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Quality Parameters in Fabrication

3.1 GRIEGE FABRIC


3.1.1 WOVEN FABRIC FAULTS
BURL MARK
Explanation: when a slub or extra pieces of yarn is woven into the fabrics. It is often removed by a burling tool. This will usually leave an open place in the fabric. Severity: considered as major fault.

DRAWBACKS
Explanation: caused by excessive loom tension gradually applied by some abnormal restriction. When the restriction is removed the excess slack is woven into the fabric. Usually the ends are broken. Severity: considered as major fault.

DROPPED PICK
Explanation: caused by the filling insertion mechanism on a shuttle loom not holding the filling yarn. Causing the filling yarn to be woven without tension. The filling yarn appears as kinky. There will also be areas of end out. Severity: considered as major fault.

Quality Parameters in Fabrication

END OUT
Explanation: caused by yarn breaking and loom continuing to run. The defects will appear as a thin line. Severity: considered as major fault.

FLY
Explanation: usually caused by the spinning process: small fibers spun into yarn of another stock. Often caused by lack of precaution to prevent contamination. Severity: usually a minor defect but severe size and color contamination could make it major.

HARNESS BREAKDOWN
Explanation: caused by the harness straps breaking on a conventional loom. There will be a definite pattern change in the weave. Severity: considered as major fault

KNOTS
Explanation: caused by tying spools of yarn together Severity: considered as minor fault.

Quality Parameters in Fabrication

SMASH
Explanation: caused by a number of ruptured warp ends that have been repaired. Severity: considered as major fault.

SLUB
Explanation: usually caused by an extra piece that is woven into fabric. It can also be caused by the thick places in the yarn. Often by the fly waste being spun in yarn in the spinning process. Severity: considered as major or minor fault.

THIN PLACE
Explanation: often caused by the filling yarn breaking and the loom continue to run until the operator notices the problem. Severity: considered as major fault.

SPOILED FILLING
Explanation: dirty, oily looking spots on the warp or filling yarns or on package dyed yarn. Severity: considered as major fault

Quality Parameters in Fabrication

3.1.2 KNITTING FABRIC FAULTS


BARRE
Explanation: occurs in circular knits by mixing yarn on feed into machines. fabric will appear to have horizontal streaks. Severity: considered as major fault

HOLE
Explanation: caused by broken needle Severity: considered as major fault.

MIXED YARN
Explanation: occurs in warp knit. Results from wrong fiber yarn placed on warp. Fabric could appear as thick end or different colors if fibers have different affinity for the dye. Severity: considered as major fault

PRESS-OFF
Explanation: results when all or some needles on circular knitting fail to function and fabric either fails off the machine or design is completely disrupted or destroyed. Many knitting needles are broken and have to be replaced when bad press-off occurs.

Quality Parameters in Fabrication Severity: considered as major fault.

NEEDLE LINE
Explanation: caused by bent needle forming distorted stitches. Severity: considered as minor or major fault.

SLUB
Explanation: caused by a thick or heavy place in yarn , or by lint getting onto yarn feeds. Severity: considered as minor or major fault.

RUNNER
Explanation: caused by broken needle. Will appear as vertical line. Severity: considered as major fault.

Quality Parameters in Fabrication

3.2 DYED OR PRINTED FABRIC


3.2.1 FAULTS
PIN HOLES
Explanation: holes along selvage caused by pins holding fabric while processes through stenter frame. Severity: considered as major fault, if pinholes extend into body of fabric far enough that is visible in the finished product.

PRINT OUT OF REGISTER


Explanation: caused by print rollers nor being synchronized properly; result in Various colors of the design not printed in proper position. Severity: considered as minor or major fault.

WATER SPOTS
Explanation: usually caused by wet fabric being allowed to remain too long before drying; color migrates leaving blotchy spots. Severity: considered as major fault.

Quality Parameters in Fabrication

COLOR OUT
Explanation: the result of color running low in reservoir on printing or dyeing machines. Severity: considered as major fault.

COLOR SMEAR
Explanation: the result being smeared along the width of the fabric. Severity: considered as minor or major fault.

MACHINE STOP
Explanation: if machine stop, dye smudged along width of the fabric. Severity: considered as major fault.

