The Byzantine Grammarians Author(s): R. H. Robins Source: Cahiers Ferdinand de Saussure, No. 51 (1998), pp.

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the renowned historian. pp. and women a inmaintaining bureaucracy.H. In the last century Lecky. despite the success of the Byzantine bureaucracy civilization for over one thousand years in the face of what the western Latins did term of abuse forobstructive 1:14) and today? Byzantine? has become a standard politics ? (1869 lars in their preservation of classical manuscripts and in the teaching of classical in the pre Greek. the of the Byzantine scho acknowledges utility Sandys (1958: 1. Robins THE BYZANTINE GRAMMARIANS The Byzantines have had a ?bad sympathetic appreciation ral understanding of Byzantine press?. The now classic account civilization by Burckhardt (1860) makes only passing reference to of Renaissance of so low a levelof the Greek lan dealingwith theliterature gizes tohis readersfor This content downloaded from 198. 1970). 29-38 R.222 on Fri. through the works of scho lars suchas Sir StevenRunciman (1933 . dull. even though today there is a more of their visual art and their architecture. ? pedantic. (1916: Pauly-Wissowa vain to look for any originality of thought in theirwork. 20 Sep 2013 08:33:52 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .CFS 51 (1998 [1999]). blundering as they too often are?. Krumbacher.27. face to his authoritative Geschichte der byzantinischen Literatur (1897 : v) apolo guage.438) reluctantly to the history of linguistics. a contributor to in that it is 1749) dismisses the Byzantine grammarians. More closely related middle of thefifteenth in 1204 andwhat theyfailed todo in the Sir John century. dismissed Byzantine as ?a monotonous story of the intrigues of priests. eunuchs.168. and a more gene civilization as a whole.

Though much and printed texts to enable us to appreciate wrongly toDionysius Thrax. I have noticed how few are the references to Byzantine grammar in the specialist periodical lite rature of Byzantine studies. treated on the same lines and with the same categories as had and Apollonius. But the Byzantines This content downloaded from 198. In the early sixth century. This is what the Byzantine gram had to devise and compose for themselves. of which some survive today. Institutiones grammaticae. and us. ascribing rightly Byzantine scholars inherited works on They also had thecomplete orthography. source work remains to be done. It was books the Byzantines who created usable school and university textbooks to scholarshipof the It is the contention of thispaper thatthe contribution in West with such Greek grammar. and with renewal of Greek from the fourteenth century and on.). The western Latin world had collapsed Athens was soon to decline into a small and rather unimportant city . for its bee-keepers ? (Hercher 1873: 722).27. perhaps belonging accepted amounts to is a brief summary account (fifteen pages in print) of classical Greek (c. phonology. when theEastern Empire was still in theory Latin speaking. What it text. syntax. Priscian greatly admired been developed and used by Dionysius as his foremost authority on grammar. for the in Italy and then in the rest of Renaissance Europe.what expect sub to ? students do sequent more attention should be paid Byzantine grammarians was a positive one. which passed through several editions to leave them.andmorphology. with a final and to the third or fourth century A.C. But and repeatedly referred to Apollonius none of these texts provided a comprehensive book on Greek grammar concise enough to be used as an actual school textbook. as one Byzantine visitor found it. inclu syntax by Apollonius Dyscolus ding his four books On Syntax. If such august predecessors speak thus. a teacher of Greek in theRoman world of around 100 B. Priscian's volumes include Latin phonology. morphology. as a teachers' resource book for those in charge of tea ching Latin toGreek speaking pupils. marians men Byzantines realized their duty to preserve and to cherish the classical Greek lan guage and literature of the former unified Roman Empire.D. we have now a number of edited teachers of Greek studies and evaluate their achievement. ?The city which was once the home of learned is now best known were still Roma?oi..222 on Fri.D.30 Cahiers Ferdinandde Saussure 51 (1998) the contribution of Byzantium to the teaching and learning of Greek in the West can we (1944: 118-119). .168. they did not inherit but they endowed the them. Priscian wrote his massive eighteen volume or theshort T?chn? grammatik?. and that to them by western mediaevalists and by historians of linguistics. the guardians of a vanished culture. 20 Sep 2013 08:33:52 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 200 A.

