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Lab 7

Advanced Route Resolution Lab


Objective
This lab guides you through the process of setting up LSPs and shows you how you can use LSPs to reach either external (transit) or internal (web hosting) destinations. It will also point out differences in resolving EBGP nexthops from within your network. Two of the common methods used today for resolving EBGP nexthops from within your network is the use of nexthop self on your eBGP edge router, or the use of a passive IGP on the external link, which causes the external links prefix to be injected into your IGP. As we will see, the next hop resolution technique you choose can have significant ramifications on how traffic winds up flowing through your MPLS traffic engineering domain. The use of the no-decrement-ttl knob is also demonstrated in this lab.

Part 1Configure the Network


NOTE: Much of the configuration steps outlined below should have been accomplished in previous

labs. Please feel free to skip those steps that are not required, based on the current state of your configuration.

NOTE: Due to the presence of the instructor-configured San Jose router, Toronto has undergone an

address change. The Toronto team should remove their existing fxp1 address and assign 10.0.22.2/24 to their fxp1 interface now. This change is noted on the Traffic Engineering Shortcut Map in the lab handout.

Step 1
Configure the network as depicted in the Traffic Engineering Shortcut Map diagram in your lab handout (page 23). For an IGP, use IS-IS and make all interfaces level 2 only. Do not forget to configure a full IBGP mesh. Please configure all IBGP peering between loopback addresses and dont forget to enable your local-address statement. Since policies are not needed for this lab, you should delete the import and export statements in your BGP configurations. The presence of export/import policy in the student routers may impact upon the latter stages of this lab.
NOTE: Please ask your instructor whether there is time at this point to configure the network to use

route reflectors, rather than a full IBGP mesh. If there is sufficient time, this may be allowed.

Step 2
Delete all existing LSPs from your MPLS configuration. Configure a new LSP, as specified in the Traffic Engineering Table in your handout.

Step 3
Force the LSP prefix into the inet.0 routing table by using the set traffic-engineering bgp-igp command under [edit protocols mpls].

Step 4
Verify the LSP prefix is in the inet.0 routing table and is usable by the IGP. You should also note that there are no longer any routes in inet.3. This is because all MPLS prefixes are now viewable to both IGPs and BGP and they are all installed in the inet.0 routing table, that is the prefixes were moved from inet.3 to inet.0. Use traceroute (to the egress router loopback address) to verify that IP packets are using the LSP. Also pay close attention to the hops that traceroute shows you.

user@host> show route egress-router-loopback-address user@host> show mpls lsp extensive

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What are the labels assigned to your entire LSP? (Use traceroute to discover this information.)

Remember from the lecture that the traffic-engineering bgp-igp knob takes the install prefix active command one step further. That is, with the install prefix active command you are copying individual prefixes from the inet.3 MPLS routing table into the inet.0 IP routing table. This allows the IGP to use your selected LSP prefix. When you use the traffic-engineering bgp-igp knob, the JUNOS software moves ALL of your LSP prefixes from the inet.3 MPLS routing table and installs ALL of them into the inet.0 IP routing table. If this is not clear, please ask your instructor to explain it once again.

Part 2Disable TTL Decrement


Step 1
Disable the default action of decrementing TTL at each LSR hop.

Step 2

[edit protocols mpls label-switched-path lsp-path-name] user@host# set no-decrement-ttl


Use traceroute once again to the egress-router-loopback-address and pay attention to the router hops it now shows you. What did the no-decrement-ttl statement do for you?

STOP

Tell your instructor that you are finished with this section and stop until you are told to continue. Your classmates must complete their configurations before you can continue.

Advanced Route Resolution Lab 3

Part 3Reconfigure the Network


Step 1
Please delete all LSPs from your MPLS configuration. Also please delete the command you used to enable traffic-engineering bgp-igp. Configure a new LSP, as specified in the TE Shortcut Table in your lab handout.

