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Computers and Geotechnics 35 (2008) 655–672
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**under embankment combined with vacuum preloading
**

Tuan Anh Tran

*

, Toshiyuki Mitachi

Hokkaido University, Graduate School of Engineering, Soil Mechanics Laboratory, Room A6-53, Building A, Sapporo 060-8628, Japan

Received 18 July 2007; received in revised form 10 November 2007; accepted 14 November 2007

Available online 3 January 2008

Abstract

A conversion method is proposed to convert from an axisymmetric unit cell to an equivalent plane strain unit cell under embankment

loading combined with vacuum preloading. To verify the proposed method, we have conducted FE analyses for two cases of subsoil, one

is a subsoil having only one homogeneous clay layer, and the other one is a subsoil having two clay layers. The analyzed results showed

that the eﬀects of both well resistance (in the vertical drain) and smear zone (around the vertical drain) are satisfactorily modeled by the

proposed plane strain unit cell in both cases.

Ó 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Analytical solution; Consolidation; Finite element analysis; Plane strain modeling; Vacuum-surcharge preloading; Vertical drain

1. Introduction

It is widely recognized that vertical drains are able to

speed up consolidation in soft clay subsoil that usually

have extremely slow natural drainage. In recent years, the

vertical drains have been combined with vacuum preload-

ing under embankment (see Fig. 1), and therefore a much

faster consolidation in soft clay subsoil can be achieved;

in short, we call this preloading technique vacuum-sur-

charge preloading.

In vacuum-surcharge preloading, the vacuum pressure

propagates along the vertical drains, and a nearly isotropic

compression zone is created within the subsoil zone

beneath the embankment; therefore, this technique can

enhance the stability of the subsoil during consolidation

under the embankment.

It is widely agreed that the performance of a vertical

drain under conventional embankment (or conventional

surcharge) can be represented by an axisymmetric unit cell

[2,6] as shown in Fig. 2. To simulate the performance of

multiple vertical drains under an embankment by FEM,

we have to carry out a 3D full-scale simulation, in which

a lot of cubic elements have to be employed [3,10]. As a

result, the time needed for computation becomes very long,

and a powerful computer is needed.

However, if we assume that the performance of a verti-

cal drain can be equivalently represented by a plane strain

unit cell (see Fig. 2), then an equivalent full-scale plane

strain simulation can be made. Consequently, the time

needed for computing the full-scale plane strain simulation

is much shorter than that needed in a full-scale 3D simula-

tion. In fact, Chai et al. [3], Hird et al. [8], Indraratna and

Redana [9,10], and Indraratna et al. [11] conﬁrmed the fea-

sibility of this idea.

In 2005, Indraratna et al. [12] proposed a conversion

method for cases of single layer subsoil under vacuum-

surcharge preloading condition. In this method, they

developed two analytical models for the axisymmetric

and plane strain cells. Based on these models, they

proposed two solutions for development of the average

excess pore water pressure with time within these cells.

Afterwards, by equating these two solutions, they

obtained a conversion expression of permeability from

the axisymmetric cell to the equivalent plane strain cell.

0266-352X/$ - see front matter Ó 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.compgeo.2007.11.006

*

Corresponding author. Tel.: +81 11 706 6194; fax: +81 11 706 7204.

E-mail addresses: tran.hokudai@gmail.com (T.A. Tran), mitachi@

eng.hokudai.ac.jp (T. Mitachi).

www.elsevier.com/locate/compgeo

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

Computers and Geotechnics 35 (2008) 655–672

As a result, by using this plane strain cell, a full-scale plane

strain modeling of soft ground under vacuum-surcharge

preloading can be conducted.

Surcharge or embankment

Vacuum pump

Vertical drain

Geomembrane

Fig. 1. Cross-section of subsoil improved by vertical drains under

vacuum-surcharge preloading.

2D cell with smear zone 2D cell without smear zone

2B

2B

Axisymmetric cell

D

e

Fig. 2. Axisymmetric unit cell and its equivalent plane strain unit cells.

Nomenclature

a width of the prefabricated vertical drain

b thickness of the prefabricated vertical drain

B half-width of the plane strain unit cell

b

s

half-width of the smear zone of the plane strain

unit cell

b

w

half-width of the drain-wall

C

ha

coeﬃcient of consolidation for horizontal drain-

age in axisymmetric case

C

hp

coeﬃcient of consolidation for horizontal drain-

age in plane strain case

d

s

smear zone diameter

d

w

equivalent drain diameter

k

1

maintaining factor of vacuum pressure

(0 6 k

1

6 1)

k

ha

horizontal permeability coeﬃcient in undis-

turbed zone of the axisymmetric unit cell

k

hp

horizontal permeability coeﬃcient in undis-

turbed zone of the plane strain unit cell

k

sa

horizontal permeability coeﬃcient in smear zone

of the axisymmetric unit cell

k

sp

horizontal permeability coeﬃcient in smear zone

of the plane strain unit cell

l The length of drainage path of the drain inside

the axisymmetric unit cell

n

a

ratio R/r

w

of the axisymmetric unit cell

p

0

vacuum pressure applied to the top of the drain

in axisymmetric case, and to the top of the

drain-wall in plane strain case

q

wa

discharge capacity of the drain of the axisym-

metric unit cell

q

wp

discharge capacity of the drain-wall of the plane

strain unit cell

R radius of the axisymmetric unit cell

r

s

radius of the smear zone of the axisymmetric

unit cell

r

w

radius of the drain of the axisymmetric unit cell

s

a

ratio r

s

/r

w

of the axisymmetric unit cell

T

ha

dimensionless time factor for horizontal drain-

age in the axisymmetric unit cell

T

hp

dimensionless time factor for horizontal drain-

age in the plane strain unit cell

u average excess pore water pressure of the unit cell

r

1

initial overburden pressure due to surcharge

preloading

l

za

parameter depending on depth z, including well

resistance, smear eﬀect, and the geometry of the

axisymmetric unit cell

l

zp

parameter depending on depth z, including well

resistance, smear eﬀect, and the geometry of the

plane strain unit cell

Subscripts

a axisymmetric

p plane strain

s smear zone

h horizontal

z depth z

656 T.A. Tran, T. Mitachi / Computers and Geotechnics 35 (2008) 655–672

We see that, in their method, the inclusion of the

plane strain smear zone in the plane strain cell is deemed

to be needed (see Figs. 2 and 4a). However, in our expe-

rience, the inclusion of plane strain smear zones in plane

strain ﬁnite element simulation increases the number of

elements and material parameters. In particular, for a

full-scale simulation of a multi-layer subsoil incorporat-

ing a large number of small vertical drain elements, the

number of elements and the material parameters for

the plane strain smear zones become very large. In addi-

tion, for determining the equivalent permeability by their

method, the determination of the length of the drainage

path of the drain (l) in each soil layer of that multi-layer

subsoil (where the drain is driven through) is required

(see Fig. 3a).

In 2006, Chai et al. [5] presented a plane strain numeri-

cal modeling of a soft ground improved by vertical drains

under vacuum-surcharge preloading. In their numerical

modeling, they used a conversion method from the axisym-

metric cell to the plane strain cell proposed by Chai et al.

[4].

We have observed that, this conversion method is devel-

oped under the condition of conventional surcharge load-

ing, and the boundary condition of excess pore pressure

of the vertical drain deﬁned in this method is that the excess

pore pressure at the top of the drain is equal to zero, only.

Therefore, this method might not apply well in the case of

vacuum-surcharging.

In reality, the subsoil usually has many layers, and, in

some cases, there is a sandy silt layer having high perme-

ability just below an upper clay layer having low perme-

ability. In this case, the vacuum pressure propagates from

the vertical drain to the surrounding soil in the sandy silt

layer will be much faster than the propagation of the vac-

uum pressure in the surrounding soil of the upper clay

layer. This means that the vacuum pressure in the sandy silt

will reach the maximum value much sooner than that in the

upper clay layer.

However, in Chai et al. [4] method, their plane strain

unit cell has only an equivalent vertical permeability and

has no drain-wall. Therefore, even though the lower soil

layer has a much higher permeability than that of the upper

clay layer, and if the vacuum pressure is applied to the top

of the cell, then the vacuum pressure would only able to

propagate gradually from the upper layer to the lower layer

in their plane strain cell. This means that, in their plane

strain cell, there is no way to let the vacuum pressure in

the lower clay layer reach the maximum value sooner than

that in the upper clay layer.

It is observed that there are various ways to develop a

conversion method. In this paper, by modifying Indraratna

et al. [12] method (developed for single layer cases under

vacuum-surcharge preloading), a new conversion method

has been proposed, which is diﬀerent to those of Hird

et al. [8] and Indraratna and Redana [9,10].

2. The proposed conversion method under vacuum-surcharge

preloading condition

To ﬁnd the conversion expression of permeability from

the axisymmetric unit cell to the equivalent plane strain

unit cell under vacuum-surcharge preloading condition,

we conducted the mathematical formulation as follows.

