List of largest empires

1

List of largest empires
An empire involves the extension of a state's sovereignty over external territories. For example, first the Spanish Empire and then the British Empire were called "the empires on which the sun never sets", because of their territories and possessions around the globe. This article provides a list of the largest empires in world history. There are various notions of size that can be applied; for each of these notions it is the case that for most historical empires only estimates can be given for the maximal value in time attained for that particular notion of size, and usually there is furthermore no clear consensus among historians regarding the best estimate – if only because there is often no unambiguous information about an empire's historical boundaries. Thus, the values given here should generally be interpreted as being only indicative and not as determining a precise ranking.

Measurement
The calculation of the land area of a particular empire is controversial. In general, the list centers on the side of including any land area that was explored and explicitly claimed, even if the areas were populated very sparsely or not at all. For example, a large portion of Northern Siberia is included in the size of the Russian Empire but not the Mongol Empire. The Mongol Empire's northern border was somewhat ill-defined, but in most places it was simply the natural border between the steppe and the taiga. At the time the majority of the taiga and tundra were unexplored and uninhabited. This area was only very sparsely populated by the Russian Empire, but it had been explicitly claimed by the Russian Empire by the 17th century, and its extent had been entirely explored by the late 19th century. Similarly, the northernmost Canadian islands such as Ellesmere Island were explored and claimed by the British Empire by the mid-19th century (virtually the entire mainland was at least sparsely populated well before that). Due to the historical trend of increasing population and GDP, the list of largest empires in these categories is highly dependent on which relatively recent political entities are defined as empires. The measures of population and GDP as a percentage of the world total take into account this historical growth, although decent GDP data is only available for the last few centuries, accurate only for the last decades.

Debates regarding definition of imperial domains
Compilations of history's largest empires (in both geographical size and population) often vary due to differing definitions of imperial borders throughout history and across distinct historical traditions. Imperial domains have been variously defined in terms of direct administrative rule from a common ruling authority, military presence, colonization and settlement, collection of tribute, economic dependence, or even incorporation into a common trading or ideological network. Many imperial domains have therefore enjoyed varying degrees of autonomy, self-rule, or even outright independence (though sometimes with a dependent or protectorate relationship to a stronger power). Some regions claimed by an imperial authority have been large, yet arid and very sparsely populated lands without much administrative control whatsoever. Therefore, empires can vary in size according to these designations, often quite significantly. For example in India, which experienced varying levels of European contact and imperial forays since Vasco da Gama's expeditions in 1497-1498, French, Dutch, Portuguese and especially British authorities claimed authority over increasing portions of the Indian Subcontinent. This process culminated in the period of the British Raj (and its smaller French and Portuguese counterparts) after 1857. Nevertheless, even then approximately half of Indian territory consisted of Princely States under de facto and de jure rule of local rajas and maharajas. While the Indian princes often sought protection and mediation from the European maritime powers, they minted their own coins, issued their own edicts, and otherwise ruled of their own accord; furthermore, the Indian independence Act, which ended the British presence by 1948, did not apply to the Princely States, which required separate negotiations with

List of largest empires the new Indian nation as independent states in themselves. Thus, although many European maps showed nearly the whole of India as a predominantly British colony in the late 19th century, close to 50% was functionally independent. Another issue is that many of history's empires have ruled over vast and mostly uninhabited territorial expanses, sparsely populated by largely autonomous tribes, and with little in the way of direct administration or settlement by an imperial power. For example, various Mongol khanates from the 13th century established dominion over arid steppes in Central Asia and Siberia that were difficult to control from a central authority, as was the case with the expansionist Tsardom of Russia empires from the 17th century, which established control in the same regions. In both cases, administrative structures and settlements were gradually introduced into the regions—with Russian settlers, for example, initiating forts and frontier cities in the 19th century in particular—and so the size of each empire in any given decade would depend on how strict one's criteria are in regard to the presence of true settlement and administration. Likewise, in more recent history, almost half the land expanse that is often regarded as part of the British Empire consisted of essentially barren and uninhabitable terrain in Canada and the interior of Australia, which was often difficult to even map, let alone settle and administer. Even today, the population of those regions (particularly in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories of Canada) consists largely of sparse settlements of self-governing indigenous peoples, with little in the way of submission to a central ruling authority. During the Muslim conquests of the 7th and early 8th centuries, Rashidun armies established the Caliphate, or Islamic Empire, one of the largest empires ever. The 7th century saw the introduction of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula, where Muhammad established a new unified political polity in the Arabian Peninsula which under the subsequent Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates saw a century of rapid expansion of Arab power well beyond the Arabian peninsula in the form of a vast Muslim Arab Empire with an area of influence that stretched from northwest India, across Central Asia, the Middle East, North Africa, southern Italy, and the Iberian Peninsula, to the Pyrenees. However, internal feuding among ruling figures in the empire led it to fragment into several states under separate administrations, such as the Umayyads (whose rule continued in Spain after it collapsed elsewhere), Abbasids, Ayyubids, Mamluks and many others. These were in addition to a variety of other Muslim states in Sudan, Indonesia and elsewhere that later arose outside of the main Islamic Empires, through trade and other contacts. Thus, the size of these empires vary depending on how "membership" in the empire is defined—as being under a single administration, accepting a particular ruler or following the dictates of the Caliph (which technically, Sunni Muslims in general were expected to do). Similarly, the Mongol Empire lost its unity upon the death of the Great Khan Möngke during fighting in China in 1259, with the Golden Horde's Berke Khan and the Ilkhanate's Hulagu Khan even taking up arms against each other and supporting rival factions for selection of the Great Khan. However, upon the death of Berke—a Muslim—the religious impetus for conflict among the khanates subsided, with the Mongols again supposedly loyal to the new Great Khan Kublai before fragmenting yet again later. If the khanates are considered to have been a unified Mongol Empire under Kublai—stretching from Korea and China in the east through Siberia and Central Asia and into Persia and Eastern Europe in the west—it would easily be the world's largest in terms of both land area and population (as a percentage of the world total). A related question arises with the granting of dominion and commonwealth statuses among former imperial domains, in which the domains acquire a high degree of self-rule, equivalent to independence in some estimations. For example, the Australian colonies, which federated in 1901, attained dominion status in 1907, which may or may not have indicated a departure from the British Empire, depending on interpretation of the status. Finally, many of history's empires have had unusual arrangements among multiple powers, such as joint rule by several authorities, layers of rule (with different powers assuming different levels of administrative authority), territorial division with blurred boundaries or other forms of empire without a single obvious central authority. For example, the Manchus, who established the Qing Dynasty in 17th-century China, also conquered nomadic lands to the north, including Mongolia. The Manchus increasingly merged with the Chinese population over the centuries, so

2

List of largest empires that the administration took on both Manchu and Chinese features with no clear division among them. The Mongol chieftains of Outer Mongolia in particular, pledged loyalty to the Manchus but retained substantial autonomy, and when the Qing Dynasty collapsed in the early 20th century, the status of Outer Mongolia relative to the new Chinese state became unclear. Lastly, there is the opposite case of a nation being nominally independent but under de facto control of another power. Britain had a very complicated arrangement with Egypt and Sudan. Egyptian forces battled the British in the Alexandria Expedition in 1807, but in the wake of this, British officials exerted varying degrees of sway in Egypt especially by the late 19th century, with the French also assuming a role in the Suez Canal territory. Sudan, in turn, was technically a colony of the Egyptians, but the British exerted de facto sway on Sudan indirectly via Egypt. Thus, accounts vary on the imperial status (or lack thereof) of both Egypt and Sudan. In the wake of the Bolshevik Revolution, many nations took on a Communist character and attached themselves to the global Communist center of the Soviet Union. Mongolia, North Korea, and China following Communist victory in the Chinese civil war, all took guidance from the Soviet Union especially in the years just after their Communist transformations. The Soviet Union also exercised varying control over Eastern Europe via the Warsaw Pact even though the Pact countries were formally independent, while Communist nations in Africa and Latin America also sought Soviet guidance. Therefore, the lists of largest empires below represent merely a sample of possible rankings depending on the specific criteria used to define an empire.

