DNA Viral Infections Non-enveloped Adenovirus Replicate in nucelus; INIB Macrophage, endothelial cells, adrenal cortex, renal tubule, thymus Hemorrhagic encephalitis in susceptible thymic involution, necrosis of mice; Hemorrhagic enteritis, fatty liver, liver and spleen wasting disease DDX:

Mouse Adenovirus-1

Murine adenovirus A

Polyomavirus, cytomegalovirus

Mouse Adenovirus-2 Enveloped Herpesvirus Betaherpes

Murine adenovirus B



Intestinal epithelial are unique to Madv-2

Mouse Cytomegalovirus

Murid Herpesviris -1

Mouse Thymic Virus (MTLV) Polyomaviridae

Murid Herpesvirus -3

Replicate in nucleus and cause cytomegalic inclusions with INIB and ICIB INIB

salivary glands

Eosinophilic INIB, ICIB, in Does not cross the placenta, may cause salivary glands, fetal death and resorption, delayed birth, ;lymphoplasmacytic infiltration runts of the interstitium, focal necrosis Thymic necrosis, granuloma Tumors of mammary gland, salivary gland, thymus, skin tumors, renal sarcoma, osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, fibrosarcoma pulmonary vascular edema and hemorrhage

DDX for sialoadenitis w/ Inclusions: Polyomavirus, (no inclusions=Reovirus 3, Mouse thymic virus, Mammary tumor virus) DDX: Coronavirus or stress


Murine Polyomavirus


Salivary gland tumors, kidneys, 40 other cell types

Multifocal necrosis and inflammation

DDX: Mouse hepatitis, Pneumocystis, Sendai, Pneumonia virus of mice, adneovirus, cytomegalovirus

K-Virus Parvoviridae Mice Minute Virus (MVM) Mouse Parvovirus 1 Poxviridae related- vaccinia, variola, monkeypox, cowpox Ectromelia MousePox

Murine pneumotropic virus (MPtV

INIB in vascular endothelium INIB in spleen mononuclear cells

replicates in intestinal capillary endothelium

liver, lung, brain, spleen

DDX: Polyoma virus of mouse, adenovirus, cytomegalovirus

Kidney, intestine, lymphoid tissue, liver

more pathogenic for hemorrhage, hematopoietic involution, hemopoietic tissue than MPV; renal papillary infarction Targets outer granular layer of cerebellum

similar to MVM, but infects mice of all ages INIB, basophilic to eosinophilic especially hepatocytes Direct contact through cutaneous trauma; readily infects placenta and fetus spleen, liver, kidney, lung, intestine; amputating lesions, intestinal hemorrhage, necrosis

Ectromelia virus (ECTV)

necrosis of spleen, liver, lymph DDX: Hepatitis, MHV, Tyzzers, Salmonella, bite wounds, node, peyer's patches, thymus alopecia, hypersensitivity, gangrene

RNA Virus
runts, wasting, vasculitis, glomerulonephriti Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis s, lymphocytic Virus infiltration in brain , liver, adrenal, kidney, lung


necrotizing hepatitis, lymphocytic meningitis


DDX: Lymphoproliferative disorders, amyloidosis, glomerulonephritis, Chronic renal disease


Lactate DehydrogenaseElevating Virus Infection (LDV)

Necrosis of T cell in lymhpoid tissue, Scattered neuronolysis with apoptosis generalized and perivasculitis, non-suppurative splenomegaly, leptomeningitis, myelitis, radiculitis lymphadenomeg aly

DDX: Mouse encephalomyelitis virus (MEV), MHV, or retrovirus


hepatic nodular hyperplasia with parenchymal collapse and necrosis and syncytia of parenchyma fibrosis, splenic and endothelial cells- liver spleen, red Murine Hepatitis Virus (MHV) necrosis, and white pulp, GALT, thymys and bone Neurologic, marrow vestibular, paresis in immunodeficient mice Mild necrotizing rhinitis, Alveolar septae are thickened with necrotizing edema and macrophages and bronchiolitis, leukocytes, and alveolar spaces are non-suppurative collapsed and filled with fibrin, blood and interstitial macrophages and large polygonal pneumonia with mononuclear cells (detached Type II neutrophils, pneumocytes) lymphocytes and macrophages

enterotropic MHV- depends on ageneonates have villous attenuation, syncytia, and mucosal necrosis

Residual brain lesionsDDX: adults- Salmonella, Tyzzers, Mousepox; Neonatesperivascular cuffing of Reovirus, Cytomegalovirus, adenovirus; Enteritislymphocytes and vacuolation/ epizootic diarrhea, salmonella, Tyzzers, Reovirus; granulomatous serositis in IFN Demyelinating- Mouse encephalomyelitis virus, LDV, deficient mice Polyoma virus in immunodeficient mice


Pneumonia virus of mice (PVM)

Murine pneumovirus (MPV)

DDX: Pulmonary disease and wasting- Sendai and Pneumocystis murinus (immunodeficient) PVM tends not to induce bronchiolar hypertrophy like Sendai virus

Sendai Virus

Sendai Virus (SeV)

Infects respiratory epithelium and Type II pneumocytes

CD-8 Triggered apoptosis of infected cells

Segmental necrotizing airways with inflammation as well as foci of interstitial pneumonia

neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, fibrin in alveoli, DDX: Mycoplasma, Corynebacterium kutscheri. Mild atelectasis; Bronchiolar lesions can look like PVM or MHV. Immunodeficient mice epithelium may be can look like PVM or Pneumocystis murina hyppertrophic and hyperplastic prior to apoptosis

Picornaviridae SCID mice have marked vacuolation and MEV or Theilovirus (ThV); Viral encephalitis attacks neurons and glia; neuronolysis, enlargement of affected neurons, in the Mouse encephalomyelitis virus Mouse poliovirus or Theiler's and neuronophagia, microgliosis, nonbrain stem and ventral horn of a spinal virus demyelination suppurative meningitis and perivasculitis cord. Reoviridae Diffuse encephalitis with vascular distribution; Necrotizing myocarditis, necrosis of lymphoid tissue, necrotizing hepatitis, portal hepatitis, acinar pancreatitis, and sialodacryoadenitis DDX: neurological disease- trauma, neoplasia, otitis, MHV, LDV; In immunodeficient mice polyoma virus

Mammalian orhtoreovirus (MRV)

mouse reovirus

enters through Peyer's patches

neonatal disease

Runted, jaundiced, steatorrhea, dorsal alopecia

DDX: Neonatal disease with steatorrhea- mouse hepatitis virus, EDIM virus, Salmonella

Rotavirus-A (RV-A) Caliciviridae

Epizootic Diarrhea of Infant Mice (EDIM)

Infects terminally differentiated enterocytes of villi of small and large intestine Non-pathogenic, tropism for macrophages and dendritic cells, replicate in lung liver, and lymphoid organs in macrophages

Loose mustard colored feces staining the perineum

Hydropic change and vacuolation of enterocytes at the tips of villi

DDX: Enterotropic MHV, MAdV, reovirus, Salmonellosis, Tyzzer's disease


Murine norovirus (MNV-1)

Alveolitis, pulmonary edema, coagulation necrosis in liver, minimal inflammation, necrotizing splenitis, endothelial hypertrophy in STAT1 null mice

Multiofcal mononuclear hepatitis, interstitial pneumonia, pleuritis, peritonitis

Retroviridae Other autonomous retroelement flanked MuLV and by LTR's are: Intracisternal A particles MMTV's encode Non-autonomous retroelements must borrow reverse (IAP's), MusD elements, VL30 elements, LINE's are long interspersed retroelements make up 37% of the mouse genome, most their own reverse transriptase- they encode no proteins but are flanked by Most are methylated and glutathione tRNA primer binding sites nucleotide sequences and considered genetic parasites. These require transcription transcriptase and LTR's (early transposons (Etns), Short interspersed transcriptionally silent due to mutation (GLN's), and murine endogenous make up 20% of the genomefrom RNA to DNA- gag, pro, pol, env genes flanked by LTR's are incorporated nuclear elements (SINES); Also there are numerous LTR's retroelements (MuERV's- include these lack LTR's into the genome with no internal reading frame MuERVC, MuRRS, MuRVY's) These are (provirus) mi Exogenous retroviruses are transmitted horizontally as conventional viruses LTR's encode superantigen gene (sag) Endogenous retroelements are mostly defective, they do represent mobile DNA that can re-integrate in other regions of the genome during cell division withour virion assembly and re-infection LTR's include enhancers, promotors, which dictate transcriptional acitivty and tissue MMTV- tropism for mammary tissue specificity Once in the viral genome they are called viral Acute transforming retroviruses have incorporate a host cell proto- oncogenes and such v-onc genes and are capable of oncogene that directly alters may be mutated transforming a cell quickly instead of cell division to increase their relying on random insertional pathogenicity, mutagenesis but also may be defective transmitted Re-integration into the somatic genome through milk, results in random insertional Exogenous and endogenous semen, saliva, mutagenesis and neoplasia follows etc integration near host proto-oncogenes insertional Mammary gland neoplasia, mutagenesis can be endogenous or exogenous and lymphocytotropic transforms transmitted in milk lymphocytes

general info



Mouse lymphoma - B cell and arise in spleen.


Bacterial Infections
Enteric Infections hyperplastic, catarrhal colitis; Induce dissolution of non-flagellated, species specific, brush border, bacterial colonization elicits intense requires direct contact, colonizes cecum Acquired immune response is actin filament mucosal epithelial hyperplasia/ cryptal Transmissible murine colonic and colon, attachment mediated by necessary for clearance but is DDX: hyperplastic colitis, E coli, Helicobacter, enterotropic rearrangement, cysts that fill with mucin; rectal prolapse; hyperplasia (TMCH) bacterial intimin and Type III proteins also a major factor in disease MHV pedestal contracted thickended colon, erosion, including translocated intimin receptor severity formation similar multifocal hepatitis and splenitis (Tir) to attaching and effacing E coli (EPEC and EHEC)

Citrobacter rodentium

Escherichia coli

Coliform typhlocolitis

Large intestinal hyperplastic lesions, thickended colon mucosa, mucosal hyperplasia red mucosa, inflammation, necrosis in mucosa and muscularis

perineal fecal staining

DDX: C rodentium, Helicobacter, Enterotropic MHV

Clostridium piliforme

Tyzzer's Disease

multifocal liver necrosis with neutrophils, myocyte degneration, myocarditis, intracellular bacteria

DDX: MHV, mousepox, salmonellosis, pseudomoniasis, corynebacterium, Helicobacter spp, clostridial enteropathy

Helicobacter hepaticus

4mm white foci in liver, hypertrophy Hyperplastic typhlocolitis and and hyperplasia hepatitis of ito cells and oval cells fibriae to M cells--> phagocytosis by enterocytes--> pulmonary

bile duct hyperplasia, fibrosis, helical microorganisms

mucosal crypt hyperplasia, organisms in crypt lumen

Hepatocellular tumors, typhlocolitis (IBD)

DDX: Salmonella, Proteus, Tyzzers, MHV, ectromelia


Typhimurium Enteritidis

intracellular, in macrophages

histiocytic granuloma

diarrhea, conjunctivitis, splenomegaly, pale liver foci, fibrinous peritonitis, venous thrombosis,