Firstly, based on the analytical model of Indraratna

et al. [12] for the axisymmetric unit cell, we used analytical

mathematics to ﬁnd a function of development of excess

(a) Analytical model of the axisymmetric unit cell

R

- k

1

p

0

C

u

n

d

i

s

t

u

r

b

e

d

z

o

n

e

u

n

d

i

s

t

u

r

b

e

d

z

o

n

e

s

m

e

a

r

z

o

n

e

s

m

e

a

r

z

o

n

e

0

- p

- p [1 - (1 - k )z /l]

0

1

vacuum pressure

Assumed distribution of

i

m

p

e

r

m

e

a

b

l

e

σ

1

(b) Analytical model of the plane strain unit cell

vacuum pressure

Assumed distribution of

e

q

u

i

v

a

l

e

n

t

z

o

n

e

- k

1

p

0

0

- p

- p [1 - (1 - k )z /l]

0

1

e

q

u

i

v

a

l

e

n

t

z

o

n

e

r

w

s

r

B

b

w

impermeable

T

h

e

l

e

n

g

t

h

o

f

t

h

e

d

r

a

i

n

a

g

e

p

a

t

h

o

f

t

h

e

d

r

a

i

n

(

l

)

impermeable

σ

1

impermeable

i

m

p

e

r

m

e

a

b

l

e

impermeable

T

h

e

l

e

n

g

t

h

o

f

t

h

e

d

r

a

i

n

a

g

e

p

a

t

h

o

f

t

h

e

d

r

a

i

n

(

l

)

L

C

L

Fig. 3. Analytical models of the axisymmetric and plane strain cells.

T.A. Tran’, T. Mitachi / Computers and Geotechnics 35 (2008) 655–672 657

pore water pressure with time at any given depth z within

this cell.

Subsequently, we built another analytical model for the

plane strain unit cell excluding plane strain smear zone,

and then the function of development of excess pore water

pressure for this cell was developed.

Finally, by equating two obtained functions of excess

pore water pressure, we found the conversion expression

of permeability from the axisymmetric unit cell to the

equivalent plane strain unit cell under vacuum-surcharge

preloading condition.

2.1. Analytical models of the axisymmetric and plane strain

unit cells under vacuum-surcharge preloading

In general, these two models are depicted in Fig. 3. In

these ﬁgures, r

1

denotes the surcharge; p

0

is the vacuum

pressure applied to the top of the drain as well as the

drain-wall; k

1

is the maintaining factor of vacuum pressure

(0 6 k

1

6 1); z the depth; ‘‘l” the length of the drainage

path of the drain under the condition that the bottom of

the drain is undrained, and the excess PWP at the top of

the drain is equal to – p

0

; therefore, ‘‘l” is also equal to

the length of the unit cell in this ideal case (one homoge-

neous soil layer); r

w

the equivalent drain radius; r

s

the

smear zone radius; R the equivalent radius of the inﬂuence

zone; b

w

the half-width of the drain-wall; B is the half-

width of the plane strain unit cell.

Main assumptions of these models are:

1. The soil within the cell is fully saturated and

homogeneous.

2. The permeability of the soil is assumed to be constant

during consolidation.

3. The vertical ﬂow within the soil of the relatively long

unit cell is insigniﬁcant, i.e. it is assumed that only radial

ﬂow occurs within the soil.

4. Equal strain hypothesis of Kjellman [14] is followed, i.e.

the horizontal sections of the axisymmetric and plane

strain unit cells remain horizontal during the consolida-

tion process.

5. The displacement at outer boundaries of the vertical

drain and the cell are ﬁxed in horizontal direction, i.e.

only vertical displacement is allowed at these

boundaries.

6. Darcy’s law is considered to be valid, and the solutions

are based on the Darcy’s law.

7. The change in volume corresponds to the change in void

ratio, and coeﬃcient of volume compressibility, m

v

, is

constant during consolidation process.

8. Indraratna et al. [12] assumption about the loss of vac-

uum pressure along the vertical drain is employed, i.e.

the vacuum loss is a linear increase with depth (see

Fig. 3), in which – p

0

is the vacuum pressure at the

top of the drain, and – k

1

p

0

is the corresponding value

at the bottom of the drain.

2.1.1. Analytical solution for the axisymmetric unit cell

(modiﬁed by the present authors after Indraratna et al.

[12])

It is observed that Indraratna et al.’s [12] function of the

excess pore water pressure (PWP) is an average function

for the whole axisymmetric cell at a given time. Therefore,

we modiﬁed it to become the following function, which can

show the average value of the excess PWP throughout a

horizontal cross-section of the cell at any given depth z

for a given time t

u ¼ r

1

þ p

0

1 À ð1 À k

1

Þ

z

l

_ _ _ _

exp À

8T

ha

l

za

_ _

À p

0

1 À ð1 À k

1

Þ

z

l

_ _

ð1Þ

The detailed analytical formulation of Eq. (1) is given in

Appendix A.

In Eq. (1)

l

za

¼ ln

n

a

s

a

þ

k

ha

k

sa

ln s

a

À

3

4

þ pzð2l À zÞ

k

ha

q

wa

ð2Þ

in which

n

a

¼

R

r

w

; s

a

¼

r

s

r

w

where k

ha

and k

sa

are horizontal permeability coeﬃcients of

the axisymmetric unit cell in undisturbed zone and in smear

zone, respectively; q

wa

the discharge capacity of the drain;

T

ha

is the dimensionless time factor for horizontal drainage

and

T

ha

¼

C

ha

t

4R

2

¼

k

ha

m

v

c

w

t

4R

2

ð3Þ

where C

ha

is the coeﬃcient of consolidation for horizontal

drainage; m

v

the coeﬃcient of volume compressibility for

one-dimensional compression; t the time; c

w

is the unit

weight of water.

2.1.2. The proposed analytical solution for the plane strain

unit cell excluding the plane strain smear zone

In 1992, Hird et al. [8] introduced a plane strain unit cell

excluding plane strain smear zone under conventional

embankment loading condition. By adapting Hird et al.’s

[8] unit cell for the case subjected to embankment com-

bined with vacuum preloading, we developed the following

solution for the average excess PWP within the adapted

unit cell

u ¼ r

1

þ p

0

1 À ð1 À k

1

Þ

z

l

_ _ _ _

exp À

8T

hp

l

zp

_ _

À p

0

1 À ð1 À k

1

Þ

z

l

_ _

ð4Þ

The detailed analytical formulation of Eq. (4) is given in

Appendix B.

658 T.A. Tran, T. Mitachi / Computers and Geotechnics 35 (2008) 655–672

In Eq. (4)

l

zp

¼

2

3

þ

2k

hp

Bq

wp

ð2lz À z

2

Þ ð5Þ

T

hp

¼

C

hp

t

4B

2

¼

t

4B

2

k

hp

m

v

c

w

ð6Þ

in which k

hp

is horizontal permeability coeﬃcient in the

equivalent zone of the plane strain cell; q

wp

is discharge

capacity of the drain-wall; T

hp

and C

hp

are dimensionless

time factor and coeﬃcient of consolidation for horizontal

drainage, respectively.

2.2. The proposed conversion expression of permeability for

the proposed plane strain unit cell

By adapting the matching procedure of Hird et al. [8]

under conventional surcharge preloading condition for

the proposed plane strain cell under vacuum-surcharge pre-

loading condition, the following steps are conducted.

Equating Eqs. (1) and (4), the following equation can be

obtained

T

ha

l

za

¼

T

hp

l

zp

ð7Þ

Then, substituting Eqs. (3) and (6) into Eq. (7), and after

some rearrangements, we can obtain

k

ha

R

2

l

za

¼

k

hp

B

2

l

zp

ð8Þ

Subsequently, substituting the expressions for l

za

and l

zp

into Eq. (8), and the terms rearranged to give

2

3

k

ha

B

2

À ln

n

a

s

a

À

3

4

þ

k

ha

k

sa

ln s

a

_ _

k

hp

R

2

¼

k

hp

k

ha

pR

2

q

wa

À

k

hp

k

ha

2B

q

wp

_ _

ð2lz À z

2

Þ ð9Þ

If setting

k

hp

k

ha

pR

2

q

wa

À

k

hp

k

ha

2B

q

wp

¼ 0 ð10Þ

then, the eﬀect of well resistance is matched independently,

as follows

q

wp

¼

2B

pR

2

q

wa

ð11Þ

And, by using Eq. (10) as a condition for Eq. (9), the con-

version expression of permeability for the equivalent plane

strain unit cell can be obtained

k

hp

¼

2B

2

3R

2

k

ha

ln

na

sa

À

3

4

þ

k

ha

ksa

ln s

a

ð12Þ

In conclusion, our proposed method to convert from the

axisymmetric unit cell to the plane strain unit cell under

vacuum-surcharge preloading condition includes the com-

bined use of both Eqs. (11) and (12).

2.3. The way to use our proposed conversion method

By inputting R, B, n

a

, s

a

, k

ha

, and the ratio k

ha

/k

sa

into

Eq. (12), we can obtain the horizontal permeability coeﬃ-

cient for the equivalent zone between two vertical drains

in the full-scale plane strain simulation.

In the next step, usually, the information on discharge

capacity, q

wa

, of the vertical drain is available; therefore,

by inputting parameters q

wa

, B, and R into Eq. (11), the

value of q

wp

for the drain-wall of the plane strain cell can

be obtained.

Finally, inputting this q

wp

into the following equation,

we can obtain k

wp

for the drain-walls in the full-scale plane

strain simulation

k

wp

¼

q

wp

2b

w

ð13Þ

In order to make clear the diﬀerence between our conver-

sion expression of permeability and that of Indraratna

et al. [12], we made the Table 1 as follows.

