You are on page 1of 0

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 36, September 2011, pp. 227-233








Spirality of cotton plain knitted fabrics with respect to variation in yarn
and machine parameters
V K Kothari
Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016, India
and
G Singh, K Roy
a
& R Varshney
Textile Engineering Department, Giani Zail Singh College of Engineering & Technology, Bathinda 151 001, India
Received 1 October 2010; accepted 18 January 2011
A study on the effects of various yarn and machine parameters on spirality of cotton tubular plain fabrics has been
conducted and the results are statistically analyzed. The observations are taken both in finished as well as in reference states.
The study reveals that relaxation process through washing and tumble drying causes the spirality of wale lines to develop.
The extent of spirality is decided by the ease of freedom with which the unbalanced torque due to yarn twist gets relaxed.
Tightness of fabric which is decided by yarn count and stitch length in addition to machine gauge controls the distortion of
loops, resulting in increasing the spirality with the enlargement of stitch length, lowering the machine gauge and/or raising
the yarn fineness.
Keywords: Cotton, Machine gauge, Reference state, Spirality, Stitch length, Tightness factor, Twist liveliness, Yarn linear density

1 Introduction
In single jersey knitted fabrics, non-perpendicular
disposition of wales with respect to the courses
creates a problem of spirality. Several researchers
1,2

have investigated the phenomenon of wale spirality
and found that the main cause for this spirality effect
is the residual torque in the yarn shown by its twist
liveliness as well as unbalanced torque in the yarn
loop owing to bending of yarn in a loop. Tightness of
the knitting construction, fabric relaxation and
finishing processes also have considerable influence
on the extent of spirality
3
. In circular weft knitted
fabrics, apart from skewness of wales from the
vertical, another similar course-wise distortion i.e.
drop effect appears as a result of helical orientation of
the courses that depends on the number of used
feeders
4
. It has been suggested that the total spirality
in the fabric is contributed by both spirality and drop
effect
1,4
. Spirality can cause serious problems when
the fabrics are made up into garments like
displacement of shifting of seams, mismatched
patterns, sewing difficulties, etc.
Various experimental studies
4-8
have explored the
different contributory factors on spirality. Some are
machine related like use of multiple feeders and
gauge, whereas some are associated with constituent
yarns like twist liveliness and linear density.
Essentially in almost all citations, it has been clearly
demonstrated that it is the relaxation of torsional
stresses which causes the dimensional distortions and
instability in the knitted loop construction. This leads
to the appearance of spirality in the fabrics. The
distortion of loops progresses till a fully relaxed state
is reached by subjecting the fabric to repeated
washing, rinsing and tumble drying. This state has
been referred to as Reference state by Heap et al.
9
.
Thus, the literature makes us realize that the problem
of spirality can be taken care of and kept under
control to design a fabric by selecting proper
combination of various machine, yarn and finishing
parameters. Undoubtedly, some significant research
work has been carried out in exploring the various
factors influencing and suppressing the spirality.
However, in most of the studies
1-3,5,8,11
conducted so
far, the fabrics were manufactured in laboratory
model single feeder circular knitting machines,
whereas multi-feeder machines are employed in
commercial production. On the same move, study of
de Araujo and Smith
4
has revealed that the number of
feeders in machine has significant bearing on spirality
of knitted fabrics. In the light of above facts an
________________
a
To whom all the correspondence should be addressed.
E-mail: kalyankalyan1@yahoo.co.in
INDIAN J. FIBRE TEXT. RES., SEPTEMBER 2011


228
elaborate data base is needed which can be of
immense help in understanding and analyzing the
problem and consequently in developing a model
having satisfactory predictability.
The present study is therefore undertaken to
examine the angle of spirality in the finished single
jersey cotton knitted fabrics, manufactured on a multi-
feeder machine, made with different yarn linear
densities and twist levels under varying fabric
tightness factor obtained by introducing changes in
stitch length and machine gauge and subjecting them
to the reference state. A relationship among the
variables is explored for the generation of spirality
which can help us designing a fabric with spirality at
a sufficiently low level.

