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Elektrotehniki fakultet Univerziteta u Sarajevu

Energy Efficiency in Telecommunication Network: energy consupmtion, saving and renewable sources
Muharem orbadi, BSc
Department for Telecommunication, muharem.corbadzic@giz.de
Abstract This paper presents the concept of green telecommunication networks and provides information about the power consumption within fixed line and wireless communication networks. It outlines the significance of energy efficiency in modern and future telecommunication networks and suggests directions for optimizing network performance in terms of energy demands. The aim is to introduce the reader to current green technologies and outline the necessity for energy efficiency in information and communication technology. Keywords: Green telecommunication networks, ICT, energy

efficiency, energy consuption and sustainable development. I. INTRODUCTION

part of the consumed energy, through the use of photovoltaic cells on the infrastructures themselves; analyses of possible uses of other renewable sources (e.g. wind micro turbines) generating energy usable for systems located in areas not reached by the electricity network; d) analyses of the social and environmental advantages from the introduction of technologies based on renewable sources; e) Environmental monitoring of the sites where prototypal solutions have been installed, aimed to compare the conditions before and after the intervention. The typical wireless network can be viewed as composed by three different sections: The Mobile Switching Centre (MSC2): switching and interfacing to fixed network; The Base Transceiver Station (BTS): which is used as interface between network and mobile terminals; The Mobile Terminals normally limited to the handheld devices.

Mobile Telecommunication applications have seen, in the last years, a remarkable increase in the number of installations and consequently there has been a relevant growth of energy consumptions. This is due to an ever-growing interest about new and reliable services in mobility calls with an increase of the BTS1 operational hours and traffic management, in order to guarantee the quality of the service anywhere and anytime. In other words improving the energy efficiency of telecommunication networks is not just a necessary contribution towards the fight against global warming, but with the rapidly rising prices of energy, it is becoming also a financial opportunity [1-3]. From a technical and economical point of view, possible interventions in the field are: a) Energetic auditing for radio-telecommunication stations in different operational contexts (urban and rural areas, different periods in the year, different working load, etc.); b) interventions of efficiency increase and energy saving such as reduction of transmission apparatus consumptions, optimization of air conditioning consumptions, efficiency in the temperature control system; c) evaluation and development of interventions and technical solutions based on the local production of a
1

The key elements are the BTSs because their contribution is the most relevant for the total energy consumption. Indeed, as the number of core network elements is low, the total energy consumption due to core network is low. Moreover, the power consumption of mobile terminals has been optimized in the years and is comparatively very low (a few Watts). The energy allocation per function within the BTS has been extensively studied [1, 4-5]. More than 60% of the power is consumed by the radio equipment and amplifiers, 11% is consumed by the DC power system and 25% by the cooling equipment, an air conditioning unit. The Radio Equipment and the Cooling are the two major sections where the highest energy savings potential resides. Other strategies, involving rearrangement of the network topology, are depicted in [6] and references therein.

A base transceiver station (BTS) is a piece of equipment that facilitates wireless communication between user equipment (UE) and a network. UEs are devices like mobile phones (handsets), WLL phones, computers with wireless internet connectivity, Wi-Fi and WiMAX devices and others. The network can be that of any of the wireless communication technologies like GSM, CDMA, Wireless local loop, WAN, Wi-Fi, WiMAX, etc.

The mobile switching centre (MSC) is the primary service delivery node for GSM/CDMA, responsible for routing voice calls and SMS as well as other services (such as conference calls, FAX and circuit switched data). The MSC sets up and releases the end-to-end connection, handles mobility and handover requirements during the call and takes care of charging and real time prepaid account monitoring.