3

European colonial empires
The first global empires were a product of the European Age of Exploration that began with a race of exploration between the then most advanced maritime powers, Portugal and Spain, in the 15th century. The initial impulse behind these maritime empires and those that followed was trade, driven by the new ideas and the capitalism that grew out of the European Renaissance. Agreements were also reached to divide the world up between them in 1479, 1493, and 1494. Portugal began establishing the first global trade network and empire under the leadership of Henry the Navigator. Portugal would eventually establish colonial domains from Brazil, in South America, to several colonies in Africa (namely Portuguese Guinea, Portuguese Cape Verde, Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe, Portuguese Angola and Portuguese Mozambique), in Portuguese India (most importantly Bombay and Goa), in China (Macau), and Oceania (most importantly Timor, namely Portuguese Timor), amongst many other smaller or short-lived possessions (see Evolution of the Portuguese Empire). During its peak, the Spanish Empire had possession of the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Italy, parts of Germany, parts of France, and many colonies in the Americas, Africa, Asia and Oceania. With the conquest of inland Mexico, Peru, and the Philippines in the 16th century, Spain established overseas dominions on a scale and world distribution that had never been approached by its predecessors (the Mongol Empire had been larger but was restricted to Eurasia). Possessions in Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, the Americas, the Pacific Ocean, and the Far East qualified the Spanish Empire as attaining a global presence in this sense. In 1580, Philip II of Spain inherited the vacant Portuguese throne and became Philip I of Portugal. The Spanish Empire was at it greatest extent at that time, including most of the Americas, Italy, The Seventeen Provinces, and smaller regions of Europe, Asia and Africa. The Portuguese Empire, also significant, included Brazil and the Portuguese colonies in Africa and Asia. Even though the empires continued to be administered separately, this so-called "union of crowns" resulted in one of the largest empires of all time, and the saying "the sun never sets..." was used for the first time. The Iberian Union lasted until 1640 when Portugal restored a Portuguese king to the throne. Subsequent global empires included the French, Dutch, and British empires. The latter, consolidated during the period of British maritime hegemony in the 19th century, became the largest of all empires by virtue of the improved transportation technologies of the time. At its height, the British Empire covered a quarter of the Earth's land area and comprised one fifth of its population. Germany and Italy were unified later than the other major European

List of largest empires countries and so they joined other European powers in establishing colonies overseas only during the "Scramble for Africa" in the 19th century. By the 1860s, the Russian Empire — continued as the Soviet Union — became the largest contiguous state in the world. Russia continues this distinction, despite having "lost" its Soviet periphery (Russia today includes slightly over half the world's longitudes).

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Anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire

Anachronous map of the Spanish Empire

Anachronous map of the Dutch Empire

Anachronous map of the British Empire

Anachronous map of the French Empire

Map of the German Empire in 1914

Map of the Italian Colonial Empire in 1939

A map of the Russian Empire

Largest empires by land area and population
For context, note that the total land area of the Earth is 148,940,000 km2 (57,500,000 sq mi).[1]

All empires at their greatest extent
This list contains at least one incomplete section; you can help by expanding it [2].
Empire Max. land area (million km2) Max. land area (million mi2) 13.01 % of world land area Era Max. population (million) % of world population

British Empire

33.7

22.63%

1922

458.0 (in 1938)

[3]

20.00% (458 million out of 2.295 billion in 1938) 25.60% (110.0 million out of 429 million in the 13th century) 12.30% (68.2 million out of 556 million in the 17th century) 09.80% (176.4 million out of 1.791 billion in 1913) 28.80% (62.0 million out of 208 million in the 7th century) 36.60% (381.0 million out of 1.041 billion in 1820) 17.10% (59.8 million out of 350 million in 1290) 05.10% (112.9 million out of 2.295 billion in 1938)

Mongol Empire

33.0

[4][5]

12.74

22.15%

1279

110.0 (in the 13th [6] century) [9]

Spanish Empire

24.5

[7]

10.8

19.4%

1740–1790 [8] (approx.) 1866

68.2

Russian Empire

22.8 15.0

[][]

08.80

15.31%

176.4 in 1913

Umayyad Caliphate

05.79

10.07%

661–750

62.0 (in the 7th century)

Qing Dynasty

14.7

05.68

09.87%

1759

432.2 in 1851.

[10]

Yuan Dynasty

14.0

05.41

09.40%

1310

59.8 in 1291.

[11]

French Colonial Empire

13.0

05.02

08.73%

1938

112.9 in 1938

List of largest empires

5
11.1 04.29 07.45% 750–1258 44.0 (in 850) 20.00% (50.0 million out of 250 million in 850) — 19.10% (40.3 million out of 210 million in 7th century) [13] [15] — 44.48% (50 million out of 112.4 million in 480 [16] BC) 05.90% (134.8 million out of 2.295 billion in 1938) 38.00% (80.0 million out of [17] 210 million in the 7th century AD) 28.80% (160.0 million out [] of 556.2 million in 1600) 21.00% (40 million out of 190 million in A.D. 200 26.00% (59.6 million out of 230 million in 2 AD) 03.29% (75.4 million out of 2.295 billion in 1938 [citation needed] ) — 43.30% (68.0 million out of 150 million in the 2nd [25] century BC ) — 38.09% (80.0 million out of 210 million in the 8th century AD) — 07.10% (39.0 million out of 556 million in the 17th century) 29.20% (175.0 million out [27] of 600 million in 1700) —

Abbasid Caliphate

Portuguese Empire Rashidun Caliphate

10.4 09.0

04.02 03.48

06.98% 06.04%

1815 654 [12]

— 40.3

Empire of Brazil Achaemenid Empire

08.5 08.0

03.28 03.08

05.71% 5.36%

1880 500 BC [14]

9.9 (in 1872)

50.0 (in 480 BC)

Japanese Empire

07.4

02.86

04.97%

1942

134.8 in 1938

Sassanid Empire

06.6

02.55

04.44%

621

80.0 (in the 7th century AD)

Ming Dynasty

06.5

02.51

04.36%

1450

110.0 in [18][19] 1600. 65.0 to 88.0 (in 2nd [21][22] century AD) 74.0 in 2 [24]

Roman Empire

06.5

02.51

04.36%

117

[20]

Han Dynasty

06.5

02.51

04.36%

100

[23]

Nazi Germany

06.4

02.47

04.30%

1942

75.4 million in 1938

Göktürk Khaganate Mauryan Empire

06.0 06.0

02.32 -

04.03% 4.03%

557 250 BC

— 68.0 in the 2nd century BC

Golden Horde Khanate Tang Dynasty

06.0 5.2

02.32 02.01

04.03% 03.49%

1310 715

— 80.0 (in the 8th century)