2 Materials and Methods
2.1 Materials and Sample Preparation
Nine types of combed cotton yarns were procured
with three tex (count) values, each with three levels of
twist factors, and then tested for their major
properties. The results are furnished in Table 1.
The above yarns were knitted on a single jersey
circular knitting machine having 61 cm diameter,
equipped with 48 positive feed devices and adjustable
fabric pulley take-down system. During preparation of
fabric samples, care was taken to keep the yarn
tension constant at 12 cN for all 48 feeders. Cylinders
of 16, 20 and 24 gauge (needles per inch) were used
for all the 9 samples of yarns and, for each cylinder,
the nominal stitch lengths selected were 0.30, 0.32
and 0.34 cm by changing the cam settings and
positive feed device in the machine.
The dyeing was carried out in industry under
normal industrial parameters and all fabric samples
were processed in the same bath, for which the fabric
samples were stitched together end to end.
Subsequently, the fabrics were given compaction
treatment and each fabric sample was separately set in
the compaction machine to achieve the nominal
finishing targets. The route of wet processing
sequence is shown below:

Scour & dye (soft flow) Centrifuge Tubular
dry Compressive shrinkage (Compaction)

The procedure detailed by Heap et al.
9
was adopted
for full relaxation treatment using a fully automatic
front loading domestic washing machine and a
tumbler dryer. All the fabric samples were taken for
this treatment which consisted of (i) a standard wash
at 60C using surf excel matic detergent, rinse and
spin, followed by standard tumble drying for 30 min
at 60 C until dry; and (ii) four cycles of rinsing and
tumble drying, making five cycles in all.

2.2 Sample Testing Procedures and Data Analysis
Relevant parameters, such as loop length, courses
per cm, wales per cm and angle of spirality, for all the
Table 1 Constructional parameters and other specifications of the yarns used

Imperfections/1000m Yarn linear
density, tex
Twist
factor
tex
1/2
tpc
Twist liveliness
cm (CV%)
Tenacity
mN/tex
Elongation
%
Unevenness
U%
Thin places
(-50%)
Thick places
(+50%)
Neps
(+200%)

24.61

33.5

7.5
(16.74)
164

4

9

0

22

162


36.4

9.75
(15.39)
199

5

8

0

8

133


39.2

14.0
(18.69)
201

5

8

0

17

152


19.68

33.5

8.59
(22.66)
211

4

9

0

18

60


36.4

10.54
(17.34)
177

4

9

0

15

80


39.2

12.6
(21.61)
201

5

9

3

30

115


16.4

33.5

5.25
(24.52)
146

4

10

0

45

65


36.4

6.8
(18.2)
169

4

10

0

48

122


39.2

12.3
(21.94)
177

4

10

2

57

80

KOTHARI et al.: SPIRALITY OF COTTON PLAIN KNITTED FABRICS


229
reference state specimens were recorded after
conditioning these samples for 72 h in a standard
atmosphere of 27 2 C and 65 2% RH.
For the measurement of liveliness of yarns,
subjective assessment was adopted. Since there is
no standard method available for the measurement
of twist liveliness, authors adopted the method
followed by Araujo and Smith
4
. Tightness factor
was calculated using the observed values of stitch
length and yarn linear density from the Eq. (1), as
shown below:

Tightness factor ,
1/2 -1
tex cm =
(yarn linear density)/stitch length (1)

The spirality was measured following the test
procedure as described in British standards
BS 1819:1990 which has been adopted by Tao et al.
10
.
The physical appearance of spirality in the fabric is
shown in the microscopic photograph [Fig.1 (a)]. The
test method is illustrated in Fig.1 (b). The magnitude
of spirality is obtained by using the following
equation:

Angle of spirality () = tan
-1
(d/L) (2)

where d is the displacement of the course from a
normal line to the wale of the fabric measured at a
distance L from the identified wale line.
A response surface methodology based on step
regression with backward elimination was adopted
using SYSTAT 12

statistical software. Here


significant terms were retained in the response surface
equation by eliminating insignificant terms step-wise,
the level of significance selected was 5%.
3 Results and Discussion
3.1 Contribution of Yarn and Machine Setting Parameters to
Spirality
The average spirality in the dyed and finished
fabrics (compacted) is found to be negligibly small.
Here the spirality is corrected in finishing by
imposing distortion in the fabric so that the wales are
straightened out. As soon as the fabric gets relaxed
during repeated washings and tumble drying, the
skewness of the wales reoccurs. The average spirality
angles obtained in the different knitting conditions
under reference state are summarized in Table 2.
Multiple linear regression equation derived from the
data (based on coded values of independent variables)
has been presented in Eq. (3), which shows the
relationships of various controlling factors with the
response variable i.e. angle of spirality. The
coefficient of determination (R
2
) calculated is 0.97,
indicating that the factors considered in this study are
sufficient enough to account for almost all variations
occurring in the spirality of the fabrics. The regression
equation used is given below:

