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ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) USEFUL FORMULAE

1. Velocity of Ultrasonic Waves in a medium (V) = f x l OR

Where f = Number of cycles per second is called frequency. Measured in Hertz. Abbreviated as Hz. One Hertz is equivalent to One cycle per second l = Distance covered in one cycle is wavelength V= Velocity of Ultrasonic wave inside the medium in mm/s 2. Acoustic Impedance (Z) = V x r Where: Z= r= V= Acoustic Impedance Density Velocity

3. Reflection Coefficient

Where: R = Reflection Coefficient Z1 = Acoustic Impedance of Medium 1 Z2 = Acoustic Impedance of Medium 2

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4. Transmission coefficient T = 4 Z1Z2/ (Z1+Z2)2 Where: R = Reflection Coefficient Z1 = Acoustic Impedance of Medium 1 Z2 = Acoustic Impedance of Medium 2 5. Longitudinal Wave Velocity

Where: VL = E = r = m = Longitudinal Wave Velocity Modulus of Elasticity Density Poisson's Ratio

6. Shear Wave Velocity

Where: Vs = E = r = m = G= Shear Wave Velocity Modulus of Elasticity Density Poisson's Ratio Shear Modulus

7. Refraction - Snell's Law: That is the ratio of sine of the angle to the respective wave velocities are proportional.

Where: qI = qR = V1 = V2 = Angle of the Incident Wave Angle of the Reflected Wave Velocity of Incident Wave Velocity of Reflected Wave

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8. Near Field

Where: N D l V = = = = Near Field Transducer Diameter Wavelength Velocity

9. Beam Spread Half Angle

Where: l D V F = = = = Wavelength Transducer Diameter Velocity Frequency

10. Decibel (dB) Gain or Loss

Where: dB = Decibel P1 = Pressure Amplitude 1 P2 = Pressure Amplitude 2 11. Angle Beam testing of Pipe t= d(1- Sin ) 2 2t d
d = O.D. of Pipe = Probe angle

Sin = 1-

t = Maximum wall thickness

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12. Formulae for Angle Beam Calculations = Sound beam refracted angle in the test material T = Thickness of the test material

Skip Distance S = 2T x tan

V-Path Length 2T cos

V-Path =

Leg Length T cos

Leg =

Surface Distnace SD = sin x Soundpath Length

Depth in First Leg Depth (1st Leg) = cos x Sound path Length

Depth in Second Leg Depth (2nd Leg) = 2T (cos x Sound path Length)

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For refererence only. TINT is not responsible for errors and omissions in the data if any.