Macedonian Empire Ottoman Empire

05.2 05.2

02.01 02.01

03.49% 03.49%

323 BC 1683

[26]

— 39.0 (in the 17th century)

Mughal Empire

05.0

01.93

02.69%

1690

175.0 in 1700

Northern Yuan Dynasty, Mongolia First Mexican Empire

05.0

01.93

03.36%

1550

04.9

01.89

03.29%

1822[citation
needed]

Xin Dynasty Tibetan Empire

04.70 04.6

01.82 01.78

03.16% 03.09%

10 800

— 25.0

— 8.333%

List of largest empires

6
04.6 01.78 03.09% 850 — 24.00% (60.0 million out of 250 million in 850) — — — — — — — —

Pala Empire

Timurid Empire Fatimid Caliphate Xiongnu Empire Hunnic Empire Hephthalite Empire Eastern Turks Khanate Western Turks Khanate Rouran Khaganate Juan-juan Great Seljuq Empire Italian Empire

04.4 04.1 04.03 04.0 04.0 04.0 04.0 04.0

01.70 01.58 01.56 01.54 01.54 01.54 01.54 01.54

02.95% 02.75% 02.71% 02.69% 02.69% 02.69% 02.69% 02.69%

1405 969 176 BC 441 490 624 630 405 [28]

— — — — — — — —

03.9 03.8

01.51 01.47

02.62% 02.55%

1080 1940[citation
needed]

— 51.9 in 1938

— 02.30% (51.9 million out of 2.295 billion in 1938) 19.00% (42.37 million out of 223 million in 140) — 03.50% (60.0 million out of 1.700 billion in 1907) — — — —

Kushan Empire

03.8

01.47

02.55%

200

Ilkhanate Dutch Empire

03.75 03.7

01.45 01.43

02.52% 02.48%

1310 1940[citation
needed]

— 60.0 in 1940.

Chola Empire Khwarazmian Empire Chagatai Khanate Safavid Dynasty

03.6 03.6 03.5 03.5

01.39 01.39 01.35 01.35

02.42% 02.42% 02.35% 02.35%

1050 1218

[29]

— — — —

1310 or 1350 1512[citation
needed]

German Colonial Empire 03.5

01.35

02.35%

1914[citation
needed]

64.9 in 1914

03.70% (64.9 million out of 1.753 billion in 1910) [30] — —

Western Jin Dynasty Shaybanid Uzbek Dynasty Byzantine Empire Northern Song Dynasty

03.5 03.5

01.35 01.35

02.35% 02.35%

300 1510

48.0 in 1195. —

03.5 03.5

01.35 01.35

02.35% 02.35%

555 1100

— 123.0 in 1103 — — [][31]

— 22.00% (59.0 million out of 268 million in 1000) — —

Ghaznavid Empire Almoravid dynasty, Morocco Tughlaq Dynasty

03.4 03.3

01.31 01.27

02.28% 02.22%

1029 1147

03.2

01.24

02.15%

1320

18.91% (70.0 million out of 370 million in 1330) — — — [32] —

Ghurids Sultanate Parthian Empire Median Empire Sui Dynasty

03.2 03.1 03.1 03.1

01.24 01.08 01.08 01.20

02.15% 01.88% 01.88% 02.08%

1200 1 585 BC 610

— — — 53.0 in 606

List of largest empires

7
03.1 03.0 03.0 03.0 03.0 01.20 01.51 01.51 01.16 01.16 02.08% 02.62% 02.62% 02.01% 02.01% 800 301 BC — — — — — — —

Uyghur Khaganate Seleucid Empire Armenian Empire Khazar Khanate Kalmar Union

September 2013 — 850 1397[citation
needed]

— —

Afsharid Dynasty

03.0

01.16

02.01%

1738[citation
needed]

Kara-Khanid Khanate Qajar Dynasty

03.0 03.0

01.16 01.16

02.01% 02.01%

1025 1796[citation
needed]

— —

— —

Danish colonial empire

03.0

01.16

02.01%

1800[citation
needed]

Grand Duchy of Moscow 03.0

01.16

02.01%

1505[citation
needed]

Samanid Dynasty Maratha Empire Qin Dynasty Eastern Jin Dynasty Liu Song Dynasty Khilji Dynasty Ayyubid Caliphate Majapahit Empire Liao Dynasty Indo-Greek Yavana Kingdom Bactrian Empire Later Zhao Dynasty Belgian Empire

02.85 02.8 02.8 02.8 02.8 02.7 02.0 02.7 02.6 02.5

01.10 00.97 01.08 01.08 01.08 01.04 01.04 01.04 01.00 00.97

01.91% 01.68% 01.88% 01.88% 01.88% 01.81% 00.77% 01.81% 01.75% 01.68%

928 1760 206 BC 347 420 1312 or 1320 1190 1389 947 150 BC

— — — — — — — — — —

— — — — — — — — — —

02.5 02.5 02.5

00.97 00.97 00.97

01.68% 01.68% 01.68%

184 329 1914[citation
needed]

— — —

— — —

Kara-Khitan Khanate Western Liao Hotaki Empire

02.5

00.97

01.68%

1210

02.5

00.97

01.68%

1722[citation
needed]

Jurchen Jīn Dynasty Southern Qi Dynasty Gupta Empire

02.3 02.3 02.2

00.89 00.89 01.05

01.54% 01.54% 03.9%

1126 502 400

— — —

— — 26.36% (58.0 million out of 220 million in 400 AD) [33] — — —

Southern Song Dynasty Bahriyya Mamluks Burjiyya Mamluks

02.1 02.1 02.1

00.81 00.81 00.81

01.41% 01.41% 01.41%

1127 1300 1400

73.0 in 1193. — —

List of largest empires

8
02.1 02.1 02.0 02.0 02.0 02.0 02.0 02.0 02.0 02.0 00.81 00.81 00.77 00.77 00.77 00.77 00.77 00.77 00.77 00.77 01.41% 01.41% 01.34% 01.34% 01.34% 01.34% 01.34% 01.34% 01.34% 01.34% 1813 1000 1757 263 316 376 395 450 [34] — — — — 64 in 156 — — — [35] — — — — — — — — — —

First French Empire Kievan Rus' Durrani Empire Wei Dynasty Earlier Zhao Dynasty Former Qin Dynasty Western Roman Empire Northern Wei Dynasty Saffarid dynasty Almohad dynasty, Morocco Satavahana Empire Inca Empire Second Mexican Empire Gurjara Pratihara Sibir Khanate Rashtrakuta Dynasty Buyid Sultanate Mamluk Sultanate Indo-Parthian Kingdom Wu Dynasty Northern Zhou Dynasty Nanda Dynasty

900[citation needed] — 1200 —

02.0 02.0 02.0 01.8 01.8 01.7 01.6 01.6 01.5 01.5 01.5 01.5

00.77 00.77 00.77 00.69 00.69 00.66 00.62 00.62 00.58 00.58 00.58 00.58

01.34% 01.34% 01.34% 01.21% 01.21% 01.41% 01.07% 01.07% 01.01% 01.01% 01.01% 01.01%

90 1527 1864 860 1520

— — — — —

— — — — — — — — — — — —

805[citation needed] — 980 1228 50 221 577 350 BC or [36] 321 100 BC 900 828 1545 670 BC 1500 [37] — — — — — —

