I. Concept 1.

Concept Composite material is synthetic material made from two or more different materials to create a new material with superior features than the original one. Composite material is composed of core components to ensure that composite obtains the required mechanical properties and base materials to ensure that components of the composite link and work in harmony with each other. 2. History and development Composite material has appeared for a long time before. Around 5000 BC, the ancient people already knew how to apply composite material in life (for example: using stone powder mixed with clay to ensure the expansion in the process of pottery burning). The Egyptians already knew to apply composite material from about 3,000 BC, typical products were boat cover made of reed soaked with pitum. Later, woven bamboo boat with sawdust or resin coated; or woven bamboo walls plastered with mud, straw and rice stubble are composite products which were widely applied in social life. The development of composite material has been confirmed and the breakthrough in 1930 when the Stayer and Thomat studied, successful applied glass fibers; Fillis and Foster used reinforce for unsaturated polyester and this solution was widely applied in aircraft and ship manufacturing industry for World war II. In 1950, there was an important breakthrough in the composite material industry which was the appearance of Epoxy resin and reinforcing fibers such as polyester, nylon et. From 1970 to date, the plastic composite materials have been widely put to use in industrial and consumer products, health care, sports, military, etc. 3. Advantages The superiority of the composite material is the capability to fabricate from this material into product structures according to different technical requirements that we want. The core components of the composite have high hardness and mechanical strength, base materials always ensure that components link harmonously to create structures that are capable of enduring heat and resistant to corrosion of materials in the harsh conditions of the environment. One of the most effective applications is polymer composite. This material has many advantages and potentially widely applicable. The outstanding nature is light, durable, environment resistant, easy to install, own durability and high elasticity, environmentally sustainable, chemical corrosion, low thermal and electrical conductivity. When manufactured in a certain temperature and pressure, easy to develope technological mechanism, facilitate the production process.

particle) with core materials has forms: organic fiber (polyamide. carbon…). . PHÂN LOẠI COMPOSITE Composite material is classified according to the shape and nature of the material components. Particulate composite: When reinforced material is particle. 2 – Phân loại theo bản chất. ABS. C)… • Mineral based composite: minerl based composite (ceramic) with core materials: metal fiber (Bo). metal fiber (boron. b. we called it fibrous composite. we can use a thermosetting resin or thermoplastic resin as base polymer: • Thermoplastic resin: PE. It can be made up of a substance or mixture of substances which are mixed homogeneously continuum. ceramic particle (carburet. aluminum…) • Metal based composite: metal based (titanium alloy. In fact. Fibrous composite: When reinforced material is fibrous. mineral fiber (glass. processed on ejecting press in the molten state. mineral fiber (Si. Có thể tạo thành từ một chất hoặc hỗn hợp nhiều chất được trộn lẫn một cách đồng nhất tạo thể liên tục. particulate fillers disperse into the base polymer. metal particle (ceramic). aluminum alloy…) and particulate filler (Bo). transmitting stress to filler when the external force has effect on the material.II. PS. Nitron)… III. kevlar…). Fibrous filler enhances the physical properties of base polymer. CẤU TẠO CỦA VẬT LIỆU COMPOSITE 1 – Polymer nền Base polymer is adhesive. 1 – Phân loại theo hình dạng a. creating a distributed environment. PVC…filler which is mixed with resin. thành phần • Organic based composite (plastic. Particulate composite is different from fibrous one that it has no preferential size.