DDX: Tyzzer's, coronaviral hepatitis, mousepox, Helicobacter, pseudomoniasis


obligate intracellular

perivascular and peribronchiolar organisms grow within bronchiolar lymphocyte epithelium, type 1 alveolar cells, infiltration and macrophages,, intracytoplasmic vesicles non-suppurative containing inclusions interstitial pneumonia Chronic suppurative cranioventral bronchopneumon Warthin starry shows long filamentous ia with marked bacteria along cilia peribronchiolar infiltration with lymphocytes and plasma cells old mice with suppurative endometritis, cystic endometrial hyperplasia, salpingitis, perioophoritis/ peritonitis (abscesses and adhesions) renal tubular necrosis and interstitial nephritis focal hepatic necrosis, interstitial nephritis and tubular damage

Cilia-Associated Respiratory Bacillus

associated with viruses like Sendai and PVM


K oxytoca- suppurative female repro tract lesions


interrogans ser icterohemorrhagiae

pulmonary fibrinoid vasculitis, thrombosis, hemorrhage Lethal disease, discohesion of hepatic cords, hyperplasia of Kupffer cells and macrophages,

interrogans ser copenhageni


M pulmonis

respiratory and genital tract disease ans sometimes arthritis

M neurolyitcum M Coccoides M hemomuris

Rolling disease transmitted by Polyplax serrata- louse typically infects rats

colonizes the apical cell membranes or respiratory epithelium, exacerbated by viral infections and Pasteurella exotoxin attahced to erythrocytes and free in plamsa

Mitogenic for B cells

mucopurulent exudate, vestibular signs, bronchiolectasiss, abscessation, suppurative rhinitis, hyperplasia of mucosal glands

flat epithelium, syncytia, peribronchiolar and perivascular lymphocytes, metaplasia of respiratory epithelium

DDX: CAR bacillus, Sendai, Streptobacillus and Corynebacterium (Pneumonia and arthritis)

conjunctivitis severe anemia and death

Lawsonia intracellularis

Pasteurella pneumotropica

Proteus mirabilis

rats hamsters, Proloferative enteritis, typhlitis guinea pigs and or colitis rabits Conjunctivitis, panophthalmitis, dacryoadenitis, Respiratory, enteric and periorbital Necrotizing dermatitis, mastitis, metritis, genital tracts abscressation, UTI, abortions rhinitis, otitis, cervical lymphadenitis splenomegaly, multifocal hepatic Suppurative pyelonephritis Fibrinous peritonitis lesions in SCID mice

ddx: fighting injuries, M pulmonis, pneumocystis, Sendai virus

septic thrombi in vessels

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Burkholderia gladioli

Conjunctivitis, nasal discharge

subcutaenous edema and sudden death necrotizing hepatitis, with Kupffer cell and Ito cell hyperplasia, and basophilic cytoplasmic inclusions Cervical lymphadenitis large or small intestine liver, kidney, lungs, lymph nodes lipophilic and grows in keratin

ulcerative lymphangitis, vasculitis, thrombosis, necrosis, hemorrhage

DDX: Corynebacterium kutscheri, Enterobacter cloacae

Coxiella burnetti

Mice that received bovine xenografts

Streptobacillus monoliformis Clostridium perfringens Clostridium difficile Corynebacterium kutscheri

Commensal of respiratory tract Non-Type A, type B and Type D C diff toxin A and B Pneumonia, caseous necrosis

Suppurative embolic nephritis, polyarthritis, osteomyelitis necrotizing and hyperplastic changes

Rat Bite Fever- potentially fatal zoonotic generalized lymphoid apoptosis and renal tubular vacuolation conjunctivitis, thrombosis, gram positive bacilli

DDX: pseudomoniasis, corynebacterial, staphylococcal, streptococcal infections, (mycoplasma and corynebacterium for arthritis) DDX: Tyzzer's disease, (and hyperplasia- citrobacter, Helicobacter, E coli)

hematogenous Marked epidermal hyperplasia, orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis ans mononuclear and PMN cells in the dermis

DDX: Staph, Strep, Mycoplasma (arthritis)

Corynebacterium bovis


DDX: Low humidity, some other bacterial dermaitis DDX: Ectromelia virus, Pasteurella pneumotropica, Staphylococcus, Foreign bodies, genetic factors (entropion etc B6 mice prone to trichotillomania causing DDX: other bacterial abscesses, Streptococcal necrotizing ulcerative dermatitis followed dermatitis, amputation of the tail (mousepox) by colonization with staph and then necrotizing dermatitis

Corynebacterium spp Staphylococci Staphylococci

Conjunctivitis Conjunctivitis hemolysins, nucleases, exfoliative exotoxins, leukocidin, proteases, Necrotizing dermatitis Enterotoxins and Toxic shock syndrome lipases, toxin-1 hyaluronidase, collagenase Gram pos bacteria Chronic disease can cause surrounded by Lymphadenitis multisystemic amyloidosis and splendore splenomegaly hoeppli material (botryomycosis) Group AGroup B- Meningoencephalitis, bacteremia, Lancefield groups A, B, C, G ependymitits, periventriculitis, (from cervical nose), pyelonephritis, septicemia lymphadenitis DBA/2 mice with pyelonephritis and subsequent bacteriemia with Group B disseminated lesions to the heart, kidneys, spleen, liver, uterus, thorax subcutaneous, hepatic, and Group C abdominal abscesses Necrotizing dermatitis with Group G vasculitis and thrombosis with Pseudomonas Lancefield group D can cause enterococcus durans and faecalis bacteremia in SCID mice asymptomatic with subpleural granulomas

superficial colonization with underlying burn like lesions



Strep agalactiae

Strep equisimilis

Enterotoccus Mycobacteria M. avium intracellulare

DDX: M pulmonis, Corynebacterium kutscheri, Freunds adjuvant lesions

Mycotic Infections
Dermatophytosis epithelial debris, exudate, mycelia, masses of arthrospores, with underlying dermatitis Defective NADPH oxidase Defective NADPH oxidase Chronic granulomatous disease Trichosporon beigelii Paecilomyces, Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Candida

Cuplike crusts on head ears, Trichophyton mentagrophytes face, tail, extremities

Microsporum canis Systemic and Pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans Candida tropicalis Actinomyces Gastric B6.129S6-Cybb mice B6-p47 Null mice

Candida pintolopesii

yeast of the surface mucosa of the glandular stomach

Pseudomemrane formation with epithelial hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis and leukocytes Pseudohyphae in the kersatinized layer Asci (cysts) are carriers are asymptomatic and disease Interstitial pneumonia with proteinaceous also present and presents in immunosuppressed mice exudate in the alveolar lumina, contain 8 causing pneumonia thickening of alveolar septa ascospores 3-5 um cysts, irregularly flattened DDX: viral pneumonia, Sendai virus, PVM, Congestive heart failure

Canida albicans

normal inhabitant

Pneumocytsis murina

Non-filamentous yeast-like trophic forms

adhere to type 1 pneumocytes

Parasitic disease
Ectoparasites Acariasis fur mites Myobia, Radfordia, Mycoptes, Tichoecius Myobia musculi Follicle Mites Ornithonyssus bacoti Pediculosis Demodex musculi Psorergates tropical rat mite Louse Polyplax serrata heavy infestations can result in anemia epidermal hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis do not feed on blood but secretions; cause pruritis and self trauma leading to hair loss and secondary infections DDX: Pediculosis, trauma, bacterial dermatitis, dermatophytosis, hair chewing, muzzle alopecia (mechanical)


rare blood sucking intense pruritis

Protozoal endoparasites
Eimeria Cryptosporidium Cryptosporidium Giardia Spironucleus Toxoplasma Sarcocystis Klossiella Encephalitozoon cuniculi Helminths Oxyuriasis (pinworms) Tapeworms rectal prolapse, intussusception, fecal impaction, diarrhea Rodentolepis Hymenolepis Rodentolepis Taenia taeniaformis (cysticercus fasciolaris) nana diminuta microstoma mice ar intermediate host all use arthropods as intermediate hosts larger and intermediate forms do not appear in the mucosa as large as diminuta and often exist in bile ducts or pancreatic ducts inciting pancreatitis and cholangitis adults live in cats larval form in stobilocercus (cysticercus fasciolaris) scolex and segments within a cyst found in the liver (may resemble adult tapeworm) cysticerci in lamina propria nana also capable of superinfections via and threadlike adults adults in direct ife cycles lumen vermiformis, falciformis, papillata, ferrisi muris parvum muris muris gondii muris muris microsporidiosis (more like fungi) gastric mucosa, relatively non-pathogenic small intestine, marginally pathogenic lumen of duodenum (formerly hexamita) rare in lab mice rare in lab mice renal coccidiosis granulomatous hepatitis, interstitial nephritis, meningoencephalitis enteritis secondary to viral infections poor hair coat, distention commensal inghabitant of intestine cats definitive hosts cats definitive hosts spores are gram positive cholangiohepatitis with focal hepatic necrosis, peribiliary fibrosis

crypts and intervillous spaces are distended, lymphocytes and plasma cells

Nutritional and Metabolic
Amyloidosis 2 types AA AapoAII serum precursor apoSAA Primary or Senile Amyloid some say it is not amyloid since it does not stain with Congo red and is trichrome positive inflammatory response produced by liver spleen liver intestine and kidney Adrenals, intestine, heart, lungs, thyroid, parathyroid, ovaries, testes precursors are degraded by macrophages to AA fibrils DDX: glomerular hyalinosis (agre related), glomerulonephritis, hydronephrosis, spontaneous cardiac atrial thrombosis

nasal mucosa

Soft Tissue Calcification BALB/c Epicardial mineralization with fibrosis of the RV free wall


DBA mice

foci of degeneration and Skeletal myofiber mineralization throughout LV mineralization myocardium and IVS dystophic mineralization in the aorta, testes, epicardial and myocardial tongue, muscle, mineralization cornea, kidney, stomach, small intestine, ovary DBA, C3H, BALB focal to diffuse accumulation of acidophilic crystals within macrophages, alveolar spaces, and airways B6, 129

in the tongue can form inflammatory polyps

Dystrophic mineralization of the superficial corneal stroma Acidophilic Macrophage Pneumonia/ Epithelial hyalinosis AMP

cytoplasm packed with needle to rhomboid shaped crystals

Any disease that impairs normal pulmonary clearance can predispose to AMP


part of the syndrome

olfactory, nasal respiratory, middle ear, trachea, lung, In the cytoplasm of epithelial cells, with stomach, gall blebbing and filling of glands bladder, bile duct and pancreatic duct epithelium

Reye's like Syndrome

hepatoencephalopathy and fatty degeneration of the viscera

mitochondrial anticedent viral infections and swelling with aspirin therapy are hepatocyte participating factors in dysfunction in the humans primary lesion

livers are swollen greasy and pale, kidneys are swollen

hepatic lipidosis, Alzheimers type II astrocytes, intestinal lesions associated with MHV are variable

DDX: BALB/c hepatic fatty degeneration (lesser degree of change)

Behavioral Disorders
Male aggression DBA, Swiss, BALB/c The presence of males will synchronize estrus (Witten effect) diffuse wounds or centered around the tail and external genitalia

Stereotypy Barbering Penis self mutilation

Bar-mouthing, jumping, circling, somersaulting, routetracing tritrichotillomania B6

repetitive funtionless behavior females> males B6 and A2G self or conspecific can initiate ulcerative dermatitis

