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STUDENTS INDUSTRIAL WORK EXPERIENCE SCHEME (SIWES)

UNDERTAKEN AT:

NATIONAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNICAL COMPANY LIMITED (NETCO)


2, Ajose Adeogun Street, Stallion House, Victoria Island, Lagos.

BY

UWAGBOE OGHOSA ANTHONY


(Matric No. ENG0000914) DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING 400 Level

BEING A TECHNICAL REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING FACULTY OF ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF BENIN, BENIN CITY.

IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING(B.ENG) IN ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING.

DECEMBER 2005.

CERTIFICATION
This is to certify that UWAGBOE OGHOSA ANTHONY, actually had his six months industrial training with The Electrical Department of the National Engineering and Technical Company, (NETCO) Victoria Island, Lagos.

_____________________ Institute based Supervisor __________________________ Dr. Frederick Edeko (Head of Dept}

__________________ DATE

___________________ DATE

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DEDICATION

This report is dedicated to The Almighty God whose foremost love and mercies has given me the opportunity to have a work experience in National Engineering and Technical Company Limited (NETCO), Victoria - Island, Lagos.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
My special thanks goes to the Engineering Manager, Engr. Oguntala, the Acting Lead Electrical, Engr. Timothy Akinyemi, and Agbami Project Electrical lead, Engr. Francis Njoku who all made so much effort to see that I was given the right exposure on Electrical facilities and applicable softwares needed as an industrial trainee. This work would not have been a success if not for the following people: Engr Olugbenga Idowu, Engr. Dauda Oyewumi, Engr. Idowu Onifade, Engr. Moses Pemi, Engr. Femi Adewale, and Engr. Marcel Enatoh, who all offered me their priceless support and advice in every area during my industrial training.

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ABST RACT
This report is aimed at explaining key areas of my training under the Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme undertaken at The National Engineering and Technical Company Limited (NETCO) . It gives a brief introduction about NETCO, an indigenous design company relevant in the oil & gas industry. It also gives a good representation of the organizational structure and the interconnectivity of the various Engineering and Services Departments. Effort was made to explain the role of the Electrical Engineering Department, bearing in mind the various electrical facilities and relevant softwares. Adequate coverage has been given to the operations and maintenance training I received, as well as the specific type of work I was engaged in.

T ABLE OF CONT E NT S
CONTENTS PAGE

Title Page.......................................................................................................................i Certification.. ii Dedication....................................................................................................................iii Acknowledgement.......................................................................................................iv Abstract.........................................................................................................................v Table of Contents...................................................................................................vi-vii List of Figures............................................................................................................viii CHAPTERS 1.0 INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................1 1.1 THE SIWES...............................................................................................1 1.2 AIM...2 2.0 SIWES WORKPLACE (Company Profile)........................................................3 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 3.0 NETCOs HISTORY.................................................................................3 NETCOs SERVICES................................................................................4 NETCOs ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE.......................................5 2.3.1 NETCOs Departments..................................................................5 NETCOs EXPERIENCE..........................................................................8

PROJECT EXECUTION IN NETCO...............................................................10 3.1 3.2 PROJECT INITIALIZATION.................................................................10 THE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT..................................................10 3.2.1 Functions of the Discipline Groups.............................................13

4.0

THE ELECTRICAL GROUP............................................................................16 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 INTRODUCTION....................................................................................16 ROLES OF THE ELECTRICAL GROUP.............................................16 ELECTRICAL GROUP ACTIVITIES.............................16 ELECTRICAL GROUP DELIVERABLES...16-17

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5.0

SKILLS & PRACTICES ACQUIRED AS AN INDUSTRIAL TRAINEE.....18 5.0.1 SKILLS ACQUIRED...........................................................................35

6.0

CONCLUSION...................................................................................................36

REFERENCES.37

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LI ST OF F I GURES AND TABL E S


FIGURE TITLE Page

Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Table 1 Table 2 Table 3

NETCOs Organizational Chart.......................................................7 Organizational Structure of the Engineering Department...............12 AutoCAD drawing of Single line diagram.....................................21 Chalmlite Lighting calculation result..............................................30 Load list for an Offshore platform.............................................18-19 Bus Summary..................................................................................23 Target grid summaries...............................................................31-34

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CHAPTE R ONE

1.0

INTRODUCTION 1.1 THE SIWES The Engineering discipline is practical in nature and mainly hinged on experience.

Hence there is great need for any student aspiring to be a professional engineer to have some form of work experience while studying at school, in a reputable engineering firm related to his/her course of study. Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) is in accordance with the federal government policy of technical education to enable students to be exposed to the working experience in industries and to enable them to be useful to their employers practically and not theoretically alone. The Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) gives students the opportunity to gain some relevant experience before leaving the campus. The experience gotten by the students during the SIWES program would enable them quickly fit into the industry upon graduation. I had my work experience at the National Engineering and Technical Company Limited (NETCO), a subsidiary of NNPC, and an indigenous engineering firm. At NETCO, I learnt the fundamentals of electrical engineering; computer aided electrical design, AutoCAD, and other relevant softwares such as Plant design management system (a 3D drafting software), Chalmlite (a lighting design software). My day to day activities at NETCO were recorded in the log book.

1.2

AIM

The Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) is aimed at giving students the opportunity to have work experience and practically apply the theoretical concepts learnt in the University. It is also aimed at widening the mental and creative horizon of the students.

