УДК 621.311.


M.Heeley, Y.Kolomiiets
Clyde Bergemann, Doncaster, England, United Kingdom

ABSTRACT Environmental regulations demand great efforts from energy utilities to reduce the polluting load from power generation. Till now, many efforts have been dedicated to reduce particularly gaseous emissions. However, liquid effluents as well are under increasing scrutiny to be controlled and reduced. In the same time, the privatised energy markets are demanding ever higher cost-effectiveness. Application of effective fly ash removal and disposal systems is able to conciliate these often conflicting interests. In the paper Clyde Bergemann technology of fly ash removal and disposal is presented. Brief description of the various configurations of the Clyde Bergemann fly ash removal and disposal systems is given. INTRODUCTION Increasingly stringent environmental regulations have become a concern for many power engineering companies. In this regard power engineering companies which, include coal fired thermal power plants (TPPs) are examining how to reduce the emission levels from TPPs in the form of fly ash escaping up the stacks along with the flue gases, and also reducing the cost of using vast amounts of water to dispose of the ashes. To accomplish this they are looking to install modern ash removal and handling equipment and to achieve as close to a zero water usage as possible in all areas. An answer to both these issues can be found in application of the Clyde Bergemann ash handling and disposal technologies. These technologies provide reliable removal of fly ash particles falling from the hoppers of fly ash extraction technologies such as ESP’s (electrostatic Precipitators) or bag filters of TPPs burning coal and other fossil fuels, strongly increasing reliability and profitability of the ash extraction and disposal system, whilst also providing reduction of the environmental impact of the plant. The pneumatic fly ash handling system is designed to transport the fly ash in a totally enclosed manner utilising standard mild steel conveying pipes, completely eliminating dust emissions, whilst the method of Dense slurry pumping utilises a ash:water ratio of approx 1:1 greatly reducing the use of water in the ash disposal system and, accordingly, recirculation systems and waste water have been eliminated completely. Additional benefits include a higher reliability and dependability of the ash handling system in comparison with traditional lean slurry methods, resulting in decrease of forced emptying of ESP hoppers and reduced maintenance required. The Clyde Bergemann technology is developed and patented since 1974. 1. DESCRIPTION OF THE CLYDE BERGEMANN ASH HANDLING AND DISPOSAL SYSTEM 1.1. Typical fly ash handling system configuration Basic equipment of the Clyde Bergemann ash handling system consists of pneumatic conveying vessels, mild steel conveying pipes, silo termination equipment, conveying air systems and PLC control systems in varying forms and configurations. A typical Configuration of the Clyde Bergemann ash handling system is shown in the fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Typical Configuration of Ash Handling equipment for a 2 x ESP system `1.2. Dome Valve® The Clyde Bergemann Dome Valve® is incorporated into every Clyde Bergemann Fly Ash Handling system and is used in the most crucial area for pneumatic conveying systems, the air- material interface. A Dome Valve® typically used on the inlet of each conveying vessel is shown in Fig. 2. The Dome Valve is unique in that it allows for unobstructed material flow through the valve when in the open position, resulting in virtually zero wear on the internal components of the valve. When in the closed position the valve is pneumatically sealed closed, completely isolating the ESP process from the conveying medium during the conveying cycle.

