2001): 355-364. 101. Jeffrey tory. Constance The Color theAesthetic Imagination 86. IV. See Constance "Touch Classen. ch. 128-9. 83.The objects and monuments trans. of European Peter Steams. 31 in the Museum. Tony Bennett. of religious of the destruction inHall. 2. 1999). 85. but the crowding of visitors Gallery: of food. 282-284 to the rise in importance of the non-visual of sight and the decline which contributed senses in the museum experience. all contributed Levy. Brief History of the 93. vol. (London. of sensuous in Empire History ofOxford-shire of Angels: (London. pp. 89. 2005): see Lissa Roberts." Howes." and Unicorns' 1677). David 88. 6 Aug 2013 19:55:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The Great Exhibition of 1995). the general (who often were merely sheltering from the rain). and 225 W E. National Gallery. That Noble Cabinet. Classen. For a vivid description 91. Paris & the Revolution. Mummies sensory practices of the New Philosophers which led me to several of the citations above. Cosmology. 4. of various for a discussion factors ed.105 on Tue. (New York. 252. Von Uffenbach. 24. ed. Auerbach. and Its Traditions. their consumption a zoo of the Gallery. Compare "Museology disorder and sensory confusion which reputedly reigned in the early years of the "Not only were the pictures crowded on the walls. The Natural Classen 1998). in revolutionary France see Louis-Sebastian Picture Mercier. Social History See Constance to 2000. 2005): 275-286.7. Jackson. 8." Classen. His Museum: See Miller. p." to make smell and the influx of smoky air. Constance 90. experimentation of the Senses: The Sensual Culture Reader. pp. 7-16. (Oxford. (New York. The Birth of the A. Robert See Plot. Arnold provides an excellent in "Skulls. Oxford "The Death For a history of the marginalization of the Sensuous Chemist. p. 92. summer 2007 overview of the multi Horns. 31. 84. and 93-94.204. Gender pp. ed. Von Uffenbach.76. 1851 (New Haven. p. Oxford in 1710. Cited Sculpture. Before After of 229. from 1300 in Encyclopedia "The Senses. Cited this scene with the inTeather.Theory. CT." p.