accelerator) + Filler system By varying these factors. depends mainly on the following factors: + Ingredients (types and rate of substance used) + Synthesis method + Molecular weight + Solidify system (monomer. In general. Polyester has many types. easy for machining process. unsaturated polyester resin is called polyester resin or polyester. . usually diluted in styrene. from the acid. They can be very different in different UPE resins. catalyst. Polyester has the ability to mold without pressure. There are two main types of polyester commonly used in composite technology. UF. glycol and different monomers. processed under low pressure and high temperature. Styrene can be up to 50% to reduce the viscosity of the resin. duty of styrene is curing to cross-link between molecules without the formation of auxiliary products. This is a thermosetting resin.up method. Polyester has short storage time due to the its self-curing phenomenon after a while. each with different properties. Polyester. people add a small amount of inhibitor in polyester synthesis process to prevent this phenomenon. thermosetting resin has higher mechanicl properties than thermoplastic resin. hand lay. • Some common thermosetting resins: Polyester Polyester resin is widely used in composite technology. Usually. Epoxy. Orthophthalic is highly economical and widely used. capable of solidifying in liquid or solid form if conditions are appropriate. For unsatured epoxy and polyester. especially maritime. it will create many types of UPE resin with different special properties depending on usage requirements. In addition. Most polyester resin is light colored. Isophthalic has excellent water resistance so it is an important material in the industry. Normally. they can be processed under normal condition.• Thermosetting resin: unsaturated PU. PP. This type of Polyester is usually unsaturated.

Vinylester has fewer ester groups than polyester. i. In general. Plastics can be produced so it can be used after putting in catalyst. If there is too much catalyst.Manufacturer can provide in the form of natural resin or use some additives. such as the outer shell of the ship or boat. usually at the end of the molecular circuit due to vinylester only has C = C double bond at both ends of the circuit. which means vinylester is more persistent and resilient than polyester. epoxy is ideal for use in shipbuilding. The entire length of the molecular circuit is ready to bear load. is the most widely used in details of aircraft. Need to prepare a mixture of resin before use. need to have time for polyester to self-cure. so it is being applied to pipes and chemical tanks. As mentioned above. Curing structures of vinylester tend to be more persistent than polyester. curing process will be slowed down. On the other hand. Once hardened. This is important because air bubbles in the plastic will affect mechanical properties. ester group is susceptible to hydrolysis.e vinylester is better water resistant than polyester. Vinylester Vinylester is structured similar to polyester. the number of ester groups in vinylester is less. With adhesive properties and its excellent water resistance. This is a one-way chemical reaction. Although in order to achieve this nature. environmental resistant than other plastics. This spatial structure allows resin to bear without being brittle. Curing or crosslinking process is called polymerisation. it means vinylester is less affected by the hydrolysis reaction. When compared to polyester. Epoxy Epoxy is representing some of the best features plastic today. weaken the product structure. but its main difference with the polyester is the reaction position. This material is usually used as the outer coating for underwater products. Stirring well and carefully to remove air bubbles in the plastic which can affect the process. or replacing polyester which is susceptible to hydrolysis by water and gel coat. resin needs high temperature after curing. Plastics and other additives must be distributed well before putting in the catalyst. the polyester is very hard and resistant to chemicals. if less catalyst. Polymerization rate is too slow for the purpose of use. It should be noted that the use of catalysts and promoters with sufficient levels will give material the best properties. epoxy has better physico-mechanical function. so need to use a catalyst and accelerators to achieve the polymerization rate of resin in a certain period of time. . the primary lining or outer coating for high quality ship. gelation process will happen faster.

