76 AUGUST 2013


A technical journal by Parsons Brinckerhoff employees and colleagues


The Futureto ofInnovation Cities and Pathways Pathways Innovation Urban Infrastructure

Table Transport of Contents Sector


Pathways to Innovation
Thinking Differently About Innovation Steve Denton........................................................................ 1 What Is Innovation and Why Is It Important to Parsons Brinckerhoff and Balfour Beatty? Alasdair MacDonald............................................................ 4 Innovative Approaches to Structures on the Metrolink Phase 3 Extensions Mungo Stacy......................................................................41 Analyzing the Impacts of Explosions on Dams and Levees James Parkes.....................................................................45 The William Barclay Parsons Fellowship and Innovation: A Personal Perspective Henry Russell.....................................................................48

Connected Vehicles: How Technology Will Transform Transportation Safety and Mobility (and sooner than you think) Scott Shogan........................................................................ 6 Innovative and Sustainable Ways of Managing Capacity on Our Urban Roadways Chuck Fuhs, Darren Henderson, David Ungemah ........... 9 Best Practice and New Directions in Building Information Modelling: Innovative Application of BIM for Rail Projects Andrew Powell....................................................................12 Exporting and Importing TOD Concepts: the Abu Dhabi Regional Rail Study Timothy Reynolds...............................................................17 Technology, Innovation, and Collaboration in Project Delivery Alan Hobson.......................................................................21 AUGUST 2013

Network Intelligence Solutions – Innovation to Meet the UK Water Supply Challenge Kathryn Vowles...................................................................50

Advancing the Understanding of Former Gasworks Through the Application of Award-Winning Forensic Research Russell Thomas..................................................................53 Carbon Emissions Reduction Hierarchy Emioshor Itoya, Katrina Hazell.........................................57 An Innovative Decision Framework for Addressing Climate Change in Our Communities Christopher Dorney, Justin Lennon, Mike Flood, Chin Lien.............................................................................62 Innovative Methods of Reducing Waste in Infrastructure and Building Projects Tim Danson, Scarlett Franklin..........................................67

Engineering Innovation in Building Projects - Fuel Cell Technology in Mission Critical Project, Hong Kong Michael Ming Fun Waye, Sally Man-Wai Yuen.................24 Solar Powered Absorption Air Conditioning Systems Chun-Fai Chan, Matthew Ngan.........................................26 Efficient Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulations of Natural Ventilation Across Wards in a Hospital Building George Xu, Zhengwei Ge, Tony Tay...................................30 Renewable Energy and Sustainability Solutions Toward Attaining Zero-Carbon Emissions Buildings Thomas K.C. Chan.............................................................34

Planning in the Hands of the Community: A New Approach to 'Bottom-Up' Plan-Making Jon Herbert.........................................................................71 Social Media and NEPA Public Involvement: Opportunities to Innovate Stakeholder Engagement Eileen R. Barron, Shane Peck...........................................74 Using Innovation and Collaboration to Solve a DecadesOld Transportation Problem in Roswell, Georgia Jonathan Reid, Valerie Birch, Alice Wiggins......................76 Creating Connections With Mobile Applications Thomas L. Coleman...........................................................79

Innovative Structures and the Need for Robustness Jon Shave...........................................................................38

Call for Articles................................................................82

Thinking Differently About Innovation
by Steve Denton, Bristol, UK, +44(0)117-933-9129,

Innovation lies at the core of Parsons Brinckerhoff’s heritage. Our ability to innovate successfully is an essential strength that has fuelled our reputation and growth from the early pioneering projects of the late 19th century through to our global business activities today. It is an essential part of successful everyday business, and a means through which we make beneficial change happen. Over recent years we have seen the pace of innovation increase, and we see that trend set to continue. Innovation matters to our clients and it matters deeply to us. As a company, we view innovation broadly, valuing incremental innovation and breakthroughs that create fundamental change for our clients and communities. We recognise innovation pioneered by individuals and innovation created across communities of collaborators. We value the inspiration of new ideas and the discipline required to realise their potential. When I reflect on my own career, innovation has been a common theme across many of my most exciting and fulfilling projects: from the development of new ways to analyse bridges that have saved clients many millions of pounds to pioneering applications of fibre reinforced polymer materials, and from the development and application of new design standards to early work on climate change adaptation. I look back on our achievements in these fields with pride.

We sought to better understand why we see ‘hot spots’ of innovation, why innovation is more sustained in some sectors than others, and why some innovations flow naturally from an idea to widespread adoption, whereas others stall along the way. We examined these questions by exploring case studies where we have innovated successfully, seeking to understand what made it possible. To provide a framework for our investigation we developed a model – the innovation pathway – that draws inspiration from an analogy with a chemical reaction. This pathway follows fours stages, as illustrated in Figure 1 and described below: • Need and Opportunity • Investment • Realisation • Embedment (stability) To enable a chemical reaction to occur, a mixture of compounds must be present which have the potential to react with one another. When they react, they change to another state. For the reaction to be self-sustaining, the transition to this new state must release energy. Similarly, the first stage of our innovation pathway assumes that there must be a mixture of circumstances that can be changed through the innovation process to deliver benefit. It follows that successful innovations emerge from need. The recognition of this need and the potential to create a better solution generates an opportunity. To initiate a chemical reaction, there is a need for activation energy. Similarly, the second stage of our model assumes that innovation requires ‘activation energy’ in the form of investment. The investment can come from different sources and be in different forms. It may come from individual members of staff or an internal funding programme, or via a project, a client, collaborators, or perhaps most likely, some combination of these. The investment may be financial, time, or reputational.

Exploring the Innovation Pathway
Yet, despite this proud heritage, it is vital that we consistently ask ourselves: Could we do even better? And it was this nagging question that led Parsons Brinckerhoff in UK to undertake an extensive study on successful innovation in 2012. We published our findings in a book, ‘Exploring Innovation’, which can be downloaded freely from the Parsons Brinckerhoff website:



Transport Introduction Introduction Sector


Transport Introduction Sector


Figure 1 – Capturing the innovation pathway

The level of activation energy needed for a chemical reaction can be reduced by the introduction of a catalyst. Similarly, in our analogy, we assume that there are catalysts for innovation. These catalysts reduce the level of investment required while increasing the pace of innovation. Once the rate of return exceeds the rate of investment, the innovation progresses to the third stage of the pathway called realisation. Although this stage might be expected to be self-sustaining, it actually requires careful management to ensure all potential benefits are extracted – in other words, using our analogy, so that the reaction continues to completion. AUGUST 2013 A further issue about the realisation stage concerns scale. Whilst the activation energy for a chemical reaction may be independent of the quantity of reactants, the energy that can be extracted from a reaction is not – the greater the scale, the more energy is released. Similarly, the benefit derived from an innovation must be dependent upon its scale of application. Once a chemical reaction is complete, a new stable state is reached. This is the point at which no further change takes place and no further energy is released. For successful innovations, this new stable state translates into business as usual. The idea that was once transformational or at the cutting-edge becomes the normal way of doing things, perhaps not just within one business but potentially across whole industries and geographies. In our original study we drew a series of conclusions about the common features that enable success at each

of these stages of the innovation pathway. Details of these findings are included in ‘Exploring Innovation’. Notably, we found that in ‘Stage 1: Need and Opportunity’, opportunity was recognised by someone with a deep understanding of a complex need and dissatisfaction with the way it was currently addressed. Thus, for a professional services company such as Parsons Brinckerhoff to recognise innovation opportunity, we must have an intimate understanding of our clients' businesses, to deeply understand their implicit and explicit needs. This conclusion contrasts with the image of the ‘lone inventor’ working in isolation, that many perceive as a typical means for delivering innovations. None of our case studies fitted that model. In ‘Stage 2: Investment’, we identified that at each point along the innovation pathway those making an investment, of any type, needed a realistic prospect of a commensurate return for the innovation to progress. The return does not have to be financial. In fact, in many cases the primary benefit was reputational. However, it is clear that if the link between investor – be they individual, team, company, or client – and their potential for return was lost, the innovation often stalled. We also identified five key groups of catalysts. All catalysts need not be present for an innovation to proceed, but when they are, the prospects for success are improved. These catalysts are collaboration; capabilities; environment and culture; technology, tools, and facilities; and data. Finally, it was notable in ‘Stage 3: Realisation’ that whilst


we are working to capitalise on the unique potential for deploying innovations across the whole Balfour Beatty group. Embedment (stability). although they have been highly successful. we showcase projects or ideas at all stages along the innovation pathway. frequently applied over an extended period of time. drawn from around the world. [For example. In particular. Engineering Innovation in Building Projects – Fuel Cell Technology in Mission Critical Project. Thus. The William Barclay Parsons Fellowship and Innovation: A Personal Perspective]. Best Practice and New Directions in Building Information Modelling: Innovative Application of BIM for Rail Projects. and deployed to the benefit of our clients. Parsons Brinckerhoff has invested in developing a global programme. Efficient Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of Natural Ventilation Across Wards in a Hospital Building. Others are further along the pathway and have achieved realisation with their application and value proven on specific projects [Connected Vehicles: How Technology Will Transform Transportation Safety and Mobility. supported. Innovative Structures and the Need for Robustness. Specifically.aspx Transport Introduction Sector NETWORK . Some projects are at the stage where catalysts for innovation and some form of investment have provided impetus to success [ An Innovative Decision Framework for Addressing Climate Change in Our Communities. One of the principal themes under this programme concerns how we address the challenge highlighted above during ‘Stage 3: Realisation’. In addition. and our staff around the world. scaled. Bristol. Some have reached a level of stability of application on several projects or have had widespread impact and have defined a new state-of-the-art [Innovative and Sustainable Ways of Managing Capacity on our Urban Roadways. Fully exploiting innovations requires different skills from creating them. Analyzing the Impacts of Explosions on Dams and Levees]. communities. Maximising the benefit that can be derived from an innovation required a clear exploitation strategy and disciplined management. Georgia]. Planning in the Hands of the Community: A New Approach to ‘Bottom-Up’ Planning. Investing in the future Our findings from this study have helped influence our future strategy for innovation. Steve Denton Director of Engineering Parsons Brinckerhoff Ltd. they could have been more so.we’re excited about the important benefits that were delivered in all our case studies.pbworld. Showcasing global innovations In this edition of Network. Realisation. Need and Opportunity. Using Innovation and Collaboration to Solve a Decades-Old Transportation Problem in Roswell. see Network articles: Carbon Emissions Reduction Hierarchy. UK 3 AUGUST 2013 http://www. we are seeking to ensure that the fantastic innovations that are proven routinely on our projects are identified. Underpinning this initiative is a preparedness to assume a more direct commercial stake in the success of our projects and the value created by the services we deliver. Hong Kong. Some projects are at the earliest stages – an initial idea. Exporting and Importing TOD Concepts: the Abu Dhabi Regional Rail Study] Investment . Advancing the Understanding of Former Gasworks through the Application of Award-Winning Forensic Research. seeking to promote the value we deliver to our We hope you find these articles about projects at different stages along the innovation pathway interesting and useful. only a proportion have progressed to the point where they have become widely adopted across the industry. responding to a specific need.

They come from individuals. only when it is put into action does it become innovation.pbworld. it is not acceptable to stand still while the market changes around us. They can be brought to us by our clients. The ideas that form the basis of our innovation could be new services. In addition to meeting our internal objectives. and this Network publication on innovation is part of a larger corporate outreach and communication about the importance of innovation in our work.aspx Innovation – making a difference to our clients and ourselves As you will see throughout this publication. and our competitors. UK. Parsons Brinckerhoff and Balfour Beatty continue to innovate every day. +44(0)79 6666 8383. you will like irrelevance even less!” So knowing what and why. Network Intelligence Solutions – Innovation to Meet the UK Water Supply Challenge. • Growth – Competitive advantage occurs where we are able to do things our competitors don’t or can’t do. methods. ensures continuous improvement. So why should we innovate? If we look at key objectives of our business we see the answer: • Client focus – Pioneering solutions make us the best at meeting the needs of complex infrastructure owners. our firm has been focussing a large amount of attention on innovation. although these are important aspects. Innovative Methods of Reducing Waste in Infrastructure and Building Projects] • Physical meets digital – the use of digital technologies 4 . The publication highlights how Parsons Brinckerhoff professionals are successfully innovating all around the world. This allows us to become closer with and of more value to our clients. They can come from different industries. or can be transferred among different geographies. how do we respond to the imperative for innovation? AUGUST 2013 http://www. products. see Network articles: Renewable Energy and Sustainability Solutions Toward Attaining Zero-Carbon Emissions Recently. London. digital transformation. or business models. Balfour Beatty. So we must be clear what it means for us. This allows us to win more work and grow. This allows us to increase our efficiency. sustainability and climate change. We must also react to competitive pressures. alasdair.macDonald@bblivingplaces. Areas of focus include: • S-Innovation (Balfour Beatty’s sustainable innovation initiative) – reflecting the increasing cost of energy and resources to identify efficiency and reuse measures with the aim of solving tomorrow’s sustainability After all. There are a wealth of ideas and opportunities available to us. Innovation means different things to different people. processes. sometimes we may need to look for them. and our partners. and increasing calls for new business models to address these challenges. However.Transport Introduction Sector NETWORK What Is Innovation and Why Is It Important to Parsons Brinckerhoff and Balfour Beatty? by Alasdair MacDonald. our supply chain. or invention (the process of creating the ideas). or established organizations that are driving changes in the market. We are talking about converting ideas into actions that deliver value to the organisation and our clients – innovating. technologies. small start-up organisations. our teams. as the former US Army Chief of Staff General Eric Shinseki once said: “If you don’t like change. whatever the idea. • Efficiency – Developing and sharing best practice by looking at how we can improve what we do. When talking about innovation we are not just talking about improvement (doing the same better). We must respond to international infrastructure trends: economic challenges. Sometimes the ideas come to us. [For examples. population increase. Solar Powered Absorption Air Conditioning Systems. whether from newer well-funded infrastructure groups such as in India and China.

pbworld. • In Texas. remind me why it is very fulfilling to work for an integrated company that is dedicated to designing. Let me give you a couple of examples: • In Australia. Balfour Beatty Construction Services US and Parsons Brinckerhoff have collaborated across divisions to put together a compelling offer which has won them the right to design and build the Horseshoe Project. We are an organisation with an existing focus on local customers. Dr. and ensure the sustainability of our business. Creating Connections with Mobile Applications. and I have been lucky to have colleagues from both organisations across the globe. and operate infrastructure [see Network articles: Social Media and NEPA Public Involvement: Opportunities to Innovate Stakeholder Engagement. and maintaining the assets that improve the lives of millions. provide exciting opportunities for our people. • Delivering outcomes – use of outcome-based contracting that incentivises innovation in infrastructure provision [see Network articles: Innovative Approaches to Structures on the Metrolink Phase 3 Extensions.) What has amazed me most is that despite constraints of structure and incentives. Creating and building the infrastructure of tomorrow requires our industry to tackle the challenges we currently face. we will become a truly global company. and Collaboration in Project Delivery]. As the examples I give here become commonplace. and many others. a partner of choice. building. able to share our asset knowledge across geographies and structures. Innovation for us ultimately comes down to this: in order to be a leading global business. This will benefit our and Parsons Brinckerhoff and Balfour Beatty achieve growth through entry into a new market. Technology. These stories. Alasdair MacDonald Strategic Growth and Innovation Director Balfour Beatty Living Places London. January 2013 has seen the launch of our Highways Maintenance business. innovation must constantly be encouraged and cultivated. UK 5 AUGUST 2013 http://www. On a personal note. It is for this reason we continue to foster a culture that supports fresh thinking that will embolden the innovation that is so much a part of our DNA.aspx Transport Introduction Sector NETWORK . and to foresee the potential needs for the future – which cannot be done unless we challenge the status quo. This opportunity has been possible only because of the strength of the client relationships of Parsons Brinckerhoff in Australia and the proven maintenance capability of Balfour Beatty’s support services and construction services divisions in the UK. a US$800m highway construction project in and near downtown Dallas. I have worked for both Parsons Brinckerhoff and Balfour Beatty. Best Practice and New Directions in Building Information Modelling: Innovative Application of BIM for Rail Projects]. and a pioneer in infrastructure. Winning this work means that our highways clients benefit from the efficient UK approach that their diminishing budgets require. which has been both inspiring and energising (the latter being particularly important. maintain. individuals are willing to reach across boundaries to help their colleagues innovate because it is the right thing to do! The fact that Parsons Brinckerhoff is part of Balfour Beatty gives both organisations new capabilities and new opportunities to think and work differently. change the way we deliver. and investment must be effectively targeted. as calls in the middle of the night have become the norm.

MI. systems within a vehicle can help to identify potential hazardous conditions and alert a driver to take evasive action. speed. In mid-2011. two or more vehicles are sharing information with each Figure 1 – Example of DSRC roadside equipment (RSE) installation Applications The USDOT and the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership (CAMP). payment information for tolling. a set of wireless channels dedicated for automotive use. or of a vehicle in front making a sudden stop. and other critical information. a critical factor in safety applications. direction. someday. other regarding their position. so too can our driving task.aspx The connected vehicle concept is centered on the use of relatively inexpensive wireless communications and global positioning systems (GPS) to address and expand the applicability of on-board vehicle systems that exist today. known as DSRC roadside equipment (RSE).pbworld. it is possible to alert motorists of hazards when trying to pass in an opposing lane of travel or make a lane change. these systems will allow for continuous exchange of critical data between vehicles and the roadside in order to identify and alert drivers of potential hazards. has embarked on the development of ‘connected vehicle’ technologies to address this gap. enabling exchange of information such as signal timing. led by the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI). Much as our daily routine has been enhanced by connectivity. making a significant change in crash and fatality reduction will require a new approach – helping drivers to avoid hazards that they may not even see. • Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I): V2I communications refers to the exchange of data and information between vehicles and roadside devices. Put simply. 1-313-963-2808. Through exchange of information between vehicles in the vicinity. a consortium of automotive manufacturers and suppliers. and local road conditions (see Figure 1 for example of RSE installation). and 6 . Very similar to WiFi. DSRC offers relatively short-range wireless connectivity. which includes Parsons Brinckerhoff in a major subcontractor role as the infrastructure team leader. Connected vehicle communications are generally defined by the following categories: • Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V): with V2V communications. One important and relatively new communication technology is dedicated shortrange communications (DSRC). along with a consortium of auto manufacturers and industry partners. and optimized specifically for use in vehicle safety applications. From this data. applications on-board a vehicle can help to identify potential hazards and alert Although remarkable progress has been made to improve traffic safety in recent decades. The US Department of Transportation (USDOT).com/news/publications. Detroit. The Connected Vehicle Concept AUGUST 2013 http://www. Theoretically. Using connected vehicle data. but with an extremely fast connection that can enable communication between vehicles to occur in fractions of a second.Transport Sector NETWORK Connected Vehicles: How Technology Will Transform Transportation Safety and Mobility (and sooner than you think) by Scott Shogan. if all cars are communicating with each other they should never crash into each other. have developed a range of safety applications leveraging V2V communications. acceleration. the USDOT awarded development of the model deployment of connected vehicle technologies to a team. shogan@pbworld.

While these applications effectively target open-road vehicle interactions. deploy devices in the field. including roadside equipment installations (RSEs). Parsons Brinckerhoff was responsible for the design and deployment of all roadside infrastructure used for the pilot. led by the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI). Parsons Brinckerhoff effectively served as designer and general contractor. 7 AUGUST 2013 http://www. In 2012. The principal goal of the program is to collect data on several thousand vehicles and evaluate the potential effectiveness of connected vehicle technologies (particularly V2V) to achieve the levels of safety improvement which would warrant deployment in the United States. a program jointly directed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the USDOT’s Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Joint Program Office. which to date had only been tested in an isolated lab environment. as well as the presence of other approaching vehicles in possible violation. Our technical team. By providing approaching vehicles with current information related to signal phase and timing (SPaT). including both actuated and adaptive signal control. • nearly 3. and consists of: • 73 miles of instrumented roadway. the USDOT awarded development of the model deployment to a team. coordinated extensively with both the city of Ann Arbor and Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT) staff to implement communications system upgrades. and • a blend of integrated vehicle systems and aftermarket on-board devices.aspx Transport Sector NETWORK . Use of V2I communications has been identified as having the potential to greatly reduce the occurrence of intersection crashes. In mid-2011. the one-year deployment represents the largest field test of connected vehicle technologies undertaken in the world to date. SPaT-enabled traffic signal control systems. including 29 RSE installations. but historically result in a higher crash severity. • two SPaT-equipped corridors.000 equipped vehicles. and integrate and test the roadside assist with movements at stop-controlled intersections where there is limited visibility of conflicting vehicles. thereby reducing emissions from vehicles idling while stopped or at start-up. trucks. including cars.pbworld. was conceived as the first true model deployment of connected vehicle technologies using real-world driving conditions and real drivers recruited from the community. responsible for the design and deployment of all roadside infrastructure. which included systems/network and traffic engineers. Michigan. Figure 2 – The instrumented roadways of the Safety Pilot Model Deployment site in Ann Arbor. Safety Pilot represented the first real-world deployment of most connected vehicle infrastructure. it is possible to alert a driver of the likelihood of violating a red signal indication. and buses. Officially launched in Ann Arbor. and the required communications network infrastructure to allow connection between back-end servers and the field devices (see Figure 2). crashes at signalized intersections not only represent a significant proportion of all vehicle crashes. which includes Parsons Brinckerhoff in a major subcontractor role as the infrastructure team leader. SPaT data has the potential to be effectively used in mobility and environmental applications by providing drivers with target progression speeds along a corridor. In our capacity as the infrastructure team leader. Safety Pilot Model Deployment The Safety Pilot Model Deployment. Michigan on August 21.

the Safety Pilot program has reinforced that these technologies are quickly maturing and have great potential to make a near-term impact on transportation safety. A similar decision for heavy trucks will take place in 2014 as well. there are several possible avenues it could take. 2013. in addition to vendor development teams in India and California.aspx Primary data collection for the Safety Pilot Model Scott Shogan is a certified Senior Project Manager and manages the Traffic Engineering/ITS Technical Excellence Center for the Central which is not yet widely deployed. Early in the network engineering process. Also. For remote sites along freeways which are not connected to the city’s network.pbworld. As you consider buying a new vehicle in the next few years. Our technical team worked with USDOT to relax remote-access security on the units to allow for collaborative management and testing of the units from our Baltimore-based network engineering team. and entertainment applications (such as GM’s recent announcement to include AT&T wireless connectivity in future vehicles). 8 . including issuing a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPR) or asking the industry to enforce its own mandate to begin the process of requiring DSRC systems in vehicles. supporting interoperability testing with invehicle devices. His 13-year career at Parsons Brinckerhoff has included management and technical roles in traffic engineering. information. Many vehicle manufacturers have expressed their intent to move forward with V2V communications regardless of NHTSA’s decision. Coming to a Vehicle Near You AUGUST 2013 http://www.Transport Sector NETWORK Parsons Brinckerhoff’s challenge was to deploy this precommercial equipment under an extremely aggressive timeframe to meet the test objectives. The deployment task was made more complicated by the requirement by USDOT to utilize the next generation Internet Protocol (IPv6) for communications. delivered an IPv6 sub-network within the city’s own fiber-optic communications network. our team uncovered that even most Internet Service Providers (ISPs) had limited experience deploying IPv6 network connections. along with the city of Ann Arbor. The data collected during this one-year period will be used by NHTSA to determine whether V2V technologies are effective and should be included in new production vehicles. Parsons Brinckerhoff worked to identify a provider for an IPv6 Internet portal and. If NHTSA elects to proceed. Parsons Brinckerhoff had to develop contingency plans for enabling security functions on “dayone” of the field test with a limited RSE infrastructure due to delays in testing and production schedules. prepare to be connected. This required extensive coordination with equipment vendors to properly configure the units. and intelligent transportation systems (ITS) projects. Parsons Brinckerhoff is working closely with a major cable provider in what would be their first IPv6 installations of this kind in the nation. transportation planning. as well as the potential use of DSRC and other mediums (such as cellular and satellite) for mobility. And while the full deployment process could take several years. Deployment is scheduled to officially conclude on August 20. given the need to meet increased consumer focus on vehicle safety. and trouble-shooting issues related to the relative immaturity of the equipment.

aspx Transport Sector NETWORK . Other restricted lane projects followed in Portland. continues to serve buses on a borrowed contraflow lane.pbworld. Following the announcement of America’s interstate system initiative in 1956. +1-720-837-1522. Houston. pricing. a need to dedicate lanes to preserve or promote mobility was born in 1969 on Route 495. High-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes were first demonstrated in an era when the interstate building program was in full swing. ungemah@pbworld. Four deManaged lanes are cades later this strategy has evolved to incorpodedicated lanes rate an array of innovaproactively managed to tive techniques to get preserve freeway capacity more effective use out of by ensuring operational our freeway infrastructure (and many other strateperformance at 45 mph gies targeting improved or better during peak capacity management periods of demand. This innovative 4.000. constructed for little more than $150. Darren Henderson. DC and Los Angeles. fuhs@pbworld. Seattle. expanded ways to implement and operate such lanes. Denver. +1-281-589-5854.5-mile hendersond@pbworld. AZ. eligibility. and This article is a reflection on innovation with respect to managed lanes and Parsons Brinckerhoff’s role in this legacy over the years. What began as a way of moving bus passengers more efficiently has mushroomed into a way of managing limited roadway capacity through various combinations of access. TX. CO. Traditional ways of building enough roadway capacity were already hitting bumps in the road due to substantial costs of adding demand to the system. and traf- Managed lanes facilities vary in flexibility and complexity with different combinations of four primary management strategies 9 AUGUST 2013 http://www. barely a decade had passed before the realization was made that demand for automobile mobility in our urban areas was outstripping available capacity being added to meet that demand. a key bus transit artery feeding New York City from New Jersey. This realization first happened in older. Boston. more established cities where interstate construction and expansion would prove to be the most disruptive to implement. Subsequent projects in Washington. The subject continues to require innovative approaches and technology. opened first for transit and then for carpools and vanpools. Faced with this challenge.Innovative and Sustainable Ways of Managing Capacity on Our Urban Roadways by Chuck Fuhs. of freeways and expressways) making managed lanes a more sustainable way of moving people and vehicles. and David Ungemah.