Muharem orbadi; muharem.corbadzic@giz.de

Elektrotehniki fakultet Univerziteta u Sarajevu

Therefore it is very important to consider BTS Energy Savings Strategies applied both to the radio equipment, i.e. radio standby mode [7-9] and to the cooling, i.e. passive cooling, advanced climate control [10], and power equipment. Moreover one has to consider the aggregate effect that represents a further benefit. Another way to reduce cost and CO2 emissions is the evaluation and development of interventions and technical solutions based on the production of a part of the energy used by radio-telecommunication apparatuses, through the use of renewable sources (e.g. photovoltaic cells, wind micro turbines or new alternative power based on fuel cells) installed on the infrastructures themselves usable both by gridconnected and by off-grid telecommunication power systems. The use of alternative energy sources has been studied in particular for sites that are beyond the reach of an electricity grid, or where the electricity supply is unreliable or sites that are remote enough to make the regular maintenance and refuelling of diesel generators prohibitive [11-12]. The choice of alternative energy sources will depend on local conditions, BTS typology and energy consumption amount. In most cases a hybrid solution combining solar and wind is actually the most feasible solution for autonomous BTSs site. Anyway, the size of solar cell and wind turbine has to be defined based on the BTS load and onsite availability of sun and wind. Telecommunication networks constitute a major sector of ICT and they undergo a tremendous growth. Capacity issues and delivery of complex real time services are some of the main concerns that yield high power consumption patterns. In the increasingly competitive mobile telecommunication sector, operators are turning to emerging markets for their next step growth situation that increases the number of subscribers and required base station equipment. This creates the need for equipment installation to areas where off grid renewable energy solutions are required and energy efficient networks are important [5]. In addition, the increase of fuel and electricity costs bounds the OPEX of the system. Telecommunication networks and broadband access are proved to consume a huge amount of energy for data delivery. In general, the telecommunication sector accounts for approximately 4% of the global electricity consumption [6]. Observations and discussions on the importance of energy efficiency in the telecommunication industry are reported by ITU in [1]. According to [1, 4] an important reduction of CO 2 emissions can be accomplished by focusing on innovative telecommunication services like online taxation, video conference, online billing that can enable a green economy. The goal is to deploy telecommunication networks enabling power efficiency, yielding a small ratio of required Watts per Gbps and Watts per user. Green initiatives have already been commenced by different operators. This paper discusses and proposes various energy efficient techniques for the green operation of telecommunication networks. The paper

discusses fixed line networks and cellular networks that suffer most of the power waste nowadays. II. POWER CONSUMPTION IN TELECOMMUNICATION
NETWORKS

Fig. 1 presents the power consumption of the different sectors of ICT3. It is observed that almost 50% (including the operation of servers) is due to the operation of telecommunication networks. These can be mobile networks, WLANs4, LANs5 and fixed line networks. Fixed line networks and mobile networks present a different power consumption pattern [1]. Concerning the fixed line networks, more than 70% of the overall power onsumption occurs in the user segment (power is distributed) and only 30% is due to the operator OPEX. On the other hand for mobile networks, a portion of 10% of the overall power consumption corresponds to the cellular user whereas 90% is incurred by the operator OPEX. Neglecting the core network operation, fixed line networks suffer great losses due to cable transmissions, switching/routing, broadband access and data centers whereas mobile networks consume a huge amount of energy for base station operation. Fig. 1 presents how the power consumption is distributed across the different functionalities of the network.

Figure 1. Power consumption in different layers of the network, [14]

Information and communications technology or information and communication technology (ICT), is often used as an extended synonym for information technology (IT), but is a more specific term that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audio-visual systems, which enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information. 4 A wireless local area network (WLAN) links two or more devices using some wireless distribution method (typically spread-spectrum or OFDM radio), and usually providing a connection through an access point to the wider Internet. 5 A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers in a limited area such as a home, school, computer laboratory, or office building using network media.