In Table 1, the meaning of symbols is

n

a

¼

R

r

w

; s

a

¼

r

s

r

w

; a ¼

2

3

ðn

p

À s

p

Þ

3

n

2

p

ðn

p

À 1Þ

;

b ¼

2ðs

p

À 1Þ

n

2

p

ðn

p

À 1Þ

n

p

ðn

p

À s

p

À 1Þ þ

1

3

s

2

p

þ s

p

þ 1

_ _

_ _

h ¼

4k

hp

3Bq

wp

1 À

1

n

p

_ _

l

2

; n

p

¼

B

b

w

; s

p

¼

b

s

b

w

Table 1

Comparison of the conversion expressions of permeability between Indraratna et al. [12] method and the proposed method under vacuum-surcharge

preloading condition

The conversion expression of permeability

proposed by Indraratna et al. [12]

The conversion expression of permeability

proposed by the present authors

k

hp

k

ha

¼

a þ

k

hp

ksp

b þ h

_ _

ln

na

sa

_ _

þ

k

ha

ksa

_ _

lnðs

a

Þ À

3

4

þ p

2k

ha

3q

wa

l

2

_ _ ðÃÞ

k

hp

¼

2B

2

3R

2

k

ha

ln

na

sa

À

3

4

þ

k

ha

ksa

ln s

a

ð12Þ

and

q

wp

¼

2B

pR

2

q

wa

ð11Þ

T.A. Tran’, T. Mitachi / Computers and Geotechnics 35 (2008) 655–672 659

k

hp

and k

sp

are horizontal permeability coeﬃcients in the

undisturbed and smear zones of Indraratna et al. [12] plane

strain unit cell, respectively; in our proposed method, k

hp

is

horizontal permeability coeﬃcient in the equivalent zone of

our plane strain unit cell; b

s

is half-width of the plane strain

smear zone in the plane strain unit cell of Indraratna et al.

[12] method (see Fig. 4). The meaning of other symbols was

previously mentioned and is shown in Figs. 4 and A1 in

Appendix A.

3. Veriﬁcation of the proposed method via ﬁnite element

method

To verify the proposed method, we have conducted FE

analyses for two cases under vacuum-surcharge preloading

condition: Case 1 is a homogeneous clay layer that has the

thickness being 10 m, and Case 2 is the case having two clay

layers, in which the upper clay layer and the lower clay layer

have the thickness being 4.95 and 5.05 m, respectively.

In general, the illustration of these two cases is shown

schematically in Fig. 5. In Fig. 5a, k

1ha

and k

1sa

are the hor-

izontal permeability in the undisturbed and smear zones of

the axisymmetric cell, respectively. k

1va

and k

1vsa

are the

vertical permeability in the undisturbed and smear zones,

respectively.

In Fig. 5b, the horizontal and vertical permeability of

the upper clay layer is the same as those of the homoge-

neous clay layer in Fig. 5a, but the horizontal and vertical

permeability of the lower clay layer is ﬁve times higher than

those of the upper clay layer.

a b

dy = 1

Equivalent zone

dz

B

dz

w

b

q

wp

Plane-strain undisturbed zone

dy = 1

wp

q

s

b

B

w

b

Plane-strain smear zone

Drain wall Drain wall

Fig. 4. (a) A horizontal cross-sectional slice of Indraratna et al. [12] plane strain unit cell, and (b) that of our proposed plane strain unit cell.

The case of one clay layer

T

h

i

c

k

n

e

s

s

H

=

1

0

m

One homogeneousclay layer

C

H

=

4

.

9

5

m

Lower clay layer

The case of two clay layers

H

=

5

.

0

5

m

k

1ha

= k

1va 1vsa

= k = 4.30 E-4 (m/day)

1sa

k

1ha

= (1/5)k

k

1sa

= (1/5)k

1ha

= k = k k

2vsa

2va

2ha

2ha

= (1/5)k

2sa

k

= 5 (k )

1ha

Upper clay layer

a

b

Embankment Embankment

k = k = k = 4.30 E-4 (m/day)

1ha 1vsa 1va

L C

L

Fig. 5. Schematic description of (a) the case of one homogeneous clay layer and of (b) the case of two clay layers, together with the permeability coeﬃcient

of each soil layer.

660 T.A. Tran, T. Mitachi / Computers and Geotechnics 35 (2008) 655–672

3.1. Detailed description of the case of one clay layer

Regarding the equivalent radius of the band-shaped

drain, r

w

, FE analyses performed by Rixner et al. [17]

and supported by Hansbo [7] indicated that the equivalent

diameter of the band-shaped drain for use in practice can

be determined by

d

w

¼

a þ b

2

ð14Þ

where a and b are the width and the thickness of the rect-

angular cross-section of the band-shaped drain,

respectively.

Commonly, the band-shaped drain or PVD has dimen-

sions being 10 cm Â 0.4 cm. Using Eq. (14), we can obtain

d

w

ﬃ 5 cm and therefore r

w

ﬃ 2.5 cm or 0.025 m.

Concerning the smear zone radius, r

s

, according to Jam-

iolkowski and Lancellotta [13], the diameter of the smear

zone, d

s

, can be in the range of 2.5d

m

to 3d

m

, where d

m

is

the equivalent diameter of the mandrel used for driving

PVD into the soft ground. Referring to the practice of vac-

uum-surcharging in Japan, the mandrel usually has an

equivalent diameter d

m

= 12 cm, and, in this study, we

chose d

s

= 3d

m

. This leads to the smear zone diameter used

in this study is 36 cm or 0.36 m; therefore, r

s

= 0.18 m.

PVDs are commonly driven on a square grid; therefore,

the equivalent radius of the inﬂuence zone, R, needs to be

calculated. Logically, it can be deﬁned to be the radius of a

circle having the same area as that of a square. Therefore,

the following expression is obtained

R ¼ 1:128

S

2

_ _

ð15Þ

where S is the spacing between two vertical drains.

We observed that, in Japan, S is usually 0.8 m. Hence,

by using Eq. (15), the equivalent radius R was determined

to be 0.45 m for FE analyses in this paper.

Regarding B for FE analyses in this paper, we made two

plane strain unit cells, one has B = 0.45 m and the other

one has B = 0.75 m, in which their permeability was con-

verted by our conversion method from the axisymmetric

unit cell having R = 0.45 m. For convenience, b

w

of these

two plane strain cells was chosen equal to r

w

(i.e.

0.025 m) of the axisymmetric unit cell.

Concerning well resistance of vertical drains, we have

tested our proposed conversion method with various values

of well resistance that are selected on the basis of Mesri and

Lo [16] discharge capacity factor as follows

F

d

¼

q

wa

k

ha

l

2

¼ p

k

wa

k

ha

r

w

l

_ _

2

ð16Þ

where k

ha

is the horizontal permeability coeﬃcient in

undisturbed zone of the axisymmetric unit cell; q

wa

the dis-

charge capacity of the drain; l the drainage length of the

cell; r

w

the drain radius; k

wa

is the equivalent vertical per-

meability coeﬃcient of the drain.

Mesri and Lo [16] reported that well resistance is consid-

ered to be insigniﬁcant if F

d

is larger than 5. Therefore, we

have tested our conversion method for two values of F

d

,

which are 0.1 (i.e. very high well resistance) and 20 (i.e.

no well resistance), respectively.

3.1.1. Boundary conditions and computed cases

Because one of the basic assumptions of our analytical

solutions is based on ‘‘equal strain hypothesis”, therefore,

we have conducted FE analyses as follows:

(1) All the drain, the smear and undisturbed zones of the

axisymmetric cells, and both the drain-wall and the

equivalent zone of the plane strain cells converted

by our method were simulated by linear elastic mod-

els having the same elastic modulus (E = 1000 kN/

m

2

) and zero Poisson’s ratio.

(2) In the case of the axisymmetric cell, to avoid horizon-

tal displacement from the smear zone to the drain or

vice versa, the nodes on the boundary between the

drain and the smear zone are allowed to move in

the vertical direction only. Similarly, the nodes on

the boundary between the drain-wall and the equiva-

lent zone of the plane strain cell are also allowed to

move in the vertical direction only.

(3) An undrained rigid plate was put on the surface of each

of these axisymmetric and plane strain cells to ensure

the uniform settlement at the surface of the cells (see

Fig. 7). In addition, in accordance with the boundary

condition of the analytical solutions, the vacuum pres-

sure is applied to the top of the drain, not to the surface

of the cell; besides, all the vertical permeability of both

the axisymmetric and plane strain cells are set equal to

zero. This case, we named it VTD-ES (vacuum at the

top of the drain with equal strain).

In addition, we carried out other FE analyses to check

the applicability of our method in the case of free-strain

is allowed at the surface of the cell; in this case, the

undrained rigid plate in Fig. 7 is removed from the surface

of the cells, and the vacuum pressure is applied to both the

top of the drain and the surface of the cell. We named this

case VS-FS (vacuum pressure applied to the surface with

free strain).

In 1986, Rixner et al. [17] reported that, of clay soil with

no or slightly developed macrofabric, essentially homoge-

neous deposits, the ratio of the horizontal permeability to

the vertical permeability, k

h

/k

v

, can be in the range of 1–

1.5. Based on this report, for the case VS-FS, the vertical

permeability of the axisymmetric and plane strain cells is

chosen as follows:

(1) We assume the ratio, k

ha

/k

va

, equal to 1 for the undis-

turbed zone of the axisymmetric unit cell.

(2) For the smear zone of the axisymmetric unit cell, we

assume its vertical permeability, k

vsa

, is equal to the

vertical permeability of the undisturbed zone, k

va

.

T.A. Tran’, T. Mitachi / Computers and Geotechnics 35 (2008) 655–672 661

(3) For the plane strain cells converted by our method,

the vertical permeability of the equivalent zone, k

vp

,

is assumed to be equal to k

va

.

According to Kobayashi et al. [15], the horizontal per-

meability of the smear zone of the clay k

sa

can be decreased

to 1/5 of that of the undisturbed zone k

ha

. Therefore, for

the axisymmetric cell, we assumed the ratio k

sa

/k

ha

, to be

equal to 1/5.