Where such presence is needed. On I-10 in Los Angeles. and many freeway corridors in the Bay Area. greater flexibility to serve transit and general traffic demand. About $20 billion has been invested in more than 3000 miles of managed lanes. Seattle. More than $50 billion will likely be invested in the next decade. we recommended a design that can be restriped to accommodate changes in access or a potential additional lane without future widening. Parsons Brinckerhoff’s Role Parsons Brinckerhoff has served many roles in this legacy.pbworld. policy. Sustainable funding – We are helping agencies explore ways to implement projects more quickly through the use of congestion pricing. Sustainable operation – We have evaluated the potential for improving access and accessibility between managed lanes and adjacent traffic for the Bay Area express lane system. which can greatly accelerate implementation and benefits to customers. allowing free use or differential pricing to be charged.Transport Sector NETWORK fic management technology. • Transit credits – The ability to encourage transit use. while on I-110. The associated benefits include lower overall cost. and allow free managed lane use with accrued transit credits. AUGUST 2013 http://www.aspx 10 . Emerging innovations – A wide variety of innovative technologies and practices continue to emerge in projects being implemented. Southern California. On Charlotte’s US 74 while not adversely impacting transit or rideshare markets. the San Francisco Bay Area. • Mobile apps to inform motorists – An increasing array of mobile applications allow customers to make more informed choices regarding route selection and managed lane pricing. We tested various emerging technologies and helped Los Angeles agencies implement this approach on the I-10 and I-110 projects. I-35 in Austin. and system and corridor level plans in a dozen other cities. Some examples: • Self-declaration transponders – For projects promoting HOV incentives. is currently being applied on one of our managed lane projects. • Improved maintenance practice – Technologies in dynamic signing and tolling equipment provide greater opportunities to maintain this equipment more safely while minimizing lane closures. we examined ways to better convert an existing median bus lane to accommodate a lower cost pair of managed lanes. Our planners and engineers have been engaged in managed lanes of various forms since the early 1980s. Recent projects include I-77 in Charlotte. and operational decisions behind HOV and express lane systems in Houston. • Improved enforcement – The role of enforcement is changing on projects and often involves less field presence. our design introducing weave lanes at ExpressLanes access locations improved overall traffic flows. including the potential for continuous access treatment employing more effectively placed tolling and signing infrastructure. and higher customer satisfaction. representing a majority of projects in operation today. various technologies allow officers to observe the status of toll paying customers and carpool occupants from safer vantage points equipped with devices for easier monitoring. customers can self-declare if they are a single occupant vehicle or carpool. We are responsible for development. Denver. In Houston. This is being done while fulfilling the need for a reliable and enforceable design. Parsons Brinckerhoff’s emphasis on applying innovative technologies through sustainable managed lane practices takes many forms: Sustainable design – We are working with agencies to fit the best design within the least amount of space to achieve operational objectives. as these lanes are increasingly seen as a means of providing long-term sustainability and reliability. we facilitated a design for two directional lanes in the space previously occupied by one HOV lane and a wide separation buffer.

emerging technologies will likely offer even greater benefits. During the first week of operation. He is currently leading or supporting corridor projects being developed in Denver.I-110 ExpressLanes. maintenance.aspx Taken together. and local agencies are coming together to implement an integrated package of strategies and improvements. managed lane strategies are part of broader capacity management applications that include: • enhanced transit services. an ongoing commitment to preserve reliability means much higher scrutiny on operations. • Integrated traffic management – Increasingly. intersections. Challenges and Opportunities Looking Forward Increasingly. Minneapolis. California. remains a challenge and involves risks to gain support. these experiences are allowing even more efficiencies to be gained in managed lane projects and systems. Austin. • parking pricing. He founded the firm’s managed lane practice. particularly for strategies involving tolling or pricing. regional. David Ungemah is a National Practice Leader for Parsons Brinckerhoff’s managed lane program. or lane widths.pbworld. more ways of building required infrastructure. and requiring greater reliance on applying lessons learned and guidance from other projects—a key role Parsons Brinckerhoff must deliver. For example. leveraging the authority. and is currently engaged in managed lane projects in Texas. and services for each entity as appropriate. Dallas. and • modernization treatments that address ramps. and incident management. congestion pricing is just one of a host of strategies changing how public transportation agencies are embracing: improved lane management. Obtaining public and political acceptance. was the firm’s recipient of the 2013 Technical Excellence Award. Over the last 13 years he has specialized in managed lane projects with his recent accomplishments including a lead role on the successful opening of the I-10 and I-110 ExpressLanes projects in Los Angeles County. Design trade-offs often mean a greater emphasis on operational monitoring and incident response to address less-than-desired shoulder Chuck Fuhs published the country’s first HOV managed lane guidelines based on a 1989 William Barclay Parsons Fellowship. • intelligent transportation systems (ITS) that improve overall highway performance. These challenges may test the capabilities of sponsoring agencies. state. opportunities to provide more choices to motorists. • transportation demand Funding increasingly requires creative and complex structures and delivery approaches to meet financing targets. Darren Henderson is a National Practice Leader for Parsons Brinckerhoff’s managed lane program. and Charlotte. Looking ahead. traffic enters the Metro ExpressLanes using weave lanes added to the existing HOV lanes based on operational recommendations and preliminary design by Parsons Brinckerhoff. 11 AUGUST 2013 http://www. Los Angeles. and incident response capability. capabilities. traffic operations. In America’s many congested cities. Agency partnering is occurring at an unprecedented scale in which federal. such strategies cannot be implemented quickly enough. Transport Sector NETWORK . and creative options for funding and operating a more sustainable urban highway system. Finally. November 2012. necessitating appropriate resources to maintain these capabilities over time. the management of tolling systems and incident response are being coordinated through integrated facilities that promote greater efficiencies in system monitoring.

aspx Existing Working Practices The rail industry in the UK has a very traditional approach to design and construction. This article discusses the innovative application of four dimensional (4D) building information modelling (BIM) processes by Parsons Brinckerhoff and Balfour Beatty Rail to rail track possessions in the UK. These staging diagrams are supported by a simplistic project schedule. often in the form of a “time chainage” diagram (see Figure 2).com/news/publications. Figure 2 –Time Chainage Diagram 12 . BIM is traditionally associated with building design and construction. UK. Traditionally the work activities are planned and communicated using a series of staging diagrams (see Figure 1) that represent in a very diagrammatic manner what activities are taking place within the work site. the term used for closing a stretch of railway for rail improvement projects. Traditionally. powella@pbworld. This is manifested through the simplistic methods that have been applied to planning rail possession work. and penalties for failing to hand the track back on time can be very high. Unanticipated events can adversely affect the schedule. next to ensure coordination among the activities taking place in parallel across the work area. firstly to verify the planned approach. which represents some but not necessarily all of the activities of the project. The 4D models are used in several ways. +44(0)117 933 9115. track possession planning has been carried out using a combination of a project schedule and staging diagrams. and finally as a communication tool to effectively brief all of the personnel involved in the course of the work. Introduction Track possessions.Transport Sector NETWORK Best Practice and New Directions in Building Information Modelling: Innovative Application of BIM for Rail Projects by Andrew Powell. These diagrams are not to scale and do not accurately represent the physical constraints of the site. and a matrix of the works trains and equipment that will be required. Figure 1 – Staging Diagram AUGUST 2013 http://www. and the application of BIM for civil infrastructure is relatively new.pbworld. are strictly timelimited to minimise passenger disruption.

work area and equipment. The project schedule (see Figure 5) was developed using Microsoft Project and includes all of the activities that have a time impact. The main reasons for this were that rail clients in the UK require MicroStation files as part of their deliverables and so the design information was available in the native DGN file format and. applied in a 3D others had to be created from scratch. it was then possible to start combining these to form a 4D model. Once the component parts of design. For this project. the process that was followed involved taking the staging diagrams for the renewal project and turning them into a 4D BIM model – the 4th dimension being time. also the links that these tasks have with subsequent activities were created. This allowed a 4D simulation of all of the key activities to be run to simulate the whole of the track possession period. to improve their own track possession and renewal processes. There are a number of software applications that can be used for this. the various animation movements had to follow the curving track alignment – which isn’t easy to achieve in some of the other applications. and project schedule had been created.Trial application of BIM to rail possession planning BIM is a relatively new but rapidly developing concept for the rail industry. From this it quickly becomes evident how different the staging diagram representations are to the actual geometrically accurate models.pbworld. These models were then assembled into the various works trains and equipment convoys to represent all of the equipment in a geometrically correct way (see Figure 4). Figure 3 – Rolling stock models Figure 4 – Accurate geometric models 13 AUGUST 2013 http://www. Typically multiple renewals are carried out every weekend for short sections of track. These could then be overlaid on top of the design drawings and plans of the work site. The first task was to create dimensionally accurate representations of the work area and equipment that would be used. Initially Parsons Brinckerhoff was asked to carry out a ‘proof of concept’ trial on an upcoming section of track renewal for the Track Partnership. These are done during a 52-hour long possession of the line. at which time the track is closed to normal rail traffic. including all of the trains and rolling stock (see Figure 3). Typically the movement of the works trains and equipment were not included in the schedule even though this movement could take an appreciable amount of time in such a short schedule and have critical links to subsequent activities. to reduce risk on their projects.aspx Transport Sector NETWORK . The animation producer tools in the application were used to create scripts for the works trains and equipment movements required (see Figure 6). but in this instance the schedule simulation functionality from within Bentley MicroStation was used. a Balfour Beatty Rail and London Underground joint venture. and to minimise disruption to the network. from late Friday evening until early Monday morning. The programme was then linked to the model file to trigger the movements of the works trains and equipment along the tracks in accordance with the schedule. Much of this exists in public domain models from websites such as 3D Warehouse. The Track Partnership was seeking to apply BIM techniques from elsewhere in the construction industry.

AUGUST 2013 Transport Sector 14 Figure 5 – Project Schedule Figure 6 – Animation scripts NETWORK .

An additional outcome of the process was that a detailed 4D visualisation model was generated that shows the various staging diagrams in a visual format and this was used as a briefing tool for all the stakeholders. during its own review process.pbworld. Transport Sector NETWORK . we were able to quickly identify several issues that were likely to lead to problems during the track possession period. Conclusion and future developments Although the project team. Two techniques currently being developed are the addition of key asset information to the models so this information can automatically be generated when required by the network operator and maintainer. • The second example was that the equipment convoy itself had to be moved into the work area in order to allow one of the works trains to move over a set of adjacent points. including a 12-day blockade project where the track was closed for an extended period of time. Allowing the project team access to these techniques will significantly reduce risk for these projects in the future by making it far less likely for issues which might cause problems on site to be missed during the planning stages.Issues identified through the process. which are often available. • The representations of the works trains (Figure 7) had a combined length approaching 1km and would need to be carefully stationed in order to allow the equipment convoy to be manoeuvred into the required location (Figure 8). From the model we were able to de- termine that the space between the adjacent points and the work area was less than the overall length of the equipment convoy (see Figure 9). Comparing the coordinated 3D model. and the use of laser scan surveys of sites and locations. including the client and all personnel working on the site during the track possession (Figure 11). was able to identify all of the issues that Parsons Brinckerhoff discovered in the ‘proof of concept’ trial. Some examples are described below.aspx This was one of the first applications of BIM techniques for a track replacement project. to allow the project teams to look in detail at the potential constraints in each individual site 15 AUGUST 2013 http://www. the power of applying BIM techniques is clear from the evidence of being able to have a team unfamiliar with this type of project identify the critical issues quickly. • We were also able to carry out a geometric assessment of the manoeuvring of a crucial piece of lifting equipment that was restricted by loading constraints on an existing bridge (Figure 10). However. Figure 7– Staging diagram graphical representation of plant convoy movements Turnham Green Plant convoy WTE needs to be clear for plant to move into work area Figure 8 – Model view Figure 9 – Model clearly shows that the equipment convoy clashes with work area Parsons Brinckerhoff and the Track Partnership intend to use BIM in even more innovative ways in future rail projects. these techniques have subsequently been applied to several other Balfour Beatty Rail and London Underground Track Partnership projects.

Transport Sector NETWORK At Parsons Brinckerhoff we are seeing BIM technology that is used in one part of the business being successfully transferred to other areas to the benefit of projects that would not normally be expected to use BIM. Parsons Brinckerhoff Ltd.] Andrew Powell is Head of Building Information Modelling (BIM) for Parsons Brinckerhoff in the UK. in particular: Steve Naybour – Track Partnership Business Improvement Manager.pbworld. Parsons Brinckerhoff Ltd. Franco Pittoni – Technical Director Planning and Project Controls. Richard Palczynski – Head of BB Group Programme Management Office. We are also identifying and developing new BIM techniques that can be applied across a variety of projects. At Parsons Brinckerhoff we have excellent experience of applying BIM to projects across the globe. Figure 10 – Crane reach analysis using the model to determine sufficient reach across bridge Figure 11 – 4D Visualisation used for stakeholder communication and site staff briefing AUGUST 2013 http://www. Parsons Brinckerhoff Ltd. and Paul Brown – Design Visualisation Manager. Balfour Beatty Rail / Track Partnership. He is now responsible for applying BIM across all of the UK business units in response to the UK government’s requirement for BIM on all public sector projects by 2016. He is a qualified architect and has worked on many multi disciplinary–BIM projects as part of the sustainable buildings solution team.aspx 16 . [The author would like to acknowledge the advice and support of colleagues involved in the project and the review of this sharing this experience is key to being able to promote our reputation in this area.

The public realm should be designed to enhance the identity of station areas.1 billion AED ($15. it is planning ahead for the end of cheap oil in the future: public transport networks are being built and the concept of TOD is starting to take root. Connectivity and integration with other public transport modes should facilitate access for all persons. reynoldsti@pbworld. 4. But in terms of station area and transport oriented development. US-style alternatives analysis. It contracted with Parsons Brinckerhoff in 2010 to conduct the study. ADRRS concluded in 2012 with a recommended 154.aspx Dhabi DoT has stressed that major infrastructure projects be used to foster sustainable community development around stations and as part of ADRRS. but has introduced and explained the benefits of the concept in areas where there had been little attention to creating pedestrian-friendly.Exporting and Importing TOD Concepts: the Abu Dhabi Regional Rail Study by Timothy Reynolds. Parsons Brinckerhoff has been in the forefront of not only designing TODs throughout the US. Its oil wealth allows the UAE to invest in public infrastructure at a massive scale and rapid pace. and Sharjah (see Figure 1). 56. Dubai. and safe. and financial feasibility process. Parsons Brinckerhoff provided a locally innovative and comprehensive vetting of alternatives and results through a rigorous. Urban Design Principles The neighboring emirate of Dubai recently opened a 46mile Metro line. This resulted in the report by Parsons Transit Oriented Development (TOD) is a common practice among transit agencies and cities throughout the US. Cincinnati. completed in February 2012.). but apply to a variety of urban conditions and For its first potential rail project. Urban Design Concepts and Public Transport Oriented Development.5 minutes. but as the nation looks ahead.8 mi. 1-513-639-2129. The report goes beyond stating a desire for pedestrian-oriented urban design and TOD by achieving consensus on a wide range of principles and actions that are not generic. 2. convenient. 17 AUGUST 2013 http://www. Station design should be sustainable and sensitive to the environment.1 km (95. Their form is almost exclusively auto-centric and much closer to the North American model than the European.3 billion) line connecting the cities of Abu Dhabi. Station areas should be attractive. the Abu Sharjah Festival City/ Airport Dubai Central Jumeirah Village 2 N1 Ghantoot DWC/Jebel Ali 2 KIZAD 2 Abu Dhabi Central Shahama Abu Dhabi Airport Capital District Alignment Stations Figure 1 – Abu Dhabi Regional Rail Study Route Five major principles were defined: 1. Ohio. The Abu Dhabi Regional Rail Study (ADRRS) was conceived by the Abu Dhabi DoT to begin the implementation of a national passenger rail network. Six of its stations would be located in suburban areas served by trains every 7. In just 40 years. The UAE aspires to be a “first world” nation with many of the characteristics of the world’s most modern cities. ridership and cost modeling. 3. Transport Sector NETWORK . its cities have sprouted from tiny villages to major urban centers.pbworld. Despite its widespread applications in the US and other countries. what should Abu Dhabi emulate? The Abu Dhabi Department of Transport (DoT) asked Parsons Brinckerhoff to find out. TOD isn’t a concept that immediately comes to mind in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) where oil is abundant and gasoline is cheap. mixed use developments around transit stations.

Parking • Structured or shaded Physical/Visual Connection to Exisiting Community and Development Cross-Trackway Pedestrian/Vehicular Connection • Staging area • Bus stops and shelters Seeing is Believing: Exporting US Best Practices Each guideline was illustrated with examples of transport systems from around the world with an emphasis on areas with climate. By showing the station connections. and • Industrial/employment zone. The Bus Station Pedestrian • Pedestrian access to/from community • Bicycle access to/from community/trail system Cross-Trackway Pedestrian/Vehicular Connection AUGUST 2013 http://www. as the urban context and station design influenced one another. and mixed uses. design and applying local design themes and colors to the surrounding development. TOD: Commercial Parking Facility Achieving Principles with Guidelines Parsons Brinckerhoff’s urban and station design teams worked together. tailored to apply to different station area types: • Established small city/neighborhood center. intensification. Parsons Brinckerhoff’s Figure 3 – Spacial hierarchies first step was to develop a graphical hierarchy of station area design (see Figure 5). and land use priorities (see Figure 2). uses. such as the placement of streets and city blocks (see Figure 3). and land use priorities The second step was the design of spatial hierarchies and relationships between specific elements.aspx Auto/Taxi • Separate auto pick-up/ drop-off staging area • Taxi queue and pick-up drop-off zone Figure 2 – Graphical hierarchy of connections.pbworld. • Currently minimally developed/community edge area. The fourth step was the merging of the conceptual design of the stations with the conceptual Figure 4 – Conceptual design for established small city station Figure 5 – Conceptual station and station area design rendering 18 . The relationship between elements is strongly influenced by the design of the regional rail network itself.Transport Sector NETWORK Cross-Trackway Vehicular Connection Secondary Intermodal Staging Area Cross-Trackway Pedestrian Connection Cross-Trackway Pedestrian Connection Cross-Trackway Vehicular Connection 5. Parsons Brinckerhoff developed 63 individual guidelines. the provisions of convenient intermodal connections and neighborhood linkages were more fully depicted. will be on a raised earthen berm—a necessary design feature to minimize sand accumulation. uses. within even established neighborhoods. The trackway. Bus Staging TOD: Retail/Commercial Station Taxi Zone TOD: Retail/Commercial Plaza Auto Pick-Up Drop-Off Zone TOD: Residential with Ground Floor Commercial TOD: Residential with Ground Floor Commercial Using the example of a small city/neighborhood center station area type. The third step was the development of a layout for a conceptual station and TOD that pinpoints where various urban design and TOD guidelines are applied (see Figure 4). Stations should be focal points for development. and urban conditions that relate to the UAE.

com/news/publications. North Carolina’s wayfinding system illustrating Principle 3 (station areas) with the guideline: Clear and attractive wayfinding elements should be provided to enhance connectivity and orientation. not compete with. and direct visitors to local destinations. • New bus shelters near Phoenix. • The mixed use Lincoln Road parking garage in Miami Beach. culture. maintain civic connectivity. • Indigenous shade trees at the Tempe Transportation Center in Arizona.pbworld. North Carolina Figure 9 – Tempe Transportation Center in Arizona Figure 12 – Abu Dhabi’s Masdar City 19 AUGUST 2013 http://www. parking garage in Miami Beach. station architecture and system/station design themes. visual identity should be established through the consistent use of a few basic plant materials. illustrating Principle 1 (connectivity) through the guideline: Where trackways are elevated at station areas. as with the conceptual station which is based on locally sustainable and appropriate techniques that help mitigate the effects of extreme heat and humidity. Florida structures should be designed with ground floor. Some examples (Figures 6 –10): • An airy. Best Practices from the UAE Station area and TOD concepts using elements from the UAE’s history. street-facing retail and other interactive uses. open and airy viaducts should be used to allow for pedestrian and vehicular travel to both sides of the station. Arizona Figure 8 – Wayfinding system in downtown Charlotte.aspx Transport Sector NETWORK . These concepts included (Figures 11 – 13): • Abu Dhabi’s new Central Market which features a series of roof gardens with native plantings chosen to thrive in direct sunlight conditions while maintaining the Figure 11 – Roof garden in Abu integrity of the buildDhabi’s new Central Market ing’s design – Principle 2 (public realm) through the guideline: Landscaping should complement. landscaped viaduct along the Los Angeles. • Downtown Charlotte. • Abu Dhabi’s Masdar City development which employs sustainable building techniques using modern design and building materials to interpret cultural references – Principle 2 (public realm) through the guideline: Building Figure 7 – Bus shelters near Phoenix. California Metro light rail system. and foster Figure 6 – Los Angeles Metro light rail system commerce. geography. Arizona illustrating Principle 2 (public realm) through the guideline: Street furniture should be coordinated with station and landscape design and be suitable for the climate. illustrating Principle 4 (environment) through the guideline: Shading should be provided. either naturally with trees (mindful of the need to minimize the use of water) or artificially with shade structures. Florida illustrating Principle 5 (mixed uses) through the guideline: Where pedestrian activity can Figure 10 – Lincoln Road parking support it.illustrations helped inform each action or activity and served as a starting point for further development as the regional rail project progresses. well-designed. and climate proved instructive.