The famous lady disliked it intensely. 1. with rules rela as ting to their formation. sometimes in question-and-answer literature for the use of school pupils. But itwas this sort of teaching that trained pupils in ecclesiastical and in secular life for their detailed and accurate copying and explanation of texts from the classics.3). husband of.g.. e. and aster. The account of her variety of pupils taught in this way is well presented in Anna's father's orphan school in her Alexiad.?. It is a common noun expressing qualities.some ofwhich hardly theoretically possible inflections of this sort of grammatical information were incorporated with other form. and must have filled more it than one sch?dos. It has four the following pieces of information : : a male human. From a single verse of Homer or from a Psalm pupils would have a complex of grammatical and lexical information assigned to a succession of themajor words (cp. for reasons similar to those given historian Anna Comnena heart (Reifferscheid today by people opposed to rote instruction and learning by 1884: 293-294). the husband of a wife. (Robins 1993: 130-135). saviour. 4). running Dionysius's guist more pages thantheall toobrieforiginal (Uhlig 1901. taken from Psalm ? Blessed man not in the counsel of the includes walk who does is the ungodly . important for the lin on are comments of the massive series scholia. board. Robins :The Byzantine Grammarians 31 In their work. T?chn?. they prepared guage of and verbs. chapter 7). Sch?de were part of thematerial and themeans of teaching. so that ancient standard Attic Greek should be able tomaintain itself in the face of varieties of koine now being spoken and written. and an adult meanings man. such more two of than pages s?ter.g. 1: A typical sch?dos. rather like the slates of earlier English schooldays.222 on Fri. An?r is a noun ofmasculine gender. Most explanations. written on items of classical and Biblical boards (sch?de). of theverb typtd (strike). listing also the forms available in their separate subclasses. and relationships e. Robins 1993. 20 Sep 2013 08:33:52 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .27. This content downloaded from 198. are given.R. into extended comments on information. preservation and teaching were supported by commentaries and the province of the so-called scholiasts. star. listing all the ever appear Gobbets in classical literature (Uhlig 1889. The technique of composing these was called schedographia. courage. which was steadily approaching contemporary Umgangsprache nouns tables Greek of the modern inflectional Greek state. a courageous man. The declined forms both Attic and Homeric. based on the word an?r (man).168. with additional information about similar nouns.All this fills rather print.H. and the lapsed standards of contemporary or recent literature could be resisted and corrected.. intofar In their attempt to preserve the correct forms of classical Greek against the the lan (koin?. Most famous of Theodosius and most used were theKan?nes (late fourth century).

or rather on avoiding grammatical mistakes).27. and Theodore of Gaza (fifteenth century. and moods of theGreek verbs. Glykys. voices. During most of the Byzantine centuries the theme and the purpose of grammar writing were the presentation in concise form of the standards set by the classical authors. published 1525). and summaries of Greek syntax were made and. (Uhlig 1878-1910). Notable among these are John Planudes. and Chrysoloras of the fourteenth century (Jahn 1839 . it natural for the Byzantine grammarians to focus their attention on the case inflections of nouns and their several meanings. by those who could read Latin. on the cases of Greek nouns and pro on the tenses. awaiting a cataloguing process to Census Latin Bursill-Hall's of medieval grammatical manuscripts comparable (1981). from by the grammarians from Apollonius such grammars as we have access to list the eight word classes Priscian. Maximus Bachmann 1828. foregrounding the avoidance of : mistakes (solecisms) Peri synt?xeos to? l?gou etoiper? to? me soloik?zein (On the of the sentence. of speech) of theT?chn?. classical Greek had In their intention tomaintain This content downloaded from 198. Chrysoloras 1512). minimal constituents of syntactic structures.with special emphasison thenoun and theverb as the Typically (parts son.4). hoping elementary Michael Syncellus dedicated hisM?thodos per? tes to? l?gou synt?xeostohis that he had written a fuller work syntax. Some of the earlier Byzantine grammarians' work and the extensive scho have been publishedbyDonnet (1982 . syntax was the grammatical correctness of classical Greek. Particular attention and nouns. Others have come down and post-Renaissance Renaissance remains a large number of Byzantine grammars inmanuscript form in and in other universities and monasteries.168. As we know. introduction toGreek than some of his predecessors in an Gregory of Corinth ismore explicit in his title. Modern and Michael Syncellus Gregory of Corinth (ninth and twelfth century respectively) mentary. was paid to case meanings and the specific functions of different cases constructed with a single verb or preposition. The morphological inflections of nouns and verbs were tabulated in extenso by Theodosius and by his commentators Choeroboscus and Sophronius of the ninth century (Uhlig 1889-1904. This was an area inwhich the earlier delicacy and precision of the classical language was being lost or rules even deliberately broken for the sake of vividness in style and effect.222 on Fri.32 There Cahiers Ferdinandde Saussure 51 (1998) Greek lia on Dionysius's T?chn? have been published in volumes of Grammatici Graeci critical editions of the texts of two grammarians. 1967)with fullcriticalapparatusand com to us from earlier edited and printed texts by scholars. 20 Sep 2013 08:33:52 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