In summary, all computed cases are illustrated in Fig. 6,

and all input parameters used for the case of one clay layer

are tabulated in Table 2. And, the boundary conditions and

meshes of the cells are shown in Fig. 7.

Note that, in engineering practice, the value of q

wa

is

available and then q

wp

can be calculated by using Eq.

(11). In this paper, for the purpose of investigating the

eﬀect of well resistance on each of cases computed by

Indraratna et al. [12] method and by our method, the

discharge capacity factor F

d

was ﬁrstly assumed as

shown in Table 2, and then q

wa

was calculated based

on Eq. (16).

Regarding the FEM program used, the Sage Crisp pro-

gram developed by the CRISP Consortium Ltd. and SAGE

Engineering Ltd. [18] on the basis of consolidation theory

of Biot [1] was employed; we used linear strain quadrilat-

eral elements that incorporate quadratic displacement

nodes together with linearly interpolated pore pressure

nodes in this program (see Fig. 8).

3.2. Detailed description of the case of two clay layers

We observed that the conversion method proposed by

Indraratna et al. [12] showed very good matching results

for the case of one clay layer, in their paper. Therefore,

a check on the applicability of both our proposed

method and Indraratna et al. [12] method for the case

of two clay layers would be worthwhile; for this reason,

FE analyses for the case of two clay layers were con-

ducted in this study.

In this two-clay-layer case, the geometric parameters of

the axisymmetric unit cell, R, r

s

, r

w

, were chosen the same

as those of the axisymmetric unit cell in the case of one clay

layer listed in Table 2. In general, the boundary conditions

and the mesh of the cells are shown in Fig. 9.

With regard to the soil properties and material param-

eters of the axisymmetric unit cell in this two-clay-layer

case.

For the vertical drain, all material parameters were

assumed to be the same as those in the case of one homo-

geneous clay layer.

For the upper and lower clay layers, all soil properties

except permeability were assumed to be the same as those

of the case of one homogeneous clay layer. For the perme-

ability of the smear and undisturbed zones in each layer,

the assumption is illustrated in Fig. 5b.

Note that, for the plane strain cell converted by Ind-

raratna et al. [12] method, we assumed the ratio of the

smear zone permeability to the undisturbed zone perme-

ability, k

sp

/k

hp

, equal to 1/5. On the other hand, the plane

strain unit cell of our proposed method has no plane strain

smear zone; therefore, such a kind of ratio is not required

in our plane strain unit cell.

Regarding the assumption of vertical permeability, of

both the two clay layers, the vertical permeability in the

smear and undisturbed zones of both the axisymmetric cell

and Indraratna et al. [12] plane strain cell is assumed to be

zero in the case of VTD-ES. Similarly, the vertical perme-

ability in the equivalent zone of our proposed plane strain

cell is also assumed to be zero.

In the case of VS-FS, the vertical permeability of the

plane strain cells was assumed as follows:

(1) For the plane strain cells converted by Indraratna

et al. [12] method, for the upper and lower clay layers,

both the vertical permeability of the smear zone, k

vsp

,

and of the undisturbed zone, k

vp

, are equal to the ver-

tical permeability of the undisturbed zone, k

va

, of the

corresponding layer in the axisymmetric cell. This

means that k

vsp

= k

vp

= k

va

for each of the upper

and lower clay layers.

(2) For the plane strain cells converted by our proposed

method, in each of the two clay layers, the vertical

permeability of the equivalent zone, k

vp

, is the same

as that of the undisturbed zone in the axisymmetric

cell. It should be noted here that k

vsp

is not needed

in our proposed plane strain cell.

The case of two clay layers

The case of one homogeneous clay layer

k = 1

1

k = 1

1

k = 0.5

1

1

k = 0.5

o

0.5p

o

p

o

p p

o

p

o

o

p

o

p

VTD-ES VS-FS

0.5p

o

o o

o

0.5p 0.5p

o

p p

o o

o

p

o

p

p p

VS-FS VTD-ES

VS-FS VTD-ES VS-FS VTD-ES

Fig. 6. Illustration of computed cases.

662 T.A. Tran, T. Mitachi / Computers and Geotechnics 35 (2008) 655–672

Table 2

Input parameters of the axisymmetric and plane strain unit cells for the case of one clay layer

Unit cell parameter Symbol Computed cases

VTD-ES VTD-ES VS-FS VS-FS

The axisymmetric unit cell

Radius of the axisymmetric cell (m) R 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45

Smear zone radius (m) r

s

0.180 0.180 0.180 0.180

Drain radius (m) r

w

0.025 0.025 0.025 0.025

Discharge factor F

d

20 0.1 20 0.1

Elastic modulus (kN/m

2

) and Poisson’s

ratio of the drain

E and m E = 1000 and m = 0

Horizontal permeability of the undisturbed

zone (m/day)

k

ha

4.30EÀ04 4.30EÀ04 4.30EÀ04 4.30EÀ04

Horizontal permeability of the smear zone

(m/day)

k

ha

(1/5)k

ha

(1/5)k

ha

(1/5)k

ha

(1/5)k

ha

Vertical permeability of the undisturbed and

smear zones (m/day)

k

va

and

k

vsa

0.0 0.0 4.30EÀ04 4.30EÀ04

Elastic modulus (kN/m

2

) and Poisson’s

ratio of the undisturbed and smear zones

E and m E = 1000 and m = 0

Computed cases

VTD-ES VTD-ES VTD-ES VTD-ES VS-FS VS-FS VS-FS VS-FS

The plane strain unit cell converted by our proposed method

Half-width of the plane strain cell (m) B 0.45 0.75 0.45 0.75 0.45 0.75 0.45 0.75

Half-width of the drain-wall (m) b

w

0.025 0.025 0.025 0.025 0.025 0.025 0.025 0.025

Elastic modulus (kN/m

2

) and Poisson’s

ratio of the drain-wall

E and m E = 1000 and m = 0

Horizontal permeability of the equivalent

zone (m/day)

k

#1

hp

2.86EÀ05 7.93EÀ05 2.86EÀ05 7.93EÀ05 2.86EÀ05 7.93EÀ05 2.86EÀ05 7.93EÀ05

Vertical permeability of the equivalent zone

(m/day)

k

vp

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.30EÀ04 4.30EÀ04 4.30EÀ04 4.30EÀ04

Elastic modulus (kN/m

2

) and Poisson’s

ratio of the equivalent zone

E and m E = 1000 and m = 0

Note: The superscript ‘‘#1” in the table means that this value was calculated based on Eq. (12).

(a) Axisymmetric unit cell, R = 0.45 m

w

Impermeable boundary

Vertical roller boundary Vertical roller boundary

Centreline of the drain

Impermeable boundary

Fixed, impermeable boundary

Horizontal roller boundary

Half drain, r = 2.5 cm

Smear zone, 15.5 cm

Fixed, impermeable boundary

Undisturbed zone, 27 cm

Impermeable boundary

Periphery of the cell

50 kPa

C

Undrained rigid plate

Top of the cell

Periphery of the drain

Vertical roller boundary

(b) Plane strain unit cell, B = 0.45 m

Equivalent zone, 42.5 cm

Half drain wall, b = 2.5 cm

Horizontal roller boundary

Fixed, impermeable boundary

Impermeable boundary

w

Negative 50 kPa excess pwp

Top of the drain

Top of the cell

Undrained rigid plate

50 kPa

Periphery of the cell

Impermeable boundary

Vertical roller boundary

Half drain wall, b = 2.5 cm

Horizontal roller boundary

Impermeable boundary

w

Fixed, impermeable boundary

Equivalent zone, 72.5 cm

Top of the cell

Undrained rigid plate

CL

50 kPa

Periphery of the cell

Impermeable boundary

Vertical roller boundary

Vertical roller boundary

Periphery of the drain

Impermeable boundary

Centreline of the drain

Vertical roller boundary

H

=

1

0

m

Vertical roller boundary

Centreline of the drain

Impermeable boundary

Vertical roller boundary

Periphery of the drain

Top of the drain

Negative 50 kPa excess pwp

Top of the drain

Negative 50 kPa excess pwp

(c) Plane strain unit cell, B = 0.75 m

L

C

L

Fig. 7. Boundary conditions and meshes of the axisymmetric and plane strain cells used in VTD-ES cases of one homogeneous clay layer.

T.A. Tran’, T. Mitachi / Computers and Geotechnics 35 (2008) 655–672 663

In summary, all computed cases for this two-clay-layer

case are illustrated in Fig. 6, and all input parameters used

for these plane strain cells are shown in Tables 3 and 4.

In this two-clay-layer case, when Indraratna et al. [12]

conversion expression was used for the lower clay layer,

then a question arose as to whether we should choose the

length of the drainage path of the drain (l) of the axisym-

metric unit cell in the lower clay layer equal to the total

thickness of both two clay layers (l = 10 m) or equal to

the thickness of the lower clay layer only (l = 5.05 m). All

permeability for the lower clay layer of plane strain cells

converted by Indraratna et al. [12] conversion expression,

in accordance with both l = 10 and 5.05 m, are listed in

Table 4.

In Table 4, in the case that the plane strain cell has

B = 0.75 m together with q

wp

= 0.0043 m

3

/day (i.e. corre-

sponding to F

d

= 0.1 of the axisymmetric cell), the con-

verted permeability of the lower clay layer based on

Indraratna et al. [12] method becomes negative, even

though using either l = 10 or 5.05 m. Therefore, we could

not model this case by Indraratna et al. [12] method. For

this reason, the comparison between our method and

Indraratna et al. [12] method was not conducted for this

case.