and light rail planning. specializing in alternatives analyses. best practices can be found not just at home but in places like the United Arab Emirates. and urban design. the Parsons Brinckerhoff team discovered elements. styles and colors complementary to the surrounding community should be employed while avoiding the direct copying or creation of a pastiche of locallybased designs. and involve no carbon emissions. When it comes to station area development and TOD in the US. and parking – that may not acknowledge local history. The study team was able to combine both US-style elements with locally-based techniques to devise station area guidelines that foster sustainable land and transport uses within the climate and cultural context of the UAE. is a Senior Principal Technical Specialist with Parsons Brinckerhoff and he has over 33 years of experience as a transit planner at transit agencies and metropolitan planning agencies. Parsons Brinckerhoff combed through best practices from the US and other nations for not only their general applicability but for their realistic potential in an array of locally distinct station area conditions. from already developed areas to sites with little AUGUST 2013 http://www. especially in cities with very hot summers or desert climates. Parsons Brinckerhoff’s Seattle office.] Timothy Reynolds. for the architectural design and Adam Buckmaster. Parsons Brinckerhoff’s London office. Maximizing shade and funneling breezes to foster walkability even during the summer months.Transport Sector NETWORK materials. In the process. transit center development. or no development.aspx 20 . comprised of narrow lanes that keep pedestrians shaded and generate breezes – Principle 3 (environment) through the guideline: Air Figure 13 – Dubai sikkak circulation should be fostered using wind capture design techniques such as narrow pathways between buildings while minimizing the accumulation of windblown sand and dust. • Dubai’s network of sikkak. TOD in the US can run the risk of using cookie-cutter approaches – consisting of a checklist of basic ingredients: retail. residential. comprehensive operational analyses. His experience includes bus. require little energy consumption. are relatively low cost. for the renderings of the conceptual stations and station area. such as sikkak. BRT. open space. within a critical mix and mass of development. AICP. [The author would like to acknowledge and credit John Harding. offices.pbworld. are simple to implement. customs. that are modest but successful techniques that have the potential for use and adaptation in the US and other nations. and climate. Exchange of Ideas The experience of the US and other nations around the world is valued by the UAE.

and intelligent transportation systems (ITS). sewage. simulate. • provide a single point where all D2G staff can obtain the latest information. model integration and visualisation. planning. The GIS service was provided by one team. VDC/BIM methodology makes the best use of digital tools to visualise. and • reduce the risk of capturing duplicate data. mine rehabilitation. Three abandoned coal mines dating back to the 1860s were located underneath the construction footprint. +61 7 38546585. Technology During the project. community consultation. This methodology involves a mindset and process of sharing and managing project information. and • support for construction stages. This required more than 40 major traffic switches. and water. surveying. and the VDC/BIM service was made up of two teams.Technology. Brisbane. GIS service scope: • improve data automation and interoperability. environmental. It becomes more than just a set of computer Innovation Model Integration and Visualisation The model integration team was also a member of the road 21 AUGUST 2013 http://www. models. and Collaboration in Project Delivery by Alan Hobson. with a Queensland Rail corridor on the northern side and residential/commercial properties on the southern side of the motorway. construction. AUS. safety. collaborate. The project involved widening an 8 km stretch of the motorway to a minimum of six lanes with room for eight in the future. Proving the value of technology en route: the Ipswich Motorway Upgrade The use of virtual design and construction / building information modelling (VDC/BIM) and geographic information systems (GIS) contributed to this A$1. as well as public utilities such as telecoms.aspx Transport Sector NETWORK .000 vehicles per day in an extremely constrained urban corridor. with GIS starting first and VDC/BIM second. VDC/BIM service provided: • multidisciplinary 3D model integration which will support decision-making in the design. and construction of 26 new bridges. which resulted in a reduced scope. As part of the alliance. Parsons Brinckerhoff was contracted for VDC/BIM and GIS services as well as the road design in partnership with another company in the alliance.pbworld. numerous re-routing of traffic and pedestrian routes and construction of 25 kilometres of shared pedestrian and bicycle ways. demolition of 15 existing bridges. 400 people from many disciplines and six different organisations formed the Origin Alliance to carry out this highly complex brownfield road upgrade.95 billion project being delivered 10% under budget and six months ahead of schedule. which was 400 staff at the height of the project. and communication process (visualisation) using a composite digital mode. review. • improve communication among the discipline teams which included geotechnical. ahobson@pb. The alliance leadership team requested a staggered implementation. The integrated 2D GIS and 3D VDC/BIM project delivery system allowed faster access to design and construction information to support project planning and reduce project risk. Australia. For the Ipswich Motorway Upgrade – Dinmore to Goodna (D2G) in Queensland. Innovation. Construction took place under live traffic conditions of approximately 90. quality and integrate project information through the whole asset lifecycle. design. as well as unexploded ordnances from earlier military land use activities that needed to be remediated. GIS and VDC/BIM scope Parsons Brinckerhoff provided the GIS and VDC/BIM services to all teams working at the Origin Alliance D2G site office. it is a framework for the use of information technologies was advanced to improve the connection between GIS and VDC/BIM.

The integration team. and AutoCAD software (see Figure 1). preparation of this information was achieved quickly and at small cost. the team overcame major hurdles in implementing this mapping system which included: limited knowledge of spatial technology. In January 2011. in accordance with contract requirements and standards. This 3D virtual model was very useful after the event in helping decision-makers confirm remedial actions. a platform for sharing spatial information and many other activities across all disciplines. fear of not meeting schedules due to increased workloads. other components evolved during the course of the project. A key factor in helping ‘bring the project to life’ was the production of a suite of high impact engagement material for use in their Visitor Experience Centre including: • 3-D animation fly and drive through. using its existing 3D models. the visualisation team developed graphic representations that accurately portrayed the project and how it affected the existing terrain as well as the surrounding infrastructure (see Figure 2). civil construction typically has not embraced the use or full potential of spatial technologies. including the Visitor Experience Centre which was based at the D2G site office. GIS Parsons Brinckerhoff developed OriginMap. and • a touchscreen dashboard (see Figure 3) created to gain quick and easy access to all of the visual/communication material created on the project. create. The team created combined models and tested them for constructability.aspx From this platform. In Because the VDC/BIM service was in place. • photo-montage (photos combined with computer generated images). For example. input to an integrated model AUGUST 2013 http://www. Figure 1 – Screen shot of 3D road design. and share information with each other 24/7 and allowed for integration with non-spatial systems. and space proofing. accurate. Figure 2 – Screen shot of model visualisation 22 .pbworld.Transport Sector NETWORK design team. • computer generated images. a flood event inundated sections of the motorway under construction. Figure 3 – Screen shot of interactive touch screen dashboard This helped the local community and other stakeholders to ‘visualise’ the project. 12d. Collaboration and knowledge sharing was at the heart of the success of OriginMap. Because of this. This enterprise-wide. were quickly able to show a 3D virtual model of the status of the construction in relation to the inundated areas using Navisworks. This collaboration worked in two ways: • The GIS team undertook a process to fully understand the workflows of project teams so that project data could be kept current. and available for all staff. web-based mapping system enables the integration of all project information. and reduced control of information. Design work was done primarily in Bentley’s Mx. • OriginMap allowed users to easily collaborate. design clashes.

groups needed to share information in an efficient and accurate way. Building information modelling (BIM) continues to evolve to meet changing demands and technologies. It was frequently used in technical planning meetings. Overall. people.pbworld. build. The client acknowledges that BIM benefitted all project employees. The community team used a simplified version of OriginMap to educate visitors to the Visitor Experience Centre.000 times and produced 17. in particular the design. and community teams. The industry is beginning to move away from the term VDC and only refer to BIM.aspx Transport Sector NETWORK . Conclusion In May 2012. deliver. Alan Hobson is Parsons Brinckerhoff’s Capability and Innovation Executive in Australia Pacific with 23 years of experience in infrastructure projects. He is the Australia Pacific leader of the building information modelling (BIM) initiative. OriginMap was used more than 72. these teams used OriginMap as a means to publish and share their data with the wider project team (see Figure 4). In June 2010. the motorway was fully opened to traffic.Figure 4 – OriginMap integrating document management system Due to the short timeframes of the construction delivery program. more efficient and effective communication.000 prints leading to significant time and cost savings. OriginMap was named one of the project’s top three value for money (VFM) innovations. The increasingly complex interplay of information. as well as being the immediate source for the latest approved drawings. six months ahead of schedule and 10% under budget. in turn. and greater capacity for project teams. Staff valued having a common platform to store and hold information from multiple less duplication of effort. the tangible benefits of an integrated approach included cost savings. He is a certified Project Manager and Senior Professional Associate. Over the full life of the project. and processes behind infrastructure projects now demands a new wave of technology and a new approach to its use. In AustraliaPacific one of our key strategic initiatives is to utilise BIM technology to win and assist in delivering projects like D2G. Its use on the project has promoted better understanding of this technology and paved the way for its increased use in the industry. Today the way we design. Virtually every team on the project contributed to this information and. Project managers often used OriginMap as a basis for decision-making. Such technology must seamlessly integrate all project inputs and accurately assist the project team along every phase of the infrastructure project lifecycle. 23 AUGUST 2013 http://www. OriginMap was also widely used for orientation and induction of new employees and sub-contractors. construction. and operate infrastructure requires much more than smart project management. There is also a convergence of GIS towards BIM. OriginMap quickly grew from 40–50 layers to more than 300 layers of information. faster access to current information.

in particular to those who seek LEED certification. waye. Therefore it is a zero emissions generation technology. AUGUST 2013 http://www. Heat energy is also generated in the process and can be used with an overall efficiency of 90% instead of the 40–50% efficiency from a combustion cycle. With the worldwide recognition of LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) through the United States Green Building Council (USGBC). the technology has been developed in conjunction with the space program. Fuel cells were used in the 1962 Apollo voyage (see Figure 1) and extensively for subsequent missions. the company that developed the technology and launched it in early 90s. The World Trade Centre site in New York City captured the opportunity in 2008 and installed a 4. it is not an easy solution to many projects unless there is good financial support. Since then. Despite the fact that a fuel cell is a clean and efficient energy convertor. Hong Kong.michael@pbworld. Parsons Brinckerhoff always considers different opportunities to apply the most appropriate technology and innovations. With the use of hydrogen Figure 1 – Fuel Cell for Apollo gas in the Fuel Cell Technology Basics A fuel cell uses an electrochemical process to produce electricity when hydrogen and oxygen are processed through the cell. This is partly due to the cost of innovation engineering and partly due to the risks associated with any innovative ideas. Innovative and environmentally friendly ideas are being recognised in the LEED credit rating system. fuel cell technology application is not as advanced as its use in the United States and Europe. although there has been much research conducted by the local institutions.8 MW capacity fuel cell system as part of the redevelopment project. and Sally Man-Wai Yuen. it has not been widely adopted. Although a fuel cell can provide twice the amount of energy as that extracted from combustion of fuel. 24 . Since then. mainly due to the capital cost. +852 2579 8693. The project manager needs to balance the possible risks associated with the innovation and the benefit of bringing new technology to the project. and this article shows an example of innovation being implemented. the installation of fuel cell facilities is sometimes considered to be complex and potentially hazardous. As an engineering consultant helping our clients with the design of state-of-the-art technology buildings.aspx Fuel Cell Technology Development The first crude fuel cell was invented and developed in a police precinct building which generates all its power on-site. there have been many projects that considered adopting a fuel cell system. It was further enhanced over the years and first used commercially by NASA in its space program. It provided many benefits to the park without requiring installation of new underground electrical cables. The act of promoting the right technology at the right time is a very crucial part of the entire exercise. it is many times the cost of a regular combustion engine such as a diesel generator. Commercial fuel cell products were only available through UTC Power (formerly part of United Technologies Corporation). Hong Kong.sally@pbworld. The end product of the chemical reaction in the fuel cell is water. New York City installed the first pilot fuel cell project in Central Park in 1999. yuen. Because of the The building design and construction environment might be considered by most engineers to be a conventional and traditional atmosphere that would not attract innovation and new technology.Renewable Energy and GreenTransport Building Design Sector NETWORK Engineering Innovation in Building Projects – Fuel Cell Technology in Mission Critical Project. In Asia. and they are therefore more attractive to developers. +852 2579 8672. there is a platform to recognize the design of buildings that use environmentally friendly solutions. Hong Kong by Michael Ming Fun Waye.pbworld.

The hydrogen protons will then be brought through the electrolyte membrane and combined with the oxygen ion in the cathode side to form water. Taiwan. and other candidate solutions. Conclusion It is important to work closely with the client to understand and fulfill their expectation to promote innovative technology. Fuel Cell Green Power. the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) established Technical Committee (TC) 105 to focus on the standards related to fuel cells. The electrons will not pass through the membrane but will flow from anode to cathode and provide the electricity needed. and in Toronto and New York. Electrolyte and a catalyst (see Figure 2). California. Fuel Cell Technology Application Parsons Brinckerhoff was contracted to design the Hong Kong Tseung Kwan O data centre for the telecommunications company NTT Communications and saw a good match of ingredients for the application of this new technology. As the application of fuel cell technology is growing. although they have not used it in Hong Kong This is the time to enjoy energy conversion with much better efficiency than the present technology provides. Therefore a stack of membranes is required to generate enough voltage for general use. He is a Chartered Engineer in the UK. bio-fuel generation. A series of standards have been published. References • Los Alamos National Laboratory. As the client is very knowledgeable of state-of-the-art technologies. Subsequently. The era of impossibility in the use of fuel cell technology in commercial building projects is ended. about 0. She is the Project Manager for the Hong Kong Tseung Kwan O data centre for the telecommunications company NTT Communications. wrote a paper for this fuel cell technology project which was presented in Hong Kong at the 11th Annual Power Symposium organized by the Institution of Engineering and Technology and published in June 2012. Michael Waye is Director and Vice President in Parsons Brinckerhoff’s Hong Kong office. in collaboration with the client. Korea. it was decided that a modular type of fuel cell uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system was to be installed in the project to support the NTT Communications’ Network Operation Centre. a cathode electrolyte Membrane/ membrane. For each membrane. the fuel cell system was tested and put into service in January 2013. In the end. China. including fuel cell technology.aspx Renewable Energy and GreenTransport Building Design Sector NETWORK . the standard has been updated four times to 2010 edition. Parsons Brinckerhoff also studied the various constraints and considerations needed for fuel cell installation. The National Electrical Code (NFPA 70) has also developed an article 692 to address the electrical safety for fuel cell installation. their determination to use environmentally friendly systems for the project. In the US. An issue of importance was that the client wanted to publicize 25 AUGUST 2013 http://www. the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) established a committee in late 1990s and published their standard NFPA 853 Installation of Stationary Fuel Cell Power Systems in year 2000. Parsons Brinckerhoff.pbworld. Singapore. After much engineering effort. and New York and has worked on engineering projects in Hong Kong. Sally Yuen is Assistant Vice President in Parsons Brinckerhoff’s Hong Kong office and a Chartered Engineer. The hydrogen fuel is injected into the fuel cell from the Oxygen Electrons Protons anode side. This innovative technology attracted their project manager and it was agreed to implement it. and a Professional Engineer in Toronto. the voltage generation is very low.A fuel cell Hydrogen Catalyst essentially Cathode (+) consists of an Anode (-) Water anode. it is anticipated that the application could be similar to the development of vacuum bottles in high voltage circuit breakers. Technology Standards Due to the special technology. IEC 62282 – Fuel Cell Technologies. Therefore many innovative and sustainable ideas were reviewed in the conceptual design stage. very few companies in the world have been involved in the development of fuel cells and there had not been many standards developed on the product until early 2000.7 volts. The client is pleased that this system is the first commercially launched system in Hong Kong and sets an example for others to follow in the use of cleaner energy. These standards gave the end user a glance into the technology and the complexity of issues involved. which address both stationary and portable fuel cell technologies. In parallel with the development and promotion of various technology solutions. fuel cell technology is not something new to them. In Europe in year 2000. Philippines. The platinum Figure 2 – Fuel Cell Module catalyst will facilitate the separation of hydrogen gas ions into electrons and protons.

scholars. architects. In the past decades. with the electricity driven vapour compression chillers. and using high efficiency equipment and systems. operation. Photovoltaic panels that convert solar energy to electricity for air conditioning systems and solar thermal collectors to heat the water for absorption chillers were the two common solar powered air conditioning systems. ngan. and Matthew Ngan. and maintenance cost. transmission of the building envelope.Illustration of a Solar Powered Cooling System AUGUST 2013 http://www. For this reason. and operators to look at advanced technology for reducing the building cooling demand and energy consumption – technologies such as controlling the heat System Design A conventional vapour compression cooling system uses 26 . and reduce the overall energy consumption. using energy recovery This hybrid system can also enhance the system availability and reliability. Hong Kong. An analysis of the system reliability. engineers. Singapore. +65 6290 1379. Green and sustainable solar energy for air conditioning systems was introduced in the past 10 years. and do not occupy plant room space. Solar Plant Temperature ~120°C Cooling Tower Heat Exchanger (Local) Control Unit Hot Water Storage Tank Absorption Chiller BMS Internet Figure 1 . and maintainability of the in-series and in-parallel connections of the solar powered absorption chiller. heat generation. controlling on-demand outdoor air supply. chan. operational cost. Solar thermal collectors can be installed on the building roof. Combining a conventional vapour compression air conditioning system and a solar powered absorption air conditioning system will require less space for the solar thermal collectors as compared to a fully solar powered absorption air conditioning system. particularly in tropical climate areas. Parsons Brinckerhoff is currently designing such a system for a client in Therefore. in order to promote thermal comfort and to control the indoor air temperature.aspx This paper introduces the design considerations and major components of a solar powered absorption air conditioning system (see Figure 1). it consumes a significant amount of energy in the building system. Increase of thermal efficiency and lower cost of the solar thermal collectors are the major reasons that solar powered absorption air conditioning systems have become feasible and competitive. electricity consumption hence. owners.pbworld. the technology of solar thermal collection has been well-developed. is also presented in this article. +852 2579 8740. especially in tropical climate regions. Using solar energy for air conditioning systems has an obvious advantage in that the peak cooling demand always coincides with the time during which the solar radiation is strongest. it is essential to study and investigate an energy efficient system or use alternative power sources other than electricity for the air conditioning system. The innovative use of a hybrid system combined with solar power for the air conditioning system can significantly reduce the CO2 Air conditioning systems are the major source of energy consumption for buildings. operation cost.Renewable Energy and GreenTransport Building Design Sector NETWORK Solar Powered Absorption Air Conditioning Systems by Chun-Fai Chan. However. Introduction Air conditioning is almost an essential component in building system design. it is in the interest of developers.

the thermal efficiency is inversely proportional to the required hot water temperature at constant solar intensity. The solar hot water can be used for both the cooling system and domestic hot water such as baths and showers. external shading. The absorption chiller consists of a generator. These include: the availability of solar radiation. • Chilled water pump. condenser. Flat-plate panel and evacuated tube collectors are the two common and well developed solar thermal collectors on the market (see Figures 2 and 3). An absorption chiller uses an absorber (LiBr) and refrigerant (water) to create a chemical reaction which produces the cooling capacity for the building. • Cooling tower.aspx Renewable Energy and GreenTransport Building Design Sector NETWORK . The principle of solar powered absorption air conditioning is to use solar thermal collectors to absorb solar radiation and produce hot water to drive an absorption chiller. which reduces the carbon dioxide emissions of the chiller plant and eliminates the use of refrigerants that cause ozone depletion and global warming. availability of space. • Hot water storage tank. orientation. Solar Thermal Collectors There are various factors which need to be considered at the planning stage for the selection of the appropriate type of thermal collector. Hot Water Storage Tank Due to the intermittent source of solar energy. the chillers are driven by solar energy. Recently a solar cell integrated in a thermal collector was developed to enhance the utilization of solar radiation and increase the efficiency of the solar collector. In these collectors. The heat rejection from an absorption chiller is the sum of the cooling capacity and heating water requirement. The thermal efficiency of the solar thermal collector is dependent upon the solar intensity and hot water temperature that is required. Cooling Tower Cooling towers are heat removal devices used to transfer the process waste heat to the atmosphere through the evaporation of water to near the wet-bulb air temperature. it is required Heat Transfer Selective Coating Outer Tube Inner Tube Solar Energy Absorbed by Evacuated Tube Co om ott op to B T o s t urns t se Ri Re or uid p Va Liq d se en Copper Header nd Heat Absorbed by Heat Pipe Illustrations Courtesy of Apricus Figure 2 – Example of an evacuated tube collector Inlet Connection Cover: Protecting the Absorber Plate and Preventing Loss of Heat Outlet Connection Collector Housing: Made From Alumnium Alloy or Galvanized Steel . The cooling tower capacity for a solar absorption cooling system includes the heat ejected from the cooling and heating process. absorber. Solar energy is a green and clean energy with zero CO2 emissions and is a cost effective way for heating up water. With solar powered absorption air conditioning systems. installation conditions.Fixes and Protects the Absorber Plate Absorber Plate: Usually Black Chrome Absorbing Coating to Maximise Heat Collecting Efficiency Flow Tubes Insulation: to the Bottom and Sides of the Collector to Reduce the Loss of Heat Figure 3 – Example of flat plate type solar thermal collector 27 AUGUST 2013 http://www. • Absorption chiller. An absorption chiller has less moving parts and thus has a lower maintenance cost and a longer life span. A solar powered absorption air conditioning system consists of: • Solar thermal collectors. and the required hot water temperature. • Hot water circulation pump. Absorption Chiller Lithium bromide (LiBr) and water absorption chillers have been widely commercialized due to their moderate hot water inlet temperature operation with higher coefficient of performance. Higher water temperature will lower the efficiency of the solar thermal collector. In and evaporator.electricity to drive the compressor of the chiller. • Heat exchanger. and • Condensing water pump.pbworld. solar radiation will be used to produce electricity and hot water.