1. Variable speed centrifugal pumps are used for transportation. medium phase and dense phase.5. The area required for Ash settling ponds for these types of systems are vast and the disposed material remains loose. The size of the mixer is designed to ensure proper residence time of the slurry mixture. The free slurry jet streams of the nozzles entertain the ash. depending on the particle size of the ashes. The velocity of the material in the pipeline typically ranges between 1.Low conveying air consumption seal (inflated) seal inflation air inlet seal (deflated) Fig. Excess water is recovered and re-used in the system but the environment suffers with some of the contaminated waters finding it’s way into nearby water systems etc. For power plant to landfill distances over 4km piston pumps or hydro-hoist can be used. . The thick fluid has a grey colour and it’s temperature is usually less than 40 deg C. In order to prevent settling of solid particles and blockage of pipelines. Clyde Bergemann technology operates in the Densephase mode. Bottom Ash and Fly Ash created from the burning of coals is transported to ash settling ponds utilising a ‘lean slurry ‘ system. Positive pressure systems can be further divided into three categories: Lean phase.4. A dosing device. Typical inlet Dome Valve in both closed & open states® 1. One slurry pump circulates the homogenous dense slurry from below the mixer tank to the pre-mixer slurry nozzles arranged around the fry ash drop tube.25 to 1. air and mak-up water.6.5 – 10. taken into consideration the chemically reactive reactive CaO(free) and CaSO4 components of the ash. The bigger bottom ash or bed ash particles may be suspended in the fly ash slurry. 1.70 g/cm3.2 to 1. flow velocity may not decrease below a limit value of about 1. 1. Other slurry pump(s) serve for transporting the dense ash slurry from below the mixing tank. Bottom ash granulate. 3. gypsum and other solids can be added later. 2. fly ash and water demand intensive mixing. like a rotary dosing vane feeds the dry ash from a storage silo into the pre-mixer by gravity. 1. The pre-mixed slurry enters the mixer tank on top of the mixer tank for final mixing. 2. through slurry circulation pipeline loop(s) through a slurry discharge valve. which is both costly in terms of usage and re-processing. This means that much higher pump heads are required for transportation in pipelines than with clean water. Dense Slurry mixing and Pumping Typically. this is the most energy efficient of all three modes. This type of disposal system causes problems to power generators due to the abundant amounts of water required. The Mixing Process In order to create the Dense slurry suitable for pumping. The make-up water enters tangentially into the cylindrical shaped pre-mixer. Fig. The equipment is specially designed for power plant high capacity ash handling applications. The Clyde Bergemann Dense Phase Conveying Process Clyde Bergemann pneumatic conveying technology is based around the positive pressure type of conveying as opposed to negative pressure systems.0m/sec resulting in the least amount of system wear and maintenance. ADVANTAGES OF THE CLYDE BERGEMANN FLY ASH REMOVAL AND DISPOSAL SYSTEM INTRODUCTION Energy saving aspects . The slurry level is generally controlled by the material feed. Conveying pipe cross-section during dense-phase conveying.5 m/s. The long distance transport slurry pump for the byproduct storage area can be either of centrifugal type slurry pump if the transport distance is not too long or positive displacement piston slurry pump type if the transport distance is quite long requiring high distance pressure.closed open In a few minutes homogenous suspension is produced with density in the range of 1. The make-up water is dosed proportionally to the ash flow. like a multi-jet injector.8 Dense Slurry Mixer System and Related Equipment The continuous Flow-through mixer has two mixing stages. and below that the mixer tank for final mixing. the pre-mixer head. having the highest ash:air ratio and lowest conveying air consumption. where it is mixed with water in a water to solid ratio (W/S) of around 5 to 20. where the ashes are collected in large sumps.7 Transportation of Dense Slurry Dense slurry is thick suspension of fly ash and water that has higher density and viscosity than water has. This type of conveying can handle a wide range of both wet and dry materials and can typically transfer fly ash over distances in excess of 1000 metres without the need for intermediate transfer stations.

Low operating and maintenance costs . no dusting .Very little water release at the landfill .Pipelines can be laid underground . Environmentally compatible handling of firing residues .Waste water can be utilised to mix the slurry Ecological aspects .Standard ‘off the shelf’ mild steel pipework utilised for pneumatic conveying system CONCLUSIONS Introduction of CLYDE BERGEMANN fly ash removal and disposal system instead of traditional wet disposal ones allows the following: · Increased dependability and reliability for both ash removal and disposal system and TPP. . · Lowering the cost of energy production in real terms. The Circumix® Process.Low water consumption . · Considerably improving ecological parameters of TPPs.High landfill density and less volume ..Low noise emmision Financial aspects .Low investment cost .Solid ash stone. Pataki A. · Emissions reduction from both stack and landfill site · Bringing the TPP’s in line with stricter environmental regulations REFERENCES 1.

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