depending on the choice of curing agent. • Advantages for the machining process. • Low cost. Amine is the preferred curing agent to use. Filler is usually assessed based on the following characteristics: • Mechanical reinforcement. paint. to put in epoxy. Epoxy cures easily and quickly at room temperature from 5-150 oC. This is an important factor because proper mixing ratio ensures complete reaction. lightweight. environment and temperature. 2 – Chất độn( cốt) Acts as concentrated stressed substance as filler usually has higher mechanical properties than plastic. manufacturers often formulate ingredients and offer a simple mixing ratio by measuring their mass or volume. has a similar structure to vinylester. it is used as: adhesives. • Thermal transfer and good cooling. epoxy group that reacts at the end of the circuit. Therefore. . plastic which has not reacted or residual curing agent in the mixture will affect the product properties after curing. If the mixing ratio is not correct. pour mixture. Application of epoxy is very diverse. plaster powder. surface treatment mixture. epoxy resin is resistant to mechanical and thermal stresses better than verticle vein. The liquid epoxy resin and curing agent have low viscosity which is favorable for processing.Epoxy resin is made up of long molecular circuit. Epoxy resin has no ester group. Amine is combined with epoxy with a certain percentage. There will be chemical reaction occurs between them. persistant and heat resistant. Epoxy group will often conglomerate with the amine group to create complex three-dimensional molecular structure. One of the advantages of epoxy is low shrinkage during curing. mechanical properties of epoxy are reinforced by insulating property and chemical resistance. Force of adhesion. Also. To ensure correct mixing ratio. • Dispersion in the plastic well. so that the water resistance of epoxy is very good. the epoxy is hard. sealant. Curing agent is used to create a three-dimensional space. • Resistance to chemicals. due to two aromatic rings in the center.

Depending on the requirements for each type of product that we can choose the appropriate fillers.. increase fire-retardant ability with enhanced filler. polyamide fibers. And. There are two types of filler: •Fiber filler: fiber filler has higher physico-mechanical properties than particulate one. . 3 – Chất pha loãng Properties of polyester depends not only on the content of double bonds and ether groups. good sound insulation. flexibility and elongation. or man-made fibers (fiberglass. Depending on the requirements that fiber can be made into several types: short fiber.. friction and abrasion resistance. silicon carbide fibers. carbon fiber. The mix of various types of reinforcing fibers in the mixture have the effect of increasing mechanical strength and chemical durability of polymer composites (PC) such as: the ability to withstand shock. bamboo fiber. fiber board . etc.). amide fiber . Reinforcing fibers can be natural fibers (jute. carbon . boron fiber. etc. However.). the ability to enhance the mechanical properties of pharmaceutical particulate filler is used for the following purposes: . alkali.Easy to mold. acrylic flakes. fabric. reduce the formation of air bubbles in the resin that has high viscosity.. etc. acid. because these superior features. kaolin.. coconut fiber. CaCO3. graphite. thermal and electricaldurability. obscure fiber in enhanced fiber structure. PC material systems have been widely used in production as well as in life.. hemp.Improve surface properties of materials. good expansion. increase physical. resistant in corrosive environments such as: salt. chemical. flax. multi-level convergence.. .Reduce price . high compressive. the fiber has a higher price. long fiber.. but also depends on the nature of the agent crosslinked monomer. . •Particulate filler: commonly used as: silica. reduce heat when curing. clay. anti-shrinkage when curing. tangled fiber. metal flakes. cotton.Increase the volume needed for inert fillers. talc. These capabilities have proved the superiority of the new PC material system compared to conventional polymers. often used to make high-end materials such as: fiberglass. mineral filler. aromatic circuit or straight.

Mold release agent have the effect of preventing resin from sticking to mold surface. low self-polymerization. • High boiling temperature. which affects the nature of the product.. polymerization product is less shrinkage. not coincide separately to create heterogeneous products. chất làm kín và các phụ gia khác • Mold release agent . in which styrene is the most used because of its nature and advantages: • Low viscosity. vinyl. The horizontal cross-linking monomer is used to coincide with the double bond in the UPE resin. • Quick resin curing. usually has a low viscosity (liquid) so it also works to reduce the viscosity of the mixture. we use the monomers: styrene. or misses out monomer that makes product flexible and less durable. good insulation.. •Monomer creates a homogeneous mixture with polyester. • Low self-ignition. to create horizontal crosslink. lard… . but also depends on the nature of the crosslinking agent . At that time. • Products is high weather resistant. . high ability to polymerize. silicon. .Some mold release agents: wax. aromatic or straight circuit. the best is solvent for polyester. triallil xianuarat. it dissolves completely in the middle of the polyester molecular circuit. it is difficult to evaporate during processing and storage. • Good compatibility with polyester.monomer. polycondensation level.Properties of polyester depends not only on the content of double bonds and ester groups. 4 – Chất tách khuôn. . Monomer dilution must satisfy the following conditions: • To coincide well with polyester.Mold release agent to apply on hands is external mold release agent to apply directly on mold. • Polymerization reaction is low-temperature. oil. high mechanical properties. Hence it is also known as the diluent. • Less toxic For curing polyester. facilitate curing reaction and favorable viscosity for process. methyl meta acrylate (MMA).