Return chilled water temperature to the vapour compression chiller is dependent on the cooling capacity of the absorption chiller. thus reducing the cooling capacity of the vapour compression chiller (see Figure 4). The chiller system can be optimized by maintaining the maximum cooling for the absorption chiller.. even the solar powered absorption chiller can only perform partially. and • Can be integrated with the existing chilled water plant with less additional testing and commissioning. • Simple control for the system – individual chilled water pumps for the absorption chiller. Disadvantages: • Additional chilled water pumps for the absorption chiller circuit are required and hence consume more building energy. to generate sufficient hot water.pbworld. The absorption chiller is designed to handle about 50% of the total cooling capacity of the building for better system balancing. System Arrangement In-Series Connection The absorption chiller is connected to the return chilled water pipe and return chilled water pump.e. • Less plant room space required. are designed for 100% total cooling capacity of the building to increase the system reliability. 28 . • A bypass will need to be provided in case the solar powered absorption chiller can meet the cooling load demand. • Longer pipework increases the chilled water pumps pressure head and thus increases power consumption. Figure 5 – In-parallel connection for absorption chiller Advantages: • Less initial and operational cost compared with in-series configuration. operational cost. with a standby. • Can be applied to any capacity absorption chiller. and • Will not affect the efficiency and capacity of the vapour compression chillers. Three vapour compression chillers. Vapour Compression Chiller WCC-01 WCC-02 WCC-03 By-pass Absorption Chiller ABC-01 Main chilled water pumps Building Cooling Load CHWS CHWR Chilled water pumps for absorption chiller Figure 4 – In-series connection for absorption chiller Vapour Compression Chiller WCC-01 WCC-02 WCC-03 ABC-01 Main Chilled Water Pumps Absorption Chiller CHWR Building Cooling Load CHWS AUGUST 2013 http://www. • As the chilled water is pre-cooled (i. • More plant room space is required for additional return chilled water pumps and associated pipeworks. • Maintains a constant chilled water supply temperature. the return water to the chiller has a lower temperature) the efficiency and cooling capacity of the vapour compression chiller will be affected.aspx Advantages: • An absorption chiller can fully utilize the solar energy even under very low solar intensity. It pre-cools the return chilled water prior to its return to the vapour compression chiller. In-Parallel Connection The absorption chiller and vapour compression chiller are connected in parallel (see Figure 5). An adequately sized hot water tank provides reliable storage.Renewable Energy and GreenTransport Building Design Sector NETWORK that a thermal storage tank be used to store up the heat. particularly at fluctuated temperature subject to the available space for solar panel installation. and • Higher initial cost. and maintenance cost.

its refrigerant has zero global warming effects and ozone depletion. and a Principal Professional Associate with more than 25 years of experience in building services system design. 29 AUGUST 2013 http://www. He has worked on commercial. The improved thermal efficiency in small capacity collectors. 267–93. for the cooling system is beneficial to the owner. heat generation. Chilled water from the vapour compression chillers mixes with the chilled water supply from absorption chiller which is dependent on the varied solar intensity. electricity consumption. • The absorption chiller performance cannot be optimized during limited solar intensity or low hot water supply temperature. a vapour compression chiller is required to supplement the solar powered absorption chiller during overcast or rainy days. such as hotel or service apartments. An absorption chiller is a green technology. NS. The chilled water flow rate of the absorption chiller is controlled by a motorized valve to ensure the maximum chilled water will flow to the absorption chiller. Kasana. ASHRAE Handbook. However.pbworld. Malaysia. A solar powered absorption air conditioning system is particularly feasible and competitive for developments. available.aspx Renewable Energy and GreenTransport Building Design Sector NETWORK . such as solar energy.. Technology development in the solar absorption air conditioning systems. (4) pp. and Singapore. • He Z.N. Conclusion The technology of solar thermal collectors has gone through a holistic development in the past 10 It is obvious that using a free. with both cooling and heating requirements so that the solar thermal collectors can be used for both cooling and domestic hot water. (1997) Development and Application of Heat Pipe Evacuted Tubular Solar Collectors in China. KS. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. pp 59–66. He is a Chartered Engineer of UK. and also to maintain the availability and increase the reliability of the system. and hence reduces operation cost. with 18 years of experience in building services engineering. Chun Fai Chan is a Senior Associate of Parsons Brinckerhoff (Asia) Ltd. The study of solar absorption air conditioning systems. His expertise is in heating. and railway projects in Hong Kong. Macau. Thakur. Professional Engineer of Singapore. 2000. which resulted in higher system flexibility and lower equipment cost. and Hong Kong. Matthew Ngan is the Deputy General Manager of Parsons Brinckerhoff Pte Ltd. Vol 16 No 4. Korea. and Certified Project Management Professional. Taejon. ventilating. Macau. and • Difficult to maintain a constant chilled water supply temperature. • Mittal. Journal of Energy in Southern Africa. and air conditioning design and he has worked on projects in Singapore. V. is the major reason that combining a conventional chiller and advanced solar powered absorption chiller is feasible and competitive. thus the water supply temperature cannot be maintained constantly. 2005.. China.Disadvantages: • Complicated control for the system when the cooling capacity of the absorption chiller is different from the vapour compression chiller. • ASHRAE 2008. recreational. Indonesia. as it will significantly reduce the CO2 emissions. System and Equipment Handbook. Vol. and clean energy. Proceeding of ISES Solar World Congress 2. References • Li ZF & Sumanthy K.

as well as requiring an efficient CFD methodology suitable for this kind of application. the Buildings & Construction Authority (BCA) has implemented different Green Mark (GM) codes to encourage environmentally sustainable building designs for different building types. ASHRAE Standard 55–2004 is usually referred to for thermal comfort designs. 65 6290 65 6290 1383. tay. Zhengwei Ge. in particular in tropical regions like Singapore. For example. Due to advantages in cost effectiveness. an efficient CFD methodology. Thermal comfort conditions in human occupancy areas are essential for the designs.tony@pbworld. has not been well addressed. Energy savings. Tetrahedra and hexahedra are two typical 3D simple shapes. at least 70% of the naturally ventilated occupied spaces need to achieve a ‘good’ ventilation of 0.Renewable Energy and GreenTransport Building Design Sector NETWORK Efficient Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulations of Natural Ventilation Across Wards in a Hospital Building by George Xu.zhengwei@pbworld. As a result. Their findings form the foundation of the assessment criteria in the BCA GM codes. Figure 1 shows the CFD geometrical model converted from 3D BIM. A natural ventilation scheme is often adopted in new hospital building designs.aspx 30 . xu. efficient water usage. Singapore. Parsons Brinckerhoff’s Efficient CFD Methodology In Parsons Brinckerhoff’s Singapore office. thermal comfort related to natural ventilation. the majority of the wards between levels 4 and 7 are designed to be naturally ventilated. it is necessary to decompose the complicated computational domain into a number of finite elements with simpler shapes during the meshing process. are created to cater to the prevailing wind conditions in Singapore. dramatically reduces computational demands. the worldwide recognized ANSYS CFD 14. ge. and Tony Tay. using this streamlined CFD approach. However. subject to four prevailing wind conditions applicable in natural ventilation is encouraged when necessary. 65 6290 1321.0 software packages have been employed. Introduction To make Singapore a liveable and lively city-state. Studies about thermal comfort in tropical climates have been conducted by regional researchers. in an 8-storey hospital building. For a Platinum For example. The methodology utilises building information modelling. To comply with the GM codes in regard to CFD. In general. composed of the hospital development and the buildings immediately surrounding it. and green features to promote sustainability are major concerns in rating green buildings. it is possible to effectively optimise building designs for anticipated ventilation conditions. CFD is exclusively the best tool to assess natural ventilation conditions. has been formulated and adopted in our study: BIM-based modelling The use of building information modelling (BIM) can accurately preserve the design features and substantially reduce the efforts in model perception. an efficient working procedure which allows for design changes. and flexibility. Hexahedra-dominated cutcell meshing In CFD applications. Tens of millions of elements are generated to discretize (decompose) the large In GM natural ventilation simulations. the hexahedral elements are superior to tetrahedral elements in terms of computation- AUGUST 2013 http://www. Singapore. passive design features are highly promoted. The proposed methodology preserves the accuracy of the building design features. and a load management system to control batch runs.6 metres per second (m/s).com An innovative and efficient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology has been formulated in Parsons Brinckerhoff’s Singapore office to simulate natural winddriven ventilation across the wards of a large-scale hospital building.pbworld. consisting of the following key innovative components. accuracy. Singapore. This imposes remarkably high demands on computational hardware and software. two large-scale computational domains. cutcell elements. To reduce energy consumption. and substantially shortens the delivery duration of CFD results. rapid turnaround time.

31 AUGUST 2013 http://www. The Figure 1 – CFD geometrical model converted from 3D Revit model Figure 2 – Distribution of surface and volume mesh generated with the cutcell meshing approach in TGrid al accuracy and efficiency. Ansys Inc. ANSYS FLUENT User Guide. Batch jobs can be automatically scheduled for execution subject to the availability of computational re1 2 Figure 3 – Plan view of the 5th-storey layout in the baseline design Figure 4 – Typical large-scale computational domain for the northern wind condition ANSYS TGrid User Manual.pbworld. a load management system under the framework of Torque3. A total of twelve 5-bedded wards on the 5th-storey. and the output of hexahedra-dominated elements. 2011. corresponding to 6 ward clusters with the same design intentions. Combination of Gambit and TGrid in mesh generation In the streamlined workflow. only affected areas need to be updated in both types of software. the natural ventilation across the 5th-storey has been simulated. With PBS. Adaptive Computing Enterprises. 2010.0.. Results and Discussion To comply with the GM code for the 8-storey hospital building. Gambit is used for geometry creation/updating and surface triangulation. and TGrid is subsequently used for mesh generation with the cutcell meshing approach. ANSYS Inc. Figure 2 shows the distribution of resultant surface and volume mesh across the domain. 3 Torque Admin Manual – version The plan view of the design layout and space allocation on the 5th-storey in baseline design is illustrated in Figure 3. the handiness of mesh control. are designed to be naturally ventilated. especially for improved designs. Inc. Adoption of Torque – a load management software for batch runs All FLUENT2 jobs are submitted into a portable batch system (PBS). while the other storeys are assumed as solid. effectively shorten the computational time. The use of PBS can greatly reduce the demand for human intervention. 2011. This combination has proven to be very efficient and errorfree. When changes occur in design.The development sources monitored in PBS.. off-work time can be more effectively utilized for rigorous CFD simulations.aspx Renewable Energy and GreenTransport Building Design Sector NETWORK .. The cutcell meshing approach in TGrid1 offers attractive features like ease of dealing with complex geometry. and magnificently improve productivity.

Thanks to the efficient CFD methodology. The difference can be attributed primarily to the blockage of surrounding buildings.aspx large-scale computational domain for the northern wind condition is illustrated in Figure 4.2m above the floor of the 5th storey in baseline design subjected to four prevailing wind conditions AUGUST 2013 http://www. the delivery duration for each revised design has been remarkably reduced. yielding a good ventilation of 72. the best ventilation conditions across the wards occur under the southern wind condition. rearrangement of rooms in the central core nursing stations. As shown in Figure 5. Each change has been proven favorable by a series of CFD simulations of improved designs.8%. wing walls. 32 . Recommendations. the wards exhibit noticeable differences in ventilation conditions for every prevailing wind condition. as shown in Figure 7. This is far below the 70% required to attain GM Platinum. are proposed to improve natural ventilation across the wards. have been verified to effectively divert the airflow parallel to the building surface towards the respective wards. including larger louver windows. as illustrated in Figure 6. mainly because of the difference in orientation.pbworld. while the worst conditions happen under both the northeast and southeast wind conditions. the blockage of surrounding buildings. relocation of wards and respective rooms. which is spatially discretized by over 23-million hexahedra-dominated elements. and the adoption of wing walls. one baseline design and four improvement designs have been rigorously simulated before reaching the final design.Renewable Energy and GreenTransport Building Design Sector NETWORK (a) Northern wind condition (b) Northeast wind condition (c) Southern wind condition (d) Southeast wind condition Figure 5 (a–d) – Air movement on the horizontal cutting plane at 1. Throughout the project. and the obstructions from interior designs. For example. On the average. The final design successfully satisfies the requirement for good ventilation in GM Platinum rating. perforated panels. The integration of all the recommended changes forms the final design. reflected in Figure 8. The predicted overall percentage of good ventilation across the wards is only

33 AUGUST 2013 http://www. . 2007.0). In the future.. “Applying natural ventilation for thermal comfort in residential buildings in Singapore”. electrical. such as two new school projects with classrooms naturally ventilated. Zhengwei Ge is a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Specialist in Parsons Brinckerhoff’s Singapore office.. and Wong N. BCA. Tony Tay is General Manager of the mechanical. •• ANSYS TGrid User Manual. Adaptive Comput- ing Enterprises. 2009.Figure 6 – Wing walls proposed for the final design Figure 8 – Geometrical model of the development in the final design Figure 7– Streamline plots of airflow effectively diverted towards the ward by wing walls Figure 9 – Air movement captured in 2D CFD model under southern wind condition Conclusion An innovative CFD methodology. 2011. has been demonstrated in this paper. Singapore. Singapore. ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55–2004. Ansys Inc. The outstanding efficiency of the proposed CFD methodology has been proven repeatedly in such applications. •• Wang L. Vol.. George Xu is a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Specialist in Parsons Brinckerhoff’s Singapore office. formulated by Parsons Brinckerhoff and used in the design of a natural ventilation scheme for a hospital building in Singapore under the BCA GM framework.aspx •• Building planning and massing. Renewable Energy and GreenTransport Building Design Sector NETWORK . Dr. 2004. Dr. plumbing (MEP) department in Parsons Brinckerhoff’s Singapore office. •• BCA Green Mark Certification Standard for New Build- ings (GM Version 4. The proposed CFD methodology has also been applied to other projects. Ansys Inc. •• Torque Admin Manual – version 3.pbworld.. 2010. 2011. 2010. •• ANSYS FLUENT User Guide. Such efforts will effectively minimize the rigorous demands to achieve 3D design with anticipated good ventilation. 2D CFD simulations of natural ventilation will be strongly proposed in preliminary designs.3. 224–233. since the quick solutions from 2D modelling can capture the essential information needed for design improvement as shown in Figure 9. 2010. 50. H. Inc. References •• A lively and liveable Singapore: Strategies for sustainable growth. •• Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occu- pancy. Architectural Science Review. Singapore.

Chan. and the reuse of waste heat to lessen the impact on a building’s outdoor environment.thomas@pbworld.. With more dense urban cities emerging. many people do not realize that the microclimate affects the design of building mechanical and electrical (M&E) systems in addition to architecture. and technological conditions are pertinent to its sustainable development. and 34 . envelope detailing. tackle the problem of fuel poverty. outdoor air quality analysis. whether it is as simple as taking advantage of views. ecological. It also investigates renewable energy and sustainability solutions for the built environment and discusses some of the innovative engineering design aspects of Hysan Place. natural ventilation. C. a 38-story development in Hong Kong. and society. In addition. +852 2579 8659. Passive solar building strategies refer to the modification of the form.Renewable Energy and GreenTransport Building Design Sector NETWORK Renewable Energy and Sustainability Solutions Toward Attaining Zero-Carbon Emissions Buildings by Thomas K. • Daylighting/sun control (integrated with M&E design) AUGUST 2013 Microclimatic Analysis of Building Interface with the Environment Is microclimatic analysis an essential component of good architectural design? After all. economical. building design responds to the environment. reducing the need for electric lighting. geothermal) and recycled/green building materials. Sustainable development of a building calls for energy efficient technologies and sustainable technologies to minimize the impact of global climate change and the potential lack of fuel resources. • Reducing construction and demolition waste. social. the environment.aspx Sustainable Concepts for Building Design Sustainability concepts involve a balance amongst the economy. This article discusses the current and future challenges and opportunities for building services engineers in designing and maintaining sustainability in the building environment. implementing sustainability and renewable ideas into buildings is becoming a focus for governments and enterprises. • Maximizing the use of natural renewable energy resources (such as solar. Microclimatic analysis can help to achieve a sustainable architectural design. Building microclimatic analysis is used to find the building interface solution to the environment through solar access analysis. etc. etc. microclimatic analysis allows the designers to better understand the feasibility of renewable energy applications (such as solar and wind). Unfortunately. and mechanical ventilation and cooling.pbworld. topography. thermal environment analysis. especially nonrenewable types. and at the same time promote cities’ economic development. fabric. and internal layout of buildings so that natural light and solar heat gains are controlled. • Minimizing the consumption of energy. Solutions for Building Sustainability How to design sustainable buildings? We need to consider the following principles: • Adopting a life cycle approach to planning. Energy is vital to life in modern cities and the way we use it may affect our environment. cultural. or as complex as looking at solar angles for the placement of windows and the length of overhangs. and reduce energy use of a building through better building design. improve indoor environmental quality. space heating. construction. etc. • Building envelope to harness natural energy via passive solar (whole building) design strategies. wind analysis. Sustainable design can help to reduce cities' contributions to global climate change. and maintenance. design. and a need for creating a sustainable society. Hong Kong. prevailing wind analysis. wind. A region’s unique environmental. Integration Solution between Microclimatic Analysis and Building Energy Use The following should be taken into account: • Site planning and massing considerations to lower overall energy use via solar The materials we use to create our buildings and the energy we consume to keep us comfortable take a tremendous toll on our environment. for which Parsons Brinckerhoff was the mechanical and electrical (M&E) consultant. chan.

and it’s hard to predict the wind speed in the built environment. The orientation of the tower was carefully considered to 35 AUGUST 2013 http://www.. and integration of the M&E system with site available renewables. while filtering comfortably diffused.g. PV roof monitors can eliminate the need for daytime electricity. reduced wind speeds in urban areas.aspx Hong Kong’s highly built-up environment is convenient and efficient. Building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) and building-integrated wind power utilization are examples of renewable energy options for building design: Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) – Roof integration is the most popular application with the greatest solar exposure and highest power output. reduction of heating/cooling loads by components of the environment. acting as “urban windows” to enhance natural air ventilation and improve the microclimate in the neighborhood. An opaque PV module used as an awning can shade the interior from harsh direct sunlight and reduce cooling expenses. on. as well as enhances ventilation in the district. the size of turbines relative to buildings. is located in the heart of the Eastern District of Hong Kong Island. safety fears. Transparent thin-film modules can create energy-efficient PV modules with lighting by providing both electricity and indirect maximize use of daylight to minimize running costs. The green design features of the building are as follows: Renewable Energy and GreenTransport Building Design Sector NETWORK . The new building (see Figure 3) uses less energy and provides a healthy and productive indoor environment that emphasizes the use of natural light and fresh air. indirect light into the interior. Building-Integrated Wind Power – The urban wind field is very complicated. and to address removal of barriers (e. and • Interface between the environment and the building M&E system to reduce energy use via optimum locations for outdoor intakes and exhaust plumes. planning restrictions) by developing innovative technological solutions and producing design guidance for the integration of wind turbines in. A Green Building Design Toward Zero-Carbon Emissions Figure 1 – Daylight factor analysis Figure 2 – Photo-realistic renderings Examples of Renewable Energy for Building Design An appropriate total building design should include a balanced consideration of various available options for renewable energy. Parsons Brinckerhoff was the mechanical and electrical (M&E) consultant for the full M&E services of the entire development. Hysan Place. Daylight factor analysis and photo-realistic renderings shown on Figures 1 and 2 respectively are tools to determine the best locations and control strategy of daylight sensors. To develop wind power in urban areas effectively. noise problems. the wind aerodynamics around the building in the urban areas must be investigated. For wind application. It is particularly challenging to find a genuine environmental solution for a high-rise building in a high density location. A PV light shelf can shield direct sun Building massing and envelope There are several large openings at lower levels of the building. and around buildings. key objectives are to analyze the fluid field of buildings for feasible locations by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. an area with an extremely high pedestrian flow.pbworld. The development is the first Hong Kong building that has achieved pre-certification of the highest Platinum level under Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) of the US Green Building Council (USGBC). a new Grade A retail/office building completed in 2012. Vertical curtain walls and awnings are also practical as these can replace traditional cladding but also presents environmental concerns. They also lessen the wall effect and help retain good visual permeability.

Advanced building commissioning verifies and ensures that the building is designed. which cycles energy usually lost during elevator braking back to the building’s power grid for reuse. Premises with populations that vary greatly can benefit from the use of this sensor technology because it provides the exact amount of ventilation air needed. They help to mitigate the heat island effect. and calibrated to operate as intended. The tower core is located at the south to minimize heat gain from that direction.Renewable Energy and GreenTransport Building Design Sector NETWORK The light shelf at the building facade introduces daylight deep into the inner zones of the office floors. Careful consideration was made to obtain a balance between optimal views and best use of natural light on the one hand. is also available when the right climate conditions exist. The longitudinal sides of the rectangular tower face north and south. Energy simulations for different HVAC designs have been carried out to ensure that the systems adopted are highly energy efficient.pbworld. The high performance curtain wall system with sunshades and low-emissivity double-glazing allows sufficient visible light to enter the building while it reduces unwanted solar heat gain and exterior noise at the same time. reduce heat gain and undesirable glares in a passive and cost effective way. as well as retain rainwater for plant irrigation. and not the large quantity that would otherwise be used without this detection system. Evaporative cooling towers instead of air-cooled chillers were adopted for the building. 36 . so as to reduce the building cooling load. Greenery Green roofs are provided at different levels of the building.aspx Figure 3 – Hysan Place in Hong Kong has many green attributes. such as using outside air for direct-cooling of office floors. The elevators incorporate regenerative drive. Green roof design is also a practical way to provide greenery in a high density AUGUST 2013 Free cooling. Such vents also provide a healthier environment for staff working after hours or when natural ventilation is desired. while the shorter transverse sides face east and west to minimize the effect of low-angle sun glare. The energy hidden in the exhaust air can be recovered to pre-cool the incoming fresh air. constructed. The northern sea view was captured without much heat gain from the north. Energy efficiency Total enthalpy recovery wheels are installed at the primary air units. Demand-controlled ventilation using CO2 sensors provides energy savings and better indoor air quality. A passenger sensing control system changes the escalators to an energy saving mode by using variable frequency drive during times of low usage. Vents integrated into the curtain wall design allow natural ventilation at the perimeter zones of the office floors and save air-conditioning energy when the right outdoor environment conditions permit. and keeping energy consumption low on the other.

renewable energy. part of the gray water from the office tower can be filtrated and re-used. Water efficiency The rainwater harvesting system allows the use of rainwater for landscaping and other uses.aspx Renewable Energy and GreenTransport Building Design Sector NETWORK . West Kowloon and Hunghom Bay Campuses. energy efficient building services systems. and Hong Kong Polytechnic University Community College. prevailing wind analysis.pbworld. He has been with Parsons Brinckerhoff for 25 years and has served as Project Director for various green and intelligent award-winning building projects in Hong Kong which include: Hong Kong Science and Technology Park. Hong Kong Design Institute. Lo Wu Correctional Institutional Complex. 37 AUGUST 2013 http://www. Phase system formworks. An innovative element is the design of an artificial wetland on the podium roof. Ambulatory Care Block. Recycling and sorting facilities are to be installed for building users. Tseung Kwan O Hospital. Chan is Director of Buildings for the China region and a Principal Professional Associate.urban context. thermal environment analysis. Through the artificial planting at the podium garden. Potable water use reduction is available through water saving devices and rainwater reclamation. Other notable green innovations Sustainable construction practices were adopted which included the recycling of construction waste and extensive use of environmental material. building envelope and massing. Conclusion Implementing sustainability. and water efficiency leading towards zero-carbon emissions. daylight and outdoor air quality analysis. A sustainable and green building design considers: renewable integration and less building energy use through solar access analysis. In Hong Kong. solution for creating a sustainable community. the application of sustainability concepts proved to be an effective means to achieve the goal of carbon emissions reduction in building design. and microclimatic analysis (related to building interface to the environment) into building design is a comprehensive Thomas K. and prefabrication.C. green roof design.