Mechanical muzzle alopecia Ringtail Cotton Sloughing Spinal fracture Dehydration Hypo-Hyperthermia Frostbite Ear gangrene and Notching low humidity necrosis and sloughing of digits due to cotton fibers cage lid closure require large volumes of drinking water mice are inefficiaently homeothermic gangrene Albino Swiss and C3H annular constrictions of the tail and feet

check for hydrocephalus

Massive thymic apoptosis Massive thymic apoptosis

nude mice prone

Aging Degenerative and Miscellaneous
Alopecia areata C3H mice irregular diffuse alopecia of the dorsal and ventral trunk hairloss increases with age dense anagen follicles with dystrophic hair follicles, melanin incontinence, interfollicular epidermal thickening, perifollicular mononuclear leukocyte infiltrates

Alopecia of B6 mice Clown Mouse syndrome

behavioral disorder weaning age mice

Myobia hypersensitivity runted and general alopecia



audiogenic siezures

predispose to necrotizing dermatitis hyperkeratosis and glabrous associated with MHV skin neuronal necrosis of cortex, ejaculation with retention of urethral hippocampus, centrilobular coagulation necrosis of liver plugs resulting on obstructive uropathy thalamus, generalized gliosis reduced neuronal proliferation, defects in ependyma, lamination of cortex, microencephaly


aplasia of corpus callosum



domes, runted and dehydrated

Vacuolation of White Matter

fixation artifact

Multilaminated mineralized concretions Cochlear degeneration Spontaneous corneal opacity

thalamus of old mice vascularization, mineralization of corneal basement membranes abscessation of meibomian glands females>males absence or degeneration of rods, outer nuclear layer, outer plexiform layer, corynebacterium, staph, pasteurella pneumotropica assymetric

acute to chronic inflammatory changes

Blepharitis and Conjunctivitis Microphthalmia and Anophthalmia Retinal degeneration Malocclusion Foreign Body periodonittis Celft lip palate Megaesophagus Gastric mucosal hyperplasia Ileus in lactating mice Liver Problems- incidental Cytomegaly of hepatocytes Fatty change Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions intranucelar cytoplasmic invaginations polyploidy, karyomegaly, anisokaryoiss, polykarya Biliary epithelial hyalinosis and crystals Bile duct proliferation Polyarteritis Vestibular syndrome Atrial thrombosis and heart failure Perivascular lymphoid infiltrates Pulmonary histiocytosis Alveolar lipoproteinosis

suppurative conjunctivitis C57BL Homozygous rd-1 allele B6 hereditary

smooth muscle I nthe abdominal segment etiology unknown abdominal distention

aplasia of the myenteric plexus with fibrosis



age related

small to medium sized arteries manifestation of polyarteritis thrombosis of the auricle leading to heart failure

fibrinoid degeneration and necrosis of tunica media Head tilt, circling precipitated by multisystemic amyloidosis

neutrophilic or mononuclear left side usually

usually incidental

mild to severe in the adventitia antecedent to of pulmonary vessels lymphoproliferative disorders lipid laden macrophages cholesterol or hemoglobin crystals

Alveolar hemorrhage Freunds adjuvant pulmonary granulomata Aspiration pneumonia Murine Urologic Syndrome Chronic Glomerulonephritis/ Glomerulopathy

progressive intraalveolar may overlap with accumulation of granular pale hypertrophy and vacuolation acidophilic eosinophilic phospholipid of Type II pneumocytes macrophage (surfactant) pneumonia extravasation of blood into alveolar spaces is common agonal finding

obstructive uropathy

cellulitis, paraphimosis, hydronephrosis

prostatitis, DDX- agonal release of coagulum from cystitis, urethritis, accessory sex glands balanoposthitis

Amyloidosis Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis LCMV and retroviruses

chronic progressive nephropathy (resembles the disease in Rats) Hydronephrosis renal Infarction Polycystic disesae Renal tubular hyaline bodies Inclusion body nephritis

non-specific basement membrane thickening (glomerular hyalinosis) usually incidentsl BALB/c Hyaline eosinophilic bodies in cytoplasm of tubules Homogenous intranuclear eosinophilic inclusions

glomerular sclerosis, tubular degeneration, regeneration, interstitial inflammation, dilated tubules with protein rich fluid DDX- renal papillary necrosis due to amyloidosis

association with histiocytic sarcomas negative for adjacent interstitial infiltrates Polyoma virus, K of lymphocytes virus, adenovirus Males > Females; castration eliminates sensitivity

Chloroform Toxicity

Renal tubular necrosis


DBA and C3H mice

NSAID nephropathy

Tubular degeneration with mineralization

may progress to chronic nephropathy

Pale kidneys with irregular outlines, tubular degeneration and atrophy in cortex and medulla one or both uterine horns dilated some have congenital imperforate vagina DDX- Pyometra, retained fetuses, neoplasia

Mucometra/hydrometra Cystic endometrial hyperplasia Adenomyosis Mammary Hyperplasia Bulbourethral glands cysts Seminal Vesicular Dilatation and atrophy Pseudocanalization and Megalokaryocytosis of male reproductive epithelium

BALB/c, B6, DBA aged female mice glandular invasion of the myometrium virgin female FVB/N Small pear shaped

abdominal distension may be associated with secondary bacterial pyometras oftne extends to serosa

DDX- neoplasia

secretions are at the base of penis and part of copulatory embedded in skeletal muscle plug

Cystic glands present as unilateral or bilateral swellings of the perineum

may be suppurative- Staph aureus, Pasteurella pneumotropica

Fibro-osseus lesions in Aged sternebrae, vertebrae, femurs mice

aged female B6C3F1

bone marrow replaced by fibroblast like cells and osteoblasts embedded in an eosinophilic matrix

can extend into the periosteum; Non malignant

DDX- histiocytic sarcoma, osteosarcoma

Mammary Tumors Testicular Tumorsa Multicentric lymphoma Thymic lymphoma Hepatocellular neoplasia Lymhpoid and NonLymphoid Hematopoeitic Neoplasia Lymhphoid neoplasms C3H/He 129/Sv BALB/c AKR DBA

B cell

Precursor B cell Mature B cell small cell spleninc marginal zone multisystemic, lung , kidney, often with leukemic phase multifocal in spleen spleens are enlarged; cells have abundant cytoplasm

arise in marginal zones and extend into both red and white pulp arise from follicles; typicallyu low grade Most common; spleen, Peyer's patches, Follicular B cell and resemble germinal centers with Mesenteric lymph nodes large cells Diffuse large B cell Resemble follicular lymphomas spleen, LN, mediastimum

arise from centroblasts in the splenic white pulp, medium sized with scant cytoplasm

can be histiocyte associated

Burkitt-lymphoma Burkitt-like lymphoma Plasma cell Lymphoblastic . Not Herpes virus associated Plasmacytoma Extraosseus plasmacytoma anaplastic plasmacytoma

T cell

Precursor T cell Mature T cell

B natural killer cell Cd4-/ Cd8-, CD3+ Small cell T-natural Killer cell Large cell anaplastic

enlarged thymuses Splenomegaly, lymphadenomegaly, not Thymic associated

medium sized and uniform with scant cytoplasm

Non-Lymphoid neoplasms Myeloid (granulocytic) Leukemias With maturation Without maturation Myeloproliferative disease-like myeloid leukemia Erythroid leukemias Megakaryocytic leukemia Biphenotypic leukemia hematopoeitic sarcoma Granulocytic originates in the spleen, can go to large vesicular nuclei, round, indented or sparing of splenic follicles/ splenomegaly BM, liver, lung, ring shaped adrenal. Kidneys

Histiocytic sarcoma

enlarged spleen, multifocal nodules in lungs, liver, ovaries, uterus, kidney, bone marrow, lymph nodes

large nuclei and multinucleated giant cells

erythrophagocytosis espiecially in the liver

Mast cell Myeloid dysplasia Myelodysplastic syndrome Cytopenia with increased blasts Non-reactive Myeloid proliferation Genetic myeloproliferation Myeloproliferative disease Mammary tumors Glandular composed of glands multicentric and multinodular, well glandular structures with small MMTV's are either exogenous circumscribed, lumina (MMTV) or endogenous (low grade) pulmonary metastasis is common Sheets or nests forming lumina with round punched out spaces fingerlike projections of epithelium covering a central vascular core solid sheets of epithelium with little or no glandular differentiation Squamous cells with or without differentiation, no glandular pattern Myxoid and fibrous stroma and glands myoepithelium and glands glandular and squamous elements Does not resemble any of the above originate from Type II A strain is highly susceptible enhanced with viral infections pneumocytes or due to a mutated K-ras allele such as Sendai its precursor common to Clara cells Sub-pleural masses +/- invasion and seeding of visceral and parietal pleura


Cribriform Papillary

Solid Squamous Fibroadenoma Adenomyoepithelioma Adenosquamous NOS Pulmonary Tumors

Primary pulmonary Adenoma

closely packed cuboidal to lining Cells are non ciliated and may remnants of alveolar septa with sparse DDX- focal alveoalr epithelial cell hyperplasia (older mice) have mucinous differentiation collagenous stroma

Primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma Papilloma Squamous cell carcinoma Adenosquamous carcinoma neuroendocrine carcinoma Hepatocellular neoplasia Hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas Hepatoblastoma Cholangioma Cholangiocarcinoma hemangioma hemangiosarcoma Histiocytic sarcoma Ito cell tumors (rare) Harderian gland tumors papillary cystadenomas or solid adenomas slow growing, appear late in life highly invasive with infiltration of bone and othe rstructures of the head BALB/c and BALB/cBy Females > Males protrusion of the eye with porphyrin staining lobulated resilient, light tan to white mass in the retroorbital space Aged males > females organoid structures arranged around vascular channels A and DBA strains or forming rows and rosettes Helicobacter spp

columnar cells

Antecedent: cell alteration, clear cell grey to tan nodules, trabecular and solid foci, basophilic foci, eosinophilic cell foci types,

well circumscribed, unencapsulated, anisokaryosis, karyomegaly, cytomegaly

well differentiated epithelial cells with vacuolated cytoplasm


Myoepitheliomas Reproductive Neoplasms Female

Arise from Cystic chambers containing serous fluid submaxillary and may also be associated with mammary, (necrosis)/ large pleiomorphic spindle parotid salivary preputial, and Harderian glands cells with epithelial and mesenchymal glands features

metastasis to lungs, myeloid hyperplasia of bone marrow and spleen

Papillary cystadenomas

ovarian tubular adenomas granulosa cell and thecal tumors Dysgerminomas hemangiomas/sarcomas Uterine endometrial stromal tumors adenocarcinomas Leiomyosarcomas Histiocytic sarcomas Male

rare urterus

Sebaceosquamous adenomas pregutial glands of both males and carcinomas and females Teratomas of the testis Extragonadla teratoma perigenital region Mesenchymal and Bone Neoplasms Rhabdomyosarcomas Mesenchymal tumors Soft tissue sarcomas Multicentric osteomas Primary Osteosarcomas Endocrine Neoplasms Pituitary Gland Adenomas Adrenocortical adenomas Pheochromocytomas Pancreatic Islet tumors Thyroid Follicular cell Adenomas B6 and Swiss mice, FVB/N prolactin producing Females > Males Solid, sinusoidal, cystic, compress overlying brain arise from skeletal muscle in BALB/cj, and BALB/cByJ can be induced by carcinogens and viruses Trp53 OF-1 mouse from spinal vertebrae, sternebrae and long bones