Quality Parameters in Fabrication

3.3 FABRIC INSPECTION


Inspection of fabric is mostly done with 4-point system or 10 point system.

3.3.1 FOUR-POINT SYSTEM


The Four-Point System has received the widest acceptance in both the textile and apparel because it is the most lenient. It is simple and easy to understand. This system has been adopted by one of the famous buyers of apparel "JC Penney", who recommends for suppliers instituting new piece goods inspection procedures. 1. Amount to inspect at least 10 percent of the total rolls in the shipment. 2. Selection of Rolls Select at least one roll of each color. If more than one roll per color must be inspected and then select the number of additional rolls in proportion to the total rolls per color received. DEFECT CLASSIFICATION The four point system classify defects as shown in the following table THRESHOLD LIMIT Defects in either direction warp/weft way, coarse or wale way in knits to be penalized as follows.

FOUR POINT SYSTEM


Size of defect Up to 7.5 cm 7.5 to 15 cm 15 to 23 cm 23 to 30 cm Penalty 1 points (minor) 2 points 3 points 4 points

1. No more than 4 points shall be assigned to any single defect-

Quality Parameters in Fabrication 2. No more than 4 points per linear meter shall be allowed. 3. When more than two defects are overlapped on the fabric. The penalty points are given to more serious of the defects. 4. Minor points not to exceed 50% of the total points/1OOm. 5. Any piece with excessive one type defect though meeting above Requirements will downgrade the fabric. 6. Two or more 4 points defect in a linear meter is a cut-able defect. 7. Warp way defect running for more than one meter in length will be cut-able defect. 8. Mutilation of the fabric in any form will be a cuttable defect. (The average of all pieces (lot) must not exceed the range of 20-25 points per 100m for it being considered as a fresh quality. However for individual pieces a range of 30 - 35 points per 100m may be permissible). The length of the defect is used to determine the penalty point- only major detects are considered. (A major defect is any defect found in the finished garment that would classify the garment as a second). No penalty points are recorded or assigned for minor defects. Suppliers using the Four-Point System should obtain examples of major defects and minor defects, and make them available as visual aids for the inspector.

ACCEPTANCE POINT-COUNT
Most suppliers use 40 points per 100 yards as the acceptable defect rate. However, you should establish your acceptance point-count based on your product and its end use.

ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA
There are two methods of determining whether a shipment is acceptable. You must decide which method will fit your product. The methods available are as follows.

Quality Parameters in Fabrication One method of acceptance uses a projection of total defects based on the number of defects found in an inspection of a lot. A second method is acceptance of 10 percent bad rolls- here is an example of the method: EXAMPLE Total yardage received: 2400 yards Acceptance point-count 40 per 100 yards Total yards inspected: 240 yards Total penalty points found in the sample inspection: 148 points 148*100/240 = 62 points per 100 yards. Action: Shipment would fail. EXAMPLE Total yardage received: 2400 yards. Acceptance point count: 40 per 100 yards Total rolls inspected: 7 (10 percent rolls). Number of rolls rejected: 2 29 percent rolls rejected. Action: As 29 percent of the rolls inspected were rejected, the shipment would be held for a decision. You must decide whether to reject the entire shipment and return it to the piece goods source, or whether to 100-percent inspect the balance of the rolls. Management must make this decision; do not leave such decisions to the inspector or Quality Control Supervisor. If you need production from the good rolls, it may be to your advantage to 100-percent inspection.

Quality Parameters in Fabrication

3.3.2 10-POINT SYSTEM


This system is popular with wider width sheeting fabrics (170cm and above) the fabric is examined on the face side and the occurrence of any fabric defect noted. Numerical values are assigned to each defect as follows.

10-POINT SYSTEM
Size of Defect Continuous defect in warp direction Full width defect Half width defect Quarter width defect 2.5 to 6.5 cm defect Up to 2.5 cm defect Penalty/meter 10 point 10 points 5 points 3 points 2 points 1 points

No more than 10 points shall be assigned to any single defect. No more than 10 points per linear meter shall be allowed. When more than two defects are overlapped on the fabric, the penalty points are given to more serious of the defects. Minor points not to exceed 50% of the total points/I00sqr.m Any piece with excessive one type defect though meeting above requirements will downgrade the fabric. Two or more 10 points defect in a linear meter is a cut able defect. Warp way defect running for more than one meter in length will be a cut-able defect. Mutilation or disfigurement of the fabric in any form will be a cut-able defect. Threshold limit for slubs to be decided between the buyer and the seller to assess the fabric appearance in general besides the above standards.