The concept of robustness is about designing structural forms that are capable of dealing with unexpected or extreme events. There are many aspects of civil and structural engineering where innovation can bring benefits. and stated that “the law requires even pioneers to be prudent”1. reduce construction cost. efficient structural forms.aspx Figure 1 – Bridge collapses in Minnesota in 2007 (left) and Montreal in 2006 (right) 1 New Civil Engineer Consultants File March 2007 (2007) 38 . which was a steel truss structure that suddenly collapsed in 2007 after the failure of a gusset plate (see Figure 1). Two fairly recent examples of bridge collapses are enlightening in this respect. In 1980. but there are potential legal issues to consider.pbworld. As Does this mean that using innovation to drive efficiency and thereby reduce conservatism is irresponsible or negligent? Not necessarily. and a means of justifying the use of innovation. analytical methods. So the potential benefits of innovation can be significant if used correctly. improve aesthetics and. and these need to be managed. reduce disruption during construction. Another example is the I-35W Highway Bridge in Minnesota. Bristol. whether that be a local overstress or damage to the structure. we have to be sure that we are being responsible and eliminating risk wherever possible. reduce maintenance costs. But there are usually some risks associated with using innovative methods or products that may not have a proven track record. Construction. +44(0)117 933 9112. The use of innovation can make it possible to improve durability. in some cases. Managing Risk The consequences of failure for a structure such as a bridge are potentially catastrophic. The first example is the De la Concorde overpass in Montreal. a concrete bridge structure that collapsed in 2006 after shear cracks were found in the deck. Suppose that something unforeseen does “go wrong”. there was a case in the UK regarding the innovative design of a television aerial mast that collapsed due to ice loading on the cable stays. and Inspection ofTransport Civil Structures Sector NETWORK Innovative Structures and the Need for Robustness by Jon Shave. or new construction methods. improve sustainability. even for conventional materials and structural forms it is quite possible for events to occur that were unforeseen by the designers and that could result in failure. Designs must be demonstrably conservative to assure safety. So how can we prudently manage the risk of failure in innovative structures? Designing for robustness is a powerful way of managing risk. The court found the designers negligent in not adequately considering the potential risks to quantify the “venture into the unknown”.Design. UK. reduce health and safety risks. AUGUST 2013 http://www. including: new materials and technology. What would happen next? Robustness is not an issue solely for innovative structures.

in some cases. bringing together the interests of suppliers. a simply supported steel structure with a design governed by strength would not have this robust property since an overload could. developed and used on projects that include the St. In the design of FRP structures. Construction. the size or thickness of the structural members determined in the design calculations usually need to be greater than needed for strength and safety purposes. contractors. in order to satisfy limits on deflections and vibrations. it is normally assumed that there is no ductility whatsoever. whereas in a ductile material (like steel) the material will yield plastically and maintain a reasonably constant stress level as it yields and extends. 39 AUGUST 2013 http://www. In contrast. Ductility is a useful property as it can allow stresses to be redistributed around the structure whilst it carries load. and clients. Despite often being misleadingly called “plastic”. we were the first to design a fully FRP structure on the rail network. Design Guidance for FRP Structures There is limited guidance available on the treatment of these issues for the design of FRP bridges. inquiries recommended improvements to the requirements for robustness in design. an industry body based in the UK promoting the use of FRP materials in construction. While robustness should be a key part of design for all structures. Our design philosophy for these innovative structures has been driven by the need for robustness.Following both these events. pioneered by Parsons Brinckerhoff. with Parsons Brinckerhoff playing a leading role in developing the design This gap in the standards has been identified as a possible barrier to the more widespread use of FRP in construction by the Network Group for Composites in Construction (NGCC). even without relying on ductile material properties. and Inspection ofTransport Civil Structures Sector NETWORK . Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRP) in Bridge Structures An example of structural innovation. may Figure 2 – St. because the structures are generally stronger than they need to be. and may well be able to withstand some local damage without collapse. When a brittle material fails. the stress in the material can suddenly no longer be sustained (failing with a bang). The challenge is to safely demonstrate this robustness in design. This feature of FRP structures helps us to provide robustness in design. designers. FRP materials are very strong but are not particularly stiff. cause collapse without any serviceability-related warning signs. Figure 3 – Dawlish FRP Station Footbridge FRP bridges often have substantial reserves of strength.pbworld. because the FRP material can exhibit failure mechanisms that would be brittle in nature with almost no forewarning. The approach that Parsons Brinckerhoff has recommended for robustness. This property means that. Austell Footbridge (see Figure 2) and the Dawlish Railway Station Footbridge (see Figure 3). Austell FRP Footbridge on any plastic redistribution in design. whether explicitly or implicitly. In the UK. is the use of fibre reinforced polymers (FRP) in bridge structures. The NGCC has therefore set up an FRP bridge design steering group to develop design recommendations for FRP bridges. and are able to respond to unexpectedly high loads with noticeably large elastic deflections without collapse. because they can fail in a brittle (or non-ductile) way. in general. it is particularly important for it to be fully considered in the design of FRP structures. A designer’s awareness of these issues helps to ensure robustness in the design of FRP structures. FRP structures do not generally behave plastically and it is not appropriate to rely compared with steel they have a very high strength-to-stiffness ratio.aspx Design.

com/news/publications. Further details of the approach may be found in a paper presented at FRP Bridges 2012: Shave. to check that collapse will not occur in the damaged state under moderate loading. Construction. London. "Successful engineering is all about understanding how things break or fail. 6. Process is repeated for all vulnerable details. 20. Engineer and professor Henry Petroski once said. in the Eurocode method as implemented in the UK for verifying accidental design situations. and Inspection ofTransport Civil Structures Sector NETWORK be summarised as follows: It may be demonstrated that a structure is not dependent on a particular detail by considering an accidental design situation with the critical joint or sub-element removed from the model. The ultimate limit state design resistance for short-term effects should then exceed the design effect in this damaged configuration. The structure is modelled with this vulnerable part removed. the loss or damage of a structural detail). AUGUST 2013 http://www.qc. development of standards. These levels of loading and the corresponding load factors are defined in the Eurocodes as the “combination of actions” to be used for the accidental design situation." By ensuring bridge designs are robust we can avoid catastrophic collapses and this approach allows us to confidently use innovation in structural design. pedestrian loading) are applied at a moderate level of loading corresponding to routine usage rather than the maximum crowd loading. Vulnerable parts of the structure are identified. but the process could be applied to a range of structure types and details. and the methods used in design to deal with these events are different from those used to ensure safety for the more normal situations typically encountered in the life of a bridge. A vulnerable part is chosen for further jbc/gpm. An “accidental design situation” relates to an extreme event (in this case. Some Principles for Designing Safe and Robust FRP Structures. NGCC.leg. Parsons Brinckerhoff has particularly used this approach to demonstrate that the safety of an FRP bridge is not disproportionately reliant on any one bonded joint. Design of the St Austell FibreReinforced Polymer Footbridge. He is based in Bristol. Denton. BSi. No. 2. and Eurocode implementation. those which are most heavily utilised or which would have highest consequence of failure. there are no load factors. The recommended design process is: 1. (2012).gouv. Some Principles for Designing Safe and Robust FRP Structures. with a moderate level of loading applied.pbworld.cevc. 4 (2010) •• BS EN 1990. (2006) •• Shave. (2002) •• BS EN 1991–1–7. BSi. 40 .htm •• Shave. Eurocode 1– Actions on structures – Part 1–7: General actions – Accidental actions.pdf •• Investigative Report to Joint Committee to investigate the I-35W Bridge Collapse. 5. www. the design is revised to improve robustness. Structural Engineering International Vol. 7.g.state. (2007). structural assessment. The structure is designed for serviceability and ultimate limit states. 3. The design effect may be based on the combination of actions used for an accidental design situation (but with no accidental action). (2008). The “ultimate limit state design resistance” is the strength of the structure. and the variable loads (e. FRP Bridges 2012. www. If the damaged structure has insufficient strength to prevent collapse. Eurocode – Basis of structural design. NGCC.commissions. UK and his areas of expertise include fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) structures.Design. 4. UK. Report. London. and this needs to be sufficient to show that collapse would not be expected to occur under routine loading in the damaged state. References •• New Civil Engineer Consultants File March 2007 (2007) •• Commission of Inquiry into the collapse of a portion of the de la Concorde Overpass. userfiles/file/rapport/report_eng.. The effects from this analysis are compared with the ultimate limit state design resistance for short-term effects.aspx Jon Shave is Head of Special Consultancy Services within Parsons Brinckerhoff’s civils and structures group in the UK. FRP Bridges 2012. Frostick. For example.

Innovative Approaches to Structures on the Metrolink Phase 3 Extensions by Mungo Stacy. acting as Delivery Part. UK is one of the most successful light rail systems in the UK. and approving the structural proposals to address these challenges. Contract Mechanisms Parsons Brinckerhoff. was responsible for specifybe incorporated into the project. In July 2007. and operational The Metrolink tram network in Greater Manchester. Parsons Brinckerhoff was instrumental in defining this contractual framework and imately 275 existing structures. Parsons Brinckerhoff was appointed Delivery Partner for the client. carrying approximately 22 million passengers every year.5 billion (approximately $2. UK. These included around ing and procuring the infrastructure contract which was let 80 bridges and five tunnels. predominantly associated It was not possible to define the structure condition and. These improved transport links will reduce congestion and improve access to employment opportunities within the region.aspx Design. reviewing. many dating from the original as a fixed-price design-construct-maintain contract. and undertook programme management for this and associated projects as part of an integrated delivery team working alongside client staff. Approxconstruction of the respective railway lines in the 1870s. scope of work prior to contract award due to rela- 41 AUGUST 2013 http://www. Various innovative contractual and technical approaches were devised in order to address the challenges of limited condition knowledge. site constraints. needed to hence. with the extensions using former rail corridors.pbworld. The Metrolink Phase 3 project (construction in sub-phases from 2008 to 2016) will create approximately 60 km (37 miles) of new tram lines. Manchester. This major expansion of the Metrolink tram system included over 380 structures. Construction.Figure 1 – Metrolink routes ner for the client.3 billion) Metrolink Phase 3 project was Transport for Greater Manchester (TfGM). The routes are shown in Figure 1. +44 (0)161 200 9845. stacym@pbworld. The client for the £1. and Inspection ofTransport Civil Structures Sector NETWORK .

The higher initial construction cost was offset by greater schedule and cost certainty. A wholelife cost comparison of the 120-year design life of a new structure compared with the 50-year design life of a refurbishment was also used to justify the additional construction cost. the client chose to accept some risk of the existing structure condition through a contractual risk-share mechanism. Construction. or replacement. Close collaboration at the inspections and during the subsequent discussions allowed agreement to be reached readily during this phased scope determination. the number of structures involved. A number of critical structures were replaced rather than refurbished in order to limit the prolongation risk to the contract (see Figure 3). The intended strategy at contract award was Figure 4 – New light rail system including overhead electrification installed within existing infrastructure 42 . problems were found with the condition and strength of a number of these structures. The choice of a suitable balance of risk incentivised both client and contractor to find appropriate engineering solutions for the structures.Design. AUGUST 2013 http://www. strengthening. However. whether to undertake refurbishment. Figure 2 – Inspection and refurbishment of existing infrastructure tively short tender timescales. The contractor was required to carry out inspections and assessments of all the structures within six months of the contract award (see Figure 2). the re-use of infrastructure constructed for other purposes can demand ingenious solutions. Parsons Brinckerhoff needed to make a decision on the strategy and scope of work required for each structure and.pbworld.aspx Existing Structures Adapting existing infrastructure to suit modern needs can be a sustainable and economic way to promote growth in our communities. in particular. A revised scope and budget for the structures works was then agreed with the client. represented by Parsons Brinckerhoff. as the project progressed. and limited access to the structures. where presence of a canal increased the cost and schedule risks of undertaking refurbishment to carry out limited refurbishment of all of the existing structures. The demanding contract timescales placed a limit on the time available for second-stage assessments. In order to reduce the contract cost. and Inspection ofTransport Civil Structures Sector NETWORK Figure 3 – Replacement of However.

and Inspection ofTransport Civil Structures Sector NETWORK . hence reducing installation risks. In both cases. Figure 6 – New motorway crossing for tram line installed using selfpropelled modular transporter units 43 AUGUST 2013 http://www. were transported into place using selfpropelled modular transporter units (see Figure 6). Construction.pbworld. The completed assemblies. weighing 580 tonnes (639 tons). unexpectedly severe and extensive corrosion was found on some metal structures. These platform vehicles were configured with an array of 64 wheels to distribute the load on the motorway surface to an acceptably low level. but are finding increasing use in civil engineering. therefore. The transporter units were originally developed for moving large rigs for the oil industry. The corrosion posed scheduling challenges since it placed the detailing and fabrication of metal repairs into the construction stage. heavy rail electrification in the UK frequently requires extensive reconstruction to provide electrification clearances. This trend is driving innovative solutions which can be installed in short blockades. the proposed new structures were included in the contractor’s fixed They offer the advantage of rapid installation and are less sensitive to high winds than large cranes. Parsons Brinckerhoff also led discussions with the external highway and railway authorities to obtain approval for the design and installation of the structures.aspx Design. Offsite manufacture Infrastructure owners are increasingly requiring that their assets remain operational with minimal closure periods. This restored full strength without affecting the utilities carried by the bridge while maintaining construction access along the track formation. Innovative strengthening methods were used to reduce disruption and offer schedule savings compared with reconstruction. These arches were fitted below the bridge girders and backfilled with lightweight foamed concrete to encase and support the original beams. The two examples below indicate how innovative approaches were adopted to address external constraints. thus minimising costs of the scheme (see Figure 4). the bridge girders and composite concrete deck were assembled in compounds alongside the motorway. Two new motorway crossings on the project were each installed during a single 18-hour motorway closure using techniques of offsite manufacture and heavy-lift transportation.Figure 5 – Strengthening girder bridges without disturbing services. New Structures The risks associated with constructing the new structures. However. were not considered unusual. which reduced the ability to plan the work in advance. A number of structures were strengthened using corrugated metal arch shells (see Figure 5). In contrast. Parsons Brinckerhoff was responsible for review and technical approval of the contractor’s proposals. over 80 in number. using corrugated metal arches backfilled with concrete Strengthening The selection of a light transit system with a relatively small vehicle size permitted the overhead electrification to be installed within the existing structure headroom.

Various approaches were taken to address the risk of poor structure conditions. However. and refurbishment of bridges and structures and has worked on projects in London. one side of the bridge consists of a single span of 52m (170’) whereas the other has two spans of 33m (108’). The high skew created structural challenges. construction. Structure configuration A new viaduct at Rochdale East was installed to create grade-separation of the tram from the heavy rail lines.aspx 44 . The bridge was installed during a 72-hour blockade of the operational railway below. Mungo Stacy is a Senior Professional Associate and the Technical Representative for the civil. Innovative approaches used to address these have included unusual structure configurations and offsite prefabrication to minimise service closure periods. The characteristics of the light transit system were key to fitting the alignment within the available space. AUGUST 2013 http://www. An unusual pentagonal shape for the bridge was chosen to address these challenges (see Figure 7). The project has successfully delivered a modern transport system which will enhance the community it serves. structures. The remainder of the new tram lines have been constructed on new alignments. A sustainable approach was used to create some of the new tram lines by adapting former railway corridors. Conclusion This major expansion of the Metrolink tram system incorporated a combination of new structures and adaptation of existing infrastructure. He has 12 years of experience in the design. Underpinning and enabling this innovation. Hong Kong. to the agreed schedule. In particular. and Edinburgh. the alignment was severely constrained to lie within the footprint of the railway land and this led to an oblique crossing at an angle of 70 degrees. and mining engineering sector on the technical leadership team (TLT) and is currently based in contract. ground. encouraging close collaboration between the client.Design. The new structures have brought other challenges such as space constraints and interfaces with operational infrastructure. Construction. The design without intermediate piers avoided lengthy and extensive traffic management which would have been needed to construct foundations and piers within the centre reserve. An additional centre pier on one side was used to support the point of the pentagon and limit deflections. An alternative portal-type structure was considered but would have created a tunnel effect with large unused areas. contractor. A governing criterion was limiting the track twist which could arise due to the long span and the offset positions of the supports. the procurement.pbworld. and designer. Thus. and Inspection ofTransport Civil Structures Sector NETWORK Figure 7 – An unusual structure shape at Rochdale East viaduct addressed the challenge of constrained space Single span crossings of 52m (170’) were provided to carry the tram lines over dual 4-lane motorways. the ability of the tram vehicles to climb steep gradients up to 6% and negotiate tight corners enabled the length of the approach ramps to be minimised. and project team arrangements have been based on an appropriate allocation of risk. and within the available budget.

Analyzing the Impacts of Explosions on Dams and Levees
by James Parkes, Baltimore, Maryland, 1-410-454-9763,

Infrastructure security is a growing area of engineering analyses with focus on high risk structures such as buildings, bridges, and tunnels. Dams and levees also need to be considered as part of these critical infrastructure assessments. In the United States alone, there are over 84,000 dams (USACE, 2010) and 100,000 miles of levees (ASCE, 2009).

1.50 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 - 150 80 70 60 50 Drain 40 30 20 10 0 150

Embankment (Drained) Foundation -100 -50 0 Distance 50 100

Figure 1 – Cross Section of Homogenous Trial Embankment Dam Section

Many dams contain public roadways along the crest. The consequences of a dam or levee failure may include not only the direct loss of a roadway and the loss of a reservoir for water supply or power generation, but also the potentially devastating effect of the sudden uncontrolled release of the reservoir. Over 26,000 dams in the US are classified as either high hazard or significant hazard, meaning failure would result in likely or possible loss of human life (USACE, 2010). Hazard classification is a function of the consequences of failure, not the size, length, or design of the dam. Parsons Brinckerhoff has established itself as a leader in the field of analyzing the impact of explosions on infrastructure (blast impact assessment). The 2003 William Barclay Parsons Fellowship (WBPF) was awarded to this research and subsequent monograph entitled Tunnel Stability Under Explosion (Choi, 2009). Parsons Brinckerhoff is using an innovative approach, also funded through the WBPF program, to extend the field of blast security analysis to embankment dams and levees.

A trial dam section was developed based on widely used geometric configurations for homogeneous embankment dams, published guidelines (USBR, 1973), and engineering judgment. The dam has a 2.5H:1V upstream slope, a crest width of 25 feet, and a 2H:1V downstream slope (see Figure 1). A public roadway is assumed on the crest with an explosive event occurring on either the upstream or downstream side of the road. A failure mode analysis was performed to determine possible failure mechanisms that could result from this type of load (explosive impact). These include: A. Global stability failure due to the dynamic impact of the explosion (failure during the explosion); B. Global stability failure due to the post-blast geometry altered by cratering and/or cracking; and C. Localized failure due to an erosive breach following the blast, resulting from water inflow into a crater or cracked section (localized erosion and/or piping leading to catastrophic breach). These failure modes are illustrated in Figure 2.

Trial Embankment Section and Failure Modes
Earth embankment dams were selected for analysis because the vast majority of dams in the US, over 87%, are this type of structure (USACE, 2010). Assessing embankment dams requires a unique understanding of explosive loading, soil modeling under high energy dynamic loading, embankment dam failure modes, and conventional geotechnical stability evaluations.

Developing the Blast Impact Model
Most conventional geotechnical modeling involves relatively static loads of small to moderate intensity applied over a long time period. Blast impact loading, however, involves very high energy, large magnitude loads applied for very short periods of time. Conventional geotechnical modeling software and conventional understanding of soil mechanics do not apply to blast impact loading. An innovative ap-



Design, Construction, and Inspection ofTransport Civil Structures Sector


Design, Construction, and Inspection ofTransport Civil Structures Sector

Assessing the Results of the Blast Impact Model
The results of the blast model were evaluated in terms of the failure modes indicated in Figure 2. Clay and soils containing clay have a cohesive strength component that allows the soil to form cracks. Cracks may extend many feet below the surface, and may form due to desiccation or due to deformations (settlements, lateral spreading). Cracked sections are often included in conventional slope stability analyses, and cracking is a concern for internal seepage controls in embankment dam design. The explosion results in large deformations in the area of the blast. It is considered possible that such deformations could lead to crack formation which can contribute to failure (Figure 2B and 2C). Therefore, it is necessary to estimate the depth of potential cracking below the explosion. An innovative approach to this is to consider the strains that propagate into the embankment below the crater. Strain indicates an amount of movement; limiting strain criteria is often used to define failure or unacceptable performance geotechnical engineering. Beyond a certain degree of movement, soils may lose strength or structures built of soil may be damaged to the point of no longer being serviceable without excessive repairs.

A. Global Stability Failure During the Explosion

B. Post-Blast Global Stability Failure Due to Crater/Cracked Section

C. Post-Blast Breach Failure Due to Uncontrolled Seepage Through Cratered/Cracked Zone

Figure 2 – Illustration of Possible Failure Modes due to Explosion on Dam Crest

proach was developed to assess how embankment soils would behave under such loading conditions. Analysis of explosions and blast impacts is typically performed with explicit dynamics software, which enables modeling of very rapid high intensity loads on structures. One such software package is AUTODYN by ANSYS, Inc. This is a complex numerical modeling software that can be used to analyze high intensity rapid loading conditions using different solvers for fluids and solids coupled together. In most blast analyses, soils are a secondary concern and are analyzed in terms of how much energy is transferred to an adjacent or buried structure. However, for this analysis, the structure itself is made of soil, and so a reasonable soil model had to be developed, and the results of the model had to be evaluated in terms of geotechnical stability and failure mechanisms. Soil models for blast impact loads have been developed for analyzing the impacts of buried explosives, such as landmines, for military applications. Models have been developed and validated through instrumented field experiments for a variety of soil types (Grujicic et al., April 2007, May 2007). Soil models for saturated sand-clay mixtures were used to best match the types of soil most likely to be used in an embankment dam. The soil models were validated by re-creating the published landmine analyses as indicated in Figure 3. An embankment dam could now be analyzed using soil models that have been specifically developed for blast impact analyses.


Figure 3 – Published Soil Model (Left, Grujicic et. al. May 2007) and Re-created Soil Model (Right) for a Buried Landmine Explosion

This research extends this practice to assessing the potential crack formation due to the explosive load. Although some deformation is immediately obvious, such as the crater formation, the blast analysis shows that deformations, indicated by strains, extend significantly deeper than the crater. As shown in Figure 4, strains extend to depths several times the depth of the crater. The strain contours can be used to estimate the depth of particular levels of deformation, which is assumed to be indicative of crack potential. Engineering judgment is used to define a limiting strain value, such as 5% or 10%, that corresponds to the formation of cracks. The depth of potential cracking can be determined based on that limiting strain value from


the blast analysis results. The depths of the crater and potential cracking are used to assess post-blast stability and local breach potential (Figures 2B and 2C). Research is currently under way to evaluate how to assess the stability during the blast event (Figure 2A).

provide an initial indication of risk potential and possible failure modes. As part of a comprehensive security and risk assessment program, this simplified assessment can be used in preliminary evaluations to assess the need to perform more time-intensive modeling or evaluate the need for mitigation measures.

Crater formed by blast

Parsons Brinckerhoff is using an innovative approach to extend the field of blast security analysis to embankment dams and levees. The work is a result of combining research from military applications with infrastructure security assessments and conventional geotechnical engineering evaluations. The result is a rational procedure for assessing the impacts of explosions on the stability of embankment dams, including the development of simplified charts to assess the potential for cracking and the formation of an erosive breach. References
• American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, website URL, website accessed January 2013. • Choi, Sunghoon (2009), “Tunnel Stability Under Explosion”, PB 2003 William Barclay Parsons Fellowship, Monograph 19, Parsons Brinckerhoff, NY. • Grujicic, M., B. Pandurangan, N. Coutris, B.A. Cheeseman, W. N. Roy, R.R. Skaggs (April 2007), "Derivation and Validation of a Material Model for Clayey Sand for Use In Landmine Detonation Computational Analyses", Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, Vol. 5 Iss: 4 pp. 311 – 344.