Also in Table 4, when the plane strain cell has

B = 0.45 m together with q

wp

= 0.0043 m

3

/day, the con-

verted permeability of the lower clay layer based on Ind-

raratna et al. [12] method also becomes negative if using

l = 10 m (i.e. equal to the total thickness of both two clay

layers). Hence, for the lower clay layer, we did not choose

l = 10 m, but chose l = 5.05 m (i.e. equal to the thickness of

this layer) to input into the conversion expression of Ind-

raratna et al. [12].

4. Results and discussion

4.1. In the case of one homogeneous clay layer

FE results of the degree of consolidation of the axisym-

metric cell, and of our proposed plane strain cell are shown

in Figs. 10 and 11, in which all curves of degree of consol-

idation were calculated based on the surface settlement of

the soil layer.

Centreline of the drain

Vertical roller boundary

Impermeable boundary

Periphery of the drain

Vertical roller boundary

Top of the drain

Negative 50 kPa excess pwp

w

Impermeable boundary

Half drain wall, b = 2.5 cm

Horizontal roller boundary

Fixed, impermeable boundary

Equivalent zone, 42.5 cm

(b) Plane strain unit cell, B = 0.45 m

w

Half drain, r = 2.5 cm

Impermeable boundary

Horizontal roller boundary

Fixed, impermeable boundary

Fixed, impermeable boundary

Smear zone, 15.5 cm

Undisturbed zone, 27 cm

(a) Axisymmetric unit cell, R = 0.45 m

H

=

4

.

9

5

m

Negative 50 kPa excess pwp

Top of the drain

50 kPa

Vertical roller boundary

Periphery of the drain

Centreline of the drain

Vertical roller boundary

Impermeable boundary

Undrained rigid plate

Top of the cell

Periphery of the cell

Impermeable boundary

Vertical roller boundary

H

=

5

.

0

5

m

U

p

p

e

r

c

l

a

y

l

a

y

e

r

L

o

w

e

r

c

l

a

y

l

a

y

e

r

Top of the cell

Undrained rigid plate

C

50 kPa

Periphery of the cell

Impermeable boundary

Vertical roller boundary

L

C

L

Fig. 9. Boundary conditions and meshes of the axisymmetric and plane strain cells used in VTD-ES cases of two clay layers.

Integration point

Pore pressure unknown

Displacement unknown

Fig. 8. The element type used for FE analyses.

664 T.A. Tran, T. Mitachi / Computers and Geotechnics 35 (2008) 655–672

The proposed conversion method was validated in the

case of VTD-ES with k

1

= 1. As shown in Fig. 10a, it

can be seen that a good agreement in the degree of

consolidation, between the proposed plane strain cell and

the axisymmetric cell, was obtained not only under no-

well-resistance condition, but also under high well

resistance condition. After that, the proposed method

was also examined in the case of VS-FS with k

1

= 1; as

shown in Fig. 10b, the same good agreement as that in

Fig. 10a was obtained under both no-well resistance and

high well resistance conditions.

Further, we tested the proposed method in the case of

VTD-ES with k

1

= 0.5. The results in Fig. 11a indicated

that, under both no well resistance and high well resistance

conditions, the proposed method produced good matching

results. Finally, we tested the proposed method in the case

of VS-FS with k

1

= 0.5. As can be seen in Fig. 11b, the

same good matching results as those in the case of VTD-

ES (k

1

= 0.5) were also obtained.

4.2. In the case of two clay layers

The FE results of the degree of consolidation of the

axisymmetric cell, of the Indraratna et al. [12] plane

strain cell, and of our proposed plane strain cell are pre-

sented in Fig. 12, in which all curves of degree of consol-

idation were calculated based on the surface settlement

of soil layers.

Besides, the diﬀerence in the degree of consolidation

(U

a

À U

p

) between the axisymmetric unit cell (U

a

) and

the plane train unit cell (U

p

) of Indraratna et al. [12]

method, and the plane strain cell (U

p

) of our proposed

method is illustrated in Fig. 13.

As shown in Fig. 12a and b, the results of degree of con-

solidation revealed that both methods are very good under

no well resistance condition (F

d

= 20).

Fig. 13a shows that, under the condition of F

d

= 20, the

maximum diﬀerence in the degree of consolidation

(U

a

À U

p

), of the whole two clay layers is 2% for Ind-

raratna et al. [12] method, and 4% for the proposed

method. This means that our method produced matching

results which are almost as good as those of Indraratna

et al. [12] method (under condition of F

d

= 20). Besides,

also under condition of F

d

= 20, Fig. 13b showed that

the maximum diﬀerence in the degree of consolidation of

the lower clay layer is 1% for Indraratna et al. [12] method,

and 2.5% for the proposed method.

Under high well resistance condition, Figs. 12a and

13a revealed that, of the whole two clay layers, the max-

imum diﬀerence (U

a

À U

p

) of Indraratna et al. [12]

method is 9%, which is considered to be fairly high,

whereas the maximum diﬀerence of the proposed method

is 2%. Figs. 12b and 13b show that, of the lower clay

layer, the maximum diﬀerence (U

a

À U

p

) under high well

resistance condition of Indraratna et al. [12] method even

reach 14%, whereas the diﬀerence of the proposed

method is less than 1%.

Further, we examined both methods in the case of VS-

FS with k

1

= 0.5 as shown in Fig. 12c, d and 13c, d. As

can be seen in these ﬁgures, almost the same results as those

in the case of VTD-ES (k

1

= 0.5) are obtained. However, in

this VS-FS case, the maximum diﬀerence in the degree of

Table 3

Input parameters of the plane strain unit cells converted by our method for the case of two clay layers

Parameters of the proposed plane strain unit

cell

Symbol Computed cases

VTD-ES VTD-ES VTD-ES VTD-ES VS-FS VS-FS VS-FS VS-FS

Half-width of the plane strain cell (m) B 0.45 0.75 0.45 0.75 0.45 0.75 0.45 0.75

Half-width of the drain-wall (m) b

w

0.025

Discharge capacity of the drain-wall (m

3

/

day)

q

wp

1.222

à1

1.222

à1

0.0061

à2

0.0061

à2

1.222

à1

1.222

à1

0.0061

à2

0.0061

à2

Elastic modulus (kN/m

2

) and Poisson’s

ratio of the drain-wall

E and m E = 1000 and m = 0

The upper clay layer

Horizontal permeability of the equivalent

zone (m/day)

k

#1

hp

2.86EÀ05 7.93EÀ05 2.86EÀ05 7.93EÀ05 2.86EÀ05 7.93EÀ05 2.86EÀ05 7.93EÀ05

Vertical permeability of the equivalent zone

(m/day)

k

vp

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.30EÀ04 4.30EÀ04 4.30EÀ04 4.30EÀ04

Elastic modulus (kN/m

2

) and Poisson’s

ratio of the equivalent zone

E and m E = 1000 and m = 0

The lower clay layer

Horizontal permeability of the equivalent

zone (m/day)

k

#1

hp

1.43EÀ04 3.97EÀ04 1.43EÀ04 3.97EÀ04 1.43EÀ04 3.97EÀ04 1.43EÀ04 3.97EÀ04

Vertical permeability of the equivalent zone

(m/day)

k

vp

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.15EÀ03 2.15EÀ03 2.15EÀ03 2.15EÀ03

Elastic modulus (kN/m

2

) and Poisson’s

ratio of the equivalent zone

E and m E = 1000 and m = 0

Note: The superscript ‘‘#1” means that this value was calculated based on Eq. (12). The superscript ‘‘à1” means that this value was calculated based on Eq.

(11) and is corresponding to F

d

= 20. The superscript ‘‘à2” means that this value was calculated based on Eq. (11) and is corresponding to F

d

= 0.1.

T.A. Tran’, T. Mitachi / Computers and Geotechnics 35 (2008) 655–672 665

Table 4

Input parameters of the plane strain unit cells converted by Indraratna et al. [12] method for the case of two clay layers

Parameters of the plane strain unit

cell of Indraratna et al. [12]

Symbol Computed cases

VTD-ES VTD-ES VTD-ES VTD-ES VS-FS VS-FS VS-FS VS-FS

Half-width of plane strain cell (m) B 0.45 0.75 0.45 0.75 0.45 0.75 0.45 0.75

Half-width of drain-wall (m) b

w

0.025

Discharge capacity of the drain-wall

(m

3

/day)

q

wp

0.864

§1

0.864

§1

0.0043

§2

0.0043

§2

0.864

§1

0.864

§1

0.0043

§2

0.0043

§2

Elastic modulus (kN/m

2

) and

Poisson’s ratio of the drain-wall

E and m E = 1000 and m = 0

The upper clay layer; we chose l = 4.95 m (i.e. equal to the thickness of this layer)

Horizontal permeability of the

undisturbed zone (m/day)

k

#2

hp

1.01EÀ04 2.27EÀ04 2.27EÀ04 6.55EÀ04 1.01EÀ04 2.27EÀ04 2.27EÀ04 6.55EÀ04

Horizontal permeability of the smear

zone (m/day)

k

sp

(1/5)k

hp

Vertical permeability of the

undisturbed and smear zones

(m/day)

k

vp

and

k

vsp

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.30EÀ04 4.30EÀ04 4.30EÀ04 4.30EÀ04

Elastic modulus (kN/m

2

) and

Poisson’s ratio of the undisturbed

and smear zones

E and m E = 1000 and m = 0

The lower clay layer; if choosing l = 5.05 m (i.e. equal to the thickness of this layer)