Indo-Scythian Kingdom Tulunids Emirate

01.5 01.5

00.58 00.58 00.58 00.58 00.54 00.54 00.52 00.50 00.50 00.50 00.50 00.50

01.01% 01.01% 01.01% 01.01% 00.940% 00.940% 00.906% 00.873% 00.873% 00.873% 00.873% 00.866%

— — — — — — — — — — —

— — — — — — — — — — — 10.00% (45.0 million out of [39] 450 million in the mid-15th century)

Idrisid dynasty, Morocco 01.5 Sur Empire Neo-Assyrian Empire Songhai Empire Empire of Harsha Liang Dynasty Western Wei Dynasty Later Liang Dynasty Later Tang Dynasty Mali Empire 01.5 01.4 01.4 01.35 01.3 01.3 01.3 01.3 01.29

625 or 648 502 or 549 557 923 923 1312 [38]

List of largest empires

9
01.29 00.50 00.866% — —

Siam Empire

1782[citation
needed]

Shang Dynasty Western Zhou Dynasty Aksumite Empire Khmer Empire Carolingian Dynasty, Francia Srivijaya Empire Sunga Empire Kingdom of Kush Chalukya Dynasty Swedish Empire

01.25 01.25 01.25 01.2 01.2

00.48 00.48 00.48 00.46 00.46

00.839% 00.839% 00.839% 00.806% 00.806%

1122 BC 1122 BC 350 1150 814

— — — 4.0 in 1150 —

— — — 1.333% —

01.2 01.2 01.2 01.1 01.1

00.46 00.46 00.46 00.42 00.42

00.806% 00.806% 00.806% 00.739% 00.739%

1200 150 BC 700 BC

— — —

— — — — —

636[citation needed] — 1658[citation
needed]

Lodhi Dynasty

01.1

00.42

00.739%

1517[citation
needed]

Polish-Lithuanian Empire Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt New Kingdom Ptolemaic Dynasty Eastern Wei Dynasty Northern Qi Dynasty Tahirid dynasty Kalachuri Dynasty Holy Roman Empire Western Xia Dynasty Western Chalukya Empire Avars Empire Kanem Empire Bruneian Empire Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty Konbaung Dynasty, Burma Volga Bulgars Khanate Akkadian Empire Later Jin Dynasty Ghana Empire

01.0

[40]

00.39

00.671%

1619

[41][42]

ca. 12.0 (in 1619)

02.07% to 02.41% (avg. [43] 02.2%) —

01.0

00.39

00.671%

1450 BC

01.0 01.0 01.0 01.0 01.0 01.0 01.0 01.0 01.0

00.39 00.39 00.39 00.39 00.39 00.39 00.39 00.39 00.39

00.671% 00.671% 00.671% 00.671% 00.671% 00.671% 00.671% 00.671% 00.671%

1300 BC 301 BC 550 550 800 1050 1050 1100 1121[citation
needed]

— — — — — — — — —

— — — — — — — — —

01.0 01.0 00.95 00.9

00.39 00.39 00.37 00.35

00.671% 00.671% 00.653% 00.604%

600 1200 1524 10 BC

— — — —

— — — —

00.9

00.35

00.604%

1800[citation
needed]

00.9 00.8 00.8 00.8

00.35 00.31 00.31 00.31

00.604% 00.537% 00.537% 00.537%

1100 2250 BC 936 1067

— — — —

— — — —

List of largest empires

10
00.8 00.31 00.31 00.31 00.31 00.27 00.27 00.537% 00.537% 00.537% 00.537% 00.470% 00.470% 1200 100 400 830 1540 558 — — — — — — — — — — — —

Pagan Kingdom

Western Satraps Dynasty 00.8 Himyarite Kingdom Balhae Kingdom Khanate of Kazan Merovingian Dynasty, Francia Bulgarian Empire Shu Dynasty Yadava Gauli Kingdom Paramara Dynasty Kingdom of Dali 00.8 00.8 00.7 00.7

00.7 00.7 00.7 00.7 00.7

00.27 00.27 00.27 00.27 00.27

00.470% 00.470% 00.470% 00.470% 00.470%

900[citation needed] — 221 1250 1050 1200[citation
needed]

— — — — —

— — — —

Vijayanagara Empire

00.7

00.27

00.470%

1529[citation
needed]

05.00% (25.0 million out of 500 million in the 16th century) — 02.90% (51.3 million out of 1.753 billion in 1910) —

Kingdom of Nanzhao Austro-Hungarian Empire Fifteenth dynasty of Egypt 26th Dynasty of Egypt Vakataka Kingdom Visigothic Kingdom Caliphate of Córdoba Rai Dynasty Maukhari Kannauj Dynasty Bahmani Sultanate Nizams Dynasty

00.7 00.676615

00.27 00.26

00.470% 00.454%

830 1867–1918

— 52.8 in 1914

00.65

00.25

00.436%

1650 BC

00.65 00.65 00.6 00.6 00.6 00.6

00.25 00.25 00.23 00.23 00.23 00.23

00.436% 00.436% 00.403% 00.403% 00.403% 00.403%

550 BC 450 580 1000 675 600

— — — — — —

— — — — — —

00.6 00.6

00.23 00.23

00.403% 00.403%

1470 1740[citation
needed]

— —

— —

Sikh Empire

00.5609

00.22

00.377%

1845[citation
needed]

Middle Kingdom of Egypt Lydian Empire Neo-Babylonian Empire Kosala Dynasty Shishunaga dynasty Chu Dynasty Pandyan Dynasty, Tamizhan kingdom

00.5

00.19

00.336%

1850 BC

00.5 00.5 00.5 00.5 00.5 00.5

00.19 00.19 00.19 00.19 00.19 00.19

00.336% 00.336% 00.336% 00.336% 00.336% 00.336%

585 BC 562 BC 543 BC 510 BC 350 BC 1251[citation
needed]

— — — — — —

— — — — — —

List of largest empires

11
00.5 00.5 00.5 00.45 00.45 00.4 00.4 00.4 00.4 00.4 00.19 00.19 00.19 00.17 00.17 00.15 00.15 00.15 00.15 00.15 00.336% 00.336% 00.336% 00.302% 00.302% 00.269% 00.269% 00.269% 00.269% 00.269% 947 100 BC 510 476 1800 BC 1003 1500 189 BC 2400 BC 1080 BC [44] — — — — — ca. 2 (in 1003) — — — — [45] — — — — — 0.58% to 0.79% (avg. 0.7%) — — — —

Later Han Dynasty Kangju Empire Ostrogothic Kingdom Goguryeo Kingdom Xia Dynasty; (possible) Polish Piast State Crimean Khanate Armenian Kingdom Old Kingdom of Egypt Middle Kingdom of Assyria Latin Empire David's Israelite Empire Mitanni Empire Carthaginian Empire 1st Dynasty, Babylon Serbian Empire

00.35 ~00.3 00.3 00.3 00.25 00.25

00.14 ~00.12 00.12 00.12 00.10 00.10

00.235% ~00.2% 00.201% 00.201% 00.168% 00.168%

1204 970 BC 1450 BC 220 BC 1690 BC 1350[citation
needed]

— — — — — —

— — — — — —

Aztec Empire Middle Elamite 2nd Dynasty, Isin Urartu, or Kingdom of Ararat or Van Amorian Dynasty, Byzantium Old Kingdom, Assyria Eastern Zhou Dynasty

00.22 00.2 00.2 00.2

00.08 00.08 00.08 00.08

00.148% 00.134% 00.134% 00.134%

1520 1160 BC 1130 BC 800 BC

— — — —

— — — —

00.2

00.08

00.134%

750 BC

00.15 00.15

00.06 00.06

00.101% 00.101%

1730 BC 770 BC

— —

— —

Maps
Ancient empires

Achaemenid Empire (Persian Empire) around 480 BC at its greatest extent.