Moloney Murine Sarcoma Virus

metastasis to lung, liver, spleen, kidney

lumbosacral region

present with posterior paralysis

DNA Viral Infections Non-enveloped Adenovirus Mouse Adenovirus Enveloped Herpesvirus Rat Cytomegalovirus Polyomaviridae Serologically distinct from polyoma and K virus of mice Parvoviridae scrotal hemorrhage with peritesticular Kilhams rat virus (RV) fibrinous exudation, necrosis and infarction due to thrombosis H-3 X-14 RV-Y HER virus Toolan's H1 HT Rat Parvovirus (RPV) related to cowpox, distinct from ectromelia Splenomegaly, liver necrosis, encephalomalacia INIB in hepatocytes, cerebrallar hyoplasia, may have reproductive endothelial cells and hepatitis, and jaundice disorders bile duct epithelium in neonates DDX- pseudomoniasis septicemia, Mycoplasma pulmonis, trauma Pneumonia and sialoadenitis INIB in ductal epithelium euthymic rats did not develop disease antigenically distinct from CMV Salivary and Lacrimal cytomegaly with INIB Non-suppurative glands and ICIB interstitial inflammation MAdV-2 Rats have a serologically related virus but do not have disease Intranuclear inclusions in enterocytes DDX:

Group 1

Group 2 Group 3 Poxviridae

Turkmenia rodent Poxvirus

dermal pox and tail amputation

interstitial pneumonia

may be cowpox virus

RNA Virus
Coronavirus Sialodacryoadenitis Virus (SDAV) also produce pulmonary disease in young rats excessive lacrimation with crusts parotid and submandibular salivary glands are swollen ddx: Mycoplasma, Sendai, nonkeratinizing Pneumonia virus of mice coagulation necrosis of squamous metaplasia (pneumonia), Pseudomonas ductal structures of ducts (edema), stress events, ammonia in environment

Parkers Rat Coronavirus Bunyaviridae Hantavirus genus Hantaan virus (HFRS) HPS Rat Respiratory Virus Paramyxoviridae Pneumonia virus of Mice mice, rats, hamsters, guinea pigs, gerbils Perivascular lymphohistiocytic interstitial alveolitis

rhinitis, tracheitis, interstitial pneumonia aerosol and contact spread no disease Humans- pulmonary capillary leakage some neutrophils and type II pneumocyte hyperplasia

salivary and lacrimal gland lesions

Necrotixing tracheitis, flattening of Athymic nude rats epithelium, loss of develop chronic wasting cilia

Humansthrombocytopenia, myalgia,

DDX: Sendai, and Pneumonia virus of Mice

Non-suppurative vasculitis and interstitial alveolitis with necrosis

Perivascular infiltrates, hyperplasia of BALT, perivasculitis

DDX: Sendai, Rat Respiratory virus, Rat coronavirus

Sendai Virus

Parainfluenza 1

Mice, rat, hamster

respiratory epithelial necrosis

rhinitis, neutrophils, plasma cells, lymphocytes

hyperplastic to suppurative bronchitis additive effect of and bronchiolitis with Mycoplasma infections perivascular and peribronchial cuffing

DDX: PVM, RRV, Rat corona,

Picornaviridae Rat Cardioviruses MHG RCaV Rotavirus villus attenuation, Infectious Diarrhea of necrosis of Infant Rats (IDIR) enterocytes, epithelial syncytia Reovirus Rats do not have disesae, but seroconvert Eosinophilic ICIB DDX: E coli neurologic

GRAM (-) Enteric Campylobacter Lawsonia Intracellularis Clostridium piliforme Tyzzer's disease filamentous weak gram negative, spore forming obligate intracellular gastritis Thickening of gut wall, Spleen- focal crypt epithelial septicemia, bacterial granulomas, fibrinous hyperplasia, emboli with fibrin and exudation and focal inflammation, focal exudate necrosis ulceration Necrotizing and hemorrhagic ileitis Enterocyte necrosis, hepatocyte necrosis , myocardial necrosis with neutrophils and mononuclear cells Dilation of SI with flaccid dialatation Young rats with diarrhea


Proliferative and ulcerative typhlitis, colitis, and proctitis enteritidis and typhimurium


focal liver necrosis

DDX- Pseudomoniasis, rotaviral enteritis, cryptosporidiosis, management issues and Tyzzers

GRAM (-) Respiratory Bordatella bronchispetica uncommon important in guinea pigs and Rabbits similar to primary mycoplasma infections Suppurative Rhinitis Bronchopneumonia with peribronchial lymphoid hyperplasia Maybe concurrent infection with Rat coronavirus, Mycoplasma DDX- Mycoplasma , bacterial pneumonia, complications to Sendai, PVM, RRV, Rat Coronavirus

Cilia-Associated Respiratory Bacillus Haemophilus Murine Respiratory Mycoplasmosis

filamentous argyrophilic bacillus

Chronic suppurative bronchitis and bronchiolitis

Peribronchial cuffing with lymphocytes and use Warthin Starry stain plasma cells peribronchial cuffing with lymphocytes, metaplasia and hyperplasia of respiratory epithelium

M pulmonis

Catarrhal and suppurative bronchopneumonia Rhinitis, sinusitis, conjunctivitis, otitis media, suppurative bronchopneumonia, chronic necrotizing mastitis, pyometra

dark plum colored and multifocal abscesses tan

genital tract lesions and otitis media

DDX: Corynebacterium kutscheri, CAR bacillus, Pasteurella pneumotropica metritis

Pasteurella pneumotropica


GRAM (+) Respiratory Multifocal suppurative /granulomatous necrotizing pneumonia (pseudotuberculosis) coagulation and caseous necrosis, hematogenous, interstitial pneumonia, perivascular cuffing

Corynebacterium kutscheri

Multifocal nephritis and hepatitis

Fibrinous pleuritis


Streptococcus pneumoniae Enterococcus faeciumdurans-2 Erysipelas

rib cage, submandibular, neck, Ulcerative Dermatitis ears, head, with hair loss Botryomycosis heads Fibrinopurulent Suppurative polyserositis and bronchopneumonia meningitis Enteropathy in Infant abdominal distention Rats Fibrinopurulent polyarthritis, myocarditis, endocarditis formerly hemobartonella muris Opportunistic transmitted by Polyplax spinulosa abscesses in cervical, inguinal, mesenteric lymph nodes and kidney

hyperplasia of epidermis,

bacteria in crust

DDX: Corynebacterium, Salmonella, Pseudomonas, Pasteurellosis gram postiive bacteria on villus tips of small intestine

Mycoplasma haemomuris Klebsiella pneumonia Leptospira

Natural infections are inapparent

subclinical with no lesions Septicemia, Pseudomonas pulmonary edema, Endocarditis, vasculitis Lung spleen, kidneys aeruginosa splenomegaly, with thrombosis visceral ecchymoses Zoonotic, Streptobacillus maculopapular rash, Rat Bite Fever moniliformis fever, headache, polyarthritis E. coli, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Bacterial Pyelonephritis/ Corynebacterium, cystitis, proctatitis Nephritis Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Proteus Pulmonary Lesions of Unknown Etiology Eosinophilic Granulomatous Pneumonia Mycotic Infections Aspergillus fumigatus or niger rhinitis with epithelial hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia fungus found on epithelial surfaces Hyperkeratosis, lesions on the neck epidermal hyperplasia, back and base of tail folliculitis, arthrospores in hair shafts, Brown Norway Rats Multifocal pale tan to grey to red foci Eosinophils, epithelioid macrophages, and MNGC

DDX: Corynebacterium kutscheri, Pasteurella pneumotropica, Salmonellosis, Mycoplasma

Trichophyton mentagrophytes


Pneumocystis carinii/ wakefieldii Parasitic Diseases Lice

alveoli contain foamy Numerous black pink material with trophozoites and honeycomb yeastlike cysts 3-5um appearance in the alveoli

Type II pneumocyte proliferation and interstitial fibrosis

Polyplax spinulosa Holopleura pacifica Xenopsylla Leptopsylla Nosopsyllus Radfordia ensifera (myobia ratti) Demodex spp Notoedres muris

vector for Mycoplasma haemomuris

pruritis, anemia



disfigurment of the ear Hyperplastic mucosa and blunted villi with fusion infected by ingestioin of fleas or flea feces Catarrhal enteritis with weight loss eggs deposited in rectal prolapse, colon and perianal impactions, diarrhea, area, embryonate and intussusceptions become infectious

Cryptosporidium Tryanosomiasis Giardia muris Spironucleus muris Helminths Pinworms (nematode): Oxyuris

diarrhea and high mortality Trypanosoma lewisi small intestine

giemsa stained blood films

Syphacia obvelata Syphacia muris Aspiculuris tetraptera

cecum and colon

Other nematodes Trichosomoides crassicauda Tapeworms Rodentolepis and Hymenolepis urinary tract found in lumen and bladder mucosa and renal pelvis arthropod intermediate host

Rodentolepis nana R. Microstoma Hymenolepis diminuta Cysticercus fasciolaris is the larval stage

Taenia taeniaformis Aging and Degenerative Disorders Chronic Progressive Nephropathy/ Nephrosis Nephrocalcinosis Hydronephrosis

eggs ingested--> migrate through bowel--> encyst in liver of mice (cysticercosis)

Cat eats mouse and becomes Taenia taeniaformis

Sarcomas may develop around the cysticerci

Males> females various dietary factors Brown Norway Ratautosomal polygenetic disorder Gunn Rat_ autosomal dominant

pitted and irregular with pallor

chronic glomerulopathy/ glomerulosclerosis/ interstitial fibrosis

proteinuria/casts/ PAS positive hyaline droplets

secondary changes: Hyperparathyroidism, mineralization

Nephrotic syndromehypercholesterolemia, hypoproteinemia, BUN/CT

S-D: highly heritable don’t confuse with agonal copulatory plugs associated with hydronephrosis

may be due to urethral obstruction by sperma

DDX: pyrelonephritis, polycystic kidneys, renal papillary necrosis

Urinary Calculi

Hematuria/ renal Papillary Hyperplasia

renal papilla have focal proliferation with necrosis and hemorrhage vacuolation of the cytoplasm. Fragmentation of ventricular hypertrophy sarcoplasm, loss of and pale streaks cross striations, mono-nuclear cell inflammation

Myocardial Degeneration and Necrosis

SPF SD rats


interstitial fibrosis with proliferation of fibrous tissue


Aging rats


Mesenteric vessels, microscopic lesions tortuous and thickened not in lung

fibrinoid degeneration and thickening of the mononuclear cells with media of affected few neutrophils, arteries with smudging thrombosis of the normal architecture

Alveolar histiocytosis/ Alveolar proteinosis

dull pale yellow foci, subpleural

Intra-alveolar macrophages with needle shaped crystals and vacuolated or homogenous eosinophilic material Segmental demyelination of the peripheral nervous sytem Spontaneous radiculoneuropathyspinal root degeneration with muslce atrophy of the lumbar region and hind limbs

Degenerative nervous system changes

Wallerian degeneration in focal areas of the spinal cord Polyploidy, megalokarya, binuclear hepatocytes, intranuclear cytoplasmic invaginations

Liver changes

Bile ductular Focal sinusoidal proliferation, lined by dilatation and peliosis, atrophic epithelium, either spontaneous or surrounded by drug induced collagenous tissue