weather resistance and surface aesthetics of composite products .Sealers enter in foam pores. •Fiber wetting agent: . . Stimulus for the formation of free radicals can be accelerators. exists in three forms: dry (about 5% moisture). paste in water (about 25% water). silicon.With the mold made from porous materials such as wood. it is necessary to apply sealer before using mold release agent. plaster. • Dispersion enhancer • Styrene evaporation preventing agent 5 – Xúc tác – Xúc tiến • Catalyst Catalysts are only put into resin before processing. varnish. ultraviolet or temperature.Have the effect of increasing ability of fiber wetting.Usage: 0.5-1. .5-2% plastic. light radiation. It is used for curing polyester resin (at a temperature of about 80 oC) and is used at a rate of 0.5% compared with the fillers. . stearic acid.Usage: 0. Catalysts include Xúc tác Peroxide + Peroxide: The most common is benzoyl-peroxide It is white powder. Its role is to create free radicals to provoke the catalyzed process of polymerization reactions. furane resin. help to use more filler.5% of resin quantity . the most common is paste in tricresyl-phosphonate or dimethyl phthalate (about 70% peroxide). In addition. stop resin from sticking to.2-0.Some sealers: Cellulose acetate.Note: put air bubble removing agent in first before using other components.• Sealer: . the type of peroxide catalysts are: . wax.Air bubbles reduce strength. lacquer… • Air bubble removing agent: .

Naphthenic-cobalt is the most common type used. HCH). HCH is the reaction product between the hydroperoxide and cyclohexanol peroxide and is called cyclo-hexanol peroxide. dicyclopentadienyl complex form of iron are used to promote rapid curing cumen peroxide as needed at a temperature of about 80oC. Tertiary amine This type of accelerator is often used with peroxide catalyst. people still use complex forms. It is strong oxidant so should avoid contact with oxygen.+ Di-t-butyl peroxide (CH3)3-C-O-O-C-(CH3)3 + Di-acetyl peroxide (CH3)3-CO-O-O-OC-(CH3)3 + Hydroperoxide : + t-butyl-hydroperoxide (CH3)3-COOH + Cumen-hydroperoxide C6H5-C-(CH3)2-O-OH Two types of MEKP and HCH are used to cold curing polyester resin. In addition to metal accelerators in the form of salt. composition changes depending on the manufacturer. for example: ferrocene. MEKP is the abbreviation of methyl ethyl ketone peroxide. Schorenberg and Becke) Xúc tác azo và diazo + Diazo aminobenzen: C6H5-NH-N=N-C6H5 + Dinitric cuả acid diizobutyric: NC(CH3)2-N=N-C(CH3)2-COO-CN + Dimetyl ester cuả acid diizobutyric: C2H5-OOC-C(CH3)2-N=N-C(CH3)2-COO-C2H5 • Accelerator Accelerator acts as catalyst for free radical reaction of the catalyst. lead. common in this category . linoleic octonic etc which has good solubility in the polymer. cerium and the acid as: Naphthenic. Use of accelerator will reduce the temperature and curing time significantly and can be cold cured. But it is a mixture of at least two of the following four substances (according to Criegree. Including: Metal accelerator Metal acceleratoris salt of transition metal: cobalt. manganese. it is actually a mixture of a peroxide compound. These catalysts are usually used in conjunction with the catalyst as hydroperoxit (MEKP.

