Nanotechnology, the manipulation of matter at the scale of atoms and molecules, has been described both as the next

industrial revolution and as the operating system for a new era of corporate and state control. Nanotechnology will fundamentally change the world we live in. It provides a powerful universal tool kit with which to shape and manipulate all matter, living and non-living. It has the potential to radically transform many sectors of industry, from pharmaceuticals to computers, from energy to chemicals, from agriculture to defence. $9 billion per year is being invested in nanotechnology by the world's most powerful governments (led by the US, the EU and Japan) and richest corporations (including IBM, DuPont, Syngenta, Exxon, Pfizer, L'Oreal and Kraft). Nanotechnology has the potential to transform and extend corporate power, bringing further corporate concentration and creating new atomic-scale monopolies over life and matter. Nanotechnology is already happening. The race to secure patents at the nano-scale and to bring nano- products to the market has already started. As with other revolutionary technologies nanotechnology brings with it the promise of far reaching social and environmental impacts, from novel forms of nano-toxicity to economic disruption caused by nano-commodities, from ethical issues around nanoenabled human 'enhancement' to privacy issues around surveillance from nano-enabled sensors. As yet there is no regulatory framework anywhere in the world to deal adequately with nanotechnology. ( When thinking about nanotechnology is its useful to contrast it with another 'revolutionary technology', biotechnology. The 'bio' part of biotechnology refers to what the technology is dealing with, i.e. bios or life, where as with nanotechnology the 'nano' refers not to a thing but to the scale at which the technology takes place. Put simply nanotechnology is the manipulation of matter at a size so small that it is measured in nanometres (one billionth of a metre), the scale of atoms and molecules. The nano-scale Its difficult to grasp quite how small the nano-scale is. To give some reference points one nanometre (nm) is one billionth of a metre, or one millionth of a millimetre. A human hair is 80,000nm thick, a red blood cell is 5,000nm in diameter, a DNA molecule is 2.5nm wide and 10 hydrogen atoms arranged side by side measure 1nm. The nano-scale is nothing new. It has always existed, but until recently it has been out of the sight, and reach, of human beings. Unaided, the human eye can't see anything much smaller than a millimetre wide. Over the last few hundred years optical microscopes have been developed that allow humans to see objects down to the scale of microns (1,000nm things such as bacteria). It is the invention and development of scanning probe microscopes over the last 20 years that has allowed humans to first of all see, and then manipulate matter at the nano-scale.

The nano-scale is special in two ways: Everything is the same When viewed at the nano-scale the whole world starts to look the same. Everything on this planet both living and non-living is made up of atoms and molecules, and at the nano-scale that is all you see. The paper this briefing is printed on (or the computer you are viewing it on), the trees you can see from the window, the glass in the window, your cat and you yourself, everything is made up of atoms and molecules arranged in different combinations and different structures. Biotech broke the species barrier. Nanotech breaks the life/ non-life barrier Things behave differently The other important feature of the nano-scale is that substances start to behave very differently when they are very small. Below about 100nm the rules that govern the behaviour of the elements of our known world start to give way to the rules of quantum physics, and everything changes. To take the example of gold, we are all familiar with gold at the ‘everyday’ macro-scale, for instance, a gold ring is a familiar shiny orangey/yellow colour. The same is true of a particle of gold 100nm wide, but, a particle of gold 30nm across is bright red, slightly bigger than that it is purple and going smaller still it is brownish in colour. Not only colour changes at the nanoscale. Other properties including strength, reactivity, conductivity and electronic properties also change as size decreases.
Nanotechnology has the potential to transform the way businesses operate. It is an enabling technology that will drive significant social, economic and technological change. The Economist reported that nanotechnology would `affect every industry through improvements to existing materials and products, as well as allowing the creation of entirely new materials’. It would also ‘produce important advances in areas such as electronics, energy and biomedicine’. Definition of Nanotechnology According to the PMSEIC (Prime Minister’s Science, Engineering and Innovation Council) Working group on nanotechnology2, “nanotechnology is engineering at the molecular (groups of atoms) level. It is the collective term for a range of technologies, techniques and processes that involve the manipulation of matter at the smallest scale (from 1 to 100 nanometres). At this scale, the properties of materials such as colour, magnetism and the ability to conduct electricity can be altered. This results in new, exciting and different characteristics that can generate an array of novel products. Nanotechnology is characterised by the size of the materials being developed and used, meaning that the end products vary widely. For example, nanotechnology can be used to engineer fuel cells, fabrics or drug delivery devices. Nanotechnology therefore enables the natural convergence of all basic sciences (biology, physics and chemistry) at the molecular level.” According to Wherrett and Yelovich, there are three main sectors within the global nanotechnology industry: Nanomaterials