Miscellaneous Disorders Malocclusion secondry to poor alignment of upper and lower incisor teeth Annular constrictions of the skin of the tail leading to dry gangrene accompanied by porphyrin staining around the eyes (sign of stress) spontaneous/genetic cellultis and salivation are sequela genetic factors, low environmental temps, degree of hydration, and nutrition may be involved Epidermal hyperplasia with orthokeratotic and parakeratotis hyperkeratosis


attributed to low environmental humidity

Dilated and thrombosed vessels, necross, hemorrhage


Retinal Degeneration

albino rats are predisposed due to unpigmented uveal tracts

progressive reduction Advanced disease has of photoreceptor marked depletion and nuclei in the outer alteration of the retinal nuclear layer of the layers with cataract central retina formation

this muct be distinguished from peripheral retinal degeneration (inherited disorder)

Corneal lesions

Lacrimal gland Conjunctivitisdysfunction- following Pasteurella, rat coronavirus- virus environmental factors damages the harderian gland (KCS) dusty bedding predisposes to aspiration pneumonia Multinodular, granulomatous inflammatory foci with chondrolysis and invasion by mesenchymal cells

Bedding Chloral Hydrate Ileus

Auricular Chondritis

SD/ Wistar Rats

Neopalsia Large Granular Lymphocytic Leukemia Lymphoma/ Leukemia Splenomegaly with DDX- Lymphoma and erythrophagocytosis histiocytic sarcoma Splenomegaly, enlarged lymph nodes, hepatomegaly epitheliotropic/ circumscribed medium to large size, erythematous T cell lymphocytes plaques pregressing and dissociated to ulceration adjacent epidermal cells Liver, LN, Lung, Vesicular nuclei, ample Spleen, Mediastinum, cytoplasm, MNGC Retropertoneum morphology varies from sheets to pallisading and streaming fusiform cells interlobular and intralobular connective tissue may consist of primarily connective tissue, or epithelial cells predominate anemia and icterus

Cutaneous Lymphoma (mycosis fungoides)

Histiocytic Sarcoma Mammary Tumors Fibroadenoma Carcinoima Pituitary gland tumors

SD/ Wistar Rats

SD females; recurrence is likely rare

retroviruses not involved variety of patterns

circumscribed moveable firm lobular mass

majority/ SD/ Wistar Chromophobe adenoma rats Testicular Tumors Interstitial cell tumor F344 older males

Prolactin secreting IHC required for tumors most common; positive identification may contribute to mammary tumors

pars distalis

lobulated light yellow`

also have smaller polyhedral to elongated cells with cells with granular hyperchromatic nuclei vacuolated cytoplasm and scant cytoplasm

concurrent hypercalcemia



Tunica vaginalis of testis

Holocrine gland at the Zymbals Gland Tumors base of the ear Other

circumscribed and ulcerated

sheets of epithelial cells with abundant vacuolated cytoplasm, with necrosis and leukocytes

adenoma or adenoacarcinoma

Polyhedral cells and acinar structures containing keratinized material and debris

DNA Viral Infections Non-enveloped Adenovirus General Enveloped Herpesvirus Cytomegalovirus Parvoviridae H-1: necrosis and inflammation of dental pulp with mononuclear leukocytic infiltration of the dental lamina and osteoclasiss of alveolar bone New Strain: enamel hypoplasia, periodontitis, Multifocal cerebellar and cerebral suppuration and hemorrhage and thrombosis with mineralization, transmural hemorrhage hemorrhage in dental pulp Non glabrous skin- keratinizing can be papilloma like follicular structures reminiscent of trichoepitheliomas Acinar epithelium Salivary and Lacrimal glands cytomegaly with INIB and ICIB Ileal enterocytes Large amphophilic intranuclear inclusions,rarely in crypts, asymptomatic

Missing incisor teeth

Polyomavirus Transmissible Lymphoma Hamster Polyoma Virus keratinizing skin tumors of hair follicle origin


Abdominal masses, large lymph nodes

liver, kidney, thymus

usually lymphoid but erythroblastic, reticulosarcomatous, and myeloid types have been described, sometimes plasmacytoid features

RNA Virus
Arenaviral infection Paramyxovirus Sendai virus chronic wasting, lymphocytic vasculitis and Lymphocytic infiltration into the liver, lung, glomerulitis with Ag/Ab Choriomeningitis (LCM) spleen, meninges, and brain complexes in glomeruli Pneumonia virus of Mice (PVM) unknown significance Segmental rhinitis --> necrotizing tracheitis and bronchoalveolitis Interstitial pneumonia with consolidation antigen in respiratory epithelium hyperplasia of epithelium follows infection plus peribronchiolar lymphocytes Zoonotic (mild influenza like to meningitis)

GRAM (-) Enteric

Campylobacter jejuni

co infection with Lawsonia

Zoonotic Segmentally thickened ileum with prominent varying necrosis and hemorrhage, crypt marked crypt and villus epithelial serosal nodules and abscesses, granulomatous hyperplasia, villus elongation fibrinous peritoneal inflammation attachments Hepatic necrosis, Ileum , cecum, colon neutrophilic inflammation may progress to carcinoma focal granulomatous myocarditis with conspicuous bulging nodules focal necrosis fo liver, with neutrophils DDX: Salmonella, Coliform enteritis, Antibiotic associated C difficile, Campylobacter DDX: Clostridium, Lawsonia, Salmonella

Lawsonia intracellularis

Runted and emaciated hamsters

soiling of perineum

Tyzzer's E coil Helicobacter

Clostridium Piliforme

intracellular yellow to dark red fluid, blunting and fusion of villi, lined by cuboidal epithelium

Gastric antrum and pyloric duodenal junction Proliferative and dysplastic typhlocolitis Cholangiofibrosis (H Cholecystis)

Gastric mucosal hyperplasia to dysplasia mucosal thickening and sibmucosal edema, hypertrophy of enterocytes

Salmonella Gram (+) Enteric Antibiotic -associated Enterocolitis

Liver: Pinpoint necrosis, with thrombosis

Lung: hemorrhage, interstitial Spleen: focal necrosis pneumonia, and and splenitis thrombophlebitis

Embolic glomerulonpehritis

Clostridium difficile

Lincomycin, clindamycin, cecum is distended mild pseudomembranous typhlitis. ampicillin, vancomycin, DDX: Salmonella, Enteropathogenic E with gas and tan to red Effacement of epithelium, edema erythromycin, cephalosporins, Coli, Tyzzer's dz fluid contents of LP, mucosal hyperplasia gentamicin, penicillin high fat diet

Necrotizing to hemorrhagic typhlitis increased mitotic activity and Cecal mucosal hypertrophy of ceca ar congested hyperplasia of enterocytes Unknown etiology contracted and opaque lining the crypts Gram (+) Respiratory Non-Antibiotic-associated Clostridium difficile Corynebacterium kutscheri Streptococcus pseumoniae S. agalactia Gram (-) Francisella tularensis Leptospira ballum ruffled fur, lungs had mottled hemorrhage, Lymphoid necrosis and focal livers pale and seollen, hemorrhages and bacteria spleens enlarged hemolysis, jaundice, nephritis, hepatitis local granulomatous and suppurative lesions oral cavity, lymph nodes

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Pasteurella pseumotropica and others Mycoplasma pulmonis Mastitis Strep P pneumotropica E coli Cutaneous and cervical abscess Actinomyces bovis Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus Pasteurella pneumotropica

Chronic emaciation with intermittent diarrhea URI, Otitis, Bronchopneumonia

Caseous nodules in intestine, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and lungs

Ectopic Mites (Acariasis) Demodex Notoedres notoedres Notoedres cati Ornithonyssus bacoti and sylvarium Myiasis Wohlfahrtia vigil Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis Musca domestica Endoparasites Spironucleus muris Cryptosporidium Giardia misocricetus Giardia muris intestinal flagellate incidental finding criceti aurati burrows in stratum corneum

mostly asymptomatic Encephalitozoon cuniculi Syphacia criceti S mesocriceti S obvelata S muris

chronic lesions- thickening of SI cecum and colon


Pinworms more common


nasalis fasciolaris microstoma Nana diminuta (Taenia taeniaformis) Lower small intestine Lower small intestine upper small intestine dogs and cats

Cysticercus Rodentolepis Hymenolepis

Nutritional and Metabolic Disorders
Spontaneous Hemorrhagic Necrosis (SHN) of the CNS of fetal hamsters Stillborn or weak Prosencephalon: Symmetrical, subependymal, vascular degeneration, with edema and hemorrhage Weight loss, glucose intolerance, hyperglycemia, polyuria, polydypsia, hypoinsulinemia, ketonuria intraventricular hemorrhage strain related variations to susceptibility Vitamin E related/ deficiency

Diabetes Mellitus

Recessive in Chinese hamsters

Environmental Genetic and Other Disorders
Bedding-associated Dermatitis Malocclusion Congenital/ Hereditary Hydrocephalus Periodontal Disease Pugilism Cannibalism Hibernation and Estivation Inconsistent and permissive Low temps, short days, solitude, nesting material, inadequate food stores high temps, low water may stimulate estivation Wood shavingsfootpads No obvious changes in behavior Females are aggressive degeneration and atrophy of necrosis and ulceration the digits, with granulomatous with foreign body inflammation dermatitis doming of the calvaria was absent Chinese hamsters stenosis of cerebral aqueduct DDX: trauma and cannibalism

Age related disorders
Hamster Glomerulopathy (arteriolar Nephrosclerosis)young animals Amyloidosis (older animals) Gross: Pale granular with irregular cortical depressions; radiating cortical scarring Females > Males Histo: Thickening of BM with eosinophilic material Hamster female protein similar to Amyloid P may be concurrent amyloid in advanced lesions variable degeneration of tubules and minimal inflammatory response, proteinaceous casts, fibrinoid change in vessels

Gross: pale, irregular Histo: Amyloid in glomeruli, tubular granular capsule, livers BM, portal triads, intestine are swollen

Atrial Thrombosis

Left auricle and atrium

often associated with amyloidosis

bilateral ventricle hypertrophy is common

focla to diffuse myocardial degeneration; medial degeneration and calcification of coronary arteries

Cysts are thin walled pressure atrophy of hepatic cords, containing clear straw Polycystic Disease (polycystic Multiple Hepatic cysts in epididymis, seminal vesicles, hemosiderin, proliferation of bile colored fluid lined by Liver Disease) older hamsters pancreas, endometrium ducts, periportal lymphocytic flattened to cuboidal infiltration epothelium spontaneous, uniform nodular hepatocellular Bile Ductular Hyperplasia/ nodularity, periportal degeneration, necrosis, and Hepatic cirrhosis fibrosis, bile duct mixed leukocyte infiltration proliferation Alveolar Histiocytosis Fibrinoid degeneration of arterioles

Lymphoma Cutaneous Lymphoma resmbling mycosis fungioides Adrenocortical adenomas Polyoma virus or spontaneous epidermotropic spontaneous tumors are Multicentric, thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, liver

Virus Reovirus type 3 Bacterial Infections Tyzzer's Disease Clostridium piliforme Multifocal periportal necrosis in liver with neutrophils and macrophages/ Focal fibrosis Ileum and cecum, necrosis and sloughing, blunting, edema, neutrophils and macrophages, focal Peyer's patch necrosis, lymph node mecrosis, myocardial necrosis with myofiber collapse, and leukocyte infiltration diffuse suppurative encephalitis DDX: Cl. Difficile, salmonella degenerative lesions in pancreas and focal necrotic lesions in the CNS