Muharem orbadi; muharem.corbadzic@giz.de

Elektrotehniki fakultet Univerziteta u Sarajevu

As far as the overall network performance is concerned the energy consumption is higher at the access part of the network and the operation of data centres that provides computations, storage, applications and data transfer in a network. On the other hand, backbone and aggregation networks present lower energy demands [6]. This makes clear that an energy efficient architecture should focus on intelligent and efficient access techniques and efficient operation and data manipulation by data centres. The main functionalities of a network can be summarized as the process of regeneration, transportation, storage, routing, switching and processing of data [7]. In Fig.1 the power consumption patterns of these processes are presented and it can be observed that the largest part of energy is consumed for routing/switching, regeneration and processing of data. Both communication protocols and electronic devices are responsible for this consumption and this imposes challenges for more sophisticated transport techniques, thermal removal from switches or the servers and less redundant data transfers. A characteristic example of energy efficiency in electronic equipments for these functionalities is shown in Table 1.
Table 1 Power efficiency of telecommunication equipments, [7]

and power amplifiers, signal processing units and various electronic equipments such as air conditioners and auxiliary equipments. A. DATA CENTERS The overall power consumption of a data center is related to the associated power consumed by each unit. Efficiency at individual parts is an important step for greening the data center but optimization is achieved when the efficiency aims to the overall data center design. The power distribution in a typical data center is presented in Fig. 2. The input power is divided into an in-series path and an in-parallel path to feed the switchgear and the cooling systems, respectively. At the switchgear, UPS 6 and PDUs 7 great losses occur due to AC/DC/AC conversions in the form of thermal heat. Typical UPSs present an efficiency of 80%. The parallel path feeds the cooling system that is important for heat protection of a data center. The cooling system incorporates fans and liquid chillers. The power consumption at different layers of the data center is presented in Table 2. It can be observed that the useful work of data center is associated to a percentage of power, smaller than the 30% delivered to the IT equipments. The power consumption pattern is not constant in time but varies depending on different parameters. The main are the input workload to the data center and the surrounding environmental characteristics. The IT equipments present nonconstant losses and variable energy efficiency that depends on the input workload. Power waste is mainly due to power units (UPS, Transformers, etc) that operate below their full load capacities, UPSs that are oversized for the actual load requirements in order to avoid operating near their capacity limit, air conditioning equipment consumes extra power in order to deliver cool air flow at long distances, blockages between air conditioners and equipments, no virtualization and consolidation, no energy management and monitoring, use of non energy proportional computing servers and, finally, to oversizing of data center.

Equipment Router IP Switch Transport TDM ATM Switch

Power Efficiency (W/Gbps) 40 25 80 80

For mobile networks, a crucial factor affecting network power consumption is the site operation that incorporates base station equipments [5], [8]. In the last part of Fig. 1 the power within the overall site and the base station (BTS) itself is presented. It is obvious that the greatest portion of energy is consumed for cooling of equipments and base station operation. Monitor operation and lighting requires the minimum of energy whereas for the backhaul energy consumption the picture is not clear and depends on the type of connections of the backhaul network (fiber or cable).

Figure 2. Structure of a typical Data Center, [14]

Within the base stations, high power demands are due to feeders (transmission of radio waves), the RF conversion units

An uninterruptible power supply, also uninterruptible power source, UPS or battery/flywheel backup is an electrical apparatus that provides emergency power to a load when the input power source, typically mains power, fails. 7 A power distribution unit (PDU) is a device fitted with multiple outputs designed to distribute electric power, especially to racks of computers and networking equipment located within the data centre.

Muharem orbadi; muharem.corbadzic@giz.de

Elektrotehniki fakultet Univerziteta u Sarajevu

support the operation of the IT equipments that are divided into radio units and baseband units. The power consumption pattern is also presented in Fig. 1. The most energy consuming devices of base stations are the cooling infrastructure, power amplifiers, RF feeders and the AC/DC and DC/DC conversion units. Depending on the number of sectors, nSC, and the antenna number, nTX, of the base station, the total power consumption is computed as follows:

[
Figure 3. Structure of a typical cellular base station, [14] Table 2. Power waste distribution in typical data centres, [7]

(1)

NCPI equipments Chiller CRAC UPS PDU Switchgear, Lights IT equipments System Disks Power Supply Networking CPU Memory