and other civil sectors. canoe-building industry. Alone plastic composite material used to cut consumption in Vietnam is about 5. fuel efficiency. roof of the stadium. the polymer composite material has been used to produce many parts. noise and fuel for machinery.. reduce vibration. tables and chairs. The electronics industry uses to produce details. the nose of the aircraft and a number of components.. sports industry. In Second World War. electric meter box. Vật liệu composite được áp dụng hầu hết ở các ngành. Boeing 676.Vietnam Composite materials applied to most industries. trough inspired and seats. in which the composite material is used many in social life. increase corrosion resistance..000 tons per year. skull).. Tại khoa răng của bệnh viện trung ương Quân đội 108 đã sử dụng vật liệu Composite vào trong việc ghép răng thưa. circuit boards and other components. The research and application of this material has been adapted by many countries around the world. tennis racket . the stadium and the center of Vietnamese culture . the country and the people.000 tấn mỗi năm. many countries have produced aircraft. các lĩnh vực của nền kinh tế quốc dân. and are composite applications in the fields of electric. boat-. tại Hà Nội đã có 8 đề tài nghiên cứu về composite cấp thành phố được tuyển trọn. theo đó vật liệu composite được sử dụng nhiều trong đời sống xã hội. dentures. the fields of the national economy. civil sectors such as health (prosthetic. the median strips of roads.The world With its rich history. sports gear as clubs. Airbus 310 . Ship-. At the central hospital dental Army 108 Composite material used in in toothed transplantation.. các . machineries from manufacturers such as Boeing 757..+ Dimetyl-aniline ( DMA ) : C6H5N(CH3)2 + Dietyl-aniline ( DEA ) : C6H5N(C2H5)2 + Dimetyl-p-toluidin (DMPT) : CH3C6H5N(CH3)2 Application . Aerospace industry uses this material in rolling the wings. warships and weapons for this war. Tính riêng nhựa dùng để sản xất vật liệu composite được tiêu thụ ở Việt Nam khoảng 5. automobile components based on the special advantages such as weight reduction. gutter system slide. composite materials have been known by many scientists on the world. . Hanoi has 8 research on the municipal level are employed full composite. the education industry equipment. pole insulators. especially porcelain insulators. boat rail system. So far.

... khay. máy bay. các giải phân cách đường giao thông. Dân dụng: Sản phẩm trong sơn mài: bình.. cano. tủ giả đá. khay trồng rau.. chén. gỗ.. tô. Bàn ghế.. sào cách điện. Thiết bị: Dụng cụ. tàu. hệ thống máng trượt. Giao thông vận tải: Thay thế các loại sắt. hệ thống tàu xuồng. thùng. đũa. máng hứng và ghế ngồi. ván. 3.. Tẩm quan trọng của composite 1. bàn ghế. Quốc phòng: Những phương tiện chiến đấu: tàu. VD: càng. vách ngăn. Sản phẩm trang trí nội thất: khung hình. Công nghiệp hóa chất: Bồn chứa dung dịch acid (thay gelcoat bằng epoxy hoặc nhựa vinyleste). Hàng không: Thay thế vật liệu sắt... 7.. nhôm. phi thuyền. nẹp hình. mái che của các nhà thi đấu.. thuyền. thùng. 5. phương tiện phục vụ cho việc sản xuất nghiên cứu trong quân đội như: bồn chứa nước hoặc hóa chất.. một số chi tiết của xe môtô. đặc biệt là sứ cách điện. Bồn chứa dung dịch kiềm ( thay gelcoat bằng epoxy) 6. hộp công tơ điện... bia tập bắn. 2. bồn .ngành thiết bị giáo dục. trong máy bay dân dụng. phù điêu. quân sự 4. Hàng hải: Làm ghe. thùng trần của các loại xe oto. các sân vận động và các trung tâm văn hoá…Việt Nam đã và đang ứng dụng vật liều Composite vào các lĩnh vực điện dân dụng.