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For other uses, see Football (disambiguation). Several codes of football. Images, from top down, left to right: Association football, Australian rules football, International rules football, rugby union scrum, women's rugby union, American football. Football refers to a number of sports that involve, to varying degrees, kicking a ball with the foot to score a goal. The most popular of these sports worldwide is association football, more commonly known as just "football" or "soccer". Unqualified, the word football applies to whichever form of football is the most popular in the regional context in which the word appears, including association football, as well as American football, Australian rules football, Canadian football, Gaelic football, rugby league, rugby union, and other related games. These variations of football are known as football codes. Various forms of football can be identified in history, often as popular peasant games. Contemporary codes of football can be traced back to the codification of these games at English public schools in the eighteenth and nineteenth century. The influence and power of the British Empire allowed these rules of football to spread to areas of British influence outside of the directly controlled Empire, though by the end of the nineteenth century, distinct regional codes were already developing: Gaelic Football, for example, deliberately incorporated the rules of local traditional football games in order to maintain their heritage. In 1888, The Football League was founded in England, becoming the first of many professional football competitions. During the twentieth century, the various codes of football became amongst the most popular team sports in the world.
For the 1980 John Zorn album, see Hockey (album). For the American new wave band, see Hockey (band). For the Australian politician, see Joe Hockey. Hockey is a family of sports in which two teams play against each other by trying to maneuver a ball or a puck into the opponent's goal using a hockey stick. In many areas, one sport (typically field hockey or ice hockey) is generally referred to simply as hockey. The first recorded use of the word "hockey" is found in the text of a royal proclamation issued by Edward III of England in 1363 banning certain types of sports and games. [m]oreover we ordain that you prohibit under penalty of imprisonment all and sundry from such stone, wood and iron throwing; handball, football, or hockey; coursing and cock-fighting, or other such idle games. The word hockey itself is of unknown origin, although it is likely a derivative of hoquet, a Middle French word for a shepherd's stave. The curved, or "hooked" ends of the sticks used for hockey would indeed have resembled these staves. History bas relief c.600 BC, in the National Archaeological Museum of Athens Games played with curved sticks and a ball can be found in the histories of many cultures. In Egypt, 4000-year-old carvings feature teams with sticks and a projectile, hurling dates to before 1272 BC in Ireland, and there is a depiction from c.600 BC in Ancient Greece where the game may have been called kerētízein or kerhtízein (κερητίζειν) because it was played with a horn or horn-like stick(kéras, κέρας)*4+ In Inner Mongolia, the Daur people have been playing beikou, a game similar to modern field hockey, for about 1,000 years. Most evidence of hockey-like games during the Middle Ages is found in legislation concerning sports and games. Similar to Edward's proclamation was the Galway Statute enacted in Ireland in 1527, which banned certain types of ball games, including hockey. ...at no tyme to use ne occupye the horlinge of the litill balle with hockie stickes or staves, nor use no hande ball to play withoute walles, but only greate foote balle By the 19th century, the various forms and divisions of historic games began to differentiate and coalesce into the individual sports defined today. Organizations dedicated to the codification of rules and regulations began to form, and national and international bodies sprung up to manage domestic
Springfield. Men's field hockey has been played at each summer Olympic Games since 1908 (except 1912 and 1924). with a small. The governing body is the 116-member International Hockey Federation (FIH). and was in the 1920 Summer Olympics. although they can be mixed-sex. Massachusetts. Montreal in 1875 who. The game is popular among both males and females in many parts of the world. Australia. For the ball used in the sport. or composites with a blade at the bottom that can lie flat on the playing surface when the stick is held upright and can curve either way.and international competition. primarily in schools. see Basketball (disambiguation). legally. The game is contested between two teams of skaters. natural grass. using a three-inch-diameter (76. Subtypes Field hockey game at Melbourne University. by two years later.or right-handed player gain an advantage. The NHL rules are slightly different from those used in Olympic ice hockey over many categories. Field hockey Main article: Field hockey Field hockey is played on gravel. and Slovakia. but the modern game was initially organized by students at McGill University. hard ball approximately 73 mm (2. It was the national sport of India until the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports declared that India has no national sport in August 2012. Asia. Latvia. and reports from Canada from the beginning of the nineteenth century. Main article: Ice hockey Ice hockey is played on a large flat area of ice. Ice hockey also evolved during this period as a derivative of field hockey adapted to the icy conditions of Canada and the northern United States. Women's ice hockey was added to the Winter Olympics in 1998. particularly in Europe. codified the first set of ice hockey rules and organized the first teams. while women's field hockey has been played at the Summer Olympic Games since 1980. see Basketball (ball). by all ages. it was not until the first half of the 19th century that it became firmly established. For other uses. Field hockey is the national sport of Pakistan. This puck is often frozen before high-level games to decrease the amount of bouncing and friction on the ice. The governing body of international play is the 66-member International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF). sand-based or water-based artificial turf. Ice hockey is played at a number of levels. the Czech Republic. The game is played all over North America.2 mm) vulcanized rubber disc called a puck. Modern field hockey sticks are J-shaped and constructed of a composite of wood. U. Ice hockey The Barrie Colts and the Brampton Battalion in an ice hockey game.9 in) in diameter. glass fibre or carbon fibre (sometimes both) and have a curved hook at the playing end. the game is played between single-sex sides. Ice hockey is the national sport of Latvia and the national winter sport of Canada. drawing top ice hockey players from around the globe. Ice hockey sticks are long L-shaped sticks made of wood. All sticks are right-handed – left-handed sticks are not permitted. The first club was created in 1849 at Blackheath in south-east London. a flat surface on the playing side and curved surface on the rear side. In most countries.S. BASKETBALL This article is about the sport. Finland. North America's National Hockey League (NHL) is the strongest professional ice hockey league. Men's ice hockey has been played at the Winter Olympics since 1924. While current field hockey appeared in mid-18th century England. as to help a left. Europe and in many other countries around the world to varying extent. There are early representations and reports of ice hockey-type games being played on ice in the Netherlands. It is the most popular sport in Canada. . graphite. Basketball Michael Jordan goes for a slam dunk at the old Boston Garden Highest governing bodyFIBA First played 1891. New Zealand and South Africa.
Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. and balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored. Violations are called "fouls". A team can score a field goal by shooting the ball through the basket during regular play. this peach basket retained its bottom. Dribbling only became a major part of the game around the 1950s. A technical foul gives the opposing team a free throw. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums. A personal foul is penalized. "power forward" or "small forward" positions. USA). but additional time (overtime) may be issued when the game ends with a draw. He sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. Typically. most commonly for unsportsmanlike conduct on the part of a player or coach. Dribbling was eventually introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. however. and a free throw is usually awarded to an offensive player if he is fouled while shooting the ball. passing. James Naismith.05 m) elevated track. while shorter players or those who possess the best ball handling skills and speed play "point guard" or "shooting guard". A field goal scores two points for the shooting team if a player is touching or closer to the basket than the threepoint line. The objective is to shoot a ball through a hoop 18 inches (46 cm) in diameter and 10 feet (3. Canadian American Dr. and three points (known commonly as a 3 pointer or three) if the player is behind the three-point line. basketball has specialized player positions and offensive and defensive structures (player positioning). and it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle. In contrast with modern basketball nets. . searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike. dribbling and rebounding. The first balls made specifically for basketball were brown. The team with the most points at the end of the game wins. introduced the orange ball that is now in common use. or to hold the ball with both hands then resume dribbling. Springfield College) in Springfield. as manufacturing improved the ball shape. this proved inefficient. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. the tallest members of a team will play "center". History Main article: History of basketball Creation The first basketball court: Springfield College In early December 1891. A technical foul may also be issued when certain infractions occur.0 m) high mounted to a backboard at each end. As well as many techniques for shooting. a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School (YMCA) (today. to carry it. Basketball is one of the world's most popular and widely viewed sports. so the bottom of the basket was removed. and the opposing team also retains possession of the ball. The ball can be advanced on the court by bouncing it while walking or running or throwing it to a team mate. was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day. Massachusetts. It is a violation to move without dribbling the ball.Characteristics Contact Contact Team members 10-20 (5 on court) Mixed gender Single Categorization Indoor (mainly) or Outdoor (Streetball) Equipment Basketball Olympic Demonstrated in the 1904 and 1924 Summer Olympics Part of the Summer Olympic programme since 1936 Basketball is a sport played by two teams of five players on a rectangular court. Basketball was originally played with a soccer ball. he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10foot (3. allowing the balls to be poked out with a long dowel each time.
Highest governing bodyInternational Cricket Council First played 18th century (modern) Characteristics Team members 11 players per side substitute fielders (only) are permitted in cases of injury or illness Mixed gender Single Categorization Team. A further change was soon made. The paler strip is the cricket pitch.The peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were finally replaced by metal hoops with backboards. see Cricket (insect). The two sets of three wooden stumps on the pitch are the wickets. Cricket was first played in southern England in the 16th century. CRICKET This article is about the sport. on a court just half the size of a present-day Streetball or National Basketball Association (NBA) court. For other uses. "Cricketer" redirects here. has 10 full members. . The baskets were originally nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court. but this proved impractical when spectators on the balcony began to interfere with shots. England. it had developed into the national sport of England. The expansion of the British Empire led to cricket being played overseas and by the mid-19th century the first international matches were being held. The game is most popular in Australasia. The batting team continues batting until ten batsmen are out. indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented. bails Venue Cricket field Olympic 1900 Summer Olympics only Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players on a field at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. while the other team fields. Each turn is known as an innings. the Indian subcontinent. For the insect. For other uses. The Laws of Cricket are maintained by the International Cricket Council (ICC) and the Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) with additional Standard Playing Conditions for Test matches and One Day Internationals. wicket: stumps. Naismith called the new game "Basket Ball". The game ended at 1–0. Cricket A bowler bowling to a batsman. The two white lines are the creases. which incorporated rules from a children's game called "Duck on a Rock".6 m). The first official game was played in the YMCA gymnasium in Albany. By the end of the 18th century. In professional cricket the length of a game ranges from 20 overs of six bowling deliveries per side to Test cricket played over five days. By 1897 –1898 teams of five became standard. Naismith's handwritten diaries. his team would gain a point. cricket bat. Each team takes it in turn to bat. the game's governing body. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference. Each batsman continues batting until he is out. see Cricket (disambiguation). see Cricketer (disambiguation). as many had failed before it. The bowler delivers the ball to the batsman who attempts to hit the ball with his bat far enough for him to run to the other end of the pitch and score a run. it had the additional effect of allowing rebound shots. discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006. attempting to score runs. so the ball merely passed through. at which point the teams switch roles and the fielding team comes in to bat. 1892 with nine players. Whichever team got the most points won the game. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket. Bat-and-ball Equipment Cricket ball. The ICC. the West Indies and Southern Africa. the shot was made from 25 feet (7. New York on January 20.