Horizontal permeability of the

undisturbed zone (m/day)

k

#2

hp

5.09EÀ04 1.15EÀ03 4.79EÀ03 À4.71EÀ04 5.09EÀ04 1.15EÀ03 4.79EÀ03 À4.71EÀ04

Horizontal permeability of the smear

zone (m/day)

k

sp

(1/5)k

hp

Vertical permeability of the

undisturbed and smear zones

(m/day)

k

vp

and

k

vsp

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.15EÀ03 2.15EÀ03 2.15EÀ03 2.15EÀ03

Elastic modulus (kN/m

2

) and

Poisson’s ratio of the undisturbed

and smear zones

E and m E = 1000 and m = 0

The lower clay layer; if choosing l = 10 m (i.e. equal to the total thickness of the two clay layers)

Horizontal permeability of the

undisturbed zone (m/day)

k

#2

hp

5.15EÀ04 1.21EÀ03 À2.02EÀ04 À9.17EÀ05 5.15EÀ04 1.21EÀ03 À2.02EÀ04 À9.17EÀ05

Horizontal permeability of the smear

zone (m/day)

k

sp

(1/5)k

hp

Note: The superscript ‘‘#2” means that this value was calculated based on Eq. (

*

) in Table 1. The superscript ‘‘§1” means that this value was assumed to be

equal to q

wa

, which is corresponding to F

d

= 20. The superscript ‘‘§2” means that this value was assumed to be equal to q

wa

, but, in this case, q

wa

is

corresponding to F

d

= 0.1.

(b) VS-FS with k

1

=1

0

20

40

60

80

100

0.1 1 10 100

Time factor T

h

D

e

g

r

e

e

o

f

c

o

n

s

o

l

i

d

a

t

i

o

n

U

h

(

%

)

(a) VTD- ES with k

1

=1

0

20

40

60

80

100

0.1 1 10 100

Time factor T

h

D

e

g

r

e

e

o

f

c

o

n

s

o

l

i

d

a

t

i

o

n

U

h

(

%

)

<The case: Fd = 0.1>

B0.45: Proposed

R0.45: Axisymmetric

B0.75: Proposed

<The case: Fd = 0.1>

B0.45: Proposed

R0.45: Axisymmetric

B0.75: Proposed

R0.45: Axisymmetric

<The case: Fd = 20>

B0.45: Proposed

B0.75: Proposed

R0.45: Axisymmetric

<The case: Fd = 20>

B0.45: Proposed

B0.75: Proposed

o

o

p

p

o

o

p

p

i

h

i

: =

:

i

i

:

:

Fig. 10. Comparison of FEM results of the axisymmetric unit cell having R = 0.45 m (R0.45: Axisymmetric) with that of the plane strain unit cell having

B = 0.45 m (B0.45: Proposed) and with that of the plane strain unit cell having B = 0.75 m (B0.75: Proposed); these graphs corresponding to the case of

one clay layer and k

1

= 1.

666 T.A. Tran, T. Mitachi / Computers and Geotechnics 35 (2008) 655–672

0.1 1 10 100

(a) VTD-ES with k

1

=0.5

0.1 1 10 100

Time factor Th

= 0.1>

B0.45: Proposed

R0.45: Axisymmetric

B0.75: Proposed

<The case: Fd = 0.1>

B0.45: Proposed

R0.45: Axisymmetric

B0.75: Proposed

B0.45: Proposed

B0.75: Proposed

R0.45: Axisymmetric

B0.45:

<The case: Fd = 20>

B0.75:

o

o

0.5p

p

o

0.5p

o

p

1

f

= 0.1>

.7

:

. 5:

(b) VS-FS with k

1

=0.5

1

0

20

40

60

80

100

Time factor Th f

D

e

g

r

e

e

o

f

c

o

n

s

o

l

i

d

a

t

i

o

n

U

h

(

%

)

0

20

40

60

80

100

D

e

g

r

e

e

o

f

c

o

n

s

o

l

i

d

a

t

i

o

n

U

h

(

%

)

<The case: Fd = 0.1>

R0.45: Axisymmetric

<The case: Fd = 20>

Proposed

:

5: Proposed

o

Fig. 11. Comparison of FEM results of the axisymmetric unit cell having R = 0.45 m (R0.45: Axisymmetric) with that of the plane strain unit cell having

B = 0.45 m (B0.45: Proposed) and with that of the plane strain unit cell having B = 0.75 m (B0.75: Proposed); these graphs corresponding to the case of

one clay layer and k

1

= 0.5.

0 0

60

80

100

0.1

1

10

Time factor T

D

e

g

r

e

e

o

f

c

o

n

s

o

l

i

d

a

t

i

o

n

U

h

(

%

)

o

0.5p

o

p

o

0.5p

o

of lower clay layer

Degree of consolidation

o

0.5p

o

p p

o

0.5p

o

Degree of consolidation

of lower clay layer

B0.45:

R0.45:

B0.45: In

<The case: Fd = 20>

B0.45: Proposed

R0.45: Axisymmetric

B0.45: Indraratna

<The case: Fd = 20>

B0.45: Proposed

R0.45: Axisymmetric

B0.45: Indraratna

<The case: Fd = 0.1>

B0.45: Proposed

R0.45: Axisymmetric

B0.45: Indraratna

<The case: Fd = 20>

B0.45: Proposed

R0.45: Axisymmetric

B0.45: Indraratna

<The case: Fd = 0.1>

B0.45: Proposed

R0.45: Axisymmetric

B0.45: Indraratna

VTD-ES with k

1

=0.5; U

h

for two clay layers

20

40

100

0.1

1

10

100

Time factor T

0.1

1

10

Time factor T

100

0.1 1 10 100

Time factor T

0

60

80

100

D

e

g

r

e

e

o

f

c

o

n

s

o

l

i

d

a

t

i

o

n

U

h

(

%

)

20

40

0

60

80

100

D

e

g

r

e

e

o

f

c

o

n

s

o

l

i

d

a

t

i

o

n

U

h

(

%

)

20

40

60

80

100

D

e

g

r

e

e

o

f

c

o

n

s

o

l

i

d

a

t

i

o

n

U

h

(

%

)

20

40

(a) VTD-ES with k

1

=0.5; U

h

for lower clay layer (b)

VS- FS with k

1

=0.5; U

h

for lower clay layer (d)

VS- FS with k

1

=0.5; U

h

for two clay layers (c)

p

p

of lower clay layer

Degree of consolidation

o

0.5p

o

p p

o

0.5p

o

Degree of consolidation

of lower clay layer

<The case: Fd = 20>

<The case: Fd = 0.1>

Proposed

Axisymmetric

draratna

B0.45:

R0.45:

B0.45: In

Proposed

Axisymmetric

draratna

<The case: Fd = 0.1>

B0.45:

R0.45:

B0.45: In

Proposed

Axisymmetric

draratna

<The case: Fd = 20>

B0.45: Proposed

R0.45: Axisymmetric

B0.45: Indraratna

<The case: Fd = 20>

B0.45: Proposed

R0.45: Axisymmetric

B0.45: Indraratna

<The case: Fd = 0.1>

B0.45: Proposed

R0.45: Axisymmetric

B0.45: Indraratna

<The case: Fd = 20>

B0.45: Proposed

R0.45: Axisymmetric

B0.45: Indraratna

<The case: Fd = 0.1>

B0.45: Proposed

R0.45: Axisymmetric

B0.45: Indraratna

Fig. 12. Comparison of FEM results of the axisymmetric unit cell having R = 0.45 m (R0.45: axisymmetric) with that of the plane strain unit cell

converted by Indraratna et al. [12] method (B0.45: Indraratna) and with that of the plane strain unit cell converted by the proposed method (B0.45:

Proposed); these graphs corresponding to the case of the two clay layers and k

1

= 0.5.

T.A. Tran’, T. Mitachi / Computers and Geotechnics 35 (2008) 655–672 667

consolidation in the lower clay layer of Indraratna et al.

[12] method is 12%, i.e. little smaller than the value 14%

in the case of VTD-ES, but this value 12% is still be consid-

ered to be signiﬁcant.

5. Conclusions

By modifying Indraratna et al. [12] method, which was

developed for cases of single layer subsoil, a new conver-

sion method has been proposed in this study to convert

an axisymmetric unit cell to an equivalent plane strain cell

under vacuum-surcharge preloading condition.

In the proposed method, the widths and the permeabil-

ity of the smear and undisturbed zones in the axisymmetric

cell are converted theoretically into an equivalent perme-

ability of the equivalent zone in the proposed plane strain

cell. And, as the proposed cell has no plane strain smear

zone, a full-scale plane strain simulation of soft ground

improved by vertical drains under vacuum-surcharge pre-

loading can be conveniently made.

Besides, in the proposed method, the determination of

the length of the drainage path of the drain (l) in each soil

layer (of a multi-layer subsoil) is not required in determin-

ing the equivalent permeability for each soil layer.

The proposed method was validated via analyzing con-

solidation of the axisymmetric and plane strain unit cells in

two cases, one is a homogeneous clay layer, and the other

one is a two-clay-layer case. The vertical drains analyzed in

these cases are under two conditions, no well resistance

(F

d

= 20), and high well resistance (F

d

= 0.1). The analyzed

results showed that the proposed method produced very

good agreements in all the cases. In addition, the results

also indicated that the proposed method can be used well,

not only under equal strain condition, but also under free

strain condition.