Step 2
San Francisco and Toronto will enable an eBGP peering session to an instructor-configured router (San Jose) in a neighboring AS. If your router is San Francisco or Toronto, please complete this step. If your router is not San Francisco or Toronto, please skip ahead to Step 3.

San Francisco Referring to the diagram labeled Traffic Engineering Shortcut Map in your handout, enable an eBGP peering session under a new BGP external peer group with the following parameters: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Peer AS = 20 Neighbor address = 10.0.21.2 Add your fxp0 link to IS-IS as a passive interface. Ensure you have family ISO also enabled on this interface. Do not enable nexthop self. If a nexthop self policy is being used from a previous lab, please remove this policy from your BGP configuration. Please verify that this new eBGP peer comes up and is advertising the 152.124/16 prefix to you. If not, please notify your instructor.

Toronto Referring to the diagram labeled Traffic Engineering Shortcut Map in your handout (page 23), enable an eBGP peering session under a new BGP external peer group with the following parameters: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Peer AS = 10 Neighbor address = 10.0.22.1 Add your fxp0 link to IS-IS as a passive interface. Ensure you have family ISO also enabled on this interface. Do not enable nexthop self. If a nexthop self policy is being used from a previous lab, please remove this policy from your BGP configuration. Please verify that this new eBGP peer comes up and is advertising the 134.112/16 prefix to you. If not, please notify your instructor.

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Step 3
If you have a policy to export your static routes to BGP, please remove this export statement from your BGP configuration. No router in this new network configuration should be exporting any static routes. Once San Francisco and Toronto have completed Step 2, each router should see two BGP prefixes: 134.112/16 from AS# 10 and 152.124/16 from AS# 20. Please consult the diagram labeled Traffic Engineering Shortcut Map in your handout so as to become familiar with the labs new physical and logical topology.

Part 4TE Shortcuts for Transit Destinations


Step 1
Everyone should now use the traceroute command to trace the IGP path to the loopback address of the EBGP peer router. For San Francisco, which has an LSP configured to Toronto, trace the path to 134.112.1.1, which is the loopback address of the AS10 router. For all other routers (which have LSPs that terminate at San Francisco) trace the path to 152.124.1.1, which is the loopback address of the AS20 router. Record that path here:

Did the path use your configured LSP? Why?

Type one of these commands (select the prefix that you have been using in this exercise) and examine the output:

user@host> show bgp next-hop-database 134.112/16 user@host> show bgp next-hop-database 152.124/16
Explain why the traceroute results you just observed would have differed significantly if San Francisco had used next-hop-self for EBGP next hop resolution instead of a passive IGP?

Advanced Route Resolution Lab 5

Step 2
Everyone should now enable traffic-engineering shortcuts with the following command:

[edit protocols isis] user@host# set traffic-engineering shortcuts Step 3


Re-trace the path to the same loopback address as in Step 1. Record that path here:

Did the path use your configured LSP?

Now, examine the route you are tracing to:

user@host> show route x.x.1.1 extensive


What is the physical next hop address?

What is the BGP next hop address?

Re-type one of the following commands (select the same prefix that you have been using in this exercise) and examine the output:

user@host> show bgp next-hop-database 134.112/16 user@host> show bgp next-hop-database 152.124/16

What exactly did traffic-engineering shortcuts do for you?

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Part 5Traffic Engineering for Internal Destinations


Step 1
You can use both the traffic-engineering bgp-igp knob and the trafficengineering shortcuts knob simultaneously in certain scenarios. For instance, assume you have a Web hosting POP site inside your network and you would like to use LSPs to reach these internal Web servers. This application of TE is quite different than using MPLS LSPs to reach transit destinations, which are by definition, external to your network. Assume your egress router has Web servers attached via GE switches. If you desired to use your LSP to reach these internal destinations, how could you accomplish this?

STOP

Please inform your instructor that you are finished.

Advanced Route Resolution Lab 7

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