Spirality angle = 19.829 + 2.537 (SL) 5.491 (tex)
+ 3.0006 (TTF) 1.813 (G)
1.139 (TTF*tex) 0.542 (SL*tex)
+ 0.458 (SL*TTF) (3)

where SL is the stitch length; tex, the yarn linear
density; G, the knitting machine gauge expressed in
number of needles per inch; and TTF, the yarn tex
twist factor. Results of ANOVA carried out with the
experimental response establishing the relative
significance of independent controllable variables
(in terms of F-values) are presented in Table 3. Yarn
linear density has been found to be the most


Fig. 1 Spirality in single jersey fabrics (a) physical appearance of spirality in wale line (b) technique of measuring fabric spirality
INDIAN J. FIBRE TEXT. RES., SEPTEMBER 2011


230
significant variable explaining around 61% of
variations in angle of spirality, followed by level of
twist (tex and TTF jointly accounts for 76%
variations), stitch length and machine gauge
respectively. Around 95% of variations in the data are
accounted for by these four variables together.
Various significant interaction terms have also been
identified from the empirical model and their behavior
is represented in the graphical forms (Fig. 2).
Figure 2(a) shows that the spirality increases both
with increase in yarn twist level and stitch length but the
increase in angle of spirality with stitch length is steeper
at higher twist factor. This implies that fabrics are prone
to higher spirality if made up of yarns with higher twists.
On the other side, spirality is more sensitive to twist and
loops are more conducive for distortion under relation
process, if the fabrics are constituted of stitches with
relatively bigger loop lengths.
Similarly, Fig. 2(b) shows an increase in spirality
with the increase in stitch length, whereas the trend is
opposite with respect to yarn linear density. As the
yarn becomes coarser, drop in spirality occurs. It is
also noteworthy that gradient of spirality vs stitch
length tends to be higher towards lower yarn linear
density. Figure 2(c) shows the trend of spirality in
response to yarn linear density and tex twist factor
and their interaction. Increment in angle of spirality
per unit increase in yarn twist gets larger when the
linear density of yarns is reduced. With regard to
influence of machine gauge, it is clearly indicated by
Eq. (3) that the spirality decreases linearly with
machine gauge.

3.2 Spirality of Fabric in Relation to its Structural Changes
It is a well-known fact that knitted loops in single
jersey fabrics have dimensional instability which
leads to its distortions. Loop distortions, in principle,
are governed by its deformability and the availability
of freedom in structure, which allows the loops to get
deformed. Undoubtedly, deformability, as shown by
previous research work
3,4
, is linked with relaxation of
torsional stresses in the yarn (known as twist
liveliness) which are developed by twisting process,
whereas tightness factor has been identified as a
measure of the freedom of loop movement in the
knitted fabric construction. Now it is to be explored,
in what way and proportion the yarn and machine
parameters have a bearing on the above two features
related to structural mechanics which ultimately
decides the spirality level.
The twist liveliness is represented by the twisting
couple applied to the yarn causing the yarn to snarl.
The increase in snarling tendency (twist liveliness) of
yarn with twist level (Table 1) is quite obvious and
accordingly reflected in spirality values. During
relaxation treatment, these residual yarn torques are
relieved and loop distortion takes place. But opposite
to the trend of liveliness, spirality behavior in the
Table 2 Constructional details of fabrics and their spirality test results in reference (repeated washed/tumble-dried) states

Yarn linear
density, tex
Twist factor
tex
1/2
tpc
Angle of spirality, deg
16
a
20
a
24
a

0.32
b
0.34
b
0.3
b
0.32
b
0.34
b


0.3
b
0.32
b
0.34
b


16.4 33.5 21.5 24.5 26.0 19.5 22.5 24.0 17.0 20.0 21.5
36.4 25.0 28.0 30.5 23.0 26.0 28.0 20.0 24.0 25.0
39.2 27.0 30.5 34.5 26.0 29.5 32.5 23.5 27.5 30.5