Macedonian Empire at its greatest extent.

The Roman Empire at its peak in 117 AD

The Armenian Empire of Tigranes the Great in 83-69 AD

List of largest empires

12

Maurya Empire at its greatest extent.

Medieval empires

Mongol Empire at its greatest extent.

The expansion of the Caliphate.

Tang Dynasty greatest extent.

Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent.

Modern empires

British Empire at its greatest extent.

Russian Empire at its greatest extent.

Spanish Empire at its greatest extent.

Anachronous map of the Dutch Empire

Map of the Italian Colonial Empire in 1939

All territories and spheres of influence ever held by the French Empire.

Map of the German Empire in 1914

Anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire.

Japanese empire at its greatest extent.

List of largest empires

13

Largest empires by economy
GDP estimates in the following list are mostly given for empires in modern times, from the 18th to 20th centuries. All dollar amounts are in 1990 USD.

GDP size
1. British Empire - $918.7 billion (in 1938) 2. Nazi German Empire - $375.6 billion (in 1938) 3. Japanese Empire - $260.7 billion (in 1938) 4. Russian Empire - $257.7 billion (in 1913) 5. Qing Empire - $241.3 billion (GDP decline to 1912, immediately before its downfall) 6. French Empire - $234.1 billion (in 1938) 7. Italian Empire - $143.4 billion (in 1938) 8. Indian Empire (British Raj) - $134.9 billion (in 1870) 9. Afsharid Persian Empire - $119.85 billion (in 1740) 10. Austro-Hungarian Empire - $100.5 billion (in 1913)[46] 11. Mughal Empire - $90.8 billion (GDP decline in 1700) 12. Dutch Empire - $60 billion (in 1900) 13. Ottoman Empire - $26.4 billion (in 1913)[47] 14. Empire of Brazil - $13.6 billion (in 1889) 15. Portuguese Empire - $12.6 billion (in 1913)

Notes and references
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] CIA - The World Factbook (https:/ / www. cia. gov/ library/ publications/ the-world-factbook/ geos/ xx. html#Geo) http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ w/ index. php?title=List_of_largest_empires& action=edit Harrison (1998, pp. 3,7). Finlay. Pilgrim Art. p.151. «Mongolia se encomienda a Gengis Jan» . El País 18.08.2007 (2007). Consultado el 19/06/2008. The combined population of China and Korea in the 13th century was 83 in Biraben (2003). The combined population of Eastern Europe, Russia, Central Asia, Iran, Iraq and Turkey was about 27 in Maddison (2006). [7] http:/ / my. raex. com/ ~obsidian/ earthrul. html [8] Gordon (2005) [9] The combined population of Spain, Portugal, Italy, Netherlands, United States and the Philippines was 29.2 in Maddison (2006). The population of Latin America was 39 in Biraben (2003), minus Brazil and its 4 people with was a part of the Portuguese empire. [10] Recorded number of persons in 1851 is 432,164,047 according to Draft History of Qing. [11] Recorded number of persons and households in 1290 are 58,834,711 and 13,196,206, respectively (History of Yuan), while recorded peak number of persons and households are 59,848,964 and 13,430,322 in 1291, respectively (History of Yuan). [12] Rashidun Caliphate [13] IBGE (http:/ / www. ibge. gov. br/ home/ estatistica/ populacao/ censohistorico/ 1872_1920. shtm) Dados Históricos dos Censos [14] McEvedy and Jones (1978). [15] While estimates for the Achaemenid Empire range from 10–80+ million, most prefer 40-50 million. Prevas (2009, p. 14) estimates 10 (http:/ / tywkiwdbi. blogspot. com/ 2012/ 10/ the-achaemenid-empire-4th-century-bc. html). Langer (2001, p. 40) estimates around 16 2 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=MziRd4ddZz4C& pg=PA40& dq=persian+ empire+ + people& lr=#v=onepage& q=persian empire people& f=false). McEvedy and Jones (2001, p. 50) estimates 17 3 (http:/ / www. census. gov/ ipc/ www/ worldhis. html). Strauss (2004, p. 37) estimates about 20 4 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=nQFtMcD5dOsC& printsec=frontcover& dq=battle+ of+ salamis+ strauss& lr=). Ward (2009, p. 16) estimates at 20 5 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=8eUTLaaVOOQC& pg=PA16& dq=persian+ empire+ + square+ miles& lr=#v=onepage& q=persian empire square miles& f=false). Aperghis (2007, p. 311) estimates 32 6 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=uug6VvJrxVYC& pg=RA11-PT139& dq=20-25+ + persian+ empire). Scheidel (2009, p. 99) estimates 35 7 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=6vnkts2rOJUC& pg=PA99& dq=scheidel+ 35+ + 2009& lr=). Zeinert (1996, p. 32) estimates 40 8 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=JgNlG_AI7bkC& pg=PA32& dq=persian+ empire+ + people& lr=#v=onepage& q=persian empire people& f=false). Rawlinson and Schauffler (1898, p. 270) estimates possibly 50 9 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=_NpJAAAAMAAJ& pg=PA270& dq=persian+ empire+ 50+ + people& lr=#v=onepage& q=& f=false). Astor (1899, p. 56) estimates almost 50 10 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=DNwaAAAAYAAJ& pg=PA56& dq=persian+ empire+ + square+ miles& lr=#v=onepage& q=persian empire square miles&