Acknowledgements

The ﬁnancial support from JICA (Japan International

Cooperation Agency) for this study through AUN/

(a) VTD-ES with k

1

=0.5; (U

a

- U

p

) for two clay layers

0.1 1 10 100

Time factor T

U

a

−

U

p

(

%

)

(b) VTD-ES with k

1

=0.5; (U

a

- U

p

) for lower clay layer

U

a

−

U

p

(

%

)

(c) VS-FS with k

1

=0.5; (U

a

- U

p

) for two clay layers

-14

-12

-10

-8

-6

-4

-2

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

U

a

−

U

p

(

%

)

(d) VS-FS with k

1

=0.5; (U

a

- U

p

) for lower clay layer

-14

-12

-10

-8

-6

-4

-2

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

U

a

−

U

p

(

%

)

Indraratna

<The case: Fd = 20>

Proposed

Indraratna

Proposed

<The case: Fd = 0.1>

Indraratna

Proposed

<The case: Fd = 0.1>

Indraratna

Proposed

<The case: Fd = 0.1>

Indraratna

Proposed

<The case: Fd = 0.1>

Indraratna

<The case: Fd = 20>

Proposed

Indraratna

<The case: Fd = 20>

Proposed

Indraratna

<The case: Fd = 20>

Proposed

(a) VTD-ES with k

1

=0.5; (U

a

- U

p

) for two clay layers

-14

-12

-10

-8

-6

-4

-2

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

-14

-12

-10

-8

-6

-4

-2

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

10 100

T

h

0.1 1 10 100

Time factor T

10 100

T

h

0.1 1 10 100

Time factor T

10 100

T

h

0.1 1 10 100

Time factor T

10 100

T

h

−

(b) VTD-ES with k

1

=0.5; (U

a

- U

p

) for lower clay layer

U

a

−

U

p

(

%

)

(c) VS-FS with k

1

=0.5; (U

a

- U

p

) for two clay layers

-14

-12

-10

-8

-6

-4

-2

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

U

a

−

U

p

(

%

)

(d) VS-FS with k

1

=0.5; (U

a

- U

p

) for lower clay layer

-14

-12

-10

-8

-6

-4

-2

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

U

a

−

U

p

(

%

)

Indraratna

<The case: Fd = 20>

Proposed

Indraratna

Proposed

<The case: Fd = 0.1>

Indraratna

Proposed

<The case: Fd = 0.1>

Indraratna

Proposed

<The case: Fd = 0.1>

Indraratna

Proposed

<The case: Fd = 0.1>

Indraratna

<The case: Fd = 20>

Proposed

Indraratna

<The case: Fd = 20>

Proposed

Indraratna

Proposed

<The case: Fd = 0.1>

Indraratna

Proposed

<The case: Fd = 0.1>

Indraratna

Proposed

<The case: Fd = 0.1>

Indraratna

Proposed

<The case: Fd = 0.1>

Indraratna

<The case: Fd = 20>

Proposed

Indraratna

<The case: Fd = 20>

Proposed

Indraratna

<The case: Fd = 20>

Proposed

Fig. 13. The diﬀerence in the degree of consolidation between the axisymmetric unit cell and the plane strain unit cell converted by Indraratna et al. [12]

method, and the plane strain unit cell converted by the proposed method; these graphs corresponding to the case of two clay layers with k

1

= 0.5 that is

shown in Fig. 12.

668 T.A. Tran, T. Mitachi / Computers and Geotechnics 35 (2008) 655–672

SEED-Net Project (ASEAN University Network/South-

east Asia Engineering Education Development Network

Project) is greatly appreciated. Besides, the authors would

like to thank Associate Professor, Dr. Hiroyuki Tanaka

of Hokkaido University very much for his various com-

ments and suggestions on this study.

Appendix A. Formulation of the analytical solution for the

average excess pore pressure of the axisymmetric unit cell

Consider a horizontal cross-sectional slice with a thick-

ness dz from the radius r to the outer radius R of the axi-

symmetric unit cell (see Fig. A1a).

The centripetal ﬂow rate (into the drain) in the slice at

radius r can be deﬁned by

oq

ot

¼

k

h

c

w

ou

or

2pr dz ðA1Þ

where q, u, c

w

, and k

h

are horizontal ﬂow of water in the

soil mass, excess pore water pressure, unit weight of water,

and horizontal permeability coeﬃcient of soil, respectively.

The rate of the soil volume change of the slice, from the

radius r to the outer radius R, in the vertical direction can

be determined by

oV

ot

¼

oe

ot

pðR

2

À r

2

Þdz ðA2Þ

where V and e are volume of the soil mass and vertical

strain, respectively.

Assuming that water is incompressible, therefore Eq.

(A1) = Eq. (A2).

For undisturbed zone, r

s

6 r 6 R we can obtain

ou

or

¼

c

w

2

oe

ot

1

k

ha

R

2

À r

2

r

_ _

ðA3aÞ

where u and k

ha

are excess pore water pressure and hori-

zontal permeability coeﬃcient of the soil in the undisturbed

zone, respectively.

For smear zone, r

w

6 r 6 r

s

we obtain:

ou

s

or

¼

c

w

2

oe

ot

1

k

sa

R

2

À r

2

r

_ _

ðA3bÞ

where u

s

and k

sa

are excess pore water pressure and hori-

zontal permeability coeﬃcient of soil in the smear zone,

respectively.

Considering a horizontal cross-sectional slice with a

thickness dz of the circular cylindrical drain with radius

r

w

(Fig. A1b), the change of vertical ﬂow of water within

the drain, in the z direction, from the entrance face to the

exit face of the slice can be calculated by

dq

z

¼

q

wa

c

w

o

2

u

oz

2

dz dt ðA4Þ

where q

wa

is the discharge capacity of the drain.

The horizontal inﬂow of water, in the radial direction,

from the outer face of the slice of the circular cylindrical

drain is determined by

dq

r

¼

2pr

w

k

sa

c

w

ou

or

dz dt for r ¼ r

w

ðA5Þ

where r

w

is the equivalent radius of the drain.

For continuity of ﬂow, the following equation must be

satisﬁed

dq

z

¼ Àdq

r

ðA6Þ

therefore

ou

or

_ _

r

w

þ

q

wa

2pr

w

k

sa

o

2

u

oz

2

_ _

r

w

¼ 0 for r ¼ r

w

ðA7Þ

Substituting Eq. (A3b) into Eq. (A7), we obtain

o

2

u

w

oz

2

¼ À

c

w

pr

2

w

q

wa

n

2

a

À 1

_ _

oe

ot

ðA8Þ

where n

a

is the ratio R/r

w

; u

w

is the excess pore water pres-

sure at r

w

.

r

w

s

r

R

z

q

z z

q + dq

dz

r

dq

dq

r

Smear zone

Undisturbed zone Undisturbed zone

Undisturbed zone

Smear zone

q

q

dz

r

R

r

s

w

r

Fig. A1. A horizontal cross-sectional slice of the axisymmetric unit cell.

T.A. Tran’, T. Mitachi / Computers and Geotechnics 35 (2008) 655–672 669

By using the following boundary conditions:

At z ¼ 0 : u

w

¼ Àp

0

.

At z ¼ l :

ouw

oz

¼ p

0

1Àk

1

l

_ _

.

The solution of Eq. (A8) can be given by

u

w

¼ Àp

0

1 À ð1 À k

1

Þ

z

l

_ _

þ

c

w

pr

2

w

q

wa

n

2

a

À 1

_ _

oe

ot

lz À

z

2

2

_ _

ðA9Þ

After that, integrating Eq. (A3b) in the r direction with the

boundary condition that at r = r

w

, u

s

= u

w

(i.e. Eq. (A9)).

Therefore, for r

w

6 r 6 r

s

, the following equation is

obtained

u

s

¼ Àp

0

1 À ð1 À k

1

Þ

z

l

_ _

þ

c

w

2

oe

ot

Â

1

k

sa

R

2

ln

r

r

w

À

r

2

À r

2

w

2

þ k

sa

pr

2

w

q

wa

ðn

2

a

À 1Þð2lz À z

2

Þ

_ _

ðA10Þ

or

u

s

¼ ½pðzÞ þ

c

w

2

oe

ot

Â

1

k

sa

R

2

ln

r

r

w

À

r

2

À r

2

w

2

þ k

sa

½qðzÞ

_ _

ðA11Þ

where

½pðzÞ ¼ Àp

0

1 À ð1 À k

1

Þ

z

l

_ _

and ½qðzÞ

¼

pr

2

w

q

wa

n

2

a

À 1

_ _

ð2lz À z

2

Þ

Then, integrating Eq. (A3a) along the r direction with the

boundary condition that at r = r

s

, u = u

s

(i.e. Eq. (A11)).

Hence, for r

s

6 r 6 R, we can obtain the following

equation

u ¼ ½pðzÞ þ

c

w

2

oe

ot

1

k

sa

R

2

ln

r

r

s

À

r

2

À r

2

s

2

þ

k

ha

k

sa

R

2

ln

r

s

r

w

À

r

2

s

À r

2

w

2

_ _ _

þk

ha

½qðzÞ

_

ðA12Þ

Let u be the average excess pore water pressure throughout

a horizontal cross-section at depth z and for a given time, t

u ¼

_

rs

rw

2pu

s

r dr þ

_

R

rs

2pur dr

p R

2

À r

2

w

_ _ ðA13Þ

After substituting Eqs. (A11) and (A12) into Eq. (A13),

and integrating it, ﬁnally Eq. (A13) becomes

u ¼ Àp

0

1 À ð1 À k

1

Þ

z

l

_ _

þ

c

w

2

oe

ot

Â

R

2

k

ha

ln

n

a

s

a

þ

k

ha

k

sa

ln s

a

À

3

4

þ pzð2l À zÞ

k

ha

q

wa

_ _

ðA14Þ

We assume that

oe

ot

¼ m

v

or

0

ot

¼ Àm

v

ou

ot

ðA15Þ

where m

v

is the coeﬃcient of volume compressibility for

one dimensional compression.