Deformations extending below crater, as indicated by strain contours Figure 4 – Model Showing Crater and Strain Contours from Explosion over Upstream Half of Crest

Development of Simplified Charts
As indicated above, two of the failure modes can be assessed based on the depths of potential cracking. Since the blast modeling is a time intensive analysis, the industry would benefit from a simplified approach that can facilitate these assessments. The blast model has been run with the explosive on different locations across the crest roadway. The results of these runs are overlaid to develop an estimate of the crater depths and the maximum depths of strains for an explosion of a given size on the dam crest. A simplified chart is being developed with zones for crater formation and potential cracking for a particular size explosion on the dam crest. A conceptual chart is shown in Figure 5. The chart can be used to assess these failure modes (Figures 2B and 2C) for dams of similar dimensions and composition as the trial dam. This simplified approach can
zone of crater formation x y z zone of potential crack formation

• United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE, 2010), National Inventory of Dams, website URL mil, NID 2010 database, website accessed January 2013. • United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) (1973), Design of Small Dams, United States Department of the Interior, US Government Printing Office, Washington DC, Second Edition. James Parkes is a Supervising Geotechnical Engineer in Parsons Brinckerhoff’s geotechnical and tunneling practice and he was a finalist for the 2009 William Barclay Parsons Fellowship. He has worked on a variety of infrastructure projects including dams, tunnels, bridges, and buildings.

5% strain envelope

Figure 5 – Conceptual Example of Simplified Chart for Assessing Crater and Crack Formation Depths for an Explosion on the Crest of the Trial Dam



• Grujicic, M., Pandurangan, B., Qiao, R., Cheeseman, B.A., Roy, W.N., and Skaggs, R.R., Gupta, R. (May, 2007), “Parameterization of the porous-material model for sand with different levels of water saturation,” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 28 (2008) 20–35, Elsevier Journal.

Design, Construction, and Inspection ofTransport Civil Structures Sector


Design, Construction, and Inspection ofTransport Civil Structures Sector


The William Barclay Parsons Fellowship and Innovation: A Personal Perspective
by Henry Russell, Boston, Massachusetts, 1-617-426-7330, In 1985 (the centennial of the firm), Parsons Brinckerhoff initiated the William Barclay Parsons Fellowship, a program to encourage the inquisitive minds in the firm to develop innovative new technologies or improve on existing ones. The fellowship would provide up to eight weeks of labor and two thousand dollars for expenses to develop the fellow’s research. As a geotechnical engineer at Parsons Brinckerhoff, the author was fortunate to have worked under two of Parsons Brinckerhoff’s technical leaders who encouraged me to write technical papers, and so I submitted a proposal for a procedure to limit the tail shield collapse in bored tunnels. This tail shield area is between the top of the tunnel boring machine (TBM) and the interior lining of the tunnel. My proposal was to develop a procedure for modifications to the tunnel segments to allow for grouting of this area during the forward movement of the shield. Although a finalist, I unfortunately was not chosen as fellow for 1985. However, the CEO at the time was impressed by the innovative ideas of all of the finalists and consequently each of the finalists was funded for their research. The encouragement of freedom of thought and creativity at Parsons Brinckerhoff, as exemplified by the William Barclay Parsons Fellowship program, has spurred innovation throughout my career, as illustrated below. the identification of all the tunnel defects expected to be encountered, which allowed us to move away from the time consuming graphical mapping of the tunnel surfaces. For each defect found, the system assigned single-letter codes to identify the type of defect, the location of the defect by wall surface and track station, and the length or depth and area. There was not any such system in use at the time. This system was approved by the client, and Parsons Brinckerhoff was able to reduce costs by doing the work safely and rapidly in the operating tunnel environment.

Inspection Procedures for Transit Tunnels
The author’s proposal to develop a manual entitled The Inspection and Rehabilitation of Transit Tunnels was selected for the William Barclay Parsons Fellowship of 1987. With encouragement from my mentors at Parsons Brinckerhoff, I completed the draft manual and by the end of 1992 the manual had three printings and was widely circulated to transit tunnel operators in North America. This led to an invitation to write a chapter on tunnel inspection for the second edition of The Tunnel Engineering Manual in 1996 and to author the first Federal Transit Administration (FTA) synthesis on state-of-the-art tunnel inspection, The Inspection Policy and Procedures for Rail Transit Tunnels and Underground Structures TCRP Synthesis 29, which was published in 1997 (see Figure 1). My association with Parsons Brinckerhoff’s technical leaders, and their encouragement, provided me with the opportunity to meet potential clients and become part of the inner circle of tunnel designers.


Classification System for Tunnel Defects
In 1984 Parsons Brinckerhoff was contracted by the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) to develop repairs for the MBTA Green Line. The project involved the identification of tunnel defects, including spalls, delaminations, cracks, etc. The MBTA had previously spent over one million dollars to have the same type of work done. Unfortunately, the computer codes that the previous consultant used to identify tunnel defects were sevendigit alphanumerical notations. The MBTA never used the system due to its complexity. A site visit to the tunnel led to a simple innovation. The identification of defects and their quantities was similar to geologic mapping and a systematic method for the notation of the defects could be performed very easily. The author developed a tabular classification system for

Tunnel Maintenance and Repair Documents for the International Tunneling Association (ITA)
The International Tunneling Association (ITA), a United Nations advisory organization with 64 member nations, promotes advances in planning, design, construction, maintenance, and safety of tunnels and underground space. Since 1998, the author has served as representative, vice-chairman, and chairman of Working Group


the technical training arm of the US Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Innovation. Maintenance and Repair. This document was the first definitive study by ITA into the reaction of tunnel liners to high heat release rates from a fire. and new markets are Conclusion In conclusion. including the development of inspection manuals for Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA). I strongly encourage participation in the fellowship program. commissioned Parsons Brinckerhoff in 2009 to write the “Technical Manual for Design and Construction of Road Tunnels – Civil Elements. the working group wrote two significant documents: • Study of Methods for Repair of Tunnel Linings. Boston’s Central Artery/Tunnel Project (CA/T). The recommendations from this document on structural fire protection have been adopted by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) for highway tunnels and the European Union for rail tunnels. and he is a recognized expert in the field of tunnel inspection and rehabilitation. 6. He is a registered civil engineer and an engineering geologist. and provides guidelines for protection of the structural liner. and Taipei. development. and leak mitigation. it allows for the development of critical thinking and professional growth. The William Barclay Parsons Fellowship is an excellent vehicle to advance innovation and carry on William Barclay Parsons’ legacy as a “Renaissance Man”. Design. fireproofing. and Inspection ofTransport Civil Structures Sector NETWORK . which includes the latest version of Parsons Brinckerhoff’s methods for tunnel inspection and rehabilitation and has become the standard for road tunnel inspection for FHWA. Boston. The lessons learned from my research have greatly enhanced my work on new tunnels and design-build tunnel projects. and emergency response projects for flooded tunnels in Chicago.No. and • Guidelines for Structural Fire Resistance for Road Tunnels. The William Barclay Parsons Fellowship enabled me to develop a tunnel inspection procedure manual which provided the opportunity for over 30 million dollars worth of work. which is a great return on the original investment. His areas of expertise include waterproofing. During my tenure as chairman. Parsons Brinckerhoff has advanced the collection of raw data using a data tablet which has greatly enhanced the speed of data collection in the field.aspx Design and Construction of Road Tunnels – Civil Elements areas of concrete repair. Construction. which discusses methods utilized around the world for repair of tunnel linings and the control of groundwater intrusion. and groundwater control for tunnels. Figure 1 – Transit tunnel inspection manuals The National Highway Institute. the William Barclay Parsons Fellowship provides engineers at Parsons Brinckerhoff with the opportunity to research and advance innovative ideas. Henry Russell is Senior Vice President and Principal Professional Associate based in Parsons Brinckerhoff’s Boston office. In the last year. fireproofing. written in collaboration with the International Road Federation (PIARC). Numerous tunnel inspection and rehabilitation projects around the world were also undertaken.pbworld.” a cradle to grave document. particularly in the 49 AUGUST 2013 http://www.

Reducing leaks is no simple challenge.24bn by 2014–15. and throughout the UK new reliable water supplies are not available. The UK Climate Impacts Projection Model suggests that extreme weather events will become more common. and one that requires innovative solutions. and even considering infrastructure investment to facilitate transfer of water from one region to another. in terms of better understanding supply and demand. discussing the http://www. and by the end of the year the UK had seen 115% of average rainfall. established through the privatisation of the water industry in 1989. particularly to pump water around the network. and make upgrade decisions on that basis. that still represents approximately 25% of the water provided by companies. but human error was inevitable. and aging infrastructure. Further updates and new maps often compounded errors. not through significant new infrastructure. and help the industry meet carbon reduction targets. The Environment Agency reports that there are areas already under water stress. address concern about keep1 2 ing water affordable during challenging economic times. but both approaches are imprecise and A recent McKinsey report. as well as known failure rates. and through providing information and tools for better asset lifecycle management. The UK also has a legacy of aging infrastructure dating back to the Romans. This will help the industry maintain supply. The first three months of the year were very dry. Water companies spend a significant amount on energy.36bn litres of water per day. with some of the fastest growing communities situated in some of the driest parts of the UK. December 2011 50 . March was the third warmest on record. From water conservation and control. and when a leak has occurred the water supply has already been Challenges for the water supply sector in the UK were thrown into sharp focus during 2012.Vowles@balfourbeatty. therefore. but through supporting efficient water use within communities and industry. They’re also reactive to reports of leaks.html Water for Life. Finding the pipes themselves can be a challenge. in terms of water quality and source protection.pbworld. Equipment. Water loss through leakage is estimated by Ofwat (the Water Services Regulation Authority) to be 3. was used. In the face of the requirement for significant infrastructure investment. This combination of social.Transport Water Sector NETWORK Network Intelligence Solutions – Innovation to Meet the UK Water Supply Challenge by Kathryn Vowles. Extreme weather events are likely to be an ongoing challenge for the UK water companies. environmental. technology is part of the solution. let alone the leaks! Water companies consider the age and construction of their infrastructure. Water companies plan renewal works using records established post privatisation. Many employed in-house mapping teams or agencies to update their records. UK. and economic challenges.metoffice. AUGUST 2013 http://www. Water demand could increase 35% by 2050 due to population or guess work was used where the main could not be traced. Environmental legislation from both the UK and Europe is tightening. Kathryn. is an issue for the water companies. the water companies had to change their focus to mitigating flood impact. impacting the level of customer service provided. Bristol.aspx The Opportunity How can we meet future needs. and this cost is only going to increase. +44 (0)7876 791151. represents a significant opportunity to meet future needs and minimise the investment required for new infrastructure. This uncertainty is not the only challenge. but also in relation to carbon emissions. In April it started to rain. In some cases the wrong mains were followed. plus more effective management of existing infrastructure? It’s clear that the water companies have a challenge promoting water efficiency when they themselves are allowing so much water to leak away. using existing maps and sending out surveying teams. Reducing leakage. Even meeting the target of reducing loss to 3. including correlators and pipe locators. with some locations receiving over 135%1.

The dashboard will also be able to capture and highlight ‘sensitive receptors’ such as schools. Replacement and repair decisions can be made immediately. then drill-down to view detailed information concerning pipe condition and life expectancy at a selected location at a sub-metre resolution. effectively automating the process. low pressure assessments. network mapping. This ‘whole system’ approach continues to develop. They can assess water pressure and plant performance to provide data which can be analysed to identify problems. SCISYS is now developing the software to facilitate real time review of survey data via a map-based dashboard. however. they may be able to repair the pipe then and there (Figure 1). rather than the predicted ones. This creates delays and additional costs for those Figure 1 – Accessing the pipe network planning and carrying out repair or replacement structural assessments. Local authorities also run a permitting regime to control disruption to public highways through excavation works. Quick and targeted leak detection limits excavation and replacement and delivers significant benefits for time and cost efficiency. hydrophone systems. air valves. inspection and testing. supply issues are resolved more quickly. They will also be able to review photographic evidence and scans of pipe thickness and anomalies. McKinsey Global Institute. and by bringing all network intelligence data into single geographic view. the software solution can help companies by incorporating permitting information and workflows. Even greater efficiencies can be gained by changing. To that end. They are capable of assessing pipes from 3” up to large diameter trunk mains and for distances up to 1.pbworld. By understanding the demand requirements around a network.often costs less than 3% of adding the equivalent in new production capacity and can be accomplished significantly faster. and ultrasound probes to investigate live mains up to 16 bar pressure through fire hydrants.need for infrastructure productivity. and speeding up. From a customer point of view. the whole decision-making process within water companies.”3 access. and the nuisance caused by street excavations creating noise and dust. hospitals. water pressures can be moderated to drive efficiency and ensure leaks are not caused by excessive pressure. Again. only one part of the story. and is an important aspect of ‘intelligent network management’. and importantly. households with people on dialysis.000m. January 2013 51 AUGUST 2013 http://www. With this information at hand. The service can help water companies with: leak detection. facilitating proactive planning of capital investments. or quadrinas. Balfour Beatty Network Intelligence Solutions. The next step is development and deployment of technologies to look inside pipes and to ‘map’ asset condition. The team uses live cameras. a better understanding of what is under the ground means that focused and proactive replacement programmes can address the real weaknesses of the network. asset location. noted that: “Reducing transmission and distribution losses in water and power… . Water companies are not currently organised for real time decision-making. The Innovation – Smart Solution Sensors have been used in water infrastructure for some time. and post-work verification surveys. This partnership has worked together for some time on research projects for devices mounted with cameras that can travel down pipes to assess their condition. At this point the information technology will have jumped ahead of the organisational process and permitting and approval regimes. for example. and limiting 3 Infrastructure productivity: How to save $1 trillion a year. This has culminated in considerable investment and establishment of a full-time team to operate the technology as a commercial service. health and safety. Balfour Beatty Water and Gas has partnered its asset knowledge and on-site experience with technology companies JD7 (hardware for in-pipe deployment) and SCISYS (remote and autonomous device software and data management). is significantly reduced. Project managers at any water company HQ will be able to quickly identify potential failure points out across their network from the dashboard. From a long-term asset management perspective.aspx Transport Water Sector NETWORK . Better analysis of that data has led to a more proactive approach to asset management. materials efficiency. including leaks. Sending cameras and other monitoring equipment down pipes is. With a Balfour Beatty team on site with the camera equipment. pre-site planning inspections..

aspx …and beyond We are not alone in looking at autonomous systems to assess and repair water leaks. with an interest in intelligent infrastructure.] Kathryn Vowles worked for Parsons Brinckerhoff for 11 years. Ken Nicholl. JD7 is a specialist technology provider that has introduced a full range of new generation inspection. the company initially focussed on the development and delivery of both the ground control and on-board flight software for satellites and inter-planetary spacecraft. and effective manner. Both JD7 and BBUS are introducing the technology range into the gas sector where the Network Intelligence Solutions will make Balfour Beatty the first company in the UK to offer a full live insertion condition assessment and leak detection capability across both water and gas networks. She is now working on business development for Balfour Beatty Gas and Water. Autonomous devices run around the system. This map will also drive infrastructure efficiency through better integration of works on different systems: electricity. no European Space Agency (ESA) exploration platform has been launched without some SCISYS software on board. This is the first unit of its kind to support new generation technology to allow utilities to move into the modern world.pbworld. Technologies based on ground-penetrating radar are also being developed to map from above ground. Jim Tattersfield and their team. Some UK water companies have conducted trials of platelet systems which. water. navigate and detect features of interest. this work lends itself well for use in water pipes. when released into pipes. what is the next innovation opportunity to further develop smart water infrastructure? Balfour Beatty is about to start a research project enhancing the existing technology to the autonomous repair of pipes in a targeted. not just the leak. SCISYS. [The author would like to thank SCISYS and JD7 for their input to this article. Consider the human body analogy. all with minimal human interaction and with a tiny power budget. 52 . mapping. The assessment work so far has highlighted the need for better mapping of our underground infrastructure. the seal drops out if the water pressure drops. and communications. but our goal is a fully integrated approach. It is these characteristics that we are looking to exploit for autonomous pipe operations. She would also like to recognise the Network Intelligence vision established by Mike Brockhurst. It’s self-monitoring and self-regulating. BBUS has invested in the full range of JD7 technologies and formed a specialist division called Intelligence Network Solutions. Mars is a hostile. JD7 has been working very closely with Balfour Beatty Utility Solutions (BBUS) for several years where the two way relationship has allowed new technologies to be developed whilst keeping focus on the clients’ requirements. Formed over 30 years ago. gas. Balfour Beatty is working with water companies. The devices ‘learn’ about their network and predict failures rather than reacting to them. safe. Early diagnosis of warning signs can mean that more significant issues with the system can be dealt with via ‘key-hole’ rather than ‘open heart’ surgery. rather than on the side of a busy Water Sector NETWORK careful planning can take place to ensure continuity of supply for high risk users. With such smart innovations being prepared for deployment. monitoring conditions and undertaking small repairs as necessary. The next stage is using autonomous devices (or robots) to target coatings and affect a repair. such as work by the Mapping the Underground project which brings together UK universities and industry to develop a full map of the UK’s complex underground assets. The challenge has been that the platelets block any holes. SCISYS is no ordinary technology company. Imagine a water infrastructure system like a human blood system. Indeed. Whilst perhaps not obvious. and the feedback from those delivering the Network Intelligence Solutions. No-dig options for pipe repair have been an aspiration for some time. The company is now working on the development of an autonomous control system for a future Mars rover. BB Water and Gas Innovation Strategy Manager. The rover needs to be able to localise. and reduce health and safety risk and time delays during construction. and academia to access technology and know-how developed for space exploration to take this from concept to reality. The near future…. and leak detection systems to Balfour Beatty. JD7. An accurate and comprehensive map of what is underground will also have significant efficiency benefits for the UK construction industry as understanding where utilities are can help with efficient design and construction planning. seal the nearest leak. We can see a future where there are autonomous monitoring and repair devices working their way around a fully mapped and understood network. measurement. Operators will sit in offices. inaccessible environment where mapping and navigation systems such as GPS do not exist. Also. AUGUST 2013 http://www. latterly in the strategic consulting group. looking down a deep hole.

UK. rather than heating as it is today. This led to the development of “gas purification” with lime to remove the sulphurous components which caused the odour. Historically. in the form of gas. a brown-black viscous liquid with a specific gravity of about and can provide an ongoing source of contamination in groundwater. identify thousands of individual compounds of a coal tar sample. making it a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL)1. It is mobile. Whilst natural gas has only been available in Britain for about 40 years. The PAHs contain some known carcinogens and are a major risk to human Introduction The manufactured gas industry has left a considerable environmental legacy in Britain and across the world of thousands of former gasworks (manufactured gas plant) sites. and more effective alternative. The key innovation described in this article is the development of an analytical tool which can. In Britain the environmental concerns on many of these sites have been addressed. but its chemical diversity should be detectable by the application of forensic analysis methods. safer. was developed by William Murdoch and his colleagues at Boulton and Watt. Coal tar is a difficult and complex substance to study. ranging in size from large city gasworks to those small gasworks at country houses. and were a significant safety hazard. gas manufacturing lasted for a period of about 170 years. In addition to gas purification. Scotland. it was hypothesised that if there were significant alterations in the way that gas was manufactured during its history.Advancing the Understanding of Former Gasworks Through the Application of Award-Winning Forensic Research by Russell Thomas. By matching expertise in forensic chemistry with a detailed historical understanding of former gasworks sites. required continual attention 1 A dense non-aqueous phase liquid or DNAPL is a liquid that is both denser than water and is immiscible in or does not dissolve in water. The early gas produced for lighting was lit in simple burners and left an unpleasant odour. until the closure of the last coal gasworks in Britain on the Isle of Cumbrae. thomasru@pbworld. which are just a few of up to 10. in 1981. Candles and oil lamps produced a dull light. however. Bristol.000 individual compounds which may be present in coal tar. Gas lighting soon spread to other factories and then to the public lighting of streets and houses. The roots of the gas industry were in the provision of lighting. 53 Environmental/Climate Environmental/ClimateChange ChangeAnalysis Analysisand and Transport Sustainability Sustainability Sector NETWORK . The coal tar contains all the condensable organic fractions of the thermally decomposed coal and is characterised as having a high concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). +44 (0) 117 933 9262. for trimming wicks and replacement. Lighting of the ever expanding industrial mills and factories of Britain was difficult and dangerous.aspx The by-product of most interest for this study is coal tar. then these changes may be reflected in the tars Brief History of Gas Manufacturing in Britain Gas was once manufactured in Britain rather than extracted from gas fields deep below ground. each of which had to be analysed separately. but they have also left an environmental legacy of pollution at many former gasworks sites.pbworld. The potential for a cheaper. Given the potential variability in coal tar. the analysis of coal tar has been something laboratories have avoided as the analysis required lengthy and costly preparation of different coal tar fractions. many former gasworks require further investigation and remediation on some or all parts of the site. Each of the by-products could be sold for use by other industries. in one sample preparation stage. releases vapours. This is valuable information for investigating groundwater pollution at former gasworks sites. Coal Tar AUGUST 2013 http://www.15. coal tar and ammoniacal liquor were removed by condensation and washing to prevent the blocking and corrosion of the gas pipes. this innovative method can attribute different coal tars found on former gasworks to specific gas manufacturing processes – something previously impossible.

a new type of retort was developed. vapours. Vertical retorts were heated by a gas producer and the coal was gradually carbonised at an increasing temperature producing a coal tar which had both properties of a low. so the characteristics of the different tars produced could be assessed. and hydrogen. producing much more thermally degraded coal tars. It was perfected in the US in the 1870s. producing a crude gas of carbon monoxide which was channelled to a combustion chamber directly around the retorts where it was mixed with air and burned. Early retorts were heated directly by radiant heat from simple furnaces beneath the retort. Parsons Brinckerhoff. oil-rich cannel coals proved popular in the early gas industry. This enabled higher temperatures to be achieved. similar to those produced by high-temperature by-product coke ovens. • Analyse coal tar samples taken from different gas-making processes and different gasworks sites. especially as some coal tars have been present in the environment for up to 190 years. producing relatively low temperatures. which produced a lean gas of carbon monoxide. These restraints and a preference for using cannel-type coal led to specific type of low-temperature coal tar being produced. The engineering and chemistry of the gas manufacturing processes determine the characteristics of the different tars that were produced. which are considered to produce the most degraded coal tars. and • Publish the work in a peer reviewed journal. The project was funded and supported by National Grid Property. had been chosen based on a history of successful and awarding winning collaboration with Parsons Brinckerhoff. the University of Strathclyde. The client. enabled the project to call on the goodwill of other consultants and contractors to provide samples from third party sites. The lean gas could be enriched by injecting oil into it. the vertical the project had to: • Investigate the development of the different types of gas manufacturing processes used. carbon dioxide. A solution was a process called water gas. The characteristics of the tar produced would reflect the composition of oil used. Vertical retorts As technology improved. would be deposited as a tar.and high-temperature coal tar. incapable of rapidly dealing with periods of high gas demand. The horizontal retort was the standard for heating the coal in an oxygen-free environment to remove the gas and 54 . To achieve this. they became more durable and able to withstand higher temperatures. Much of the oil was gasified. As the cast iron retorts were replaced by fireclay and then later by silica. It reduced the labour involved as much of the movement of the coal could be achieved by gravity once the plant was loaded. the heavier fraction of the oil. National Grid Property.aspx Types of Gas Manufacturing Brief descriptions of the types of gas manufacturing that have evolved in Britain are described below. removing the requirement for high concentrations of illuminants. however. At the outset of this project. for this reason.Environmental/Climate Change Analysis and Transport Sustainability Sector NETWORK produced. it was uncertain as to whether it was feasible and whether differences would be significant enough to allow for clear “forensic” identification of multiple sources of tar on a single site. Collaboration This project could only happen as a result of a combination of extensive collaboration and a record of delivering complex research projects. Early retorts made of cast iron were fragile and required regular replacement. identifying and quantifying a wide range of its constituent compounds. The expertise of the project manager. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (Grant EP/D013739/2). but its application changed following the invention of the atmospheric gas (Bunsen) burner and gas mantle. and the Scottish Government GRPE Funding. Previous collaboration with the National Gas Archive enabled the author to get direct access to site information records. AUGUST 2013 http://www. The research partner. Horizontal retorts Gas needed to be rich in organic compounds which provided the gas with its illuminating quality. the gas producer was developed which burnt coal/coke under oxygen-limited conditions. The Bunsen burner provided a basis for gas to be used for heat-based applications which became the predominant use for gas in the 20th century. had collaborated with Parsons Brinckerhoff on similar research projects for over 10 years. • Develop an analytical method that could identify the complex nature of coal tar. Later.pbworld. The use of gas for lighting predominated into the 20th century. • Understand the engineering and chemistry of the gas manufacturing processes. in the contaminated land sector. Water Gas Retort based gas manufacture had long lead time for gas production. The metals in the gas mantle when heated emitted a bright light.