List of largest empires
f=false). Lissner (1961, p. 111) estimates probably 50 11 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?lr=& id=GQJIAAAAMAAJ& dq=Darius+ twenty+ + people& q=fifty+ + people). Milns (1968, p. 51) estimates some 50 12 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?lr=& id=aEobAAAAYAAJ& dq=persian+ empire+ 50+ + people& q=fifty+ + people). Hershlag (1980, p. 140) estimates nearly 50 13 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=awoVAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA140& dq=persian+ empire+ 50+ + people& lr=#v=onepage& q=persian empire 50 people& f=false). Daniel (2001, p. 41) estimates at 50 15 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=AzqbYf9Q_2UC& pg=PA41& dq=persian+ empire+ + people& lr=#v=onepage& q=persian empire people& f=false). Meyer and Andreades (2004, p. 58) estimates to 50 16 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=Uwn9d01zMvAC& pg=PA58& dq=meyer+ 50+ + persian+ empire& lr=). Pollack (2004, p. 7) estimates about 50 17 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=VtISTfUL-NAC& pg=PA7& dq=persian+ empire+ 50+ + people& lr=#v=onepage& q=persian empire 50 people& f=false). Jones (2004, p. 8) estimates over 50 18 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=75ueY2rqTYMC& pg=PA8& dq=persian+ empire+ + square+ miles& lr=#v=onepage& q=persian empire square miles& f=false). Safire (2007, p. 627) estimates in 50 19 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=-BIGv9vIoqcC& pg=PA627& dq=persian+ empire+ + square+ miles& lr=#v=onepage& q=persian empire square miles& f=false). Dougherty (2009, p. 6) estimates about 70 20 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=Hm_ZXXj-Lh0C& pg=PT5& dq=70+ + persian+ empire#PPT5,M1). Richard (2008, p. 34) estimates nearly 70 21 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=toJI-Z_WAC0C& pg=PA34& dq=persian+ empire+ + square+ miles& lr=#v=onepage& q=persian empire square miles& f=false). Mitchell (2004, p. 16) estimates over 70 22 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=JqeIpyQM9OcC& pg=PA16& dq=70+ + persian+ empire& lr=). Hanson (2001, p. 32) estimates almost 75 23 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=6p5mAAAAMAAJ& dq=70+ + persian+ empire& q=70+ + & pgis=1). West (1913, p. 85) estimates about 75 24 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=RWYAAAAAYAAJ& pg=PA85& dq=persian+ empire+ + people& lr=#v=onepage& q=persian empire people& f=false). Zenos (1889, p. 2) estimates exactly 75 25 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=EzABAAAAYAAJ& pg=PA1& dq=persian+ empire+ population& lr=). Cowley (1999 and 2001, p. 17) estimates possibly 80 26 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=l6JmAAAAMAAJ& dq=what+ if?& q=70+ & pgis=1). Cook (1904, p. 277) estimates exactly 80 27 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=258XAAAAYAAJ& pg=PA277& dq=persian+ empire+ + square+ miles& lr=#v=onepage& q=persian empire square miles& f=false). [16] Yarshater ( 1996, p. 47 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=WBAZAQAAIAAJ& q=(Meyer+ p. 85))) [17] Morris, Ian. 2009. The dynamics of ancient Empires: State Power from Assyria to Byzantium [18] Jean-Noël Biraben, "The History of the Human Population From the First Beginnings to the Present" in Demography: Analysis and Synthesis: A Treatise in Population (Eds: Graziella Caselli, Jacques Vallin, Guillaume J. Wunsch), Vol. III, Chapter 66, pp 5-18, Academic Press:San Diego (2005). [19] Recorded number of persons and households in 1393 are 60,545,812 and 10,652,870, respectively (Ming Hui Dian), while recorded peak number of persons and households are 66,598,337 and 11,415,829 in 1403, respectively (Book of Ming). [20] Steele, Christy, " Rome (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=0fLXAAAAMAAJ& q=2. 5+ million+ square+ miles+ (6. 5+ million+ square+ km). )", p. 36 (2001). [21] Mclynn Frank "Marcus Aurelius" p. 4. Published by The Bodley Head 2009 [22] There are several different estimates for the Roman Empire. Scheidel (2006, p. 2) estimates 60 . Goldsmith (1984, p. 263) estimates 55 . Beloch (1886, p. 507) estimates 54 . Maddison (2006, p. 51, 120) estimates 48 . Roman Empire Population (http:/ / www. unrv. com/ empire/ roman-population. php) estimates 65 (while mentioning several other estimates between 55 and 120 ). [23] Rein Taagepera "Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D.", Social Science History Vol. 3, 115-138 (1979). [24] Recorded number of persons and households in AD 2 are 59,594,978 and 12,233,062, respectively (Book of Han). [25] Colin McEvedy and Richard Jones (1978), "Atlas of World Population History", Facts on File (p. 342-351). New York. [26] Rein Taagepera "Size and Duration of Empires Growth-Decline Curves, 3000 to 600 B.C.", Social Science Research Vol. 7, 180-196 (1978). [27] Thomlinson (1975, Table 1). [28] Claudio Cioffi-Revilla, J. Daniel Rogers, Steven P. Wilcox, & Jai Alterman, " Computing the Steppes: Data Analysis for Agent-Based Modeling of Polities in Inner Asia (http:/ / www. allacademic. com/ / meta/ p_mla_apa_research_citation/ 2/ 7/ 8/ 3/ 9/ pages278391/ p278391-8. php)", Proceedings of the 104th Annual Meeting of the Amer. Pol. Sci. Assoc., Boston, Massachusetts, p. 8 August 28–31, (2008). [29] "The Cholas"" University of Madras"K. A. Nilakanta Sastri [30] Recorded number of persons and households in 1195 are 48,490,400 and 7,223,400, respectively (History of Jin). [31] Recorded number of persons and households in 1103 are 45,981,845 and 20,524,065, respectively (Song Huiyao), while recorded peak number of persons and households are 46,734,784 and 20,882,438 in 1109, respectively (Song Huiyao). [32] Recorded number of persons and households are 46,019,956 and 8,907,546, respectively, in 606 (Tongdian) or 609 (Book of Sui). [33] Recorded number of persons and households in 1193 are 27,845,085 and 12,302,873, respectively (Wenxian Tongkao), while recorded peak number of persons and households are 28,320,085 and 12,670.801 in 1223, respectively (Wenxian Tongkao). [34] International Encyclopedia of Revolution and Protest, ed. Immanuel Ness, Blackwell Publishing, 2009, p. 1029. Link. (http:/ / www. unm. edu/ ~ybosin/ documents/ durrani. pdf) [35] Recorded number of persons and households in 156 are 56,486,856 and 10,677,960 respectively (Book of the Later Han). [36] Rein Taagepera "Size and Duration of Empires: Systematics of Size", Social Science Research Vol. 7, 108-127 (1978). [37] John O. Hunwick: Timbuktu and the Songahy Empire: Al-Sa’di's Ta’rikh Al-sudan Down to 1613 and other Contemporary Documents (Brill, 2003),p. xlix. [38] Hempstone, page 312

14

List of largest empires
[39] Walker, Sheila S., African roots/American cultures: Africa in the creation of the Americas, Published by Rowman & Littlefield, p. 127. (2001) [40] Collective work. "Atlas Historyczny Polski". PPWK, 1985 [41] Maps of border changes" (http:/ / polmap. republika. pl/ polska2010. htm)" [42] Administrative division in 1619" (http:/ / images. wikia. com/ historyatlas/ images/ e/ ef/ Polish-Lithuanian_Commonwealth-1619. png)" [43] Historical Estimates of World Population U.S. Census Bureau (http:/ / www. census. gov/ population/ international/ data/ idb/ worldhis. php). [44] State of Boleslaw Chrobry"History of Poland during the Piast dynasty" [45] Population of Poland"pl:Ludność Polski" [46] Broadberry and Harrison (2005). [47] Pamuk (2005).