Percentage of Power Consumption[Total 70%] 33 9 19 5 4 Percentage of Power Consumption relative to [Total 30%] 25 5 13 9 40 8

In the above formula an additional factor models the power consumption due to RF links of the base station. For macrocell and microcell base stations, empirical formula can describe the relationship between the power delivered to the antenna relative to the consumed power of the base station [13]. For macrocell stations the power consumption is almost independent of the input load (traffic) whereas for microcells, power consumption is highly dependent on the input load. The relationship is
(2)

B. CELULAR BASE STATIONS Base stations are the most energy demanding element of cellular networks. The block diagram of a typical base station accompanied by typical consumption patterns for WiMax8 and UMTS 9 networks is presented in Fig. 3. The power consumption within a base station exhibits important similarities with data centers. The available power from the electricity grid, the battery back up unit or the renewable energy (RES) enters the base station and is divided into an inseries path and an in-parallel path. Non-critical equipments
8

In the above formula and for typical LTE stations aM=21, aN=7.84 and represent the power consumption due to power amplifiers, feeders and cooling and bM=344 Watts, bN=71.5 Watts represent the power consumption due to signal processing, battery back up, site cooling and in general processes independent of the radiated power of the station. Parameter L represents the load of the station and satisfies 0<L<1. Equation (2) represents the average power consumption and depends also on the number of sectors per site and the number of microcell stations per site. The efficiency metrics n1 and n2 correlate PIT with PIN and PTX with PIT respectively (Fig. 3). II.B.1 BTS ENERGY SAVINGS STRATEGIES

In the last years many Energy Savings Strategies for Wireless Network, applied both to the radio equipment and to the cooling and power equipment. have been proposed (Roy, 2008, White Paper Ericsson, 2007; Louhi, 2007; Cuccietti, 2006; Lubritto, 2008). 1. Remote Radio Units: consists in moving the RF converters and power amplifiers from the base of the station to the top of the tower close to the antenna and connecting them via fiber cables. This strategy offers the higher potential energy savings: most radio manufacturers now offer this topology. Radio Standby Mode: The second strategy is very easy to implement and typically consists of a software and basic hardware upgrade. Often termed ECO Mode or Power Saving Mode, this strategy consists of turning radio transmitters and receivers

WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a wireless communications standard designed to provide 30 to 40 megabit-persecond data rates, with the 2011 update providing up to 1 Gbit/s for fixed stations. The name "WiMAX" was created by the WiMAX Forum, which was formed in June 2001 to promote conformity and interoperability of the standard. 9 The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is a third generation mobile cellular system for networks based on the GSM standard. Developed and maintained by the 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project), UMTS is a component of the International Telecommunications Union IMT2000 standard set and compares with the CDMA2000 standard set for networks based on the competing CDMA One technology. UMTS uses wideband code division multiple access (W-CDMA) radio access technology to offer greater spectral efficiency and bandwidth to mobile network operators.

2.

Muharem orbadi; muharem.corbadzic@giz.de

Elektrotehniki fakultet Univerziteta u Sarajevu

off when the call traffic goes down, typically during the night. When the ECO Mode is implemented, the power consumption can be reduced by up to 40% under low traffic. Overall, this strategy will reduce the consumption of the radio equipment between 10 to 20%, plus its associated power conversion and cooling energy requirements. Overall this translates into cascaded savings in the order of 6 to 7%. 3. Passive Cooling: The third area of focus is the cooling. Such cooling requires, usually 1/3 of the heat produced inside the RBS. It is also a noisy and maintenance intensive solution. Depending on the geographic location, other cooling techniques such as free ventilation, forced fan cooling with hydrophobic filtering or heat exchangers will change significantly the energy consumption, and often yield a lower total cost of ownership. It is estimated that passive cooling can provide energy savings above 10%. Advanced Climate Control for Air Conditioners: If an air conditioner remains necessary, one can minimize its consumption operating at a higher temperature at opportune moments. By doing so, the energy consumption is reduced for two reasons, one that the higher set point means that the unit will be turned on less frequently, and two that it will run more efficiently due to the higher temperature at the air exchange. A total savings of 3-4% can safely be obtained without major availability impacts. DC Power System ECO Mode: The last two strategies relate to the DC power plant. Evidently, at this stage, we have already reduced the load through the previous measures and introduced the radio ECO mode to further reduce the load during low traffic periods. An advanced system controller scheme can ensure that rectifiers will operate at their peak efficiency over virtually all conditions. Higher Efficiency Rectifiers: Last strategy is the use of higher efficiency rectifiers

III.