CHAPT E R T WO
2.0 SIWES WORKPLACE (NETCOs Profile)

Description of SIWES workplace: NAME: NATIONAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNICAL COMPANY

LIMITED (NETCO) ADDRESS: Stallion House. 2, Ajose Adeogun Street, Victoria Island, Lagos. 2.1 NETCOs HISTORY

National Engineering and Technical Company Limited (NETCO) is Nigerias premier indigenous engineering company. It is a fully owned subsidiary of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC), providing efficient and reliable engineering base for the NNPC group and the entire oil and gas industry. It was established in 1989 as a joint venture between the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC), and Bechtel Incorporated of USA, a world renowned engineering company as its technical partner. Under the joint venture agreement, the NNPC maintained 60% shareholding while Bechtel held 40%. Commercial business started in August 1990. However, in December 1996, Bechtel exercised its options under the shareholders agreement and formally pulled out of the Joint venture and subsequently sold its equity share to the NNPC. NETCO thus became a fully owned subsidiary of the NNPC from May 1, 1997. NETCOs motivation, drive and target are embedded in its vision and mission statements thus: Vision To be a world class Engineering Company. Mission To provide world class engineering services in the oil and gas industry.

Quality Policy To satisfy and strive to exceed customer requirements through continuous demonstration of quality and active participation of all employees. With the exit of Bechtel, potential and regular clients became sceptical with regards to doing business with NETCO. In order to change the situation, NETCO decided to retool, re-package and re-launch itself. To attain the retooling was a decision to pursue and obtain the ISO 9001 Quality Certification. The re-launch took place during the 1st Quarter of 1998 and it was very successful. Once again the clients were confident in NETCO. Subsequently, NETCO executed many major engineering projects amongst which were: - The Shells Cawthorne Channel Gas injection/supply Project in consortium with Technip Geoproduction of France, detailed Engineering design of the condensate stabilization unit of the NLNG Expansion Project. NETCO which had generally been recording operational losses, started to record profits. In May 2000, Bureau Veritas Quality International (BVQI) successfully audited and subsequently awarded NETCO the prestigious ISO 9001 Quality Certificate. This achievement is the first by any indigenous engineering company in Nigeria. NETCO is managed by Nigerian engineers who have been trained locally and abroad on live projects and in all engineering disciplines. It is fully equipped to provide its services in all areas of the Oil & Gas industry. 2.2

NETCOs SERVICES Feasibility studies. Conceptual design. Basic and Detailed Engineering design. Procurement. Construction Supervision. Project Management. Quality assurance and quality control.

NETCOs core services include the following:

In order to create a conducive environment, NETCO has established one of the most equipped engineering offices in Nigeria with the latest in Engineering Design, Procurement, Project Management, Administrative, Finance and Accounting software packages. The library is up-to-date with books on Engineering, Accounting, Management, and all other disciplines relevant to its operations. It is also equipped with Electronic Engineering Literature, Drawings and Documentation. It has Internet connection to a worldwide web for additional engineering information and communication. 2.3 NETCOs ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

All of NETCOs activities are undertaken by specific departments which can be divided into two major categories namely:

Services: This comprises of the non-technical departments.

Operations: Comprises of the technical departments.

Figure 1 shows a diagrammatic representation of the organisational structure of NETCO. 2.3.1 NETCOs Departments

The various departments in NETCO and their functions with respect to project execution are: Non-Technical Departments:

Finance and Accounts: Treasury management, billings, accounting and financial management.

Administration and Personnel: Harnesses human and material resources and set out ways of utilizing them in order to maximize profit. General administration and personnel management.

Business Development: Sourcing for business via bids or otherwise to ensure company growth.

Public Affairs: Projecting and sustaining a favourable image for the company.

Quality Assurance/ Control: Ensures compliance with company quality standards.

Company secretariat/Legal Services: Providing legal insurance and board secretarial services.

MANAGING DIRECTOR

COMPANY SECRETARY/ LEGAL ADVISER

HEAD, QA/QC

EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR, Operations.

EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR, Services

Manager, Engineering

Manager, Project Controls

Manager, Projects

Head,
Procurement

Training Manager

Head,
Construction

Financial Controller

Manager,
Admin. & Personnel

Manager,
Business Development

Manager,
Public Affairs

FIGURE 1: NETCOs ORGANIZATIONAL CHART

Technical Departments

Engineering: It is the heart of NETCO. Preparation of engineering design and studies.

Project Controls: Project planning and scheduling, cost estimating, cost engineering and information technology.

Projects: Co-ordinates the engineering activities being undertaken during any project including arranging for site visits, liaison with the customers to inform them about the progress of their projects. Management of all capital projects.

Procurement: Management of procurement function for operations. Provides materials needed by the other departments and keeps stock of what is available in the stores at any point in time.

Construction: Management of construction activities.

Training: Organize/arrange staff development programs like on-the-job-training, shortterm courses and seminars, overseas rotational training etc, to ensure that NETCOs personnel are informed of technological advancement in the industry. It ensures employee development.

2.4

NETCOs EXPERIENCE

Since its inception, NETCO has executed more than 100 projects of varying magnitude and cost implications. Among these projects are: Management of the Turn-around maintenance of Nigerias four oil refineries. Detailed Engineering design of the onshore gas plant of the ESCRAVOS gas project, Phase 1 for CHEVRON. Conceptual design for the Cawthorne Gas injection/supply project for Shell. Safety upgrade and As-Built drawing for Shells 34 flowstations.