Antibiotic associated enterocolitis Citrobacter rodentium Salmonella

Staphylococcal dermatitis

Nasal Dermatitis

Bordetella bronchiseptica Ciliary Associated Respiratory Bacillus

following Amoxycillin and Metronidazole bloody diarrhea, thickening of goblet cell hyperplasia the colon and rectum typhimurium diarrhea, dehydration high mortality testicular enlargement, focal hepatitis, splenic necrosis, pyogranulomatous Group D suppurative orchitis, leptomeningitis interstitial pneumonia Histo- suppurative gross- moist dermatitis of dermatitis with Staph aureus face, nose, feet, legs, ventral acanthosis and abdomen hyperkeratosis porphyrin containing lacrymal secretions S Aureus and S xylosus dermatitis and alopecia have been an important contributing factor older animals are resistant, younger animals can have severe mortality Clostridium difficile asymptomatic Acute didseasehemolytic anemia, Chronic- Renal interstitial icterus, centrilobular fibrosis, inflammation, cysts, liver necrosis, necrosis of renal tubules chronic gastritis, gastric ulcers, gastrointestinal metaplasia, gastric adenocarcinoma

may become ulcerative


not natural infection

Helicobacter pylori Parasitic Diseases Demodex Giardia Pinworms Tapeworms Genetic Disease

Upper small intestine Dentostomella translucida Rodentolepis nana

no clinical problems


no histopathologic lesions

twitching of vibrissae and pinnae, motor arrest, myoclonic jerks, clonic-tonic siezures, vestibular alterations

Periodontal disease and dental caries Malocclusion Behavioral disease Toxic and Metabolic Disorders Streptomycin Toxicity Direct neuromuscular blocking by inhibition of acetylcholine release Chronic progressive nephropathy with acid Lipofuscin pigment granules fast intrnuclear in hepatocytes and Kupffer inclusions in renal cells proximal tubular epithelium filariid worm liver, spleen, lymph nodes reduced glucose tolerance, elevated insulin, and hyperplastic or degenerative changes in the endocrine pancreas elevated serum plaquesof intimal and medial triglycerides, enlarged ground substance with pancreatic islets. Fatty mineralization of the aorta livers, thymic and mesenteric, renal, and involution, peripheral arteries pheochromocytoma

Lead Toxicity

microcytic hypochromic anemia with basophilic stippling

DDX: Age related glomerulonephropathy, and erythrocytic basophilic stippling


Obesity and diabetes

Hyperadrenocorticism/Cardiov ascular disease Age related disease Focal myocardial degeneration

only bred animala

focal myocardial necrosis and fibrosis

necrosis and fibrosis glomerular hypercellularity, thickening of glomerular basement membranes, tubular degeneration with dilatation and cast formation, mononuclear cell interstitial inflammation Keratinized epithelium displaces tympanum into arising from outer moddle ear with compression tympanic membrane and secondary inflammation and external auditoryt resulting on destruction of canal temporal bone and iner ear

Chronic glomerulopathy

Aural cholesteatoma

head tilt and keratin plugs in external ear canal

Cystic ovaries

Ocular proptosis Neoplasms Mongolian gerbils

ovulation and corpus luteum formation continue protrusion of the nictitating membrane and conjunctiva with bulbar proptosis Ovarian Adrenocortical cutaneous Granulosa cell tumors Dysgerminoma luteal cell tumors leiomyomas thecal cell carcinoma Marking gland males, ventral marking glands adenocarcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma thymoma Hodgkin-like lymphoma Uterine adenocarcinoma adrenocortical tumors primary ovarian tumors Gastric carcinoma

Other species

Helicobacter pylori

Guinea Pigs
Kurloff cells finely granular cytoplasmic inclusions found in spleen and bone marrow and thymus normal normal in lungs degenerate thymocytes near Hassals corpuscles incidental degenerative condition and congenital tissue malformation with blastemoid features lamellar bone with varying degrees of calcification not significant NK counterpart

Pulmonary arterial medial thickening Adventitial lymphocytes in pulmonary vesels Osseous metaplasia Thymus

Cardiac glycogenosis (Rhabdomyomatosis) DNA Viral Infections Non-enveloped Adenovirus

pale pink poorly delineated foci or streaks mostly in left ventricle

Adenoviral Pneumonia

Low morbidity and mortality

necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis with consolidation of cranial lung desquamation of lingin lobes and hilus epithelial cells and leukocytic inflammation with fibrin

Intramuclear round basophilic 7-15 um inclusions

DDX: Parainfluenza, cytomegalovirus, bacteria (bordatella)

Enveloped Herpesvirus Cytomegalovirus Guinea pig herpes-like virus (GPHLV) Guniea Pig X virus (GPXV) Retrovirus Cavian Leukemia RNA Viral Infections Arenavirus CMV group kidney cell cultures isolated from leukocytes Retrovirus Type C lymphocytic infiltrates in the meninges, choroid plexi, ependyma, and liver, adrenals, lungs, focal hepatic necrosis and mortality humans, primates, mice, rats, guinea pigs Karyomegaly and intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusions Ductal epithelial cells, salivary glands, kidneys, liver, lung

Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis (LCM)

Coronavirus-like Infection

Parainfluenza-3 (PI-3)



Typical lesions and disease interstitial pneumonia and alveolitis with pulmonary congestion and hemorrhage, relative sparing of airways Pneumonia virus of mice Sendai virus Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus strain GDVII Murine Poliovirus


Bacterial Infections Enteric Infection Antibiotic Associated Dysbacteriosis (antibiotic toxicity) Spontaneous Clostridial Enterotyphlitis Clostridial disease Clostridium perfringens Type A Clostridium piliforme C difficile Clostridium piliforme Lawsonia intracellularis typhimurium enteritidis Pseudotuberculosis Respiratory Infection Bordetella bronchiseptica mucopurulent or catarrhal exudate in nares, nasal passages, and trachea Chlamydophila caviae (formerly Chlamydia psittaci) pleuritis, typanitis, chronic suppurative bronchopneumonia, heterophilic, obliteration of normal architecture red conjunctiva, purulent exudate, sloughed epithelium, intracytoplasmic inclusioins and bacteria Yersinia pseudotuberculosis acute form: miliary creamcolored nodules in the intestine wall in ileum and cecum subacute to chronic: miliary caseous nodules in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen, liver and lung Clostridium difficile necrosis of epithelium cecum atonic and dilated hyperplasia of the with fluid and gas, mucosa with enterotoxin recovered mucosa is hemorrhagic mononuclear cell and edematous infiltration on the LP

Tyzzer's Disease Adenomatous Intestinal Hyperplasia Salmonella

organisms in enterocytes intracellular bacteria in enterocytes multifocal pale foci in liver and spleen

necrotizing ileitis and typhlitis, frequently transmural

necrotizing fibrinous enteritis, colitis

granulomatous hepatitis, splenitis, lymphadenitis

Guinea pig Inclusion Conjunctivitis

Citrobacter fruendii


Pseudomonas aeruginosa Streptobacillus moniliformis Staphylococcus

pneumonia, pleuritis, enteritis septicemia, necrotizing bronchopneumonia, pleuritis, pericarditis, peritonitis, splenic hyperplasia Pulmonary botryomycosis cervical lymphadenitis, pyogranulomatous bronchopneumonia Ulcerative pododermatitis (bumblefoot) erythema, hairloss, scabs, ventral abdomen and extrematies

sulfur granules

secondary to trauma, poor sanitation epidermal cleavage, parakeratosis

plantar surface is swollen and painful with necrosis

amyolid in the spleen, liver, adrenals and islets in rare cases

Staphylococcus dermatitis


zooepidemicus group C

suppurative lymphadenitis

abrasions in oral mucosa fibrinopurulent pleuritis, pericarditis, peritonitis

cervical lymph nodes, retrobulbar abscess, otitis media, bronchopneumonia, pericarditis bronchopneumonia with fibrin ddx: Strep, Bordetella,

Diplococcal (pneumococcal) infection Bacterial Syndromes Otitis media

S. pneumoniae

no toxins, just resistant to phagocytosis

Bacterial Mastitis

Bacterial Conjunctivitis

S pneumonia S zooepidemicus Bordetella Pseudomonas E coli Klebsiella Strep zooepidemicus Chlamydia Strep zooepidemicus Staph aureus Pasteurella multocida scaly pruritic, alopecia, hyperkeratosis, epidermal hyperplasia, pustules, folliculitis, arthrospores

Mycotic infections Dermatophytosis Trichophyton mentagrophytes Microsporum canis Parasitic Diseases Ectoparasites


Trixacarus caviae

Sarcoptic mange

ortho and parakeratosis, heterophils, eosinophils, inner thighs, neck , flaccid paralysis, shoulders, abdomen epidermal hyperplasia, stratum corneum contains mites and eggs pruritis, rough hair coat, alopecia

Demodex caviae Pediculosis (lice) Endoparasite thin, potbellied, fecal staining, jejunum, ileum, cecum hyperplasia of crypt epithelium, edema of lamina propria, necrosis and sloughing of enterocytes, villous atrophy micro and macrogametocytes ddx: Crypto, clostridium, dysbacteriosis Gliricola porcelli Gyropus ovalis Large biting lice


Cryptosporidium wrairi


Eimeria caviae

intestine contains fluid, mucosa is congested, edematous, with petechia

colonic hyperplasia, sloughing of enterocytes, PMNS and mononuclear cells schizogony in endothelium of glomerular capillaries-> rupture --> schgizogony repeated in tubular epithelium

Klossiella cobayae

renal coccidiosis

Gametogeny occurs in epithelium of Loops of Henle--> sporulated occysts are released in urine

oocysts are ingested and invade intestinal capillaries--> kidneys

Encephalitozoon cuniculi (microsporidiosis) Toxoplasma

granulomatous encephalitis, interstitial nephritis asymptomatic hepatitis, pneumonia, myocardial cysts, CNS cysts


larval migrans- cerebral malacia, eosinophilic Baylisascaris procyonis granulomatous inflammation with nematode larvae cecal worms up to 25 mm in Paraspidodera uncinata length, also located in colonic mucosa


Nutritional, Metabolic and others Scurvey Hypovitaminosis C deficient in L-gulonolactone oxidase (converts Lgulonolacotne to L-ascorbic acid) primates, guinea pigs, required for formation of indian fruit bat, some hydroxyproline and birds, some fish, and hydroxylysine in collagen cetaceans molecules

deficient in interstitial and osteoid production

Lesions: Persistent primary spongiosa C is required for (retained cartilage cores), cholesterol to bile acid and reduced osteoid formation production. Calcified cartilgae is susceptible to microfractures increased capillary fragility

enlargemnet of costochondral junction with hemorrhage; proliferation of poorly differentiated fusiform mesencgymal cells in periosteal regions and medullary cavity;; aggregates of eosinphilic mateiral interspersed between the mesenchymal cells; dental anomalies- fibrosis of pulp and derangement of odontoblasts

periarticular hemorrhage

widening of intercellular spaces between endothelial cells, vacuolar degeneration and depletion of subendothelial collagenous tissue// Increased pro-thrombin time

hemosiderin laden macrophages in lamina propria of intestine idiopathic necrosis with DDX: nutritonal muscular leukocyte infiltration, dystrophy, spontaneous loss of cross striations, muscular mineralization with and mononuclear cell degeneration infiltrate

increased susceptibility to streptococcus pneumoniae (impaired macrophage migration and heterophil phagocytosis)

