LITERATURE REVIEW

After Sales Service: Customer service is the provision of service to customers before, during and after a purchase. According to Turban et al. (2002), "Customer service is a series of activities designed to enhance the level of customer satisfaction – that is, the feeling that a product or service has met the customer expectation." The importance of customer service may vary by product or service, industry and customer. The perception of success of such interactions will be dependent on employees "who can adjust themselves to the personality of the guest," according to Micah Solomon. From the point of view of an overall sales process engineering effort, customer service plays an important role in an organization's ability to generate income and revenue. From that perspective, customer service should be included as part of an overall approach to systematic improvement. A customer service experience can change the entire perception a customer has of the organization. Some have argued that the quality and level of customer service has decreased in recent years, and that this can be attributed to a lack of support or understanding at the executive and middle management levels of a corporation and/or a customer service policy. To address this argument, many organizations have employed a variety of methods to improve their customer satisfaction levels, and other key performance indicators (KPIs). Customer support Customer support is a range of After Sales Services to assist customers in making cost effective and correct use of a product.[5] It includes assistance in planning, installation, training, trouble shooting, maintenance, upgrading, and disposal of a product. Regarding technology products such as mobile phones, televisions, computers, software products or other electronic or mechanical goods, it is termed technical support. Automated customer service Customer service may be provided by a person (e.g., sales and service representative), or by automated means. Examples of automated means are Internet sites. An advantage with automated means is an increased ability to provide service 24-hours a day, which can, at least, be a complement to customer service by persons. Another example of automated customer service is by touch-tone phone, which usually involves a main menu, and the use of the keypad as options (i.e. "Press 1 for English, Press 2 for Spanish", etc.)

but the challenge is to select a few which reflects your overall strategy. For example. Technology has made it increasingly easier for companies to obtain feedback from their customers. In addition to reflecting your strategy it should also enable staff to limit their focus to the areas that really matter. Examples of customer service by artificial means are automated online assistants that can be seen as avatars on websites. cost saving." Basically the goal is to not only help the customer have a good experience. Community blogs and forums give customers the ability to give detailed explanations of both negative as well as positive experiences with a company/organization. measured by the right Key Performance Indicator. An automated online assistant with avatarproviding automated customer service on a web page. One of the most important aspects of a customer service KPI is that of what is often referred to as the "Feel Good Factor.However. This has been shown to be useful. is to ensure that you have focused your attention on the right key areas. has invited passengers to send text messages whilst riding the bus. one of the UK's leading travel companies. and a major underlying technology to such systems is natural language processing. so it's easy to shortchange them emotionally. thus making it far more likely that the customer will return next time. It must also be done in such a way that staff sincerely believe that they can make a difference with the effort. Automated means can be based entirely on self service. It can avail for enterprises to reduce their operating and training cost. National Express. These are driven by chatterbots. but may also be based on service by more or less means of artificial intelligence.g. But this lack of visual and tactile presence makes it even more crucial to create a sense of personal. Instant feedback Recently. Several key points are listed as follows: . A challenge in working with customer service. service improving etc. "Online customers are literally invisible to you (and you to them). The focus must be of those KPIs. There is no challenge to come up with a lot of meaningful KPIs. many organizations have implemented feedback loops that allow them to capture feedback at the point of experience. which will deliver the most value to the overall objective. a challenge has been to maintain and/or enhance the personal experience while making use of the efficiencies of online commerce. human-to-human connection in the online arena. but to offer them an experience that exceeds their expectations. e. as it allows companies to improve their customer service before the customer defects. in the Internet era.

it helps them to know that you care and it will leave them with a "Feel Good Factor" that we are searching for. These developments are forcing organizations to take closer look at their marketing channel strategy including addressing the issue of how to distribute their products and offer associated after-sales service support. Make sure to look your customers in the eye. Many value-conscious consumers are demanding that a company’s products offer more value than its competitor’s products not only in its design and manufacturing. 2. make sure that you don't leave your customer with an unanswered question. .1. distribution and service support options available for a product are key determinations in consumers’ product purchase decision (Loomba. It shows that we are listening to them and hearing what they are saying. Know your product – Know what products/service you are offering back to front. And of course smiling is more inviting than a blank look or frown. In other words. it shows that we don't care. and/or independent services) to ensure that a product is available for trouble-free use to consumers over its useful life span. Anticipate Guest Needs – Nothing surprises your customer more than an employee going the extra mile to help them. If we have a negative body language when we interact with others. Management experts and marketing channel analysts alike agree that distribution and after-sale service support functions do increasingly warrant significant attention because they make up for an integral part of the product package (Loomba. AFTER-SALES SERVICE The last few decades have seen a growing trend toward aggressive global competition. It is okay to say "I don't know. Always look for ways to go above and beyond the expectations of your customer. Increasingly. On the other hand. be an information expert. 3. and accelerated technological changes. increased marketplace demands. In doing so. after-sales service support issues entail all activities undertaken by service support providers (manufacturers. Body Language/Communication – Most of the communication that we relay to others is done through body language." but it should always be followed up by "but let me find out" or possibly "but my friend knows!" Whatever the situation may be. retailers. Two of the most important aspects of positive body language are smiling and eye contact. but also in product delivery and support. 1998). 1998). Products sale and distribution issues typically involve specific mechanisms for pricing a product and distributing it to the end consumer.