Front-End Engineering Design (FEED) of an FPSO vessel for Ashlands Okwori project. Pipeline surveys and implementation (NNPC pipeline phase III). Production of As-Built drawings for Shells Bonny Export Terminal and depots. Refinery Process Unit Rehabilitation and Revamping (NNPC refineries). Port-Harcourt Refining Company Ltd. (PHRC) Pollution Abatement and Control. Detailed Engineering Design of Fractionation Unit of the NLNG Plus Project (trains 1, 2, 3, and 5). Conceptual design of Chevron Nigeria Limited (CNL) water treatment plant, Conceptual design of Chevron Nigeria Limited (CNL) Gas Utilization Project. FEED for gas supply to Nigerian LNG project train 6 for Nigerian Agip Oil Company Limited (The NAOC Project) - which I met on ground. Agbami Floating Production, Storage and Offloading which I met on ground. Topsides Vessel

CHAPTE R THRE E
3.0 3.1 PROJECT EXECUTION IN NETCO PROJECT INITIALIZATION

NETCOs business starts in the Business Development department when it receives invitations from prospective clients to submit competitive bids for executing projects. Relevant departments meet to decide whether the decision is worthwhile. A project manager is appointed to coordinate the preparation of the bid. This usually involves most of the departments. Finally, the Business Development department submits the proposal and follows it up. If the bid is successful, NETCO management appoints from various departments a Project Manager and other personnel that will form the project team. The Project Manager maintains a harmonious relationship with the client and ensures that his personnel have the right facilities and a conducive working environment to execute the project. The Finance and Accounts department prepares invoices and collects payments from clients. This helps to maintain a positive cashflow and to ensure that funds are available for the payment of wages and other corporate expenses. A typical project team usually comprises mainly of personnel from the Engineering department. 3.2 THE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

The Engineering department is the engine room of NETCOs operations. The department is directly involved in the execution of jobs and on whose shoulders the responsibility of meeting clients specification, quality, work procedure, standards and schedule rests. The department is divided into discipline groups. A manager, who reports to the Executive Director Operations, is Head of the Engineering Department. The role of the department is fulfilled by a team of Engineers of the various discipline groups. An Engineer who is more knowledgeable in the activities of the group leads each of the

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discipline groups. The lead discipline Engineers report to the Engineering manager on issues regarding project execution and coordination of the groups activities. Figure 2 shows the organizational structure for the Engineering department.

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ENGINEERING MANAGER

SECRETARY

LEAD, PROCESS

LEAD, MECHANICAL

LEAD, PIPING/PIPELINE

LEAD, ELECRICAL

LEAD,
CONTROL SYSTEMS

LEAD,
CIVIL/ STRUCTURAL

PROCESS/ SYSTEMS GROUP

MECHANICAL GROUP

PIPING/ PIPELINES GROUP

ELECTRICAL GROUP

CONTROL SYSTEMS GROUP

CIVIL/ STRUCTURAL GROUP

FIGURE 2: ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

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On a typical project, each of the discipline groups contributes to the success of the project by producing deliverables. Deliverables are the products of a particular group; they are the documents required for a particular project. 3.2.1 Functions of the Discipline Groups.

Process/ Systems Group:


This discipline is responsible for the translation from conception of a process using the knowledge of conservation of mass and energy, separation techniques, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics and process controls into a detailed plant design phase. They are mainly made up of Chemical Engineers. Deliverables (documents) produced by this group on a typical project includes: Process Flow Scheme/Diagram (PFS or PFD) Process Engineering Flow Scheme (PEFS) or P & ID. Process Utility Engineering Flow Scheme (PUEFS) Process Safeguarding Flow Scheme (PSFS) Equipment List Line Designation Table (LDT) Line Sizing Runs. Data sheets and pressure profiles are generated for pumps and control

valves, while data sheets are produced for such process equipment as storage vessels, heat exchanger, pressure vessels, compressors, furnaces and fire heaters. Also, the group prepares the process design philosophy for the project.

Civil/Structural Group:
This group is charged with the responsibility of providing all civil/structural Engineering related activities in the company. These activities include: structural design structural investigation geo-technical engineering water supply/ waste water management Integrity survey of existing facilities Construction supervision Project management 13

Pipeline/Piping and Plant Layout Group:


This group is further sub-divided into four groups namely: Piping design group. Materials group. Stress analysis group. Pipeline group. Piping Specification. Drawings, plot plans, key plans, piping general arrangement studies (GAS). Datasheets: pipe support datasheet and pipe material datasheet.

Some of the deliverables they produce on a project are:

Mechanical/Vessel Group:
The activities carried out by this group are: Selection and Specification of process equipment like: Pumps, turbines, fired heaters, heat exchangers, air coolers, and pressure vessels. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning System (HVAC) design.

Electrical Group:
Activities carried out by this group include: Develop Design Criteria. Formulate Power Generation and Distribution Philosophy. Carry out load shedding/sharing studies. Transient and earth fault condition analysis. Electrical Equipment sizing specification and selection. Lighting design. Hazardous Area classification. Single line drawing. Electrical layout drawing.

Control Systems/ Instrumentation Group:


Instruments are used in process plants.