Quality Parameters in Fabrication The average of all pieces (lot) must not exceed the range of 2830 points per 100sqr.m for it being considered as a fresh quality. However for individual pieces a range of 38-40 points per 100sqr.m may be permissible.

3.4 INSPECTION PROCEDURE FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE


This procedure shows the steps necessary to ensure an effective piece goods quality control program. 1. Determine the amount to inspect. 2. Select the rolls to inspect. 3. Put the roll on the inspection machine or other viewing device. 4. Cut off a 6-inch piece across the width of the goods. Mark this piece so that the inspector will know the right and left sides of the fabric. Use the strip to check for shading side -to-side and end -to-end by checking at it least once against the middle of the roll and once at the other end. 5. Inspect for visual defects at a speed slow enough to find the defects. 6. Check that the roll contains the yardage as stated by the piece goods source.

7.

Check for skewed, biased, and bent fabric. Predetermine the tolerance you will allow; this will depend on your product.

Quality Parameters in Fabrication

STANDARD INSPECTION MACHINES


Standard inspection machines are used for the inspection of the cloth at various stages of production. These machines are either manually operated or motor driven but require an operator to inspect the fabric. Standards discussed before are user to give demerits to the fabric. On the bases of awarded demerits points fabrics are graded either A quality, B quality or rejected. A Konsan Standard Fabric Inspection machine is shown in the following figure.

(Konsan Standard Fabric Inspection machine)

Quality Parameters in Fabrication

** If major defects are not cut out of the fabric by the inspector, mark them on the selvage (for example with colored threads)- Should you later want to review the defects with the piece goods representative, the defects can be easily located on the inspection machine. In addition, the spreader can easily note the defects so that they can be cut out.

POSSIBLE CONSIDERATIONS FOR REJECTION


In addition to excessive defects, the following are common reasons for rejecting fabric rolls: 1. No roll with a length of less than 25 yards will be accepted as first quality. 2. No roll containing more than one splice will be accepted as first quality. 3. No roll containing a splice parts less than 50" yards will be accepted as first quality

Quality Parameters in Fabrication

3.5 FABRIC TESTING


3.5.1 COLOR FASTNESS TO CROCKING
PURPOSE
This test helps to determine the amount of color transferred from the surface of colored textile materials to other surface by rubbing. It is applicable to textile made from all fibers in the form of yarn or fabric whether dyed or printed.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL


AATCC crockmeter Test cloth (5cm) AATCC chromatic transference Gray scale for staining Specimen holder for crockmeter White AATCC textile blotting paper

3.5.2 COLOR FASTNESS TO LIGHT


PURPOSE
This test helps to determine the color fastness of light of textile material. It is applicable to textile materials of all kinds and for colorants, finishes and treatments applied to textile materials.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL


Xenon reference fabric Gray scale for color change

3.5.3 COLOR FASTNESS TO LAUNDERING


PURPOSE
This test is used to evaluate the colorfastness to laundering of textiles, which are expected to withstand frequent laundering. Here staining plays an important role.

Quality Parameters in Fabrication Staining is a function of the ratio of colored to undyed fabrics, fiber content of fabrics in the wash load and other end use conditions.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL


Laundering machine AATCC chromatic transference scale Gray scale for color change Gray scale for staining

3.5.4 DIMENSIONAL CHANGE IN AUTOMATIC HOME LAUNDERING OF GARMENTS


PURPOSE
This is for the determination of dimensional changes of garments when subjected to automatic laundering (commonly used in home). Four washing temperatures, ranging from cold to hot, are intended to reflect the usual range of cold warm and hot temperatures in home laundering.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL


Automatic washing machine AATCC standard detergent Measuring devices

3.5.5 DIMENSIONAL
PURPOSE

CHANGES

IN

COMMERCIAL

LAUNDERING WOVEN AND KNITTED FABRIC


This test method is used for the determination of the dimensional changes of woven and knitted fabrics made of fibers other than wool when subjected to laundering procedures.

Quality Parameters in Fabrication

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL


Washing machine Standard detergent