InEnglish. genitive. governing three cases with subtle differences in the basic meaning of the preposition. by the ? ? ? comes the with the of side from para Kyriou. ? tomake light of ?. meaning genitive my help from the side of the Lord). to share This content downloaded from 198. and several prepositions were tricasual. to language out of available object language continued.222 on Fri. as in koin?n? soi tou ?grou. Prepositions and transi tive verbs governed at least one oblique case. But he points out that koin?n? with the genitive is a specific use of the partitive genitives with a with you). More the benefactive use (koin?n? t?u ?grou. Robins :The Byzantine Grammarians 33 three oblique cases. Latin dativus ethicus.H. I share a field). and at/with. Examples be carried towards. with the accusative ? to endure ?.27. concept government early syntactician was variously rendered by a number of verbs as the creation of a technical meta tions maintained are ph?resthai. and the great of the dative the koine led to the disappearance in his Karl Krumbacher preface forwriting about a form of apologized Byzantinist as it does the Greek language which constructs ap?. This development case inmodern Greek. and in the opinion of the grammarians going wrong. he distinguishes this from of the dative. now regularly made part of the grammar of Greek and Latin (quid mihi Celsus agit. some verbs governed two. But thiswas changing. JohnGlykys (Jahn 1939: 22-27). ? to the side of ? or ? to the presence of ? with the accu sative ( par? se elthon. to demand . allmy hope rests While discussing the partitivegenitivewith verbs like koin?n?. and ?at the side of ? with the over much of the semantic content of case endings. and chomai: with the genitive with the dative ?to support oneself with?. I share the field with you. Of course the classical authors were intuitively aware of the semantic distinc the the by oblique cases .R. what is Celsus doing?). to the best ofmy knowledge for the first time. I came into your presence).where dative (par? soi p?sa h? ?lpismou. a later grammarian. from. The Byzantines went into detail. in themetaphor of one writer like a river overrun in ning its banks and obliterating established paths and channels. 20 Sep 2013 08:33:52 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . we can prepositions have taken content of side or presence with the specific meanings of the common compare the He also lists threemeanings of the verb an? prepositions from. tellme. (in)to. accusative. third the of the around worked who century. of. For example Gregory of Corinth (twelfth cen side tury) illustrated the tricasual semantics of the Greek preposition par?. we in relation to do not find an explicit analysis of verbal and prepositional meanings the different cases. morphologically distinct. and by the time of Apollonius Dyscolus.but at least in his surviving works. and dative (we may leave aside here the special position of the vocative). today. and apaite?n. identi significantly fied. the so-called ethic dative.168. with the accusative.