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Some of the deliverables produced by this group are: Instrument Index. Instrument installation schedule. Instrument Data sheets. Instrument Installation details. Instrument location diagrams. Loop and Logic diagrams. Interconnection diagram. Alarm and shut-down matrix. Material requisition. Cable schedule.

They also update the Process Engineering flow scheme (PEFS). During any particular project, the Document Control Centre (DCC) works with the Engineering discipline groups to control receipt and despatch of project documents. Through the DCC, project documents are accurately tracked. All the discipline groups produce their deliverables with the aid of computer applications and softwares. Some of the applications are:

AutoCAD, AutoPLANT. MicroStation. PDMS. ISOGEN. HYSYS, HYSIM. FLARENET. FOUNDS, FASTRUDL, STRUCAD, STAAD PRO, INTOOLS. PRIMAVERA P3. MS OFFICE PROFESSIONAL. PRO/II

During the training, I was attached to the Electrical discipline group which is under the Engineering department.

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CHAPTE R FOUR
4.0
4.1

THE ELECTRICAL GROUP


INTRODUCTION

Usually, a typical project begins in the process group with the conceptual or basic design. The process group develops the initial block diagrams, evaluates all the options, and proposes the best alternative for the project. Other disciplines (Electrical group inclusive) will then work on what the process group has put down. 4.2 ROLES OF THE ELECTRICAL GROUP

On any project, the Electrical group is concerned with the following:

To design a system that delivers energy or electricity to utilization points. To design a system that is reliable, economical and operationally flexible. To ensure that the system designed is safe for both personnel and equipment.
4.3 ELECTRICAL GROUP ACTIVITIES

To achieve the above objectives, the following activities are usually carried out by the electrical group: Develop design criteria. Formulate power generation/distribution philosophy. Carry out load shedding and/or sharing duties. Carry out transient and earth fault condition analysis. Develop electrical equipment specifications. Carry out electrical equipment sizing and selection. Prepare material requisition(MR) and Bill of Quantities(BOQ) for electrical equipment. Technical bid analysis. Produce electrical deliverables.

4.4

ELECTRICAL GROUP DELIVERABLES

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Deliverables are documents produced by a group with respect to the scope of the project. The deliverables produced by the electrical group are: One line diagrams Electrical layout drawings - Earthing - Cable - Lighting Hazardous area classification Material Requisition (MR) Supplementary Drawing - Data sheets - Cable schedules - Schematic and interconnection drawings - Installation details - Specifications COMPUTER SOFTWARES used by the Electrical group are:

AutoCAD Plant Design Management System (PDMS) Microsoft Excel Microsoft Word Chalmlite

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CHAPTE R FI VE
5.0 SKILLS AND PRACTICES ACQUIRED AS AN INDUSTRIAL TRAINEE As a student under the SIWES at NETCO, I was exposed to standard Engineering design practices. The projects executed at NETCO ensured that Engineers worked in teams, hence, I was taught to be a team player, and a good one at that. I received training in the following areas of electrical engineering practice: 1. Computation of Load list: This is one of the starting point for the electrical group activities. For any given project, it is important to know the specific number of electrical loads on site. This is to ensure adequate sizing of power sources, cables, distribution boards etc. I learnt how to compute a load list, which is usually a Microsoft Excel document showing all intended loads, their tag numbers, current, voltage and power ratings, efficiencies, power factors, and service duty. Table 1 below shows a sample load list which I developed for a given offshore platform.
ELECTRICAL LOAD SUMMARY FOR THE FOR THE OFFSHORE PLATFORM CONSUMED LOADS EQUIPMENT TAG NOS. SERVICE DESCRIPTION AREA 1 BANK 1: 6.6KV WATER INJECTION PUMP WATER INJECTION PUMP AIR COMPRESSOR AIR COMPRESSOR DEMULSIFIER PUMP DEMULSIFIER PUMP BANK 2: 415V LIGHTING D.B CHEMICAL INJECTION SKID PUMP CHEMICAL INJECTION SKID PUMP CHEMICAL INJECTION SKID PUMP CHEMICAL INJECTION SKID PUMP CONDENSATE HEATER CONDENSATE HEATER DUT Y E FF PF KW KVA REMARK

C S I C I S

0.92 0.92 0.92 0.92 0.92 0.92

0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85

300 300 500 500 200 200

383.63 383.63 639.39 639.39 255.75 255.75

C C S C S C S

0.98 0.92 0.92 0.92 0.92 0.98 0.98

1.00 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 1.00 1.00

1.50 1.00 1.00 2.00 2.00 1.00 1.00

1.53 1.28 1.28 2.56 2.56 1.02 1.02

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CONDENSATE HEATER CONDENSATE HEATER CONDENSATE HEATER CONDENSATE HEATER HEATING, VENTILATION AND AIR CONDITIONING PANEL HEATING, VENTILATION AND AIR CONDITIONING PANEL AREA 2 BANK 1: 6.6KV BOIL-OFF GAS COMPRESSORS BOIL-OFF GAS COMPRESSORS BANK 2: 415V LIGHTING D.B FIRE WATER PUMP JOCKEY PUMP CONDENSATE HEATER CONDENSATE HEATER HEATING, VENTILATION AND AIR CONDITIONING PANEL HEATING, VENTILATION AND AIR CONDITIONING PANEL AREA 3 EMERGENCY PANEL (DUAL SUPPLY) 6.6KV START-UP MOTOR START-UP MOTOR FIRE WATER PUMP FIRE WATER PUMP GENERATOR COOLING WATER PUMP GENERATOR COOLING WATER PUMP GENERATOR COOLING WATER PUMP EMERGENCY PANEL(DUAL SUPPLY) 415V UNINTERUPTED POWER SUPPLY LIGHTING DB LIGHTING DB INSTRUMENT DB INSTRUMENT DB CONTROL ROOM DB