19.68 33.5 14.5 19.0 21.0 14.0 17.0 20.5 12.0 15.0 19.0
36.4 19.5 22.0 23.0 18.0 19.5 23.5 17.5 18.0 22.0
39.2 20.0 26.0 29.0 19.0 24.0 27.0 19.0 20.0 25.0

24.61 33.5 13.5 15.0 17.5 12.0 12.5 13.5 11.0 12.0 12.5
36.4 14.0 16.0 18.0 13.0 13.5 15.0 11.5 13.0 15.0
39.2 15.5 17.5 19.0 13.5 16.0 18.0 12.0 15.0 17.0
a
Machine gauge (needles/inch).
b
Nominal stitch length (cm).
Table 3 ANOVA results of response for spirality

Parameter F - ratio P-value
Constant
Yarn linear density (tex) 1534.21 <0.001
Tex twist factor (TTF) 421.44 <0.001
Stitch length (SL) 327.53 <0.001
Machine gauge (G) 127.96 <0.001
TTF*tex 44.003 <0.001
SL*tex 9.954 0.003
SL*TTF 7.127 0.010
KOTHARI et al.: SPIRALITY OF COTTON PLAIN KNITTED FABRICS


231
fabrics declines with yarn linear density. The yarn
mobility in the form of stitch distortion is hindered by
the tightness in the fabric structure. The
measurements carried out for values of stitch length
and calculations made for corresponding tightness
factors are shown in Table 4. Increasing tightness
factor corresponding to increasing yarn linear density
as well as downsizing the stitch length can be
witnessed. Obviously, fabric is comparatively tighter
than the one knitted with lower yarn linear density
(finer yarn) and/or higher stitch length. As the fabric
tightness reduces, fabrics become more and more
slack and consequently the yarn composing the loop
has a higher tendency to rotate inside the fabric after
relaxation, depending on the amount of twist present.
It is to be pointed out that the observations do not
indicate towards any specific relationship of yarn
twist level with stitch length, and consequently the
fabric tightness factor resulting after finishing or
relaxation processes. At the same time, no correlation
of gauge with stitch length and successively with the
tightness factor has emerged. Hence, the influence of
machine gauge on spirality cannot be accounted for in
terms of tightness of the fabrics. The considerable
increase in spirality with machine gauge after
relaxation treatment may be attributed to somewhat
increase in twist liveliness of the yarns in which the
twist is only temporary set. There is every likelihood
that the loops in the fabrics (but of similar stitch
length) made on coarse gauge machine experience the
continuous adjustments starting with robbing back
effect as occurred on knitting machine, through
various wet processing and eventually during washing
and tumble drying process. The unsymmetrical
stresses on the loops during knitting process and wet
processing are expected to be released under fully
relaxed state, which give rise to generation of spirality
of higher magnitude.
On the basis of above observations and their
analysis, it can be inferred that while considering
the extent of spirality in fully relaxed fabrics, yarn
twist should not be considered as the sole
parameter. Rather level of yarn twists in
combination with tightness of fabric presents the
true picture. Washing and tumble drying result in
fabric relaxation and lead to increased fabric
spirality considerably as an outcome of yarn twist
liveliness, as also observed by other workers
3
.
Tightness of fabric structure interferes with this
process of relaxation and consequently, the loop
distortion caused by above-said twist is dependent
on restrictive influence of fabric construction.
Therefore, the spirality response can only be
characterized by the interplay of both the factors,
i.e. yarn twist and construction tightness of fabrics.


Fig. 2 Variation of spirality in fabrics with respect to
(a) yarn twist and stitch length (b) yarn linear density and stitch
length, and (c) yarn linear density and yarn twist (coded values)
INDIAN J. FIBRE TEXT. RES., SEPTEMBER 2011


232
This fact can be clearly demonstrated with the help
of statistical predictive model as given in the
following equation which is based on measured
values of concerned controlling parameters taken at
appropriate level of fabric treatment, i.e. at the
finished state:

Spirality angle = -95.633+6.160 (TF) - 0.394(G)
+4.774 (TTF) - 0.266 (TF TTF)
(4)

