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Fishbone Analysis Fishbone Analysis(also called Ishikawa Diagrams or Cause and effect diagrams) is an effective visual and

analytical tool to understand the very minute root causes of a problem, and understand issues in a robust cause-effect paradigm. This analysis is a combination of thorough brainstorming and visual depiction of the causes of a problem in the manner of a fishbone. These causes can typically be related to any or some or all of: People, Methods, Machines, Materials, Measurements, or the Environmental conditions. In Service Industries, these causes are normally of the following categories: 1. Policies 2. Procedures 3. People 4. Plant/Technology These categories form different branches of our fishbone diagram:

This diagram is the basic template or framework for our analysis. We begin our cause-effect analysis by first identifying the problem that we are facing in the context of our service. Let's assume, for our example, that we are operating a fast food restaurant, and while we are able to deal with small orders, we are facing problems in providing large orders in a timely manner, and a lot of customers are getting turned away because we are taking too long with large orders. Let's frame this problem as a question - "Why are we taking so much time to complete large orders?" The next step is to take this problem question and brainstorm on the possible answers by identifying different causes. For each cause, we ask the question 'Why is this happening'. We also label these causes based on the above categories(we can modify categories based on relevance). Some probable causes are: 1. Understaffed -- This is a 'people' problem. This could happen due to unavailability of skilled cooks or lack of revenue.

4. we have to study our operations carefully. For example. and find out why these causes are taking place and affecting our operations. 3. to reduce order redundancy. so that the cook can cook them together. a waiter takes several orders at once. all the cook has to do is stir-fry all the relevant ingredients together. its sauces prepared. vegetables cut. so that 6 plates can be cooked at once.This is a 'technology' problem. saving crucial time. Basic ingredients are unprepared -. If the waiters are not following this technique. it can be visually depicted as follows: This analysis thus helps us fully understand the causes of the problems facing our service operations. This could be a 'procedure' issue if proper procedures are not in place. This is a typical 'procedure' issue.Most restaurants operate by preparing all the basic elements or ingredients of their dishes.2. all the cook has to do is heat everything together once. This could happen if available resources like stove tops. so that once an order for a dish of noodles comes in. a Chinese restaurant keeps its noodles boiled and dried. Once these causes are identified. a lot of resources and time can get wasted. Once the exact reasons and causes are identified. . It is possible that this preparation is lacking. Available equipment is not enough for handling large orders -. and therefore unnecessary repetition of tasks is taking place. and eating away lots of operation time. and could be a 'people' issue if the waiters are not following the instructions properly. so that when an order comes. the meat is diced and fried and all the spices are kept together. he can give the combined order to the cook. cooking equipment. etc are a bottleneck. standing space. Orders are not being combined properly: Normally in restaurants. refrigeration space. So if 3 people order 2 plates of pasta each.