I C I S C C

0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.92 0.92

1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.85 0.85

1.00 0.50 0.50 0.50 1.50 1.50

1.02 0.51 0.51 0.51 1.92 1.92

C C

0.92 0.92

0.85 0.85

2500 2500

3196.93 3196.93

C S I C C C C

0.98 0.92 0.92 0.98 0.98 0.92 0.92

1.00 0.85 0.85 1.00 1.00 0.85 0.85

1.50 30 30 1.00 0.50 1.00 1.00

1.53 38.36 38.36 1.02 0.51 1.28 1.28

I I S S I S S

0.92 0.92 0.92 0.92 0.92 0.92 0.92

0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85

300 300 200 200 200 200 200

383.63 383.63 255.75 255.75 255.75 255.75 255.75

C C C I I C

0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98

1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

29.40 1.50 1.50 9.80 9.80 4.90

30 1.53 1.53 10 10 5

Table 1: Load List for an Offshore Platform. 2. Generation of single line diagrams: There were many instances where I was required to develop one or single line diagrams. The electrical load list came in very handy in such instances. A single line diagram is a schematic drawing that uses graphical symbols and standard nomenclature to illustrate the overall configuration of an electrical system. The single line diagram shows diagrammatically the conceptual/detailed design for power generation and distribution on a site, interconnections between various

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loads, Generation philosophies, load layouts, busbars and their respective voltage levels, system protection devices, amongst others. These are well shown on single line diagrams with standard electrical symbols. I received extensive training on the use of autoCAD, which is the software used by the electrical group to draw one line diagrams. Figure 3 below shows the single line diagram which I drew with the aid of autoCAD for the offshore platform whose load summary is shown in Table 1.

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Fig.3 Single line digram for the Offshore Platform.

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3. Equipment sizing and Cable sizing: Areas covered here includes Generator sizing, Transformer sizing, circuit breaker sizing, and cable sizing calculations. I also learnt about the relevant standards and codes as regards equipment sizing and cable selection, such as the National Electric Code (NEC), and the National Electric Manucfacturers Association(NEMA) codes. As part of my training, I was given an assignment on equipment and cable sizing in the Bechtel project. The calculations I carried out are shown below: CALCULATIONS
SIZING OF EQUIPMENT IN THE BECHTEL PROJECT. SIZING OF TRANSFORMERS AND GENERATORS. FORMULA USED: GEN. SIZING: RUNNING LOAD (RL) = TOTAL CONTINUOS LOAD +30% INTERMITTENT LOAD. PEAK LOAD (PL) = RUNNING LOAD +20% STANDBY LOAD. TRANSFORMER SIZE I.25 *PEAK LOAD. ASSUMPTION: USING N+1 PHILOSOPHY. TRANSFORMER SIZING GENERATOR SIZING.

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BUS SUMMARY

BUS IDENTITY

CONTINUOUS LOADS -C (KVA)

INTERMITTENT LOADS I (KVA)

STANDBY LOADS S (KVA)

BUS A, 33KV

30,0000

----

-----

BUS B, 6.6KV

----

1380

----

BUS C ,400V

217.5

55

----

BUS D ,400V BUS E,4OOV

118.75 60

---22.5

---------

BUS F,400V

295.4

66.68

352.98

TOTAL Table 2: Bus Summary.

30691.65

1524.18

352.98

GENERATOR SIZING (USING N+1 PHILOSOPHY) RL = 30691.65 + (0.3*1524.18) = 31148.90 KVA PL = 31148.90 +70.60 = 31219.56 KVA FUTURE EXPANSION = 25% PL = 1.25*31219.56 = 39024.45 KVA FOR N + 1 GEN.; WHERE N = 2 PL/2 = 19512.25 KVA

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GENERATOR SIZE = 3 Nos. 20 MVA GENERATOR. TRANSFORMER SIZING: T1 (11\ 33 KV) RL = 30,000 KVA PL =30,000 KVA*1.25 =37,500 KVA T1 SIZE = 37.5 MVA. T2 (11\6.6 KV) RL = 414 KVA PL = 414*1.25 = 517.5 KVA T2 SIZE = 750 KVA. T3 SIZE (11\0.4 KV) RL =336.25 + 16.5 =352.75 KVA PL = 352.75* 1.25 = 440.94 KVA T3 SIZE = 500KVA T4 SIZE (11\0.4 KV) RL =336.25 + 16.5 =352.75 KVA PL = 352.75* 1.25 = 440.94 KVA T4 SIZE = 500KVA T5 SIZE (11\0.4 KV) RL = 355.4 + 26.75 = 282.15 KVA PL = 382.15 + 70.60 = 452.75 KVA 452.75*1.25 = 565.94 KVA T5 SIZE = 750 KVA T6 SIZE (11\0.4 KV) RL = 355.4 + 26.75 = 282.15 KVA PL = 382.15 + 70.60 = 452.75 KVA 452.75*1.25 = 565.94 KVA T6 SIZE = 750 KVA CABLE SIZING: FORMULA USED: I = P / (3*V) AMP + 25% I (future expansion) GENERATOR CABLE SIZING: I = 20MVA / (3*11KV) = 1049.73 * 1.25 = 1312.15A CB SIZE: 1200A CABLE SIZE: TRANSFORMER CABLE SIZING: T1: PRIM: I = 37.5MVA / (3*11KV) = 1968.24A * 1.25 = 2450.3A CB SIZE: 2000A CABLE SIZE: SEC: I = 37.5MVA / (3*33KV) = 656.08A * 1.25 = 820.10A CB SIZE: 700A CABLE SIZE:

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T2: PRIM: I = 750KVA / (3*11KV) = 39.36A * 1.25 = 49.20A CB SIZE: 40A CABLE SIZE: SEC: I = 750KVA / (3*6.6KV) = 65.61A * 1.25 = 82.01A CB SIZE: 70A CABLE SIZE: T3: PRIM: I = 500KVA / (3*11KV) = 26.24A * 1.25 = 32.80A CB SIZE: 30A CABLE SIZE: SEC: I = 500KVA / (3*0.4KV) = 721.69A * 1.25 = 902.11A CB SIZE: 800A CABLE SIZE: T4 PRIM: I = 500KVA / (3*11KV) = 26.24A * 1.25 = 32.8A CB SIZE: 30A CABLE SIZE: SEC: I = 500KVA / (3*0.4KV) = 721.69A * 1.25 = 902.11A CB SIZE: 800A CABLE SIZE: T5 = T6 PRIM: I = 750KVA/ (3*11KV) = 39.37 * 1.25 = 49.21A CB SIZE: 40A CABLE SIZE: SEC: I = 750KVA/ (3*0.4KV) = 1366.63 * 1.25 = 1708.27A CB SIZE: 1600A CABLE SIZE: These current values are also used for sizing the transformer and generator CBs.

CABLE AND CIRCUIT BREAKER SIZING FOR LOADS


FORMULA USED: I = P/ ((3*V) Type of cable: PVC insulated, armoured, installed in air. BUS A: Four starter motors I = 7500KVA/ ((3*33KV) = 131.2A * 1.25 = 164A CB = 150A Cable size = 70mm2 PVC, ARMOURED BUS B: Generator starter motor I = 690KVA/(3*6.6KV) = 60.4A *1.25 = 75.5A CB= 70A CABLE SIZE = 35mm2

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BUS C: Wharf burner fuel 1 & 2 I = 55KVA/(3*0.4KV) = 79.39A*1.25 = 99.2A CB: 80A Cable size: 35mm2

Bunker fuel heating load I = 162.5KVA/(3*0.4KV) = 234.6A *1.25 = 293.2A CB: 250A Cable size: 185mm 2

BUS D: Causeway lighting I = 18.4 * 1.25 = 22.55A CB: 20A cable size: 2.5 mm2 HVAC supply I = 27.06 * 1.25 = 33.83A CB: 30A Cable size: 6 mm2 BUS E: UPS I = 7.22A *1.25 = 9.03A CB: 15A Cable size: 1.5 mm2 Warehouse supply 2 I = 10.83A * 1.25 = 13.5A CB: 15A Cable size: 1.5 mm2 Obstruction lighting I = 1.80A * 1.25 = 2.25A Cable size: 1.5 mm2 CB: 15A BUS F P1 = P2 CB: 125A CABLE SIZE: 35 mm2 P3 = P4 CB: 50A CABLE SIZE: 10 mm2 P5 = P6 CB: 125A CABLE SIZE: 70 mm2 P7 = P8 CB: 300A CABLE SIZE: 185 mm2 P9: CB: 15A CABLE SIZE: 1.5 mm2 P10, P11, P12: CB: 15A CABLE SIZE: 1.5 mm2 Warehouse supply 1/ Wkshop supply I = 32.46A * 1.25 = 40.6A CB: 35A; cable size: 6 mm2 Gate house supply I = 18.04A *1.25 = 22.6A CB: 25A cable size: 2.5 mm 2 Office and Amenities I = 126.30A * 1.25 = 157.88A CB: 150A Cable size: 70 mm 2

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4. Electrical Layout drawings (Earthing, Cable, and Lighting layout): An electrical layout drawing gives a plan view of an area (e.g a flowstation), and shows by means of appropriate sign conventions, such features as the earthing grid(earthing layout), electrical cable route(cable routing layout), location of lighting towers/fixtures(lighting layout) etc. I was trained on how to draw layout drawings using autoCAD. I learnt about the various factors to be considered before layout drawings/designs are produced. 5. Hazardous Area classification/drawings: I was also trained on how to produce hazardous area drawings using autoCAD. A hazardous area is a three-dimensional space in which a flammable atmosphere may be expected to be present at such frequencies as requires special precautions for the construction and use of all electrical apparatus. The purpose of these drawings is to provide assistance in selecting the correct certified equipment for hazardous zones (as will be clearly noted on the drawing) such as petrochemical plants, refineries, gas plants, oil terminals, etc. 6. Supplementary drawings (Cable schedules, Distribution board schedules, Schematics and Interconnection drawings, Installation details, Specifications): These drawings are also produced at later electrical design stages for a project. I was also opportuned to see how these drawings were produced and their relevance to the project. The training I received involved the use of the following computer aided design/application softwares: AutoCAD Chalmlite ( a software for lighting design and calculations). Plant design Management system (PDMS).