and the potential impacts of other nearby industries (producing similar pollution) create a very complex picture. which are important constituents of coal tar. The coal tar samples obtained were primarily from underground tar tanks.000 compounds from one sample analysis (McGregor et al 2011. sulphur. The results of the PCA plots of tar grouped the samples as those produced by vertical retorts. uncorrelated variables known as principal components. although samples from historic spills in the soil and deeper strata were also obtained. After McGregor et al 2012. As the method produced a large amount of data. a detailed understanding of the site history was produced for each gasworks site. A novel method 300 Coke Ovens 200 High Temp.pbworld. There was a perfect grouping of the samples based on the production process used to manufacture the tar. The amount and type of tar produced was related to the oil used: the heavier the oil. Oil gas processes became popular in larger British gasworks and produced tar which constituted the fraction of high molecular weight organic compounds which could not be fixed into a gas. so that knowledge of the production processes used for producing the coal tar were available to validate the analytical result. use and disposal.As the supply of good-quality gas-making coals both diminished and became more expensive. bringing with it an environmental legacy in the form of below-ground pollution from tars. Oil Gas As the petroleum industry developed in the 20th century and oil refineries were built in the UK. such as PAHs.aspx PC2 Environmental/Climate Change Analysis and Transport Sustainability Sector NETWORK . and their handling. This same legacy was repeated on all continents but Antarctica. An Innovative Development in Environmental Forensics The land ownership issues at former gasworks in Britain are complex with sites often under multiple ownership. using reverse-phase two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC TOFMS) was developed. This method separated the compounds on two dimensions. efficient. and oxygen heterocyclic compounds. The range of gas-making processes used. Horizontal Retort Carburetted Water Gas/Creosote Vertical Retort -200 0 200 400 600 -100 -200 -400 PC1 Figure 1 – The PCA score plot of the full coal tar data set including blind study samples (two samples shown with thick edging). principal component analysis (PCA) was used to analyse and extract the variations within the large dataset by reducing raw sample data into smaller. the British gas industry had to consider other feedstocks. high temperature horizontal retort. low temperature horizontal retorts. The samples were analysed by the method described above and the data split into two sets of principal components and plotted as shown. the greater the amount of tar produced. enabling greater resolution of the data. Parsons Brinckerhoff collected 23 samples of coal tar from 14 different former gasworks and two operational coke oven sites across the UK. crude oils and their derived distillate fractions became available in abundant amounts and could provide a cheaper alternative to coal. The above description demonstrates how the gas industry has evolved. 55 AUGUST 2013 http://www. capable of analysing and quantifying up to 10. the different coal tars To validate the method. Standard analysis of coal tar was previously limited to a small number of substituent compounds. see references). from Russia to New Zealand and from Great Britain to Japan. A major challenge has always been to find a fast. The application of accurate innovative environmental forensic methods can provide a greater understanding than that afforded by conventional analytical methods. Using the specialist knowledge of the author. Work supported by Parsons Brinckerhoff was undertaken at the University of Strathclyde to develop an analytical method using accelerated solvent extraction. Horizontal Retort 100 0 Low Temp. coke ovens. which could rapidly prepare samples for analysis. and carburretted water gas/creosote plants (see Figure 1). and cost-effective method of analysing the diverse constituents of coal tars. These methods were unable to analyse the presence of nitrogen.

References • Laura subsequently split up. He is a recognised international expert in environmental issues associated with former gasworks and a member of the Institution of Gas Engineers & Managers (IGEM) Panel for the History of the Gas Industry.Environmental/Climate Change Analysis and Transport Sustainability Sector NETWORK Conclusion The main innovations in this project have been: • the development of an analytical tool which can in one sample preparation stage identify thousands of individual compounds. This is valuable information for investigating groundwater pollution at former gasworks sites. 2012. UK where he manages the research activities of Parsons Brinckerhoff’s UK environment business and its collaboration with a number of UK universities. Dr. from where samples are now being provided to assess the provenance of the samples source.. as it is able to identify the metabolic intermediates produced during biodegradation. such that the method could identify coal tars found on former gasworks and the original production process that created a tar. but that is a separate story. Caroline Gauchotte-Lindsay. Kalin. The technique is also being adapted for assessing the composition of shale gas source rocks. Russell Thomas is Technical Director in Bristol. Sci. Technol. This work has already generated considerable interest from the US. McGregor. 46 (7). and then sold off as smaller plots of land.pbworld. AUGUST 2013 http://www. especially in legal cases. The technique has also been used to investigate the natural biodegradation of compounds in the fringes of coal tar plumes. pp 3744–3752. Russell Thomas and Robert M. Environ.aspx 56 . Multivariate Statistical Methods for the Environmental Forensic Classification of Coal Tars from Former Manufactured Gas Plants. Niamh Nic Daéid. where proving the original point source of multiple plumes of coal tar is required on single former gasworks which may have been rebuilt many times. and • the combination of expertise in forensic chemistry with a detailed historical understanding of former gasworks sites. • the application of statistics in the form of principal component analysis (PCA) to interpret complex data sets into meaningful trends.

com This article covers the research work undertaken as part of the Engineering Doctorate (EngD) programme at the Centre for Innovative and Collaborative Construction Engineering (CICE) at Loughborough University. Balfour Beatty Highway Service Team is a leading provider of integrated transportation solutions for both the Local Authority and Highways Agency road networks in the UK. 2008). +44(0)1256 400400. a project-focused and process-based carbon footprinting methodological framePAS2050 Protocol Stage 1 Start-Up • Setting Objectives • Choosing Products/Services • Engaging Stakeholders Goal and Scope Definition Definition of Business Boundary Stage 2 Carbon Footprint Calculation • Build a Process Map • Definition of Service and Process Boundaries and Prioritisation • Collecting Data • Calculating the Carbon Footprint • Checking Uncertainty (Optional) Definition of Operational or Process Boundary This inherently presents both business risks and opportunities not always fully understood by high- Impact Assessment Quantification of Carbon Footprint Stage 3 Carbon Footprint Management and Communication Next Step • Results Validation • Reducing Carbon Emissions • Commiunicating the Footprint and Making Reduction Claim Figure 1 – PAS 2050 Compliant Model for Carbon Footprinting. including the highway maintenance service providers. PAS 2050 protocol was developed by British Standard Institute (BSI) in 2008 and updated in 2011 (British Standards Institution. (c) (d) Improvement Assessment/Interpretation way stakeholders (e. and Katrina Hazell. UK. whilst helping to identify areas of carbon “hotspots”. planners. katrina.. and opportunities for reduction across the process value chain.pbworld. Balfour Beatty. ISO 14040 Standard As such. In addition.g. 57 AUGUST 2013 http://www. which presents optimum carbon reduction highway clients now require their supply chains to demonstrate (a) Goal and Scope their ability to reduce Definition both direct and indirect carbon. 2008 & 2011) to provide a consistent and robust method of assessing life cycle carbon emissions for goods and services. and maintainers). It presents a unique and practical guideline that simplifies the protocol implementation for carbon emissions assessment. Through the study commissioned by Balfour Beatty. and provide carbon emissions informa(b) Inventory tion relating to the work Analysis done or being tendered for (Itoya et al. Carbon emissions assessment and reduction has become a rapidly developing concern in the UK following the enactment of the UK’s Climate Change Act and Carbon Reduction Commitment (DEFRA. The study was commissioned by Balfour Beatty Highway Service Team (BB-HST) between 2008 and 2012.Carbon Emissions Reduction Hierarchy by Emioshor Itoya. the absence of an agreed upon industrial methodology standard is another major barrier frustrating businesses’ efforts on carbon emissions assessment and reduction.Itoya@bblivingplaces. UK. The main objective of the study was to develop and identify an innovative and pragmatic means of maximising potential carbon reduction opportunities within Balfour Beatty’s highway maintenance service delivery process. to measure and reduce carbon emissions associated with their business activities. Hampshire.aspx Environmental/Climate Change Analysis and Transport Sustainability Sector NETWORK .com. emioshor. This presents a real and pressing need for a consistent methodology framework to be developed to assist businesses with carbon emissions assessment. It is therefore necessary for a carbon emissions reduction hierarchy to be established.hazell@bblivingplaces. co-sponsored by the UK’s Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC). which place legal obligation on all sectors. 2012). managers. +44(0)1256 400400. Hampshire. Balfour Beatty.. designers.

pbworld. as illustrated in Figure 2. Implementation Figure 3 presents a flowchart which provides a step-by-step approach to the methodological framework implementation for carbon footprinting. Background to PAS2050 Protocol The PAS 2050 protocol offers a step-by-step iterative approach where the scope and objectives of the carbon assessment. the protocol builds on and refines the existing international standard methodology. carbon emissions calculations. based on PAS 2050 including the system boundary. 60mm AC 20 HDM BIN 40/60 DES binder. Energy-based carbon data sources from the highway maintenance processes The Methodological Framework An innovative project-focused and process-based carbon footprinting methodological framework was developed. The framework developed is specific to highway maintenance. a representative process map is created for carbon data collection (see Figure 4). Pavement marking – The works involves the restriping of existing road line markings to enhance their reflectivity requirement. as illustrated in Figure 1. C. and reinstating the planed surfaces with a thin layer of Leotak tack coat (K140). Select Core Business Processes AUGUST 2013 http://www. The maintenance processes include: A. Bulk lamp replacement – This operation includes the bulk removal of existing lamps that have completed their nominal life expectancy and replacing them with new ones. This approach allows the user to accurately understand their carbon inputs and interaction with their supply chains. semi-urban. results). Following the maintenance processes selected for carbon evaluation. The framework is specific to highway maintenance service delivery. As an independent standard.aspx Life Cycle Stages Raw Materials Manufacturer Distribution Customer Use Recycling Three Iterative Stages Stage 1 Start-up Stage 2 Step 3 Emissions Calculations Building Process Map Boundaries and Priorities Stage 3 Results Step 1 Set Objective Select Core Highway Maintenance Process Step 4 Engage Stakeholders Validate Results Develop Carbon Reduction Hierarchy Collecting Data Site Activities Supply Chains Process Locations Energy Used Scale of Work End-of-Life Carbon Distance Step 2 Develop Data Collection Templates Develop Data Collection Schedule Operatives / Drivers Opportunities for Reduction Emission Factors Sensitivity Analyses Step 5 Embodied Carbon Analysing Data Operational Carbon Areas of Carbon “Hotspots” Figure 2 – A Process-Based Carbon Methodological Framework Based on PAS 2050 Protocol 58 . This is the first time a project-specific and process-based methodology framework based on the PAS 2050 protocol has been developed.Environmental/Climate Change Analysis and Transport Sustainability Sector NETWORK work was developed based on the protocol. are defined and relevant data collected and analysed. 2006). B. Pavement resurfacing – The work includes planing-off existing asphalt surfaces to an average nominal depth of 100mm. ISO 14040: Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Principles and framework (International Organization for Standardization. and polymer modified bitumen. It provides a life cycle approach and outlines the five key steps of carbon footprinting for the three iterative stages (start-up. 40mm surface courses. and rural environments) so as to generate a wider understanding of highway maintenance carbon footprinting and related input from supply chains. Case Study for New Methodology This case study reflects ‘typical’ UK highway maintenance processes selected across different supply chains and site locations (urban.

The hierarchies further reveal that material (asphalt) production and its delivery to site are the main areas of carbon “hotspots” across the highway maintenance process irrespective of the site location. This highlights important sustainability decision points for highway maintenance stakeholders. based on publications of the UK’s specific fuelbased emission factors. and investments decision-making. and transportation data to be collected internally and externally (from supply chains) following the highway maintenance service representative process map (Figure 4). 2010). material consumed. procurement.0 (Hammond and Jones. 2011) and UK-based product manufacturer factors. 2011). • “2010 Guidelines to DEFRA/DECC’s Greenhouse Gases Conversion Factors for Company Reporting” (DECC. namely: • “University of Bath: Inventory of Carbon and Energy (ICE)” v2.pbworld. and • “Carbon Trust Conversion Factors” (Carbon Trust. Discard data Identify and select core highway maintenance processes through stakeholders engagement STEP 2 Develop data collection template and programme STEP 3 (see Figure 4) Build representative process map: • Based on outcomes from STEP 1 and 2 • To support data collection • Review boundaries and priorities STEP 4 (see Figure 5) Collect carbon emissions data Results and Key Findings Figures Selected Highway Maintainance Process Has the data met: • The Collection Approach? • The PAS2050 Data Quality Rules? No Yes STEP 5 • Analyse data • Present results • Interpret outcomes End of process Figure 3 – A Flowchart for the Application of the Methodological Framework Selected Process Life Cycle Stages (Level One) Activities Carbon Sources (Level Two) Task Carbon Sources (Level Three) Activity-oriented Carbon Categories Task-oriented Carbon Categories Boundary Conditions Extraction Raw Materials Manufacturer Distribution Associated Transport Customer Use Product’s Application Activities Waste Waste Management Activities Product’s Production Activities Transport to Factory Products Manufacturing Products Delivery to Site Operatives Travel Traffic Management (TM) Site Operations Waste Transport Off-site Waste Processing Recycling Embodied Carbon Emissions On-site Carbon Emissions Waste Removal and Recycling Carbon Emissions Waste Transport Carbon Waste Recycling Carbon Material Manufacturing Carbon Cradle to Site Material Delivery Carbon Operatives Travel Carbon Cradle to Grave Site Activities Carbon Site to Grave Figure 4 – Highway Maintenance Service Representative Process Map 59 AUGUST 2013 http://www.aspx Environmental/Climate Change Analysis and Transport Sustainability Sector NETWORK . These data are then transformed into their equivalent energy units and corresponding carbon emission values. expressed in tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e). The figures then provide carbon reduction hierarchies that can be used to prioritise carbon reduction efforts and support highway maintenance design. 7 and 8 present areas of carbon “hotspots” and related opportunities for reduction for the core highway maintenance processes considered.Start of process STEP 1 Setting objective within the defined: • Scope • System boundary are presented (see Figure 5) which allow the energy use.

re-think BB-HST highway maintenance design. Available at: http://www. 2011 AUGUST 2013 http://www. as indicated in Figure 8. and interpretation of results to support decision-making in carbon reduction. Publicly Available Specification (PAS2050). Publicly Available Specification (PAS2050). the key challenge has been the absence of an agreed upon industrial methodology standard that provides a consistent and practical approach to carbon data collection.aspx Conclusion Carbon footprinting provides businesses with a general understanding of the trends of their carbon emissions. be achieved quickly and cheaply across the highway maintenance process value chain. and interpretation of results. How to assess the carbon footprint of goods and services: Guide to PAS2050. London.pdf. the percentage of on-site carbon contributions to the overall project carbon footprint in semi-urban and rural site locations for the bulk lamp replacement process increases significantly compared to the embodied carbon contributions. London. It provides important sustainability decision points for highway maintenance stakeholders (highway maintenance Standards%20&%20Publications/Energy/PAS2050-Guide. Change Analysis and Transport Sustainability Sector NETWORK BB-HST Highway Maintenance Processes Pavement Resurfacing Pavement Marking Bulk Lamp Replacement Grass Cutting Energy-Based Emissions Data Sources Materials Manufacturing and Delivery Data On-Site Activities Data Waste Removal and Recycling Data Energy consumed for raw material extraction Energy consumed by operatives travelling to site Energy consumed by plant and equipment on site Energy consumed by operatives travelling off-site Energy consumed by vehicles removing waste from site Energy consumed during waste processing Energy consumed during waste recycling Fuel used during manufacturing Fuel used for transportation Figure 5 – Highway Maintenance Processes and Energy-Based Carbon Data Sources Furthermore. Available at: http://www. pdf.pbworld. investment. The case study undertaken using the framework demonstrates the innovative approach taken to identify carbon “hotspots” which informs a reduction hierarchy.bsigroup. The methodology demonstrates an innovative life cycle approach to carbon footprinting. since a majority of the work was carried out on site locations where the average vehicle speed is at the national speed level (in excess of 60 mph compared to 30 mph in an urban site location). carbon emissions assessment. References • British Standards Institution. The calculation process is relatively simple. (2011). Accessed Jun. BSI. 2009 • British Standards Institution. This study presented a project-focused and process-based carbon footprinting methodological framework based on the PAS2050 life cycle methodology but specific to highway maintenance service delivery. Specification for the assessment of the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of goods and services. analysis. The carbon footprint data has been used to develop a 25-year carbon budget to support private finance initiative (PFI) bid submissions. (2008). and sustainable procurement decision-making. credible data collection. energy efficiency. This can be used to prioritise where the largest potential emissions reduction opportunity can 60 . managers. and maintainers). The methodology framework gives Balfour Beatty the ability to make informed carbon reduction decisions.bsigroup. com/upload/Standards%20&%20Publications/Energy/ PAS2050. Accessed Oct. This is due to the type of traffic management (mobile TM) used on site. sustainability. Conversion Factors: Energy and Carbon Conversions. acts2008/pdf/ukpga_20080027_en.pbworld.aspx Related publication: Emioshor Itoya and BBLP’s research has recently been published in the following journal: Itoya. (2012). Semi-Urban and Rural Site Locations Lamp Manufacturing Lamp Delivery Traffic Management Site Activities Lamps WasteTransport Lamps Waste Recycling 0 LEGEND Urban location carbon emissions Rural location carbon emissions Semi-urban location carbon emissions 20 40 60 80 100 Rate of Task Carbon Emissions to Overall Process Carbon Footprint Emioshor Itoya is a Research Engineer in the department of sustainability at Balfour Beatty Living Places Limited based in Basingstoke. and Jones. Department of Environment. M. waste management. • DEFRA. Ison. (2011). The 2010 Guidelines to DEFRA/DECC's Greenhouse Gases Conversion Factors for Company business/reporting/pdf/101006-guidelinesghg-conversion-factors.. • Hammond. University of Bath. (2011). Transport Research Record (TRR): a Journal of the Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies. 2292 Washington. and Frost. 2011. Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA).pdf. United Kingdom. Environmental Management – Life Cycle Assessment-Principles and Framework. DC Environmental/Climate Change Analysis and Transport Sustainability Sector NETWORK . Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA)/Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC). Inventory of Carbon and Energy (ICE). • International Organization for Standardisation (2006). The UK Climate Change Act. United Kingdom.defra. and strategy development. 2011.W. Her areas of specialty include carbon management. Figure 6 – Carbon Emissions Reduction Hierarchy for Pavement Resurfacing Work Carbon Emissions Reduction Hierarchy for Twelve Road Pavement Marking Projects at Different Site Locations Material Manufacturing Material Delivery Traffic Management Site Activities LEGEND Rural location carbon emissions Semi-urban location carbon emissions Urban location carbon emissions 0 20 40 60 80 Rate of Task Carbon Emissions to Overall Process Footprint 100 Figure 7 – Carbon Reduction Hierarchy for Pavement Marking Carbon Emissions Reduction Hierarchy for Bulk Lamp Replacement Work Across Urban. Available at: http://archive. Framework for Carbon Emissions Evaluation of Road Maintenance.Carbon Emissions Reduction Hierarchy From Twelve Payment Resurfacing Work Areas Across Urban. Accessed Jan. (2010). Semi-Urban and Rural Site Locations Asphalt Manufacturing Site Activities Asphalt Delivery Operatives Travel Waste Transport Waste Recycling 0 LEGEND Rural site location carbon emissions Semi-urban site location carbon emissions Urban site location carbon emissions 20 40 60 80 The Rate of Task Carbon Emissions to Average Carbon Footprint 100 • DECC.opsi. EL-Hamalawi. ISO14040: 2006(E). Carbon Trust. No. Hazell.P . United Kingdom. See http://www.pdf Accessed: 21/12/2008. K. Available at: http://www. UK.pdf. He has a BSc in civil engineering and an MSc in hydraulic structures.carbontrust. Katrina Hazell is Sustainability Manager at Balfour Beatty Living Places (BBLP) Limited based in Basingstoke. UK where he has advanced the body of knowledge in business carbon footprinting. Accessed 20/11/2011 61 AUGUST 2013 (2008).gov.. A. E. Figure 8 – Carbon Emissions Reduction Hierarchy for Bulk Lamp Replacement Works • Carbon Trust . United Kingdom: Department for Environment.