Tightness of fabric construction can best be
represented by tightness factor (TF) which incorporates
yarn linear density and loop length as tex/SL. The
response surface equation showing the dependence of
angle of spirality on tex twist factor and tightness factor
is presented in Fig.3. A significant interaction between
twist factor and tightness factor is clearly visible
demonstrating that at higher values of tightness factor
the slope of increase in spirality with respect to twist
factor is reduced substantially. This might be due to
jamming of wales and with the loops constrained in
both the directions, which makes the loop movement
more restrictive. Hence, low level of spirality is
experienced. In the similar manner, it can also be
drawn that as the yarn twist factor increases, the drop
in spirality as a function of tightness factor becomes
sharp, although the spirality at higher twist factor
always remains higher at all the levels of tightness
factors. At sufficiently high tightness, effect of twist
gets unrecognizable. The surface response curve and
associated ANOVA analysis demonstrates that during
the process of full relaxation, it is the tightness of fabric
which contributes substantially in affixing the spirality,
even surpassing the twist level present in the yarn.
After this exhaustive elaboration about the role of
various influencing variables, it is quite appropriate to
make a general predictive model which can help in
estimating the fabric spirality based on actual finished
fabric parameters. Equation (5), as given below,
presents such a derived model based on the
experimental observations:

Spirality angle = 14.054+4.885(tex) 1.612(G)
0.101(TTF tex) 0.811(SL tex)
+ 0.955 (SL TTF)-12.918(SL)
+ 0.387(SL G) (5)

Additionally, it is observed that the predictive
models Eqs (4) and (5) have been obtained with
Table 4 Average fabric structural parameters (measured) as a result of variation in yarn and machine setting after dyeing and finishing
treatments
Measured stitch length, cm
Measured tightness factor, tex
1/2
cm
-1

Yarn
linear
density
Twist
factor
tex
1/2
tpc
16
a
20
a
24
a
16
a
20
a
24
a

tex 0.3
b

0.32
b

0.34
b

0.3
b

0.32
b

0.34
b

0.3
b

0.32
b

0.34
b

0.3
b

0.32
b

0.34
b

0.3
b

0.32
b

0.34
b

0.3
b

0.32
b

0.34
b

16.4 33.5 0.29 0.32 0.34 0.29 0.32 0.33 0.30 0.32 0.33 13.8 12.8 11.9 13.8 12.8 12.1 13.6 12.8 13.4
36.4 0.29 0.31 0.34 0.29 0.32 0.33 0.30 0.32 0.33 13.8 12.9 11.9 13.7 12.8 12.2 13.6 12.7 12.3
39.2 0.29 0.32 0.34 0.29 0.32 0.34 0.30 0.32 0.33 13.8 12.7 11.9 13.7 12.8 12.1 13.6 12.8 12.4

19.7 33.5 0.30 0.32 0.34 0.29 0.31 0.34 0.3 0.32 0.33 14.5 14.0 13.1 15.0 14.1 13.1 14.8 13.9 13.4
36.4 0.30 0.32 0.34 0.29 0.31 0.33 0.29 0.31 0.33 14.9 14.0 13.2 15.0 14.3 13.5 15.0 14.1 13.3
39.2 0.29 0.32 0.34 0.29 0.31 0.33 0.30 0.32 0.33 15.1 13.9 13.2 15.0 14.3 13.4 14.8 14.1 13.6

24.6 33.5 0.29 0.31 0.34 0.29 0.32 0.34 0.30 0.32 0.33 16.9 15.7 14.8 16.8 15.7 14.6 16.6 15.7 15.1
36.4 0.29 0.32 0.34 0.3 0.32 0.34 0.29 0.31 0.33 16.9 15.7 14.7 16.5 15.5 14.6 16.8 15.7 14.9
39.2 0.29 0.32 0.33 0.30 0.32 0.33 0.30 0.32 0.33 16.9 15.6 14.8 16.7 15.6 14.8 16.8 15.6 15.2
a
Nominal stitch length (cm).
b
Machine gauge (needles per inch).


Fig. 3 Variation of spirality in fabrics with respect to fabric
tightness factor and yarn twist level
KOTHARI et al.: SPIRALITY OF COTTON PLAIN KNITTED FABRICS


233
sufficiently high accuracy in estimating spirality as a
function of tex, stitch length, twist and gauge giving
the R
2
values as 0.95 and 0.97 respectively.