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AutoCAD It is a computer aided drawing software. It is used by the electrical group to draw single line diagrams, electrical layout drawings, hazardous area drawings, distribution board schedules, schematics and interconnection diagrams, power layouts etc. The AutoCAD design package is a general purpose software. It is an extremely powerful tool. The speed and ease at which a drawing can be prepared and modified using a computer offers a phenomenal advantage over hand preparation. There is virtually no limit to the kind of drawings that can be prepared using the software. AutoCAD provides a set of entities for use in constructing a drawing. An entity is a drawing element such as a line, circle, or text string annotations. The effect of every change appears immediately, thus enabling the designer to take immediate decisions concerning size, aesthetics and taste of the designer. Other AutoCAD functions allow modifications of the drawing in a variety of ways e.g. erasing or moving entities or copying them from repeated patterns. The view of the drawing displayed on the screen can be changed, or information about the drawing can be displayed. The use of layers and assigning colours to the different layers enhances the appearance of the end product and aids in detecting errors in the drawing that would otherwise have gone undetected. The final drawing can then be plotted with a pen plotter or printer plotter. The importance of this software can be more appreciated in that is saves time and cost in the production of drawings, by providing the engineer with a mature tool to work, thus, ensuring a more professional and accurate output. The activities of the electrical group to which to which I was attached, involved the extensive use of autoCAD.

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Chalmlite: It is a computer aided lighting design software. It is used by the electrical group to carry out lighting design/calculations (general lighting, fence lighting, interior lighting etc). With the aid of this software, an area could be lit to any required illumination level, with appropriate fixtures/lighting towers positioned at appropriate locations. Illumination levels at various locations are automatically calculated and displayed. Design specifications such as maintenance factor, mounting height, aiming point, type of fixtures, etc are usually supplied by the client. Design is thus based on client specifications, with allowance made for suggestions to the client from the electrical group. The activities of the electrical group to which to which I was attached, also involved the extensive use of chalmlite. The lighting calculation results as computed by the Chalmlite Lighting Design Program indicating the illumination level at different points in the defined area(Tuomo flowstation) and target grid summaries are as shown below as Fig 4 and Table 3 respectively. The lighting towers are shown on the figure as FT-1 to FT-17 respectively. This design is for general lighting of the area under consideration.

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Fig.4: Lighting calculation result showing illumination levels.

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TARGET GRID SUMMARIES Grid is x-y plane at z= 0.0 -330.0, from y =201 to y= 621 Average = 27.4 lux Maximum = 171.0 lux Minimum = 0.0 Horizontal Lux Limits: from x = -690.0 to x= Minimum / Average = 0.0 Minimum / Maximum=0.0 Number Points = 418

FLOODLIGHT / LUMINAIRE SUMMARY EVOLUTION 400W SON-T MEDIUM BEAM Ex DE ATEX Cat.Ref. EVOD / 400 / MS / M Lumens per Lamp = 55000.0 MF= 0.80 Beam is not Rotated Number Luminaires = 170 Total Number Luminaires = 170 LUMINAIRE LOCATIONS AND ORIENTATION ANGLES

LIGHTING TOWER NO.

CAT.REF

SEQUENCE NO.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 X -598 -598 -598 -598 -598 -598 -598 -598 -598 -598 -519 -519 -519 -519 -519 -519 -519 -519 -519 -519 -455 -455 -455 -455 -455 -455 -455

LOCATION
Y 231 231 231 231 231 231 231 231 231 231 219 219 219 219 219 219 219 219 219 219 235 235 235 235 235 235 235 Z 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25

AIMING POINT
X -586 -583 -586 -594 -603 -610 -613 -610 -603 -593 -507 -504 -507 -514 -524 -531 -534 -531 -524 -514 -443 -440 -443 -450 -460 -467 -470 Y 240 231 222 217 217 222 231 240 245 245 228 219 210 205 205 210 219 228 233 233 243 235 226 220 220 226 235 Z 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

AIMING ANGLES
HORIZ. 54 90 126 162 198 233 270 306 342 18 55 90 126 162 198 234 269 306 342 18 54 90 126 161 198 234 270 VERT. 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30

FT-01

FT-02

EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M

FT-03

31

FT-04

FT-05

FT-06

FT-07

FT-08

EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M

28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79

-455 -455 -455 -539 -539 -539 -539 -539 -539 -539 -539 -539 -539 -595 -595 -595 -595 -595 -595 -595 -595 -595 -595 -420 -420 -420 -420 -420 -420 -420 -420 -420 -420 -517 -517 -517 -517 -517 -517 -517 -517 -517 -517 -592 -592 -592 -592 -592 -592 -592 -592 -592

235 235 235 271 271 271 271 271 271 271 271 271 271 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 338 338 338 338 338 338 338 338 338 338 356 356 356 356 356 356 356 356 356

25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25

-467 -460 -450 -526 -524 -526 -534 -543 -551 -554 -551 -543 -534 -582 -580 -582 -590 -599 -607 -610 -607 -599 -590 -408 -405 -408 -415 -425 -432 -435 -432 -425 -415 -505 -502 -505 -513 -522 -529 -532 -529 -522 -513 -580 -577 -580 -587 -597 -604 -607 -604 -597

244 249 249 280 271 262 257 257 262 271 280 285 285 319 310 301 296 296 301 310 319 324 324 318 310 301 296 296 301 310 319 324 324 347 338 330 324 324 330 338 347 353 353 365 356 348 342 342 348 356 365 371