Substituting Eq. (A15) into Eq. (A14) then integrating it

with time, t, and introducing the boundary condition that

at t = 0, u ¼ r

1

, then the following expression can be

obtained

u ¼ r

1

þ p

0

1 À ð1 À k

1

Þ

z

l

_ _ _ _

exp À

8T

ha

l

za

_ _

À p

0

1 À ð1 À k

1

Þ

z

l

_ _

ðA16Þ

where

l

za

¼ ln

n

a

s

a

þ

k

ha

k

sa

ln s

a

À

3

4

þ pzð2l À zÞ

k

ha

q

wa

ðA17Þ

T

ha

¼

C

ha

t

4R

2

¼

k

ha

m

v

c

w

t

4R

2

ðA18Þ

Appendix B. Formulation of the analytical solution for the

average excess pore pressure of the plane strain unit cell

Let us consider a horizontal cross-sectional slice with a

thickness dz from the vertical cross-section x to the width

B of the plane strain unit cell (see Fig. B1a).

In the slice, the horizontal ﬂow rate into the drain, at

cross-section x, can be deﬁned by

B

dz

q

z

dq

x

x

dq

w

b

q + dq

z z

q

q

x

B

dz

w

b

Equivalent zone

Equivalent zone

dy= 1

dy =1

Fig. B1. A horizontal cross-sectional slice of the plane strain cell.

670 T.A. Tran, T. Mitachi / Computers and Geotechnics 35 (2008) 655–672

oq

ot

¼

k

hp

c

w

ou

ox

dz dy ¼

k

hp

c

w

ou

ox

dz Á 1 ¼

k

hp

c

w

ou

ox

dz ðB1Þ

where q is the horizontal ﬂow of water in the soil mass; k

hp

is the equivalent horizontal permeability coeﬃcient of the

soil in the plane strain cell.

The rate of the soil volume change of the slice in the ver-

tical direction, within the space from width x to the width

B, can be determined by

oV

ot

¼

oe

ot

ðB À xÞdz ðB2Þ

where V, e, and B are volume of the soil mass, vertical

strain, and half-width of the equivalent plane strain cell,

respectively.

Assume that water is incompressible, therefore Eq.

(B1) = Eq. (B2), then the following equation can be

obtained

ou

ox

¼

c

w

k

hp

oe

ot

ðB À xÞ ðB3Þ

where u is excess pore water pressure in the equivalent zone

of the plane strain cell; k

hp

is the equivalent horizontal per-

meability coeﬃcient of the equivalent zone of the plane

strain cell.

The change of vertical water ﬂow within the drain-wall,

in the z direction, from the entrance face to the exit face of

the slice (see Fig. B1b) can be calculated by

dq

z

¼

q

wp

c

w

o

2

u

oz

2

dz dt ðB4Þ

where q

wp

is the discharge capacity of the drain-wall.

The horizontal inﬂow of water, from the outer face of

the drain-wall slice, ﬂows into the drain-wall, can be deter-

mined by

dq

x

¼

k

hp

c

w

ou

ox

dz dt for x ¼ b

w

ðB5Þ

where b

w

is the half-width of the drain-wall.

For continuity of ﬂow, the following equation must be

satisﬁed

dq

z

¼ À2dq

x

ðB6Þ

therefore, it leads to

o

2

u

oz

2

_ _

¼ À

2k

hp

q

wp

ou

ox

_ _

bw

for x ¼ b

w

ðB7Þ

Substituting Eq. (B3) into Eq. (B7), we obtain

o

2

u

oz

2

¼ À

2c

w

q

wp

oe

ot

ðB À b

w

Þ at x ¼ b

w

ðB8Þ

By using the following boundary conditions:

At z = 0 and x = b

w

: u = Àp

0

.

At z = l and x ¼ b

w

:

ou

oz

¼ p

0

1Àk

1

l

_ _

.

The solution of Eq. (B8) for u

w

at x = b

w

can be given by

u

w

¼ Àp

0

1 À ð1 À k

1

Þ

z

l

_ _

þ

2c

w

q

wp

B À b

w

ð Þ

oe

ot

lz À

z

2

2

_ _

ðB9Þ

Integrating Eq. (B3) with the following boundary

condition.

At x = b

w

, we have u = u

w

being Eq. (B9).

Therefore, for b

w

6 x 6 B, the following equation is

obtained

u ¼ ½pðzÞ þ c

w

oe

ot

1

2k

p

ð2Bx À x

2

Þ þ

B À b

w

q

wp

ð2lz À z

2

Þ

_

À

1

2k

p

2Bb

w

À b

2

w

_ _

_

ðB10Þ

where

½pðzÞ ¼ Àp

0

1 À ð1 À k

1

Þ

z

l

_ _

Let u be the average excess pore water pressure through-

out a horizontal cross-section at a given depth z and for a

given time, t

u ¼

_

B

bw

udx

B À b

w

ðB11Þ

After substituting Eq. (B10) into Eq. (B11), and integrating

it, ﬁnally Eq. (B11) becomes

u ¼ Àp

0

1 À ð1 À k

1

Þ

z

l

_ _

þ

ðB À b

w

Þ

2

k

hp

c

w

2

Â

oe

ot

2

3

þ

2k

hp

ðB À b

w

Þq

wp

ð2lz À z

2

Þ

_ _

ðB12Þ

Substituting Eq. (A15) (in Appendix A) into Eq. (B12),

then integrating it with boundary condition that at t = 0,

u ¼ r

1

, ﬁnally the following expression can be obtained

u ¼ r

1

þ p

0

1 À ð1 À k

1

Þ

z

l

_ _ _ _

exp À

8T

hp

l

zp

_ _

À p

0

1 À ð1 À k

1

Þ

z

l

_ _

ðB13Þ

where

l

zp

¼

2

3

þ

2k

hp

Bq

wp

ð2lz À z

2

Þ ðB14Þ

T

hp

¼

C

hp

t

4B

2

¼

t

4B

2

k

hp

m

v

c

w

ðB15Þ

References

[1] Biot MA. General theory of three-dimensional consolidation. J Appl

Phys 1941;12:155–64.

[2] Barron RA. Consolidation of ﬁne-grained soils by drain wells. ASCE

Trans 1948;113:718–54.

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[3] Chai JC, Miura N, Sakajo S, Bergado DT. Behavior of vertical drain

improved subsoil under embankment loading. Soil Found

1995;35(4):49–61.

[4] Chai JC, Shen SL, Miura N, Bergado DT. Simple method of

modeling PVD improved subsoil. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng, ASCE

2001;127(11):965–72.

[5] Chai JC, Carter JP, Hayashi S. Vacuum consolidation and its

combination with embankment loading. Can Geotech J 2006;43:

985–96.

[6] Hansbo S. Consolidation of ﬁne-grained soils by prefabricated

drains. In: Proceedings of 10th international conference on

soil mechanics and foundation engineering, vol. 3; 1981. p.

677–82.

[7] Hansbo S. Design aspects of vertical drains and lime column

installations. In: Proceedings of the ninth southeast Asian geotech-

nical conference, vol. 2; 1987. p. 8–12.

[8] Hird CC, Pyrah IC, Russel D. Finite element modeling of vertical

drains beneath embankments on soft ground. Geotechnique

1992;42(3):499–511.

[9] Indraratna B, Redana IW. Plane strain modeling of smear eﬀects

associated with vertical drains. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng, ASCE

1997;123(5):474–8.

[10] Indraratna B, Redana IW. Numerical modeling of vertical drains

with smear and well resistance installed in soft clay. Can Geotech J

2000;37:132–45.

[11] Indraratna B, Bamunawita C, Khabbaz H. Numerical modeling of

vacuum preloading and ﬁeld applications. Can Geotech J 2004;41:

1098–110.

[12] Indraratna B, Rujikiatkamjorn C, Sathananthan I. Analytical and

numerical solutions for a single vertical drain including the eﬀects of

vacuum preloading. Can Geotech J 2005;42:994–1014.

[13] Jamiolkowski M, Lancellotta R. Consolidation by vertical drains-

uncertainties involved in prediction of settlement rates, Panel discus-

sion. In: Proceedings of the 10th international conference on soil

mechanics and foundation engineering; 1981.

[14] Kjellman W. Consolidation of ﬁne-grained soils by drain wells. Trans

ASCE 1948;113:748–51 [Contribution to the discussion].

[15] Kobayashi M, Minami J, Tsuchida T. Determination method of

horizontal consolidation coeﬃcient of clay. Tech Rep Res Center

Harbor Eng Transport Ministry 1990;29(2):63–83.

[16] Mesri G, Lo DOK. Field performance of prefabricated vertical

drains. Proceedings of the international conference on geotechnical

engineering for coastal development – theory and practice on soft

ground Yokohama, vol. 1. Japan: Coastal Development Institute of

Technology; 1991. p. 231–6.

[17] Rixner JJ, Kraemer SR, Smith AD. Prefabricated vertical drains.

Engineering Guidelines vol. 1, Report No. FHWA-RD-86/168.

Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC; 1986.

[18] SAGE Engineering Ltd. SAGE CRISP user’s manual. Bath, United

Kingdom: SAGE Engineering Ltd.; 1999.

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