TELECOMMUNICATIONS POWER SYSTEMS AND


RENEWABLE ENERGY

4.

In order to introduce clean technology in the telecommunication power system management, one has to consider the use of renewable sources technologies (photovoltaic, wind, hybrid systems) installed on telecommunication system infrastructures. We analysed the most advanced technological solutions in the photovoltaic sector (single crystal, multi-crystal panels, amorphous silicon, thin films) and in the other renewable sources, useful to produce energy in sites according to the functioning conditions and the structural features of a radio telecommunication station. We chose to analyse the interventions in sites with different testing conditions for each provider, in order to plan and realize photovoltaic systems for basic radio stations in urban and rural areas (raw-land) and to analyse the use of different renewable sources for grid-off BTSs (not connected to the electrical net). Two rural sites in which a photovoltaic plant has been built in collaboration with Vodafone provider, in order to understand how to use infrastructures of the BTS to obtain a total or partial architectural integration of the photovoltaic plants on the shelter or support pole. It has been shown that their energetic productivity depends on the geographical location, on the surface available to implement the photovoltaic plants and on the effects of shadow. In two of these pilot sites, photovoltaic plants have been realized both on shelter and on the infrastructures; the area of PV10 modules varies from 16 to 20 m2, limited by the available site space, to guarantee a yield of 2.0 and 2,5 kWp.

5.

6.

When all strategies are considered, total savings above more than 58% are possible (Roy,2008): On the radio side, going to a Remote Radio concept and applying the Radio ECO functionality will reduce the energy consumption by 40%. On the infrastructure side, the cooling costs can be improved by optimizing the use of the air conditioner or preferably, by migrating to a more passive approach. These will take to down by an additional 3% Figure 4. One of the installations with photovoltaic panels, [15] and 11% respectively, cumulatively down by 54%. Finally, the last 4% of reduction will come from the DC plant by implementing energy management to 10 A solar panel (also solar module, photovoltaic module or photovoltaic keep the rectifiers at their peak efficiency level and panel) is a packaged, connected assembly of photovoltaic cells. The solar panel can be used as a component of a larger photovoltaic system to generate by opting for higher efficiency rectifiers.
and supply electricity in commercial and residential applications.

Muharem orbadi; muharem.corbadzic@giz.de

Elektrotehniki fakultet Univerziteta u Sarajevu

Using the aforementioned option we get a 6 years payback time. In the case of the thin film solution, we have to consider a reduction of efficiency of approx. 10% less than the amorphous solution. Furthermore the considered (sub-vertical) exposure affects the energy production reducing it of the 30%. Beside this negativity, we noticed a net gain in the installation costs, which is ca. 55% higher than the crystalline solution. Finally, we could calculate the GSE government incentive basing on a system architectonically integrated. With these hypotheses there would be 6 years payback time. In general, in order to implement photovoltaic energy systems for feeding radio base stations in a total or in a partial way in urban areas one have to take into account the presence of obstacles which could cause shadowing effects and the real presence of useful areas. A very interesting application of renewable energy source with telecommunication systems sector is the situation when BTS is located far from the electrical network (grid-off systems). In order to analyse innovative technologic solutions for producing energy close to the BTS, we used as experimental site the BTS located in Sardinia on Gardaininu Mount (Nuoro, provider TIM), for which to completely fulfil the BTS energetic requirements (approx. 35500 kWh a year), we considered to implement a micro-wind system (overhead generators with an energy power up to 20 kW) coupled to a 4.5 kW photovoltaic system. Therefore it is convenient to implement an hybrid solution composed by: a photovoltaic system with panels mounted on a support between the transmission tower and the south side of the external border, since we noticed an available surface of ca. 50 m2 was present; a micro-Wind system (power of 20kW), for which one can estimate energy production starting from wind average speed and hours of productivity in the specific site;