15

Bibliography
• Hempstone, Smith (2007). Africa, Angry Young Giant. Whitefish: Kessinger Publishing, LLC. pp. 664 pages. ISBN 0-548-44300-9. • Jonathan M. Adams, Thomas D. Hall and Peter Turchin (2004). East-West Orientation of Historical Empires. (http://www.eeb.uconn.edu/people/turchin/PDF/Latitude.pdf) University of Connecticut. • J. Beloch (1886), Die Bevölkerung der griechisch–römischen Welt, Duncker and Humblot, Leipzig. • Jean-Noël Biraben (2003). "The rising numbers of humankind", Populations & Societies 394. • Roger Boesche (2003). "Kautilya's Arthashastra on War and Diplomacy in Ancient India", The Journal of Military History 67 (p. 9–38). • Stephen Broadberry and Mark Harrison (2005). The Economics of World War I. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-85212-9. • Christopher Chase-Dunn, Alexis Álvarez, and Daniel Pasciuti (2002). Power and Size: Urbanization and Empire Formation in World-Systems Since the Bronze Age. (http://repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewcontent. cgi?article=1005&context=irows) University of California, Riverside. • Ferguson, Niall (2004). Colossus: The Price of America's Empire (http://books.google.com/ ?id=Uy23kBDD7WcC). Penguin. ISBN 1-59420-013-0. • Raymond W. Goldsmith (1984), "An estimate of the size and structure of the national product of the Early Roman Empire", Journal of the International Association for Research in Income and Wealth 30 • Bruce R. Gordon (2005). To Rule the Earth... (http://web.archive.org/web/20071013221640/starnarcosis.net/ obsidian/earthrul.html) (See Bibliography (http://web.archive.org/web/20071021150702/starnarcosis.net/ obsidian/Bibliography.html) for sources used.) • Mark Harrison (1998). The Economics of World War II: Six Great Powers in International Comparison. • Angus Maddison (2001). The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective. OECD, Paris. • Angus Maddison (2006). The Contours of the World Economy 1-2030 AD. Oxford University Press. • Colin McEvedy and Richard Jones (1978), "Atlas of World Population History", Facts on File (p. 342-351). New York. • Sevket Pamuk (2005), "The Ottoman Empire in World War I". In Stephen Broadberry and Mark Harrison (2005), The Economics of World War I, p. 112-136. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-85212-9. • Donald Quataert (2005). The Ottoman Empire, 1700-1922. • Walter Scheidel (2005). The monetary systems of the Han and Roman empires (http://www.princeton.edu/ ~pswpc/pdfs/scheidel/020803.pdf). Stanford University. • Walter Scheidel (2006). Imperial state formation in Rome and China (http://www.princeton.edu/~pswpc/pdfs/ scheidel/120601.pdf). Stanford University. • Carla M. Sinopoli (2003). The Political Economy of Craft Production: Crafting Empire in South India, C. 1350-1650. • Ralph Thomlinson (1975), Demographic Problems, Controversy Over Population Control, Second Edition.

List of largest empires • Frances Wood (2006). China: The Three Emperors. (http://static.royalacademy.org.uk/files/ china-student-guide-6.pdf) Royal Academy. • H. Yoon (1985). "An early Chinese idea of a dynamic environmental cycle", GeoJournal 10 (2), p. 211-212. • K. A. Nilakanta Sastri.(1935)"The Cholas"" University of Madras.

16

External links
• Flash animation: Imperial History of the Middle East (http://www.mapsofwar.com)

Article Sources and Contributors

17

Article Sources and Contributors
List of largest empires  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=573737212  Contributors: -kayac71-, 069952497a, 2602:306:240A:3BA9:707F:56B8:DE58:4449, 2A02:2788:2F4:533:7169:AF5D:B2D:C8D8, 3rdAlcove, 4shizzal, A Nobody, Aaron Brenneman, Abassiri, Adrian J. Hunter, Aherunar, Ahoerstemeier, Akew, Alaingervais13, Alan16, Alansohn, AlasdairGreen27, Albert347, Albrecht, Alefbe, Alexsau1991, Alfiuman, AlphaEta, Altaicmania, Altenmann, Altes, Alvin Lee, Amenra, Amerana, Amniarix, Amodio11, An Siarach, Analytikone, Anbu121, And Rew, Andonic, AndorranPrince, AngloDaneThegn, Anir1uph, Aomarks, Arakunem, Argishti, Aridd, Arminahmady, Artefactual, Arvand, Atarr, Athenean, Athenistan, AtomAtom, Aurichalcum, Aurorion, Avenged Eightfold, Ayla, BCsledder, BD2412, BL Lacertae, BSTemple, BabelStone, Bahman khorasani, Balthazarduju, Bambuway, BarretB, Batman2010, BeachHome, Beeswaxcandle, Bengasalam, Bentaguayre, Bkwillwm, BlastOButter42, Bless sins, Blubro, Boavi, Bobblewik, Bobbobbob12345, Bonás, Bradjosh, BritishWatcher, Brutaldeluxe, BurningZeppelin, Burto88, Bwakabats, Calvinteah96, CambridgeBayWeather, Capt Jack Doicy, Carolmooredc, CarolusFride, Caudex Rax, Chabos4, Charles Matthews, Chhora, Chinimilli.naresh, Chipmunkdavis, ChokeSlamFromHell, Chris the speller, ChristopherBorcsok, Chuunen Baka, Ciccenicca, Cihangir21, Civciv5, ClickRick, Closedmouth, CltFn, Coinmanj, Colchicum, Colonies Chris, Colsmeghead, Commander Sergei Bjarkhov, CommonsDelinker, Compfreak7, Complex (de), Confusername, Corpx, Correct & improve, Cosmos416, Cplakidas, Cristiano Tomás, Csillagkereső, Ctesiphon7, Cybercobra, DDD777, DWaterson, Daniel Mietchen, Datha k, Datiusnerva, Dbachmann, Dejvid, Deltabeignet, Denisxavier, Dentren, Dewan357, Dijxtra, Dingo1729, Dinkytown, Dmoloney, Docu, Donan.raven, Dontwerryaboutit, Douglas the Comeback Kid, Dougweller, Dpaajones, Dqfn13, Dragodon, Driftwoodzebulin, Drmies, Dweller, Dynex811, EamonnPKeane, Ebustad, EdC, Eduardo Sellan III, Eiorgiomugini, Eirione, Eleventh1, EliasAlucard, Elockid, Enerelt, Entirelybs, EuroHistoryTeacher, Evosoho, FairoozAdams, Falcon8765, Fatih The Great, Fetchcomms, Feudonym, Flavius Belisarius, Flosssock1, Folantin, Friginator, FurrySings, Future Perfect at Sunrise, Gaia5074Q, Galltywenallt, Gantuya eng, Gareth Griffith-Jones, Gary King, GavinTing, GenQuest, Generalboss3, GenghizKhagan, Ghola8, Giraffedata, Gligan, Glossologist, Godardesque, Graham87, Greg Grahame, Greyhood, Grmagne, Grutness, Guillaume2303, Gun Powder Ma, Gveret Tered, GwydionM, GyaroMaguus, HJ Mitchell, Haeleth, Hairy Dude, HalfShadow, Halmstad, Harel Newman, Haus, Haymaker, Hazhk, Headshot789, Heff01, Hell Hawk, Hibernian, Hiberniantears, HistoryofIran, Hmains, Hmrox, I1990k, IIIV, Iceway12, Intranetusa, Iranway, IronGargoyle, Iugfiy, Ivan2007, IvanLanin, Ixfd64, JTdale, Jackanapes, Jagged 85, Jagwar, Jamesinderbyshire, Jandrews23jandrews23, Jaro7788, JaumeR, Jayron32, Jeff G., Jeff3000, Jelvas, Jerjer, Jfc12, Jgoddz, Jherbertz, Jidan, JimVC3, Jimp, JohnTechnologist, Jonathansuh, Joshuaaiden, Jouke Bersma, Julianonions, Junuxx, Justindlong, Kai4, Kalpathyram, Kansas Bear, Karkento, Kashk, Keilana, Keraunos, Kermanshahi, Kesangh, Khatru2, Khestwol, Khitan21, Khoikhoi, Kibi78704, Kintetsubuffalo, Kitplane01, Kmhkmh, Knight1993, KnowledgeHegemony, Koavf, Konstock, Kpalion, Kusunose, LAAFan, LLLex, La Manche, Lachrie, Lakshmix, Lambiam, Laodan, Laoris, LarryJeff, Le Anh-Huy, Lewisusa, LightSpectra, LilHelpa, Liurui1120, Llihrednu, Lns1992, Lord British, Lord British 2, Ludvikus, Luismribeiro, Luna Santin, Luwilt, LuxNevada, MJO, Mahtava, Mailer diablo, Mallerd, ManiF, Mankar Camoran, Mar vin kaiser, Martarius, Master of the Oríchalcos, MauriManya, Maxgl2002, Maximuscruz, Maxis ftw, Mcattack, Megapixie, Metalseadramon, Mexicansky, Michael Zimmermann, Midnightblueowl, Mifter, MiguelNS, MihaiC, MikeThe1st, Mild Bill Hiccup, MinisterForBadTimes, Miskin, Mohammad adil, Mouloud47, Mr George R. Allison, Mr0t1633, MrGRA, Mttll, Mukerjee, Munci, Murod, Nakiratusem, Nbrenard, NeroN BG, Newwarp, Nic tan33, Nick Number, Nick.mon, Nlu, Noctibus, Nsae Comp, Obeseafrican, ObfuscatePenguin, ObserveAndCorrect, Ochib, Oljtn, Omar-toons, Omnimike, Omniplex5, Onore Baka Sama, Optimist on the run, Orijentolog, Ow my brain!, Ozgurcantc, P4p5, Pass a Method, Pedroppcc, Perey, PericlesofAthens, Peter558, Phanerozoic, Philip Trueman, Phoenix500, Phoenix79, Piano non troppo, Picaballo, Pierpaolo.Dondio, Pietdesomere, Pietje96, Playdagame6991, PocketMoon, Porphy, PrairieKid, Proger, QuiQuontis, Quirex, Qwertzy, Qwyrxian, R'n'B, R9tgokunks, RafaelG, Rajaomair, Rathead5309, Ravenholdt, Rbenzecry, Redf0x, RegentsPark, RevolverOcelotX, Rex Germanus, Ric5575, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Rlevse, RobertG, Roentgenium111, Rolve, Romanov88, RonBeeCNC, Ronan07, Ross230100, Rustyfence, SM247, Sa.vakilian, Samstayton, San Sanitsch, Santa riskis, Secthayrabe, Seddon, Sefor4, Septilunicef, Shadowxfox, Shyjayb, Signsolid, Silviu Tigu, Sir Stig, Sj122390, Skarebo, SkinnedAardvark093, Skinnyweed, Skylights76, Slark, Sleigh, Sligocki, Smyth, Snow Blizzard, Sobreira, Sockr44e, Sodicadl, Soewinhan, Sonicology, SpaceFlight89, Spacepotato, Spanishempire1, Spellcast, Spider 2200, Spinningspark, Ssanjay23, Stanley.cai, Stevenmitchell, Stevertigo, Stormforce1998, Stroppolo, Sunquanliangxiuhao, SuperDan89, Superfan 410, Superm401, Swarm, Swpb, SystemsAlliance, Tabletop, Takabeg, Taketa, Tbhotch, Tdadamemd, Terrasidius, TharkunColl, That-Vela-Fella, The Emperor's New Spy, The Ogre, The Red Hat of Pat Ferrick, The Thing That Should Not Be, The Wordsmith, TheJames, TheLeopard, TheTruthA, Themightyquill, Tide rolls, Tigerstar7, Timeshifter, Tirkfl, Toccata quarta, Tomdidiot, Tone, Touch Of Light, TreasuryTag, UdayanBanerjee, Ufim, Uirauna, Umbric Man, Uncle G, Underbar dk, UnitedStatesian, Valoth99, Vanished user lkdfj39u3mfk4, Vivaystn, Vj.musings, Vladar86, Vonones, Voyevoda, Wachoviadeal, WarriorsPride6565, Wayiran, Webclient101, Welsh, WhisperToMe, Who then was a gentleman?, Wiki-Ed, Wikitanvir, Willdasmiffking, William Avery, WilliamMThompson, Wjk7, Wo.luren, Woohookitty, Work permit, Wtmitchell, Wwoody123, XPTO, Xander berkeley, Xashaiar, Xorkl000, Yagostecher, Yamamoto Ichiro, Yom, Yopie, Youssef Shehadeh, Yun-Yuuzhan (lost password), Z amirkhosravi, Zeerak88, Zhonghuo, Ziggymaster, Zujua, Zzanger, Ögehan, Азат Хәлилов, 2893 ,‫ אשכנזישעיידן‬anonymous edits