1260-1310) who seen is by many linguists as the exponent. dative and accusative respectively (kat? tina physiken ments to thiseffect. grammarians gradually extended the specific local meanings of the cases to cover their temporal and more abstract uses. whereas tb^ da^ve can be used with any verb. I am listening to this for you (to tell you later). the dative. of the explicit localist locative relations the original and basic meanings of the theory of case.222 on Fri.t? ako?d genik?i ka? aitiatik?i syntass?menon). dative and nings or Grundbedeutungen the Greek accusative.34 Cahiers Ferdinandde Saussure 51 (1998) specific verb. down from. have 1828: 122). Some argue that these words do not convey a loca pt?seis (Bachmann listmeaning.27. But though themeaning is clear enough the omission of both prepositions at once is rather odd: ??Please fax me the Secretary this letter?. Trojans Ilioneus toweep in their homes. while yet others. Itwas. Tr?es. Each can be omitted as in specific dative meaning. oblique by degrees to temporal and thenmore general and more InEnglish theethicdative meaning isusually represented byfor. ? Please fax (for) me this letter to the ? Secretary ?. ifnot the inventor.My own opinion. and in recorded historical changes one can see a progressive delocalization of prepositional meanings : Latin de.168. as in akou? soi t?de. he writes. making cases in extended Greek. genitive. aga?ou Ilioneospatriph?ldika? say forme to the father and mother of noble the concept of giving. and Please fax (to) me a letter when you arrive?. ? where ?? and ? whither ?? have had questions assigned to them the three oblique cases. One classical instance of these two uses of the dative in a single sentence appears in metri goemenai en meg?roisin. by to. came ? and over the tomean also ? about ? or ? Modern French has years in concerning come to a nearly complete some uses in grammaticalization (il est honteux de men to it is shameful tell tir. hai tre?s ha?tai er?teseis. for example.. and the abstract relationships. t? p?then ka? po? ka? p? t?s tre?s plagias ekl?rosanto which is set out inRobins (1993: 215-227). however. Planudes states that it is ?by some natural agreement? that the three ? whence ??. But the speci fic cases governed by specific verbs are regularly rendered by synt?ssesthai met?. may ferentmetalinguistic ? attract ? (eph?lkesthai) all verbs. to be constructed with (?sti . 20 Sep 2013 08:33:52 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . This content downloaded from 198. where themeaning is ?for someone's benefit?. lies).. Homer (Iliad 14: 510-502) eip?menai moi. The evolution of the localist theory of case in the work of Planudes is a matter of controversy and scholars have taken up different positions on the subject. is thatin theirsearchforbasic mea for the threeGreek oblique cases. Historically it is not to believe thatmankind's first use of language was unreasonable mainly local. for pragmatic reasons . and others say that he has done no more than formalize earlier state accepted his words as a presentation of localist theory. genitive. the later grammarian Maximus Planudes (c.beginning withHjelmslev (1935: 10-12). and he employs a dif term for the two syntactic relations .

De lingua Latina 9. In English it is appropriate ? ?I written of and had for millions existed has ?The solar years just system say This content downloaded from 198. single dimension.1977. but purposive activity predomi is nearer the in reflexive activity. b. two lin of such verb guists are represented debating the specifically reflexive meanings forms as lo?somai. under Aristotelian a that of and under tense in Greek all Latin. der Personen der Sprachwelt zu einander aus. bring not from this dis free himself Maximus did time. These are irrelevant.27. The Stoics aspectual differences (cp. But mainstream influences. indicate both temporal and was reading and / have read). (Bachmann Despite their use of some Stoic terminology in the naming of the tenses (e. even if in some recently. by the use of temporal adverbs like arti. I shall wash myself. a dialogue in Platonic style. 10. d.where he distinguishes localist theories from others such as ?antilocalist? relying on the primacy of such as as and effect basic concepts meanings. In another book. and future. sought to grammatical writers. pha.1984. long ago. tinguished investigation.H.R. Blank 1987 . I have written.Chanet different viewpointsare tobe foundin Murru Robins. very much under Stoic influence. past. mainstream the grammarians sought to bring all tense imperfectus). interpretation of Planudes's Anderson 1973.48). On grammar. thus distinguishing perfect g?gra single meanings from egegraphein. concentrating on the future and aorist tenses where it ismorphologically a to has This been and continues be from the long topic for passive. meanings. but he clearly writing and time of reference to a past or future time in what is said or written 1828 :6-7). 1985. cause. 20 Sep 2013 08:33:52 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . in realized this and set itout clearly. 1979a. 136): ?Die Kasus-Endungen Verhaltnisse der Nomina. One must distinguish the time of speaking or to writing and the time relative to the event referred to. entirely saw the need to distinguish time of speaking or torting framework. like those of many other languages. paratatik?s. Robins :The Byzantine Grammarians 35 dr?cken auch auf Zeit und Ursache ?bertragenen. In both nates verbs some experiencing or passivity is involved. and so he argues that the reflexive middle active voice than the passive. Maximus also tried to analyse the distinctive meaning of the Greek middle dis voice. sen or ?kpalai. of dimension the within time. I shall be washed. and palai tences they fit the facts described. and louthesomai. Maximus Planudes also penetrated more deeply into the tense meanings of the Greek verbs than had been done since the Stoic grammarians of the classical age. object. In English / as did Varr?.222 on Fri. his study of the Latin verb (cp.96-97. The historical subject.1993. present.168. case treatment of meanings remains a matter of debate . h.? The Inmodern times the localist case theory has been takenup by Bopp (1833: questionwas takenup again byHjelmslev (1936: 36-61).g. Greek tense forms. 1974. Greek and Latin.