Figure 5. Installations with photovoltaic panels, [15]

These sites came into operation on 01/01/2008 and, according to data provided by VODAFONE the two photovoltaic systems have produced, up to 30/05/2008, respectively 1100 and 1200 kWh; this implies an annual estimated production of 2640 and 2880 kWh. A further important element of the application - made by the involved provider - was to activate and complete the whole proceeding in order to obtain incentivizing by Italian electricity Authority (i.e. Conto Energia fund). It is to be noted that such an application gives an environment advantage of approximately of 3 Ton of not emitted CO2eq/year for each BTS, apart all reduction of the pollution coming from further physical agents. In order to carry out specific controls on these pilot sites and to be able to compare the conditions of energetic consumption pre and post installation of the photovoltaic panels, a monitoring station has been used that allows to check operational parameters such as electric consumption, external and inside temperature and other environmental parameters. On these same sites we studied further technological solutions in the photovoltaic field. In particular very important is to evaluate the possibility to implement further photovoltaic technologies (amorphous, thin film) and to evaluate the technical feasibility and the investment advantage for each solution. A very convenient and realistic solution from the technical and commercial point of view apart from the use of single and multi crystal panels - is the usage of panels based on the amorphous and thin film. In the amorphous solution one can consider an efficiency of about half of the crystalline, well compensated by an implementing cost of 70% less than the crystalline solution.

In the aforementioned site in Sardinia, the annual average speed of the wind is 5 m/s (CESI Wind Atlantis, 2007) and the annual productivity is 2000 hours. Consequently electric energy power production is 31567 kWh, and, the payback time is little more than 5 years. IV. NEW CONCEPT OF GREEN INTEGRATION FOR
NEXT GENERATION FACILITIES

The past activities that the NTT group has been involved in are ones chiefly concerning the conservation of energy for the sake of improving the economy. As stated before, we need to take global environmental protection seriously in the future to ensure company liability.

Muharem orbadi; muharem.corbadzic@giz.de

Elektrotehniki fakultet Univerziteta u Sarajevu

NTT Facilities, which has taken responsibility for energy system design, architectural design, and building and energy management, proposed the new concept of "Green integration." This concept involves global environment protection and is based on NTT Groups past experience and the results we have obtained. Green integration is not limited to telecommunications. It is a set of solutions for contributing to environmental protection regarding energy system design, architectural design, and building and energy management. The solutions offered by Green integration and the areas they cover are summarized in Figure 6. These solutions cover the three broad areas of sustainable management, reducing environmental impact, and environmental risk management. Figure 7 shows the list of items in the main menu, including concrete solutions and equipment. Figure 7 shows some of our solutions, though we have many others. An example of an important solution first applied to telecommunications is shown in the following chapter. The case applied next is outside the field of telecommunications. A. IMPLEMENTATION FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS Continuous, uninterrupted service and high reliability are needed for telecommunication infrastructure and services. Because it operates day and night, this infrastructure requires a substantial amount of electric power, but there is still a strong need to reduce the amount of power consumption. We are now in a transitional period wherein IP networks composed of routers and other equipment are being installed, though switches have been used in telecommunications equipment in the past.