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File:Portugal Império total.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Portugal_Império_total.png  License: Copyrighted free use  Contributors: Original uploader was The Ogre at en.wikipedia Later versions were uploaded by The Red Hat of Pat Ferrick at en.wikipedia. File:Spanish Empire Anachronous 0.PNG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Spanish_Empire_Anachronous_0.PNG  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0,2.5,2.0,1.0  Contributors: Trasamundo File:Dutch Empire35.PNG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Dutch_Empire35.PNG  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Red4tribe File:British Empire Anachronous 7.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:British_Empire_Anachronous_7.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Original uploader was Gsd2000 at en.wikipedia File:Map_Anachronous_of_the_All_French_Empire_(1534_-1970).png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Map_Anachronous_of_the_All_French_Empire_(1534_-1970).png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Picaballo File:German colonial.PNG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:German_colonial.PNG  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Original uploader was Andrew0921 at en.wikipedia. Later version(s) were uploaded by SpencerCS, Ithanyx, R-41 at en.wikipedia. File:Italy and Posessions September 1939.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Italy_and_Posessions_September_1939.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: The Red Hat of Pat Ferrick t File:The Russian Empire-en.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:The_Russian_Empire-en.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Shadowxfox File:AchaemenidMapBehistunInscription.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:AchaemenidMapBehistunInscription.png  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: Gabagool File:MacedonEmpire.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MacedonEmpire.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Bjankuloski06en, Captain Blood, Doctor Che, Emijrp, Flappiefh, Herbythyme, Jackaranga, Kallerna, LX, Pici3k, Shakko, SilvioRusso, Tacsipacsi, Zykasaa, 19 anonymous edits File:RomanEmpire 117.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:RomanEmpire_117.svg  License: unknown  Contributors: Original uploader was Andrei nacu at en.wikipedia File:Maps of the Armenian Empire of Tigranes.gif  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Maps_of_the_Armenian_Empire_of_Tigranes.gif  License: unknown  Contributors: www.armenica.org Uploaded to en.wikipedia by en:user:Nareklm File:Maurya Dynasty in 265 BCE.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Maurya_Dynasty_in_265_BCE.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Vastu (talk). Original uploader was Vastu at en.wikipedia File:Mongol Empireaccuratefinal.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mongol_Empireaccuratefinal.png  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: Bidgee, Electionworld, Historiographer, Idh0854, Justass, Latebird, Look2See1, Loreleil, Nik Sage, Spesh531, Tm File:Map of expansion of Caliphate.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Map_of_expansion_of_Caliphate.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: DieBuche File:唐 朝 疆 域 ( 简 ).png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:唐 朝 疆 域 ( 简 ).png  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: 玖 巧 仔 file:SassanidEmpirebiggerbymae.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SassanidEmpirebiggerbymae.png  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: HistoryofIran File:BritishEmpire1919.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:BritishEmpire1919.png  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Maps & Lucy File:Anachronous map of the All French Empire (1534 -1970).png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Anachronous_map_of_the_All_French_Empire_(1534_-1970).png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Gd21091993 File:Japanese_Empire_(orthographic_projection).svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Japanese_Empire_(orthographic_projection).svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Shadowxfox (talk)

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