I would say ? I had been writing ?. Several remained as teachers of Greek.3. Chrysoloras's declensional paradigms have in detail. In the greater part of the Byzantine Middle Ages. the Synkrisis. but ifI had been asked at the time West. probably written before the end of the fourteenth century. However Turkish in the later fourteenth and the fifteenth centuries bilateral contacts intense. Comparison. and Priscian. long used in Latin. 4. likening the two cities. been the lastjoint productof linguistic scholarshipin theunitedEmpire. And in Greek we find such examples as what men need (perfect referring to the far distant past). but if asked at sunrise yesterday what I had finished doing. By this time Latin grammatical ideas were being taken over by the Byzantines. and Ton d?ontaikateskeu?kasin. This replaced the much less systematic listing of fifty-six nominal subclasses in Theodosius's been altered K?nones. If I am asked what I had finished doing at sunrise yesterday. Teachers of Greek arrived in Italy as refugees from the like Theodore of Gaza. writing?. Priscian's Latin grammar had I would have what I was doing then. This content downloaded from 198.36 you a letter when Cahiers Ferdinandde Saussure 51 (1998) you rang me up?. Greek and Latin grammarians had been working independently of one another. Memorabilia Homer.222 on Fri. but the principle. in particular Chrysoloras. has been consistently and ?New Rome? (Constantinople) and urging close mutual who was from Byzantium in the negotiations of Chrysoloras. 20 Sep 2013 08:33:52 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .168. Planudes made the distinction very clear. or unhelpful as with theCrusades in general and most eccle siastical conversations.27.3 . but generally theywere either disastrous as in 1209. and printed in the next. Latin became years when Greek learning declined to a very low level in the almost extinct in the East. Periodical political contacts maintained. said ?I am writing ?. In his Er?temata Chrysoloras presented Greek morphology in general very much in the form set out in the T?chn?. amist had come down over to his eyes (pluperfect the almost immediate referring precedence) (Xenophon.his spiritleft him. like conquests. Renaissance. He also published an open letter written to the Byzantine Emperor. one is asked what he was doing at sunrise yesterday. Iliad 5. he would say ?I was if kat? d'ophthalm?n k?chyt'achlys. or as envoys. Runciman 1933 : were 232). but themorphology of Greek nouns was revised on the lines originating with Varr? and established by Donatus into declensions. leading up to the Council Florence (1439). question-and-answer.696). In the became much more responsible for the firstGreek grammar to be produced in the western theEr?temata. or by invitation. I would have said ? I have been writing ? (Bachmann 1828: 6-7). with different tense used in reference to the same event. ?Old Rome? support. save for a few Byzantine scholars (cp. have the carefully gods provided ?Epimel?s hoi ?nthropoi d' ?lipe psych?.