3.3 Validation of Predictive Models
In order to validate the predictive Eq.(5), authors
replicated a part of the total experiment by randomly
selecting all nine types of yarns from the parent stock
and knitted 12 single jersey samples with various
stitch lengths and gauges. The fabrics were scoured,
dyed and finished to nominal width following the
same route of chemical processing as adopted in the
main study. The fabric parameters of the replicated
samples and the error% from their model values are
furnished in Table 5. It is observed that the highest
and the lowest error% are 3.05 and (-)2.71. The
overall error percentage is low enough to make us
believe that the prediction of spirality in the fabrics
and its variation can be done quite satisfactorily in
response to change in various controlling parameters
i.e. yarn count, yarn twist, stitch length and machine
gauge. Similarly, for the model represented by Eq.(4),
the highest and lowest error% are found to be 6.19
and 0.69 respectively.

4 Conclusion
4.1 Repeated washings and tumble drying cause
an increase in the spirality, depending on the level of
twist present in the constituent yarns as well as the
amount of tightness present in the fabric structure.
4.2 Lower loop length, higher machine gauge and
coarser count reduce the spirality, as tightness of
fabric construction imposes restrictions on the loops
to get distorted.
4.3 Increasing twist factor increases twist
liveliness in yarn leading to large spirality angle. This
effect is further facilitated in the fabrics with larger
stitch length and/or with finer yarn and/or knitted on a
machine with coarser gauge.
4.4 An empirical model has been developed to
estimate the spirality of cotton plain knitted fabrics
with sufficient accuracy.

Acknowledgement
The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial
support from SERC Division, Department of Science
& Technology, Ministry of Science & Technology,
Government of India, for this study.

References
1 Primentas A, Indian J Fibre Text Res, 28 (2003) 55.
2 Celik O, Ucar N & Erlugruls S, Fibres Text Eastern Eur, 13
(3) (2005) 51.
3 Buhler G & Haussler W, Knit Technol, 7(6) (1985) 373 and 8
(1986) 41.
4 De Araujo M D & Smith G W, Text Res J, 59 (1989) 247.
5 Davis W & Edwards C H, J Text Inst, 25 (1934) T122.
6 Lord P R, Mohamed M H & Ajgaonkar D B, Text Res J, 44
(1974) 405.
7 Oinuma R & Takeda H, J Text Mech Soc Japan (Eng edn),
34 (3) (1988) 74.
8 Banerjee P K & Alaiban T S, Text Res J, 58 (1988) 287.
9 Heap S A, Greenwood P F, Leah R D, Eaton J T, Stevens J C
& Keher P, Text Res J, 53(1983) 109.
10 Tao J, Dhingra R C, Chan C K & Abbas M S, Text Res J,
67(1) (1997) 57.

Table 5 Validation of the empirical models
Fabric Specifications


Stitch length
measured, cm
Spirality angle
calculated
from Eq. (5)
Spirality angle
calculated
from Eq. (4)
Measured
angle of
spirality, deg
Error 1
%
Error 2
%

24.61tex/33.5 TTF/16 G/0.3 SL 0.298 12.92 12.19 13.0 0.59 6.19
19.68tex/33.5 TTF/20 G/0.34 SL 0.335 19.62 19.98 20.25 3.13 1.30
16.4 tex/33.5 TTF/24 G/0.32 SL 0.318 19.78 19.80 20.0 1.10 0.97
19.68tex/36.4TTF /16 G/0.32 SL 0.315 21.97 22.23 22.0 0.14 (-)1.04
24.61tex/36.4 TTF/20 G/0.3 SL 0.308 13.09 13.52 13.0 (-)0.72 (-)4.04
16.4 tex/36.4 TTF/20 G/0.34 SL 0.336 28.24 27.80 28.0 (-)0.85 0.69
24.6 tex/39.2 TTF/24 G/0.3 SL 0.305 12.29 12.66 12.0 (-)2.42 (-)5.49
19.68tex/39.2 TTF/24 G/0.34 SL 0.33 24.36 24.69 25.0 2.53 1.25
16.4 tex/39.2 TTF/16 G/0.3 SL 0.293 26.17 26.02 27.0 3.06 3.62
16.4 tex/33.5 TTF/16 G/0.32 SL 0.312 22.11 22.28 22.5 1.72 0.96
16.4 tex/36.4 TTF/24 G/0.3 SL 0.31 22.36 22.67 22.0 (-)1.62 (-)3.04
19.68tex/39.2 TTF/20 G/0.34 SL 0.34 27.34 27.95 27.0 (-)1.25 (-)3.52
Error 1 is the difference between values calculated from Eq. (5) and measured values. Error 2 is the difference between values
calculated from Eq. (4) and measured values.