Necrotizing myopathy

Nutritional muscular dystrophy

Vit E/ Se deficiency

pallor of affected muscles, multinucleated muscle coagulative necrosis and fibers may be present hyalinization of myofibers, in regenerating testicular degeneration is fragmentation of sarcoplasm, myofibers, a later development increased basophilia of mineralization is not an sarcoplasm, rowing of nuclei, important feature and regeneration

Myocardial and Skeletal Muscle Degeneration with mineralization

may be incidental finding

Metastatic Calcification Pregnancy Toxemia (Hepatic lipidosis with ketosis)

> 1 year old Fasting or Metabolic Form Circulatory or Toxic form (preecclampsia)

soft tissues around the elbows and ribs

lung, trachea, heart, aorta, liver, kidney, stomach, uterus, sclera end of pregnancy

acidosis, ketosis, proteinuria, ketonuria, low urine pH (acidosis)

uteroplacental ischemia due to compression of the aorta

low magnesium and high phosphorus(high Ca and P diets interfere with Mg absorption) lowblood glucose, ketosis, hyperlipidemia placental necrosis, hemorrhage, ketosis, and death, periportal liver necrosis, leukocyte, nephrosis,

Diabetes Mellitus

infectious agent unidentified advanced pregnancy and lactation molar and premolars

vacuolation of and degranulation of islet Beta cells with fatty infiltration of the exocrine cells back and rump genetics and fluorosis ddx: barbering, pediculosis, dermatophyte

Alopecia Malocclusion Gastric dilatation and vovlulus Cecal torsion Intestinal hemosiderosis Focal Hepatic necrosis

Chronic Idiopathic Cholangiofibrosis

Liver contusions Foreign body pneumonia (Pneumoconiosis) Adjuvant associated pulmonary granulomas Behavior Diseases of Aging Segmental Nephrosclerosis

lamina propria Subcapsular Periportal fibrosis, hepatocyte degeneration and interstitial fibrosis, proliferation of cholangioles traumatic fractures aspirated food or bedding

considered terminal

ddx: Tyzzer's

granulomatous bronchiolitis, or pneumonia

ddx: perivascular Subcutaneous Lung: multifocal lymphoid nodules, injections with Freunds granulomatous inflammation pneumoconiosis, focal adjuvant pneumonia ear chewing and hair pulling irregular pitted granular cortices Fecal contaminants such as E coli pale linear streaks extend down into the cortex thick bladder mucosa, congestion intraluminal hemorrhage, mononuclear leukocytes, fibroblast proliferation, urinary calculi interstitial fibrosis, tubular dilatation interstitial lymhpocytes

Cystitis and urolithiasis

Ovarian cysts

Fatty infiltration of pancreas Neoplasia' serum factor (Asparaginase) has anti tumor effects Kurloff cells act as NK cells Hematopoietic

rete ovarii- large fluid filled cysts on the surface (cysts are continous with follicles and mesovarium) large areas of adipose tissue between normal panreatic acini

cystic endometrial hyperplasia, mucometra, endometritis, fibroleiomyomas

Cavian Leukemia

gross- lymph node Lymphoblastic cells in spleen. enlargement (cervical, Liver, BM, interstitium of lung, axillary, mesenteric, thymus, alimentary tract, and inguinal), lymphoid tissue, heart, eyes, Splenomegaly, and adrenals Hepatomegaly, Ovarian teratoma Granulosa cell tumors Uterine leiomyoma Uterine fibroma Uterine myxosarcoma Uterine leiomyosarcoma

Reproductive tract Ovary Uterus (benign) Uterus (malignant)


adenocarcinoma, ductal origin Malignant mixed mammary tumor Adenoma bronchogenic origin

Respiratory tract Benign Papillary Adenoma Nasal Adenocarcinoma Tumors of the skin Trichoepithelioms Papillomas Sebaceous adenoma Penile papillomas Lipoma Fibrosarcoma Fibroma Carcinoma Endocrine and Cardiovascular

adrenocrotical adenoma Insulinoma Benign mixed tumors (myxoma) of the Cardiovascular system

Rhabdomyomatosis Other tumors bile duct tumors undifferentiated carcinoma Lipoma fibrosarcoma histiocytic lymphosarcoma

neurologic signs well differentiated mesenchymal components like bone cartilage and fat congenital condition characterized by vacuolation of myofibers and glycogen deposition

Order Lagomorpha Lab Rabbits 2 rows of upper incisors, one descended from the right behind the other in the European Orytolagus upper jaw cuniculus the adjacent cecum has around patch of lymhpoid tissue called Sacculus rotundus- spherical the cecal tonsil thickwalled enlargement at (lymphocytes and the ileocecal junction macrophages in the lamina propria and submucosa induced ovulators Birthing is called Kindling

Cecotrophy- re ingestion of mucous coated "night feces"high in protein and Vitamin B complex

Erythrocytes 6.5-7.5 um, heterophils (9-15 um) with acidophilic granules

Appendix is the tip of the cecum

the length of the duodenum has Brunners glands

Hematuria may be caused by Calcium is absorbed in Urine may be pigmented due adenocarcinoma, Urine contains Calcium proportion to diet and is to dietary porphyrins, uterine polyps, carbonate crystals and triple excreted in the urine elevated urobilin (all non- episodic bleeding from Phosphate crystals rather than bile pathologic) endometrial venous aneurysms, cystitis, or polyps Hemoendothelial placentation, duplex uterus with 2 receiving antibodies through hors and 2 cervixes placenta Bones are fragile, and light comared to muscle mass Right chambers of heart are thin walled and may contain post mortem clots with no contraction

DNA Viral Infections Non-enveloped Adenovirus Adenoviral enteritis Enveloped Papillomavirus Benign in cottontails (Sylvilagus), but causes Papillomas with progression to Rabbit (Shope) Papillomatosis Squamous cell frequently on eyes and ears Carcinoma in Oryctolagus rabbits (but no infectious virus is produced) Virus was isolated form the associated with intestinal wall and GI significant increases in contents, spleen, kidney, and E coli lung

Oral Papillomatosis Poxvirus

Rabbit oral papilloma virus

pedunculated masses on the Basophilic intranuclear ventral aspect of the tongue inclusions and regress spontaneously South american type and Californian type intracytoplasmic inclusions in the that causes lethal affected epidermis only (not disease of mesenchyme) and conjunctiva; myxomatosis in Insect transmitted European rabbit (Orytolagus) ??Inclusions in the epithelium and mesenchyme??

Myxomatosis (Leporipox)

hypertrophy and Proliferation of large stellate proliferation of Leporipoxvirus mesenchymal cells (myxoma endothelial cells , and (indistinguishable from cells) interspersed within a epithelium becomes vaccinia) homogenous matrix of hyperplastic or mucoid material degenerative related to Myxomaytosis benign self limiting disease in and Hare and Squirrel wildlife Fibroma viruses Papules on skin with necrosis and hemorrhage, oropharynx, respiratory tract, spleen, liver Pockless form, hepatic necrosis, pleuritis, splenomegaly, lymphoid necrosis transmissibel to European Rabbits (Orytolagus) and cottontails

Rabbit (Shope) fibromatosis (leporipox)

Rabbit Pox Polyoma virus Rabbit kidney vacuolating virus Parvovirus Lapine Parvovirus Herpesvirus Leporid Herpesvirus 1 (Herpes Sylvilagus)

Legs and feet- Visceral intranuclear inclusions metastasis in young animals, in the renal tubular fibroblast proliferation with epithelium mononuclear and PMN infiltration transient depression and anorexia with no mortality Lymphoproliferative disease, lymphoid hyperplasia to lymphosarcoma

Epstein Barr virus analog

Herpes Simplex

Herpes-like viral infections RNA Viral Infections Calicivirus

Non-suppurative meningoencephalitis with Experimental model for necrosis of neurons and herpes simplex prominent intrnuclear encephalitis inclusion bodies in neurons and astroglial cells necrosis in spleen, dermis, Hemorrhage, lungs, adrenald, Intranculear hydropericardium eosinophilic to amphophilic inclusions

Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease

DIC thought to play arole

necrosis of hepatocytes with bloody nasal discharge, hepatic dissociation, pulmonary hemorrhage and crypt necrosis, edema, hepatomegaly, pulmonary edema, Fatal to Orytolagus, not Sylvilagus splenomegaly, perirenal hemorrhage, necrosis hemorrhage, serosal of lymphocytes, ecchymoses erythrophagocytosis in spleen

Coronavirus Coronaviral enteritis small and large intesitne, enterocyte necrosis, villous blunting, mucosal edema, inflammation lymphoid depletion of spleninc follicles, focal degenerative changes in the Not a natural pathogen thymus, and lymph nodes, proliferative changes in glomerular tufts and uveitis similar lesions to coronavirus Upper respiratory tract following intestinal innoculation racoon variant rabies myocardial degeneration and necrosis

Pleural effusion disease and Cardiomyopathy

Rotavirus Rotaviral enteritis Miscellaneous Sendai virus Rabies Bacterial Infections Respiratory Bacterial Infections

Pasteurella multocida Serotype A and sometimes D

Snuffles, atrophic rhinitis, otitis media, conjunctivitis, bronchopneumonia, abscessation, genital infections, abortions,

Bronchopneumonia- cranioventral to acute necrotizing fibrinopurulent pyometra, salpingitis, Suppurative otitis bronchopneumonia; chronic chronic rhinitis- catarrhal to perioophoritis, media, with squamous bronchitis with peribronchial mucopurulent exudate, necrotizing metritis// metaplasia of tympanic lymphocytic inflammation, turbinate atrophy Acute septicemia, bulla lining alveolitis with heterophils meningoencephalitis predominating, multinucleated giant cells, pleuritis peribronchial and perivascular cuffing lymphoid hyperplasia

Bordatella bronchiseptica Cilia-Associated Respiratry Bacillus Enteritis Complex

suppurative bronchopneumonia and interstitial pneumonia Asymptomatic usually

5-12 week old rabbits Rotavirus Coronavirus



perfringens Type E

Iota toxin

typical findings for all: submucosal edema, hemorrhage, ulceration and fibrinous exudatenecrotizing typhlitis disruption of normal gut flora predisposes damage to enterocytes, profuse diarrhea, dehydration and death

difficile spiroforme most common

E coli

serosal ecchymoses, edema Small and large of the walls of the cecum and intestine: Rods and Enteropathogenic colon, edematous mesenteric cocci lining the villi, villi strains (attaching and lymph nodes, prominent often blunted, lamina effacing) lymphoid tissues in Peyer's propria is edematous patches and sacculus and infiltrated by rotundus heterophils sloughing of enterocytes, vasculitis, edema, heterophilsHemolytic uremic syndromefibrinous vasculitis in interlobular blood vessels, swelling of glomerular tufts with leukocytic infiltration, glomeruli had swelling and fibrin deposition in capillaries

Enterohemorrhagic Strains (EHEC)

o153, o145

cecal and colonic edema, serosal hemorrhage


Proloiferative enteritis/ histiocytic enteritis

histiocytes with Suppurative and erosive to abundant granular proliferative with hyperplasia cytoplasm and MNGC. Silver and PAS stains show of enterocytes lining crypts PAS positive granular apically located epithelial bacteria and villi with mononuclear material (degrading infiltration bacteria)