1944. itgave it its very name. 20 Sep 2013 08:33:52 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . This content downloaded from 198. Grammatici Graeci 2. Leipzig and Maximus 67-83.27. Cambridge University Press. Stuttgart :Frommann-Holzboog. Ludwig.M. Generative grammar in Europe. Berlin: D?mmler. : 1977. A census cripts. Anecdota Graeca 2. c. was The revival of Greek language and literature in Italy and then in the rest of wes ternEurope was a principal feature of theRenaissance as a whole .R. In memoriam Maximi Anderson. which was printed in 1525 and remained in print as a textbook into the nineteenth century. John. InDaniel Taylor (ed.168. Vergleichende Grammatik. In theirmaintenance sical Greek and its transfer back to western Europe the Byzantine grammarians and indispensable part inRenaissance culture. Phaidon Press. of linguisticsin theclassical oblique cases. Bursill-Hall. by general consent. Amsterdam: Bopp. and our careful and appre ciative study of their achievement. modern history. The civilization of the Renaissance. 1981.)..The history Benjamin 1833.). : Hinrichs.with theEuropean discovery of the Adresse de Vauteur: 65 Dome Hill Caterham GB SurreyCR3 6EF REFERENCES In Ferenz Kiefer & Planudis. Blank. Dordrecht: Reidel 20-47. Franz. Theodore of Gaza. 1828. teaching of clas Americas. began. The grammar of case. of medieval Latin grammatical 1987. 1973. Robins maintained volumes :The Byzantine Grammarians 37 in the teaching of Greek. Within the second fifty the lastof the Old World years of thefifteenth century of theRoman Empire fell in 1453 .H.200. L. Burckhardt. in 1492. A much fuller grammar of Greek in four written in the fourteenth century by a refugee from the East. They deserve our played a massive gratitude and respect forwhat they set themselves to do. Apollonius Oxford: manus Geoffrey.222 on Fri.. Italian enthusiasm for Greek and for the teachers of Greek was unbounded. and it established the structure of the classical curriculum in European uni versities and schools. Nicolas Ru wet (ed. and printing provided themeans for the of rapid dissemination material. Jacob (1860). Apollonius Bachmann. on the order and meaning of the period. See Uhlig. David Dyscolus.

C. Robins. Venice: Aldine Press. Techne grammatike. Jahn. Leipzig: Teubner..). The Byzantine grammarians. 1979a. 1873. Le trait? peri syntaxeos tou logou de Gr?goire le Syncelle. 100 B.). Paris: Firmin Didot. Literatur. 1897. c.27. Chrysoloras. The Cambridge Press.Rome: Institut historique belge. 20 Sep 2013 08:33:52 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Maxime Planude. Heilmann Linguists. 1958. teoria localista di Massimo Planude. 1982. Geschichte der byzantinishcen morals. See Uhlig. localiste? Histoire epist?mologie 1512. Dionysius Thrax. 1974. Sull'origine sique 48: 82-97. Karl. In 1984. New York: Hafner. August & Georg Wissowa. Indogermanischen Forschungen 84: 120-131. A history of European London: Longmans. See Bachmann della Murru. 1979b.38 Cahiers Ferdinandde Saussure 51 (1998) Chanet. A history of classical scholarship. of - the contribution of the Byzantine grammarians. Byzantine civilization. 1967. Hjelmslev. Rudolph. Sir Steven. 1828. 1935.). Theodorou grammatikes biblia D.222 on Fri. Bern: Krumbacher. 1884. 1993. Anne-Marie. Epistolographi Graeci. - Daniel Corinthe. Jenn. This content downloaded from 198.. Louis. La cat?gorie des cas. University Sandys. William. Theodore of Gaza.). Uhlig.). Runciman. 1525.168.2. 14thcentury. of the Eleventh International Congress 197-111. Augustus (ed.). Robert H. last Byzantine renaissance. Reifferscheid. Planudes. Stuttgart: Metzler. Cambridge: 1970. The case theory of Maximus Pauly. pour Sylvian linguistiques. Mat?riaux th?ories Lille des histoire (ed. Real encyclop?die 9. Aarhus: Universitetsvorlaget. 1878-1910. In Luigi Planudes. 1985. Sir John. 1839. M?nchen: Green Lecky. Manuel. Grammatici 1. Venice: Aldine Press. Le (ed.1. Albert (ed. Antiquit? clas 1916. &Co. Gustav (ed. Beck. Furio. their place in history. Planudea. Institut historique belge. langage 7: 27-148. Proceedings IlMulino Bologna: (ed. Ex Oriente Lux: : une et al. Graeci de Donnet. Leipzig: Teubner. Annae Comnenae Alexias. Grammatici Graeci. Berlin: Mouton de - Gruyter. London: Arnold. Joannis Glykae opus de syntaxeos ratione. Presses Universitaires 217-225. trait? de la construction de la phrase de Michel Rome: Hercher. Maximus 1869. 1933. Er?temata.

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