which will enable a challenger to attack and overtake the leader. Can provide a competitive advantage. Is essential for achieving customer satisfaction and good long-term relationship – as identified by a number of researches. A number of examples of how companies have own market . 2. industry experts caution that too many companies mismanage the total cost of providing superior after-sales service support and so undo part of the competitive edge won via technology and pricing (Landau. is important for because it: 1. As product differentiation becomes harder in many markets. 1995). 1987). However. 3. Herve Mathe (1999) also emphasizes on after-sales service as a strong marketing tools. or simply service. Pual (1993) believes an essential part of marketing strength is service support. Therefore for using this advantages in a best way specially in a depressed or highly competitive market. after-sales service. which now produce in the same low-cost regions of the world (Lele and Sheth. of direct and indirect after sales support activities. Production. thus reducing the effectiveness. etc. According to Goffin (1999 & 2001) Customer support. they expect certain levels of post purchase support to go along with it. Defining those expectation is critical to marketing success and will be even more important when markets mature. This is true in most high-tech industries but also in some low-tech sectors. Supply. Can be a major source of revenue. although it often receives too little management attention. which help firms to be competitive in the market. which help all firms in this matter.Today competitive market caused that many company re-evaluate their strategy to be more differentiate from others. After. companies are increasingly looking to customer support as a potential source of competitive advantage. Service is proving to be a source of competitive advantage that enables firms to remain leaders in a highly competitive market or to create differentiation. After-sales service support is being recognized as one of the competitive differentiators for most firms. After sales. which is also referred to as product support. R&D. the outcome of an inadequate balance between service function integration and separation brings about conflicting objectives between the different parties involved in the ‘service chain’: Marketing. Sales. When customers buy a product. technical support. He mentions. and profitability. Many new breeds of high-tech companies are now discovering that they need to differentiate themselves from rivals in appealing to customers and that technology alone will not do it anymore.sales service is one of the elements. This may lead to internal conflicts which progressively intensify.

In this regard Tore (2003) stats. Customer satisfaction is. in other words. which is another main target of each company can be achieved by good after sales service. but by the total value received. Customers – whether internal or external – consider service a collective. efficiently and effectively. Avinder (1996) believes. since they know their investment will pay off in terms of competitive advantage and customer retention.effective. Now. (Jennifer . every person who interacts with customers in any way must have the appropriate skills to respond. and by the quality of the interaction and relationship experience throughout the service life of the product. Providing good and reliable product. Various studies indicate that upset customers may have big effect on sales of company. 5. As the relationships customers have with companies continue to widen. the primary rationale of the manufacturers for offering after-sales service is the need to support their products. Many companies have begun to align entire organization to deliver excellent service. increasingly. Play a role in increasing the success rate of new products. Service traditionally has been considered a post-sale capability. 1994). all firms try to put all their attention to keep their customers satisfied and fulfill their needs and wants as much as possible. anyone who interacts with a customer is in a position either to jeopardize or to enhance that relationship. According to a major study conducted by the conference Board. companies developing products and services need to understand what consequences and benefits product attributes have on customer needs and value. after sales customer service is becoming the order-wining criteria for most firms and is now being recognized as an important research priority.share through good support can be found in the trade press. 4. not only decided by value and performance of hardware purchased. and how they affect customer expectation and satisfaction. One of the strong tools which help all companies in this matter is providing best after-sales service. primarily focused on problem resolution or providing technical assistance. To ensure quality service. Therefore. to customer needs (Jennifer Potter. Proper after sales service helps companies in customer retention too. organizational responsibility rather than a functional or departmental one. Increased competition within many industries has led to increased attention on customer service. these definitions are too limited. Needs to be fully evaluated during new product development. In fact after sales service adds the product’s value and is often treated as integral part of the product. as good product design can make customer support more efficient and cost.

The rapid diffusion of technological change makes it increasingly difficult to maintain a competitive advantage based on product features or design.potter. therefore. (Parasuraman. if not resolved. managers are also beginning to realize that customers will buy more often and more quantities from a company they feel will support them and give maximum post sale satisfaction.  Second. high-growth opportunity. The after market is a crucial ingredient for success in international marketing. increasing globalization of markets. both customers and . e.  Third. many U. a sharp contrast to its historical image as a backwater meriting little attention from top management.S. the focus is now shifting from merely to customers to serving them effectively. problem diagnosis. As a result. And. product failure restoration. service is perceived as high-profit. The recent and ongoing changes in the business environment – most notably escalating competition. causes dissatisfaction and less satisfied customer. After sale service. Finally.g. firms target after-sales service as a key area for investment. etc. The service function therefore attempts to recover the customer satisfaction to the level it was before the occurrences of problems (Gronroos. we may see the main important effects of after-sales service in improvement of each firm by Paul (1993) classification. This reality is perhaps the primary impetus for the increasing attention that relationship marketing has been receiving from both practitioners and researchers. and more demanding customers – are making it difficult to compete effectively on the basis of traditional marketing mix variables alone. 1994) Customer long-term retention will really helps companies to be more competitive in the market and enable them to implement their entire marketing plan. after sales service is a recovery process that attempts to resolve a customer problem. With profit margins for equipment sales under pressure from foreign and domestic competition. expert assistance to resolve a problem. 2000). 1998) After sales service is often in response to a customer problem. problem with using the product. given that long-term customer retention is a key aim of relationship marketing. is an important aspect of a company’s marketing mix to build loyalty and repeat business. which. Therefore. which expressed the four main important aspects of after sales service as follows:  First. Companies are also realizing that technological and feature advantages are short lived.

and office automation. and create a major profit squeeze in key segments of such information age industries as telecommunications. firms’ abilities to provide service support have increased significantly. Customer expectations will create opportunities for innovative products that meet changing service support needs and will increase competitive pressures to continually improve product reliability and serviceability. force manufacturers to unbundled the prices of products and support services. Customer expectations are increasing and buyers today are demanding ever- higher levels of service support.  Fourth. Moreover. computers. They will make conventional service contracts and endangered species.manufacturers focus on service as the key differentiator. .

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