Salmonella Vibrio Coccidia thickened and edematous, Clostridium piliforme (Tyzzer's serosa- fibrin on cecum multifocal necrosis in liver Disease) and colon and myocardium, transmural necrosis in cecum and colon rarely associated with Klossiella pneumoniae disease, normal hemorrhagic enterotyphlitis inhabitant S typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis Vibrio intracytoplasmic bacteria DDX: listeriosis and staph (liver)

Mucoid enteropathy Other Bacteria Listeriosis

Synonyms: mucoid enteritis, bloat, hypoamylasemia

teeth grinding, cecal impaction, gelatinous mucus in colon

Stomach distended with fluid and gas. straw colored fluid in the abdominal cavity. Miliary pale foci of suppurative hepatitis in liver. Placenta is thickened with friable surface ddx: Pasteurella, Listeria, and Tyzzers

acute fatal disease, Newborns may focal hepatitis, ascites, death typically is in advanced develop systemic enlarged mesenteric pregnancy listeriosis, stunting, lymph nodes meningoencephalitis skin, mammary gland, genital tract, conjunctiva, footpads, upper and lower respiratory tract. suckling kits, multifocal suppurative lesions in the Acute septicemic form skin, lung, kidney, spleen, heart, liver Chronic suppurative lesions Mastitis Respiratory Pododermatitis swollen, red mucopurulent rhinitis and localized bronchopneumonia and abscesses sore hocks edema, erythema, papules at mucocutaneous junctions ddx: Staph, Pasteurella, Streptococci

Staphylococcus aureus

Treponema paraluiscuniculi

Venereal spirotrichosis

vulva, prepuce, anal, muzzle, periorbital

Syphilitic lesions progress to ulceration and crusting; Microscopically- hyperplasia of epidermis, necrosis of epithelium, erosions, ulcerations, plasma cells, macrophages, heterophils,

unknown significance focal caseation necrosis of liver spleen, cecum, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis LN and reproductive tract dermatitis secondary to moist lesions are suppurative skin, in dewlaps, excessive with erosion and environmental moisture, ulceration malocclusion, panting


Necrobacillosis Streptococcal septicemia

Schmorls Disease young rabbits Diplococcal Corynebacterium pyogenes cause ulcerative skin lesions

Mycotic Infections


Trichophyton metagrophytes

head and ears, paws, alopecia, crusting raised

hyperkeratosis, epidermal hyperplasia, folliculitis, DDX: idiopathic molts during nest mononuclear and building, Barbering polymorphonuclear cells


Pneumocystis carinii

pulmonary granulomas, well circumscribed, central coagulation necrosis Pulmonary edema, congestion of alveolar vessels, thickening and hypercellularity of septaw, mononuclear and PMNS Ingested sporulated oocysts release sporozoites invade enterocytes and multiply (Shizonts) --> Gametogeny --> Oocysts Sexual life cycle causes destruction of enterocytes and cells of the lamina propria. Cecotrophy does not infect because the oocyst require sporulation at room temp overnight

Parasitic Diseases



Eimeria intestinalis, Eimeria flavescens,


Eimeria steidae

Sporozoites invade Histo: Periportal duodenal mucosa and fibrosis, dilation of spread systemically, bile ducts, mixed migrate to liver via Liver: raised linear bosselated inflammation, mononuclear cells and areas, yellow to grey hyperplasia of bile invade bile duct circumcsribed areas, gall bladder epithelium with epitheliium where thickened and contains flocculent papillary projections schizogony begins--> material lined by reactive gametogeny--> epithelial cells oocysts released in to overlying collagenous bile ducts tissue stroma Spores shed in urine, Usually subclinical in transplacental infection can occur, rabbits, and renal oral or respiratory transmission is lesions are incidental common. Spores travel via findings monocytes hematogenously, targets are lung, liver, kidney 1.5 x 2-5 um spores in epithelial cells, macrophages, or free in the interstitium In chronic renal lesions there is fibrosis and collapse of the parenchyma

Encephalitozoon cuniculi

Obligate intracellular microsporidian parasite

"infectious motor paralysis" can infect mice, guinea pig, ssquirrel monkey, cat, dog

Kidney: Focal irregular depressed areasGranulomatous nephritis Phacoclastic uveitis and cataracts

Lung, liver, CNS also granulomatous lesipons

Cryptosporidium cuniculus Toxoplasma gondii Pinworm

occasional bluning of villi may have multiple foci of necrosis and granulomatous clinical disease is rare inflammation in lung, liver and spleen Passalurus ambiguus adults in cecum Gross- Raised white nodules in subepicardial and subendocardial locations and liver serosa Histo: Pyogranulomas/ eosinophilic granulomas; In CNS lesions are in the grey and white matter. Mostly in the brain stem and cerebellum. Malacia, astrogliosis, gitter cells Nematode larvae have excretory columns and lateral alae

usually asymptomatic

Bylisascaris procyonis

cerebrospinal disease

torticoolis, ataxia, circling, opisthotonus

Nematodirus Trichostrongylus Taenia pisiformis (Cysticercus) Multiple or single white noduels, necrotic centers with inflammation and fibrosis Proliferative and Obligate non burrowing hyperkeratotic otitis externa mites with euxdation mostly oily Dorsal trunk, scapula, ventral abdomen (Parakeratotic) hyperkeratosis, seborrhea Burrowing mites in the pruritis and self and hair loss, face, nose, lips, superficial epidermis mutilation is common feet, abdomen, external genitalia

Psoroptes cuniclui Cheyletiella parasitovorax

Sarcoptes scabei Notoedres cati Listrophorus gibbus Aging and Miscellaneous Hair Chewing (Barbering)

Hatch Burn Physical injury Exfoliative Dermatosis and Sebaceous adenitis

patchy alopecia on face Boredom and low roughage and back, young group diets have been implicated housed rabbits Urine scalding of the perineum- hyperemic and excoriated with serous exudate histo- Hyperkeratosis, interface dermatitis and folliculitis, reduced sebaceous glands and perifollicular fibrosis

non-pruritic scaling dermatitis with patchy coalescing alopecia

One case was associated with a thymoma

Ulcerative Pododermatitis

circumscribed ulcerative Poor sanitation, trauma, and staphylococcus is most area covered by wire cages are implicated frequently implicated granulation tissues may be due to laxity in the supporting connective tissues can lead to incontinence Erosive to ulcerative tracheitis Insufficient dietary predisposing factors include roughage, poor gastric excessive grooming and hair motility, and sedentary chewing due to boredom lifestyle are more important Site is usually lumbosacral L7 with hemorrhage around the psoas muscles

Prolapse of the deep gland of the third eyelid Vertebral fracture Tracheal injury following intubation Gastric Trichobezoar (Hairball)

incidental findings

Gastic Pyloric Hypertrophy

Marked muscular hypertrophy with interference with gastric emptying Marked plasma cell infiltration in the intestinal tract Multifocal myocardial degeneration with interstitial fibrosis usually asymptomatic, frequently in animals used for antibody production and cholesterol studies Attributed to ischemia secondary to vasoconstriction with reduced coronary blood flow

Intestinal Plasmacytosis

Cardiomyopathy associated with Ketamine/Xylazine/ detomidine Chronic Renal Failure

Metastatic mineralization of the aorta Renal Amyloidosis sparing of the gloeruli Nutritional muscular neonatal mortality and Vitamin E deficiency dystrophy infertility Calcium and Vitamin D Osteomalacia, deficiency overgrowth Medial degeneration In long bones there is and mineralization of depostion of basophilic Hypervitaminosis D major arteries, material (osteoblasts) on the glomerular tufts, tubular periosteal and endosteal BM surfaces Poor ceonception, congenital Microencephaly, Hypo or Hyper Vitaminosis A abnormalities, fetal hydrocephalus, cleft palate reabsorbtions

pale mineralized streaks in muscle

Pregnancy toxemia

Lead Toxicosis Hereditary Disorders

Mobilization of fat Obesity, hereditary, imparied deposits leads to blood flow, pituitary metabolic acidosis and dysfunction all predisposing ketosis with fatty liver factores Myocardial degeneration, Anemia, tremors, and hepatic necrosis, renal posterior ataxia tubular degeneration, hemoglobin casts Autosomal recessive, Absence or underdevelopment of the outflow channels with incomplete cleavage of the iridocorneal angles

Congenital Glaucoma (Buphthalmia)

New Zealand White Rabbits

Enlargement of 1 or both eyes with corneal opacity


Endometrial Venous Aneurysms Neoplasms

overgrowth of premolar and Autosomal recessive, molar teeth also occur (seen the mandible is long in in animals with diet deficient relation to the maxilla in calcium and vitamin D) Persistent urogenital Blood filled endometrial bleeding, clotted blood varices consisting of dilated in uterus thin walled veins

Most common Nodular frequently spontaneous neoplasm Cauliflower like surface Serosal implantation and Uterine Adenocarcinoma multicentric enlargements of in Oryctolagus and central ulcerations metastasis to the lung and liver one or both uterine horns cuniculus Kidney and gastric In cottontail has been Liver is enlarged, pale, and Leukemia only mucosa most common Lymphosarcoma associated with Herpesvirus swollen, spleen is large and lymph occasionally occurs sites, confined to renal sylvilagus nodes large cortex Stomach wall is thick with irregular plaques and mucosal ulceration Aside from thymic involvement there may be variable lymphocytic 1 case of hypercalceima and Thymoma infiltrates in the other exfoliative dermatitis organs like, lymph nodes, liver, heart, and lungs Swelling of 1 or more mammary glands with Prolactin-producing Pituitary Dilated cystic ducts lined by enlargement and Adenomass with Associated flattened cuboidal epithelium discoloration of the Mammary Dysplasia with papillary projections teats, thinning of haircoat

Common Mice Strains
Common Diseases C57BL/6 (B6)
Back ground strain, longevity Melanism- coat color, heart valves, splenic capsule , meninges Hydrocephalus Hippocampal neurodegeneration Microphthalmia Anophthalmia cochlear degeneration- age related malocclusion barbering- with alopecia and Staph dermatitis Pulmonary proteinosis- aged epithelial hyalinosis amyloidosis- late onset lymphoma hemangiosarcoma pituitary adenoma

BALB/ c or cBy

Albino,Pugilistic males

Dystrophic epicardial mineralization myocardial degeneration auricular thrombosis corneal opacities conjunctivitis and blepharitis periorbital abscesses Hypocallosity (aplasia of corpus callosum) resistant to amyloidosis normal hepatic lipidosis lung adenomas lymphoma Harderian gland tumors adrenal adenomas Myoepitheliomas of salivary, preputial, and other exocrine glands

C3H/ He

Agouti, Blind (rd1 mutation)

corneal opacities Hearing loss focal myocardial and skeletal muscle mineralization myocardial degeneration alopecia areata (HeJ) Murine Mammary tumor virus- induced mammary tumors hepatocellular tumors

129 mice

Embryonic stem cells; variation in coat color and behavior

Hypocallosity (aplasia of corpus callosum) Pulmonary proteinosis epithelial hyalinosis Megaesophagus conjunctivitis and blepharitis Testicular teratomas (embryonal carcinomas) lung tumors Harderian gland tumors Ovarian tumors hemangiosarcoma


Swiss Mice, blind (rd1)

Siezures persistent mammary hyperplasia adenoma of prolactin secreting cells of anterior pituitary lung tumors pituitary adenoma Harderian gland tumors Liver tumors lymphoma pheochromocytoma

Outbred Swiss Mice

amyloidosis- late onset retinal degeneration lymphoma Pulmonary adenoma Liver tumors pituitary adenoma hemangiosarcoma

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