Nanomaterials is a broad term used to describe the "nanocomponents" used to make, or included as part of, a finished product. For present purposes, the term nanomaterials includes carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, nano-oxides, nanocrystals, and nanopowders, among others. The commercial production of nanotubes and fullerenes is still at an early stage. The production of other nanomaterials, like nanocomposite clays, is slightly more advanced. Nanobiotechnology In biotechnology, the ability to work at the nano level provides the capacity to precisely locate diseases and administer drugs. Two fields that may be revolutionised are drug delivery and drug discovery. As with nanomaterials, however, present-day commercial applications are somewhat more basic. Nanoelectronics The primary benefit of working at a smaller scale in electronics is more power, greater speed and new applications. In semiconductors, Intel recently announced the launch of the Prescott chip, the first true nanochip operating at 90 nm and promising 4-gigahertz processing speed. Objectives of the study The impact of nanotechnology on their company/industry/community to date The broad ways in which their company/industry currently uses or does not use nanotechnology Perceived benefits associated with nanotechnology Perceived concerns associated with nanotechnology The potential role of nanotechnology on their company/industry/community in the future

The definition of the ICT industry includes the following components: - manufacturing of computer equipment, telecommunications, broadcasting and electronic equipment, and electric cable and wire - wholesaling of computers, business machines, electrical and electronic equipment - telecommunications services - computer services such as data processing, storage and retrieval, computer maintenance and consultancy - content: recorded media manufacturing and publishing, radio and television services, film and video production and sound recording.

Intel CEO: Brian Krzanich Founded: 1968 Headquarters: Santa Clara, CA, United States of America Founders: Gordon Moore, Robert Noyce

Intel Corporation is an American multinational semiconductor chip maker corporation headquartered in Santa Clara, California. Intel is the world's largest and highest valued semiconductor chip maker, based on revenue. It is the inventor of the x86 series of microprocessors, the processors found in most personal computers. Intel Corporation, founded on July 18, 1968, is a portmanteau of Integrated Electronics (the fact that "intel" is the term for intelligence information was also quite suitable).Intel also makes motherboard chipsets, network interface controllers and integrated circuits, flash memory, graphic chips, embedded processors and other devices related to communications and computing. Founded by semiconductor pioneers Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore and widely associated with the executive leadership and vision of Andrew Grove, Intel combines advanced chip design capability with a leading-edge manufacturing capability. Though Intel was originally known primarily to engineers and technologists, its "Intel Inside" advertising campaign of the 1990s made it and its Pentium processor household names. Intel was an early developer of SRAM and DRAM memory chips, and this represented the majority of its business until 1981. Although Intel created the world's first commercial microprocessor chip in 1971, it was not until the success of the personal computer (PC) that this became its primary business. During the 1990s, Intel invested heavily in new microprocessor designs fostering the rapid growth of the computer industry. During this period Intel became the dominant supplier of microprocessors for PCs, and was known for aggressive and sometimes illegal tactics in defense of its market position, particularly against Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), as well as a struggle with Microsoft for control over the direction of the PC industry.The 2013 rankings of the world's 100 most valuable brands published by Millward Brown Optimor showed the company's brand value at number 61. Intel has also begun research in electrical transmission and generation.Intel has recently introduced a 3-D transistor that improves performance and energy efficiency. Intel has begun mass-producing this 3-D transistor, named the Tri-Gate transistor, with their 22 nm process, which is currently used in their 3rd generation core processors initially released on April 29, 2012. In 2011, SpectraWatt Inc., a solar cell spinoff of Intel, filed for bankruptcy under Chapter 11. Recently Intel unveiled its brand new fourth generation Intel Core processors (Haswell) in an event named Computex in Taipei. (

Intel using nano technology A transistor consisting of only a single atom has been achieved, according to an article published in Nature Nanotechnology on the 19th of February 2012. The transistor was created with a phosphorus atom in a silicon crystal, with the phosphorus replacing exactly one silicon atom. This single-atom-device has been made considerably earlier than was predicted by Moore’s law.

What is a Transistor?
A transistor is a device based on a semiconductor material, which can amplify and/or switch an electronic signal. To do this, the transistor has to be connected to an external circuit by at least three terminals. Transistors are essential in for our modern lifestyle, as they are employed in almost every electronic object we use. Computer microprocessors or mobile phones, for instance, can function only due to the presence of transistors with appropriate characteristics.