which has not its own special kinds of games. sports like hunting and fishing used to be mainly utilitarian in purpose. Each player uses a racquet that is strung with cord to strike a hollow rubber ball covered with felt over or around a net and into the opponent's court.". Tennis is played by millions of recreational players and is also a popular worldwide spectator sport. see Tennis (disambiguation). During most of the 19th-century in fact. . including wheelchair users. The object of the game is to play the ball in such a way that the opponent is not able to play a good return. the French Open played on red clay courts. The four Grand Slam tournaments (also referred to as the "Majors") are especially popular: the Australian Open played on hard courts. England. Body and mind should work at their best. England) Characteristics Contact No Team members Single or doubles Mixed gender Yes. The sport can be played by anyone who can hold a racquet. were proof of importance given to sports and games. and the adoption of the tie-break in the 1970s. Theses have been revived from 1896. The limbs must be. separate tours & mixed doubles Categorization Racquet sport Equipment Tennis ball. The best way to keep the limbs fit is to exercise them in sports and games of physical skill and strength. sports and games came to be looked upon as a means of building up the body beautiful. not lawn tennis: for example. tennis racquet Venue Indoor or outdoor tennis court Olympic Part of Summer Olympic programme from 1896 to 1924 Demonstration sport in the 1968 and 1984 Summer Olympics Part of Summer Olympic programme since 1988 Paralympic Part of Summer Paralympic programme since 1992 Country or region Worldwide Tennis is a sport that people usually play individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles). It had close connections both to various field ("lawn") games such as croquet and bowls as well as to the older raquet sport of real tennis.TENNIS This article is about the sport. the term "tennis" referred to real tennis. active and obedient to the will. Tennis is an Olympic sport and is played at all levels of society and at all ages. Wimbledon played on grass courts. Highest governing bodyInternational Tennis Federation First played Between 1859 and 1865 (Birmingham. and the US Open played also on hard courts. which allows a player to contest the line call of a point. IMPORTANCE OF GAMES The ideal of a good and perfect life is to have a sound mind in a sound body. Lord Eugene De Vere announces that he will "go down to Hampton Court and play tennis. Tennis A tennis match at Wimbledon. The famous Olympic Games. A recent addition to professional tennis has been the adoption of electronic review technology coupled with a point challenge system. The modern game of tennis originated in Birmingham. The rules of tennis have changed little since the 1890s. in Disraeli's novel Sybil (1845). held every fourth year. This indeed is the importance of games. and are now held once in four years at various centers. and they cannot do so unless both are in good order.supple. The proper end of game is bodily health arid physical fitness. men used to hunts in order to get food. This is recognized by all as the best means of performing our duties. In the past. That is to say. the oldest and the most prestigious tennis tournament. But with the dawn of the Greek Civilization. Two exceptions are that from 1908 to 1961 the server had to keep one foot on the ground at all times. For other uses. there is no society. in the late 19th century as "lawn tennis".
. But all good things sometimes become bad. Sports and games should be so organized that they will not interfere with studies of our youth. They are only a part. hockey and foot ball are popular because of the sprit of team work which they inspire. they also instill the sprit of discipline and team-work.Sports and games have now come to stay in our civilization as an essential feature of human activity. Our young man and woman should take active part in sports and games.educational institution encourage sports and games by organizing matches and awarding prizes and trophies. it teaches us how to use our energy in the right way. This no doubt true. Life is not all sports. though a very important part. It makes for a life of co-operation and team work which could be used for building up a great society and a nation. Game like cricket. It is good that our . and their object is not merely fun. Apart from making us strong. This is a strange but the true fact about human activities. The discipline that gained in playing up games is invaluable in later life. healthy and fit. The habit of taking part in games and sports is good in severa1 ways.
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