Figure 7. Major solutions of Green integration, [16]

A building where a device on the IP network is installed is called a data centre. NTT Facilities has plans for Green data centres, which will be constructed and operated in an environmentally friendly policy, and we will offer construction of the facilities based on the Green integration concept. 1) DC-Power: Devices for which switches and transmission devices, etc., are used in telecommunications require that power be fed by DC. However, servers, routers, and other devices that are part of the IP network are mainly fed power by AC [17]. The reason for AC being used is that the power supply is generally inside the building. We need AC when there is no equipment with DC input. However, to improve reliability and decrease electric power loss, we must feed power using DC in NTTs data centres, where we have a lot of servers. The difference in the composition of AC power and DC power is depicted simply in Fig. 8. The efficiency and reliability of AC power decrease, requiring there be an extra converter compared with the use of DC power, which requires inverters that compose UPS. The reliability increased by a factor of ten for the DC power compared to the AC power in a trial calculation example for the condition shown in Fig. 8. Power consumption decreased by 15%. Evidence was obtained from an experiment conducted in California regarding the use of direct current to promote DC power [18]. Moreover, all systems in NTT facilities with monitoring and management of power and cooling systems were made with DC power [19]. A photograph of our system is shown in Fig. 9. The system has large-scale operation equipment that consists of about 30 racks. The manufacturer of the IT equipment used DC power when this system was created. The system has about 1 kA current of DC 48 V.

Figure 6. Areas of "Green integration", [16]

Muharem orbadi; muharem.corbadzic@giz.de

Elektrotehniki fakultet Univerziteta u Sarajevu

Other efforts have been made to implement environmentally friendly DC power systems at some universities and in government offices, such as the Tokyo metropolitan government.

Figure 9. DC powered monitoring and management system, [16]

Figure 8. Comparison between AC and DC for power supply, [16]

2) Air conditioning for data centres: IT equipment for the IP network tends to have higher density and to generate more heat every year, and localizing the heat increases the calorific value of the entire telecommunication system. The data centre needs high quality air conditioning to ensure that the characteristics of the device remain at their peak. NTT Facilities has developed a FMACS airconditioning system, by taking into account the indoor air current, that can effectively cool such equipment, and the system eliminates high temperature areas and reduces the amount of energy consumed for air conditioning (the energy consumption is about half of that of the previous system)[20]. A next-generation network (NGN) using the IP network is being developed for the novel infrastructure. In cooperation with NTT, NTT Facilities is developing power systems and air conditioning facilities for the NGN. The racks affect power consumption and the generation of heat, and the arrangement ensures practical use of the NGN, which is shown in Fig. 10. We are conducting experiments on power flow and air conditioning.

Figure 10. Experiment of powering and air conditioning for NGN, [16]

Muharem orbadi; muharem.corbadzic@giz.de

Elektrotehniki fakultet Univerziteta u Sarajevu

3) Monitoring measurements: Monitoring technology is used to determine in real time the rise in heat based on the amount of use of the network device. The current, power, and temperature of each rack are measured, and data is collected on the server through the Internet. The structure is shown in Fig. 11. Fig. 12 shows an example of measurement results. The data is displayed, and web base management is possible. It is possible to measure the data using various sensors and to analyze it in a combination. In the data centre of a real estate company, clients frequently add network equipment. Reliability must be high. Therefore, the amount of daily energy use must be determined, and the system must be made stable enough to avoid system crashes caused by power supply shortages and other problems. The monitoring technology greatly assists the company serving data centre. Moreover, the technology plays an important role in clarifying the amount of CO2 emissions because it determines the amount of the energy used by data Centre Company and by each piece of equipment. This promotes the conservation of energy.

V. CONCLUSION The concept of green telecommunication networks was investigated. Fixed line and cellular networks are driving their technology to energy efficient directions. Fibre optics, energy efficient data centres and power management of fixed broadband networks proved to be a solution, whereas for mobile operators, access networks and base station technology are of the most importance. The sectors of the network that require the greatest attention are the electronic equipments of both end user and the access network, thermal removal processes, efficient network planning and base station design. REFERENCES
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Figure 11. Construction of monitoring service, [16]

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Figure 12. Measured data, [16]

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Muharem orbadi; muharem.corbadzic@giz.de

Elektrotehniki fakultet Univerziteta u Sarajevu

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Muharem orbadi; muharem.corbadzic@giz.de