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

306 342 19 54 90 126 162 198 234 270 306 342 18 54 90 125 161 198 234 270 306 342 19 55 90 126 161 198 234 270 306 342 19 55 91 126 162 198 234 270 306 342 18 54 90 126 162 198 234 270 306 342

30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30

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FT-09

FT-10

FT-11

FT-12

FT-13

FT-14

EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M

80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131

-592 -461 -461 -461 -461 -461 -461 -461 -461 -461 -461 -538 -538 -538 -538 -538 -538 -538 -538 -538 -538 -604 -604 -604 -604 -604 -604 -604 -604 -604 -604 -474 -474 -474 -474 -474 -474 -474 -474 -474 -474 -535 -535 -535 -535 -535 -535 -535 -535 -535 -535 -595

356 368 368 368 368 368 368 368 368 368 368 406 406 406 406 406 406 406 406 406 406 414 414 414 414 414 414 414 414 414 414 446 446 446 446 446 446 446 446 446 446 470 470 470 470 470 470 470 470 470 470 487

25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25

-587 -449 -446 -449 -457 -466 -473 -476 -474 -466 -457 -526 -523 -526 -533 -542 -550 -553 -550 -542 -533 -592 -589 -592 -599 -609 -616 -619 -616 -609 -599 -462 -459 -462 -469 -478 -486 -489 -486 -479 -469 -523 -520 -523 -530 -540 -547 -550 -547 -540 -530 -583

371 377 368 360 354 354 360 368 377 383 383 414 406 397 392 392 397 406 415 420 420 423 414 405 400 400 405 414 423 428 428 454 446 437 431 431 437 446 454 460 460 479 470 461 456 456 461 470 479 484 485 496

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

18 54 90 126 162 198 234 270 306 342 18 55 90 126 162 198 233 270 305 342 18 54 90 126 162 198 234 270 306 342 18 54 90 126 162 198 234 270 306 342 18 55 90 126 162 198 234 270 306 342 18 54

30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30

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FT-15

FT-16

FT-17

EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M EVOD/400/MS/M

132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170

-595 -595 -595 -595 -595 -595 -595 -595 -595 -592 -592 -592 -592 -592 -592 -592 -592 -592 -592 -467 -467 -467 -467 -467 -467 -467 -467 -467 -467 -531 -531 -531 -531 -531 -531 -531 -531 -531 -531

487 487 487 487 487 487 487 487 487 540 540 540 540 540 540 540 540 540 540 538 538 538 538 538 538 538 538 538 538 546 546 546 546 546 546 546 546 546 546

25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25

-580 -583 590 -599 -607 -610 -607 -600 -590 -580 -577 -580 -587 -596 -604 -607 -604 -597 -587 -455 -452 -455 -462 -472 -479 -482 -479 -472 -462 -519 -516 -519 -527 -536 -543 -546 -543 -536 -527

487 478 473 473 478 487 496 501 501 548 540 531 525 525 531 539 548 554 554 547 538 530 524 524 530 538 547 553 553 555 546 537 532 532 537 546 555 560 560

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

90 126 162 198 234 270 306 342 19 55 90 126 162 198 234 270 305 342 18 54 90 126 162 198 234 269 306 342 19 54 90 126 162 198 234 270 305 342 18

30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30

Table 3: Target grid summaries. Plant Design Management System (PDMS) This is an advanced drafting software. Three dimensional models can be made with the aid of this software. This software is more versatile than autoCAD as far a 3-D work is concerned. Some of the applications of PDMS are routing a sequence of cable

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trays and piping components, structural designs, HVAC design, and lighting design. I received basic training in the use of PDMS. 5.0.1 SKILLS ACQUIRED

By virtue of the training I received and exposure, I have acquired the following skills from the SIWES workplace (i.e. NETCO):

Proficiency in the use of AutoCAD. Proficiency in the use of Microsoft EXCEL for the development of spreadsheets. Ability to use chalmlite to carry out lighting design and calculations. Ability to use Plant design Management System (PDMS) a 3D drafting software. Ability to work effectively in a team, and to communicate effectively with others.

CHAPTE R SI X
6.0 CONCLUSION

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The SIWES has positively contributed to my training as a future Electrical/Electronics Engineer. At the SIWES workplace (i.e. NETCO), I was able to reconcile theoretical principles learnt in school with real Electrical/Electronics engineering design practice. I also learnt various software applications relating to my discipline such as AutoCAD, Plant Design Management System(PDMS), Chalmlite, Microsoft EXCEL, Microsoft Word, etc. Furthermore, I received extensive training on electrical design fundamentals which included the following: Development of load and single line diagrams, Design of electrical layout drawings(cable, earthing and lighting layout drawings), Hazardous area classification drawings, Equipment sizing, cable and circuit breaker sizing, preparation of material take-off and bill of quantities, lighting design/calculations, and schematic/interconnection drawings.

SIWES gave me the opportunity to learn about good work ethics, good interpersonal and communication skills.

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REFERENCES

1. National Engineering and Technical Company(NETCO) Electrical Training Manual, Vol.1 & 2, (1998). 2. Chevron Corporation Training Manual (1996), Vol 1 & 2. 3. Robert, M.T (1989) AutoCAD Desktop Companion, Sybex/Tech Asian Editions, Singapore, Tech Publication, Pp 5-7.

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