. This paper presents an innovative new approach to the planning and design process that takes into account the potential of a more rapidly changing climate. the 100-year storm with a 1% annual chance of occurrence) is assumed to remain the same from year-to-year.. represents a refocused paradigm in the engineering approach to asset design. particularly in relation to hydraulic engineering and floodplain-related design features. as proposed. Mike Flood. this paradigm of “stationarity”1 is being challenged by the seemingly frequent occurrence of natural disasters throughout the US and emerging evidence of a warming climate. The adaptive Stationarity in reference to climate defines weather conditions where individual events fall within a defined range of values or a ‘historical envelope’. incorporating climate projections and their associated uncertainties into the project development process is something new. flood@pbworld. in a non-stationary climate. Baltimore. moving forward. the engineer works with pre-set design standards and historically based climate design inputs. Justin Lennon. the 1% annual chance of occurrence storm today could have a 5% annual chance of occurrence by 2075. 1-410-385-4186. However. authored by various Parsons Brinckerhoff employees. climate is stationary). an action called “adaptation. Non-stationarity refers to the condition where individual climate events occur at rates or amounts that exceed the historical envelope and where probabilities change over time. MD. at least over the design life of any man-made Baltimore. The process as described is the first in a series of climate adaptation processes that Parsons Brinckerhoff is developing as a strategic initiative to establish ourselves as a market leader in the area of infrastructure adaptation design and planning. and Chin Lien. dorney@pbworld. lennonj@pbworld.g. It also provides a context for weighing the benefits of increased considerations for climate in the design of our Climate plays a critical role in the design and long-term viability of our community’s infrastructure. MD. The prospect of a more rapidly changing climate has implications for the way engineering professionals view and design infrastructure within our communities. MD.pbworld. For example. 1-410-385-4155.aspx Overview of the Adaptive Design Process The adaptive design process.e. there is uncertainty as to future traffic volumes and the impact of future land uses on stream discharges) While uncer1 tainty is nothing new to project development (e. No longer can planners and engineers rely solely on historical climate data to develop projects. 1-410-246-0528.. there is uncertainty as to how much change to expect: the future is never certain. Appropriate considerations of climate conditions help to ensure that lifecycle maintenance costs are low and that facilities remain safe and serviceable. lienc@pbworld. The rate of change could be such that the climate experienced towards the end of a facility’s design life might be quite different from the climate it was originally designed for. while there is growing consensus amongst professionals that change is likely. AUGUST 2013 http://www. 62 . MD. The probability of any given weather event (e. Baltimore. Under the traditional engineering approach. 1-410752-9632.” Adaptation raises complications because. The work presented in this paper is a continuation of the process described in a 2013 report for the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP 20–83(5)). The historically based design inputs include such things as the 50-year or 100-year precipitation event and the distribution of the precipitation hyetograph or flow estimation based upon stream gage data. Arguments within the climatology community are pointing towards the possibility that the rate of climate change is accelerating and extreme events could potentially exceed the traditional envelope. they will need to include greater considerations for climate uncertainty and include projections of future climate in their analyses. The design process requires alterations that consider a wider range of possible climate conditions. Traditional practice assumes that climate falls within a fixed envelope of conditions similar to those in the past (i.Environmental/Climate Change Analysis and Transport Sustainability Sector NETWORK An Innovative Decision Framework for Addressing Climate Change in Our Communities by Christopher Dorney.

000 5.000 10. The use of any model predicting future climate conditions first requires the design professional to understand 30. Projections are depicted for year 2100 at a sample project site. The method proposed has been conceived for implementation during the design of a new asset. The differing scenarios represent different socioeconomic projections 2 20. the method can also be utilized for the in-depth analysis of an existing asset and the development of retrofit alternatives. these RCPs will become the standard for climate adaptation assessments. Historic conditions relative to low (1/3). The process is categorized into four primary steps: Step 1: Development of Climate versus Probability Curves Climate versus probability curves are ultimately employed by the adaptive design process to correlate the hydrologic damage curves to a probability of occurrence. once released. Upon selection of the emissions scenarios and models for process suggests that the engineer develop design alternatives that either incorporate the uncertainty of future potential climate change or more fully consider the uncertainty in the current climate record. Some models perform better in some regions than do other models. with the additional inclusion of multiple scenarios over the single curve normally employed in practice. our process recommends that multiple scenarios be included in the evaluation to fully define the uncertainty space across all of the potential scenarios.1 1 Low Mid High Probability Figure 1 – Discharge versus probability curves for climate change conditions. A new Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) is due to be released in 2013 or 2014 and will utilize a new set of emissions scenarios called Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). and nature of that model. Under these circumstances.000 including globalization versus regionalization and environmental versus economic growth prioritization. analysts are encouraged to seek good counsel from academic institutions or consultants on which models best capture the climate for the project location and to use only those well-calibrated models in their analysis. applicability. The general development of the curve is followed herein. Given this. further consideration must also be given to which specific climate models are to be used for the analysis. When gathering the climate data. These curves are similar to the development of a discharge versus probability curve used as a standard practice for any water resources engineering Current/ Historic Environmental/Climate Change Analysis and Transport Sustainability Sector NETWORK . However.000 the uncertainty. projected climate conditions (in this case precipitation rates) for the various design storm events are Discharge (cfs) Use of the climatology models starts by selection of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenarios for use in the assessment. GHG emission scenarios have been developed by the IPCC for up to 12 different socioeconomic conditions2. It is expected that. Each climate center’s model represents a slightly different take on the functioning of the earth’s climate system such that. even within a given emissions scenario.pbworld.001 0. The RCPs are to capture the range of possible atmospheric composition of greenhouse gases but are not tied to any specific socioeconomic storylines as are the AR4 scenarios. medium (2/3). These socioeconomic scenarios were developed by the United Nation’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and used in their (latest) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) on the topic.000 0 0. each of the scenarios should be considered independent of one another and each has an equal potential to occur. 63 AUGUST 2013 http://www. The inclusion of climate change conditions into the engineering process is proposed as a meshing of climate prediction and modeling efforts of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and their partners in the engineering process. there are a range of projections for any given climate variable depending on which model one looks at. and high (maximum) climate change projections. According to the IPCC. They have since become the standard emissions scenarios for adaptation assessments worldwide. 25. The IPCC coordinates with a number of modeling centers worldwide to test the impacts of the emissions scenarios they develop on global climate. The selection of these scenarios is likely to be a programmatic decision by the asset or system owner or potentially based upon regulatory requirements.000 15.01 0.

In this case.000 20. unit costs for roadway mined. The goal of the curves is to quantify Calculating a benefit-cost figure for each adaptation op(in dollars) points at which the asset will incur socioecotion involves a number of calculations and is best hannomic impacts. the design professional is to develop design alterreconstruction. timate costs associated with each of the activities. maintenance upkeep. Analysis $1.000 35. The larger source of the proAlternative $10. natives (adaptations) for the defined number of conditions The curves differ amongst the alternative designs because in the scenarios. Since $10. SimCLIM. Survey (USGS). the use of Figure 2 – Example of a hydrologic damage curves for a baseline design condition and two downscaled data from the US Geological adaptation alternatives. and structure failure. change and. which adaptation alternative to choose. Each alternative will be developed to include a conceptual Step 4: Economic Analysis of Adaptation Alternatives cost estimate that will be used to weigh the alternatives The question of whether to adapt the project to climate in the economic analysis process. foundation damage.aspx 64 . Each of the design alternatives for 0 of the sources is outside of the scope Discharge (cfs) of this document. however. Change and the Highway System”.000. There are likely to be multiple alternaeach has its own unique discharge threshold and costs tives for each condition. if so. or academic mately failure.000 50. The project team will be required to esresearchers provide possible sources for the data. depths of flow over the roadway for debris acOnce the discharge probability curves have been detercumulation or pavement damage.000 jected precipitation rates is a topic of Alternative 2 greater debate within the climatology and engineering community.000 30.000 15. The design alternative method as proposed currently includes Once the projected climate data has been selected.000 the subject focus is changing climate. it is also critical to the process to obtain the projected data at different points in $1.000 Baseline projected climate conditions need be obtained. logic) damage curve for a roadway and bridge project with a the secondary climate input of flow discharge is plotted for baseline condition and two adaptation alternatives.000 25. Additional cost categories sary (modeling discharges based on precipitation rates for should be considered as the adaptive design process instance). only a small sample set of $100. ondary processing of the data can be performed as necesand socioeconomic costs. Figure 1 provides an example plot of a climate versus probability curve for a given Figure 2 presents a sample climate (in this case hydrofuture year developed for a sample project. damage. Since the rate of climate change from year-to-year is assumed to be relatively low.000 45. are proposed to be designed at only a conceptual level.000 time.Environmental/Climate Change Analysis and Transport Sustainability Sector NETWORK to be obtained for each scenario. sectwo categories for costs: capital and maintenance costs.000 of all of the sources and applicability 5. Some a bridge/roadway project.000 40.000 10.000. of climate change modeling into the hydrologic engineering Other categories for consideration include environmental process can be found in NCHRP Report 20–83(5) “Climate impact costs or loss of income costs. of the assumptions used to create the hydrologic damage curve include closure times for the various maintenance Step 2: Development of Project Alternatives activities. and ultidled through use of a tool specifically designed for this Damage Cost (USD$) AUGUST 2013 http://www. ultimately comes down to a weighing of benefits and Step 3: Development of Hydrologic Damage Curves for costs: Does the benefit of the adaptation measure outEach Alternative weigh the additional incremental cost of doing the adapHydrologic damage curves are developed for each of the tation? How does this comparison vary across the posadaptation alternatives to graphically represent the persible climate scenarios? formance of the alternative designs under a wide range of climate scenarios. Additional considerations for the incorporation is expanded to include different types of infrastructure.pbworld. and unit costs for structure replacement.

a small investment in an adaptation analysis One such tool is COAST (the COastal Adaptation to Sea level rise Tool) developed with US EPA funding by Catalysis Adaptation Partners. which adaptation alternative is most cost-effective. The final results would be presented in a table similar to Table 1 and evaluated.aspx task3. Nonetheless the benefit-cost table.e. The resulting numbers are then summed across all the years to obtain a cumulative annualized expected damage cost for the asset. Then one would repeat this for the 101-year storm. The basic process is as follows: first.. This must be repeated for the full range of storm events and then tallied together to get a total for the year. will help decision-makers grapple with the trade-offs associated with selecting the best alternative to ensure the asset’s resiliency in the face of a changing climate.2 3. The annual estimated damage cost is calculated by multiplying the probability of an event occurring in the given year by the repair and economic costs associated with that event in that year: in essence. and add all the products For example.16 Low change — 2 1.5 $6 $10 No change — 0.2 2 0. This whole process must then be repeated for each year in the project’s design life. the baseline is the conventional design based on the historical data traditionally used. For more information on COAST see http://catalysisadaptationpartners.8 0. The adaptive design process described in this article provides an approach for incorporating climate considerations into infrastructure development. A similar exercise would then be undertaken for each of the adaptation alternatives. The process helps answer the questions of whether an adaptation is needed and.32 High change — 6. The resulting figure represents that year’s expected damage cost. however.01) by the damage costs associated with that discharge.e. and the project-level process that helped create it. Ultimately. enabling decision-makers to make more informed investments despite the uncertainties surrounding future climate the-coast-approach.8 Table 1 – Example of a Benefit-Cost Decision Matrix Once annual damage costs have been calculated for each year in the facility’s design life. incremental cost of doing the adaptation option to obtain a benefit-cost ratio.32 Mid change — 3. one would multiply the chance of the 100-year storm occurring (. is most robust) across the full range of scenarios. the design based on historic data) and then for each adaptation alternative. As the severity of extreme precipitation and other climate events increase over time with climate change. 4 Existing asset if assessing retrofit / replacement needs.3 0.5 0.Benefit-Cost Ratio Project cost (millions) Baseline4 Adaptation Option 1 Adaptation Option 2 Adaptation Option 3 $5 $5. the resulting figures must be discounted to their present-day values using an appropriate discount rate determined by the asset owner. 65 AUGUST 2013 http://www. the adaptation option chosen would meet the asset owner’s minimum benefit-cost threshold and be the one that has the highest ratio (i..6 0.html. This free tool is expected to be made publically available in 2013. Ideally. This must first be done for the baseline alternative (i. etc. Conclusions Environmental/Climate Change Analysis and Transport Sustainability Sector NETWORK .. The cumulative value for the baseline can then be subtracted from the value for the adaptation option being studied to determine the benefit (costs-saved) of that adaptation option. planners and engineers will increasingly be called upon to incorporate an understanding of that change into the work they do and to help guide clients on when to make decisions and at which point. This figure can then be divided by the 3 As evidence of climate change continues to mount. Such a clear cut answer will not always be found. if so. so too would the estimated annual damage costs increase over the asset’s lifespan. multiplying the curves shown in Figures 1 and 2. one must develop an estimated annual cost of damage to the facility in each year of the project’s design life. The process must then be repeated for that adaptation option under each climate scenario being tested as each scenario will have a different probability for a given discharge. If a new project. the 102year storm.

(2011) “Simplified method for scenario-based risk assessment adaptation planning in the coastal zone”. certified Project Manager and Lead Water Resources Engineer in the Baltimore office Water Technical Excellence Center. and stream restoration design. is your project climate-ready? References •• Bonnin.Environmental/Climate Change Analysis and Transport Sustainability Sector NETWORK could save millions of dollars over a project’s lifespan: it’s time to ask the question. Geoffrey M. and Porter. National Weather Services. and the river and watershed technical lead for the Water Technical Excellence Center. Mike Flood. bridge hydraulics and scour et al (2013) NCHRP Report 20-83(5) “Climate Change and the Highway System: Impacts and Adaptation Approaches”. “Investigating Climate Change” (Network # 72. Lees. AUGUST 2013 http://www. National Cooperative Highway Research Program.0.E.aspx 66 .” by Dorney. •• “Climate Change Adaptation Planning for Infrastructure Investments: A Multinational Effort. Climatic Change. Flood. AICP is the Baltimore office Planning Manager and has four years of experience in climate change adaptation planning. Chin Lien.. Volume 2 Version 3. Merrill. P . stream geomorphology. P. M. Silver Spring. Senior Professional Associate. AICP is a Transportation and Land Use Planner in the Baltimore office with four years of experience in climate change adaptation planning. and Slovinsky. et al (2004) NOAA Atlas 14 – Precipitation-Frequency Atlas of the United States. P. February 2011) Chris Dorney. S. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies. Springer Science •• Meyer. MD. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.. P .. is a Professional Associate. Justin Lennon.E. is an Assistant Vice President.. Project Manager. He specializes in river engineering. •• Kirshen.pbworld.

120 100 Billion Tonnes 80 60 40 20 0 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 Biomass Metals Mineral Fossil Fuels Figure 1 – ‘Business-as-usual’ scenario on worldwide resource extraction. Parsons Brinckerhoff collects information on “the percentage of projects in which a design or construction process was put in place to reduce waste generated by the project”. Global resource consumption trends The global extraction and use of natural resources is shown in Table 1. as part of its global Sustainability Programme. transportation. and diverting waste from a dwindling landfill capacity. Sustainable Europe Research Institute (SERI).materialflows. Global extraction and use of natural materials has increased significantly in the last three decades. All Parsons Brinckerhoff consultants. and consumption. Junior Consultant. virgin aggregates.. It also highlights how—through innovation— Parsons Brinckerhoff has applied the principles of designing out waste to reduce costs for our clients and maintain our commitments to environmental protection. UK Sustainability Team Introduction It is now widely accepted that improved resource efficiency is a key element of sustainable growth.g. 67 Environmental/Climate Change Analysis and Transport Sustainability Sector NETWORK . 2005 to 2030 2 Parsons Brinckerhoff’s response AUGUST 2013 http://www. engineers. designers. and trends continue to show a steady rise in worldwide demand (Figure 1).aspx To help respond to these trends. and avoiding landfill taxation and levies on the use of certain primary and project managers are expected to help provide information against this This is 50% more 1 2 Global Material Flow Database (www. e. UK. +44 (0)117 933 9300. and concept of. This article discusses the context for. to share good practice.pbworld. and that adopting an approach that minimises waste has benefits for: • businesses – reducing capital and operational expenditure. than only 30 years ago. dansont@pbworld. ‘designing out waste’ as an important approach to resource efficiency. 2009 Adapted from: Global dimensions of European natural resource use: first results from the Global Resource Accounting Model (GRAM).Innovative Methods of Reducing Waste in Infrastructure and Building Projects by Tim Danson. celebrate innovation in project delivery and demonstrable client benefit. and is now reaching some 60 billion tonnes/ Sustainable Europe Research Institute (SERI). and • the environment – reducing adverse impacts on resource extraction. manufacture. All Metal Fossil Resources Minerals Ores Fuels Biomass Asia 43% 41% 41% 54% 38% Latin America 16% 12% 28% 7% 21% North America 15% 18% 9% 17% 11% Europe 14% 21% 5% 11% 12% Africa 9% 5% 7% 7% 15% Oceania 3% 2% 11% 4% 3% Table 1 – Shares of different world regions in global resource extraction1 The waste hierarchy The concept and principles of designing out waste are founded on the notion that there is a set of priorities that should be followed to manage resources efficiently: the waste hierarchy. and Scarlett Franklin. Bristol. 2008.

Cambridge (UK) Design for recovery and reuse For this 40km transport corridor in the English county of Cambridgeshire. the challenge was to find a drainage material with a lower-than-traditional cost and environmental impact. the most significant way to reduce waste is to prevent it being created in the first and by statutory documents concerning landfill tax and waste management planning. to integrate the following five principles of designing out waste in their work: 1. 4. construction. Design for recovery and reuse – recovering materials so that they can be reused. we must have the courage to If managed correctly. and that can be disassembled (rather than demolished) into recoverable materials and components at its eventual end of life. Design for off-site construction – using design to encourage the specification of modular or prefabricated units.. By using components and products that arrive at site ready prepared and in the correct dimensions. • reducing material. At the other end of the scale. Parsons Brinckerhoff must continue to be pro-active in making efficiencies in resource utilisation throughout a project’s lifecycle. • reducing reliance on diminishing landfill capacity. • driving down lifecycle waste management costs. and simplifying the range of materials and components specified to encourage resource efficient maintenance and repair. and • enhancing corporate reputation/marketability. and products. Reuse and recovery also includes specifying materials with a higher than expected recycled content. 2. 3. to be placed between the busway tracks. AUGUST 2013 http://www. i. By collaborating with the National Industrial Symbiosis Programme (NISP). components. Design for material optimisation – minimising excavation waste (balancing cut and fill). Over one and a half million The need to innovate to design out waste We will be increasingly directed in our ventures by policy 3 www.nisp. and logistical costs. such as the US Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCCA) and the European Waste Framework Directive (WFD). 5. Design for deconstruction and flexibility – developing a design that is flexible enough to adapt with user needs over time. eliminating the need to extract or consume. Design for waste reduction through procurement – ensuring that the requirements for achieving the other four principles of designing out waste are integrated into supply chain contracts.Environmental/Climate Change Analysis and Transport Sustainability Sector NETWORK Most preferred option Prevention Minimisation Re-use Recycling Least preferred option Other recovery (Disposal) Re-use (Direct) Repurposing Preparation for re-use Remanufacturing Not zero waste activities Zero waste activities Figure 2 – The waste hierarchy As shown in Figure 2.pbworld. coordinating the design and using standard sizes to minimise construction off-cuts. the most expensive and environmentally damaging option is disposal. However. The principles of designing out waste In responding to our own global commitments. To uphold our commitment into the future. our technical staff are being encouraged to innovate within their own specialisms.e. measures. include: Cambridge Guided Busway. Innovation in design can lead to more efficient architectural solutions.aspx Designing out waste in practice Some exemplar Parsons Brinckerhoff projects that have applied the principles of designing out waste to reap the benefits noted above.3 using shredded rubber tyres was found to be a suitable alternative. 68 . on-site construction waste is reduced. the benefits of creating innovative designs that improve resource efficiency include: • meeting planning requirements. and encourages the use of more efficient methods of managing construction and logistics – all of which play an important role in operating in the highest tiers of the waste hierarchy during a The extraction of quarried material did not meet with Parsons Brinckerhoff’s environmental commitments.

treat and/or dispose of contaminated material. The Parsons Brinckerhoff team also orchestrated the in-situ re-use of an historical onsite tar and liquor vessel. reuse and recovery. 4 69 AUGUST 2013 http://www.2M) in excavation and off-island transportation costs. Recycled material was also sourced locally. and by undertaking research into viable material alternatives.000m 3 of potentially contaminated materials. 5 Borrow pit: an area where material is excavated from one location. the geotextile capping was an impermeable clay liner located below the park ground surface. Balfour Beatty resolved a significant deficit in earthworks materials using the principles of designing out waste. The ECI programme encouraged the systematic consideration of design resource efficiency issues. For the majority of the works on the northern part of the site. The project won gold awards for environmental improvement and sustainable development in 2011. The team safely diverted 100% of the potential site waste from landfill.Figure 3 – Cambridgeshire Guided Busway with shredded tyres recovered and reused in the busway tracks tyres were used (Figure 3). and to minimise the need to excavate. St Helier (States of Jersey) Design for material optimisation Parsons Brinckerhoff designed a strategy based on the use of a geotextile capping system 4 that avoided the need to excavate and remediate at site 50. Millennium Town Park Remediation. Use of Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA) as embankment fill on the A421 Highway Junction (UK) Design for waste reduction through procurement. and for material optimisation The client for this commission (Highways Agency) required the successful bidder of the works (Balfour Beatty) to engage in Early Contractor Involvement (ECI). and in doing so saved the client an estimated GBP£6M (US$9.000 tonnes of crushed construction and demolition Figure 4 – Before and after images of the rainwater capture tank In this instance.aspx Environmental/Climate Change Analysis and Transport Sustainability Sector NETWORK . and included 310. The liner was designed to prevent the migration of in-situ contaminants to sensitive human and environmental receptors. planning consent for two borrow pits5 was obtained. converting it to a 500m3 rainwater capture storage tank for irrigation of the Town Park (Figure 4). for use at another. and Balfour Beatty was able to engage with its industry partners long before material was needed.pbworld. at the Green Apple awards ceremony.200t of waste from landfill and saving the client hundreds of thousands of pounds. diverting approximately By liaising with a range of partners.

Balfour Beatty in the UK. electrical and plumbing’ (MEP) and LEED7 consultancy services for the development of a new Data Center Building (Figure 5). He specialises in sustainable development. pulverised fuel-ash (PFA) material was sourced from local power stations. The MEP team has designed for off-site construction by providing modular MEP infrastructure design. AUGUST 2013 8 http://www. therefore. For example. Parsons Brinckerhoff in Hong Kong. for these works. and project managers will increasingly be called upon to reduce their contribution to the extraction and consumption of resources and its associated waste. Conclusion Parsons Brinckerhoff consultants. she completed a three month work placement with the Parsons Brinckerhoff UK Sustainability Team.6 Logistically. and panels) can be easily reconfigured to adapt to different power densities based on user requirements. on-site sorting of potential construction waste. for supplying case studies for this paper. Their work in this context will have both economic and environmental benefit. Hong Kong Science and Technology Park. located in Hong Kong’s Tseung Kwan O Industrial Estate. online good practice guidance documents and tools for designing out waste are available from the UK Waste and Resources Action Programme (WRAP). ‘mechanical.] Tim Danson is a Principal Consultant for the UK Sustainability Team. material optimisation. which will incorporate dual chilled water main headers. Adopted strategies to date include: establishing a dedicated waste management team. resource efficiency. engineers. diverting approximately 393. and 140.5M) were achieved for the client. Parsons Brinckerhoff in the UK. He also develops pragmatic and user-friendly tools to improve sustainability decision-making in the project delivery sustainability management systems. In May 2013. strategic and policy planning for design and construction of buildings and infrastructure.wrap. construction waste management measures will also be applied. Parsons Brinckerhoff will be responsible for reviewing and approving the project’s waste management plan. worldwide. Philip Dumelow.pbworld. these solutions weren’t suitable for embankment works in the south. The MEP data hall configuration has also been optimised for resource efficiency: all of the essential elements of the hall (for 6 7 70 . additional spare capacity— which often goes unused—does not need to be installed. Hong Kong (PRC) Design for off-site construction. and flexibility Parsons Brinckerhoff is providing project management. the computer room air conditioning unit.aspx Figure 5 – Hong Kong Science and Technology Park Data Center – designed to reduce waste in construction and operation Blacktop planings: materials mechanically reclaimed from the layers of bituminous binder and mineral aggregate used in surface paving. Through application of LEED. For further reading and resources. Scarlett Franklin is a Masters student from the University of the West of England. and resource efficiency training.000 tonnes of excavated blacktop planings. The PFA solution was also more economic than using primary or even recycled aggregates: savings of approximately GBP£1M (US$1. as they can be upgraded to accommodate future needs (‘capacity’) without the need for re-design (and potential waste).Environmental/Climate Change Analysis and Transport Sustainability Sector NETWORK waste. floor grilles. The system allows for further expansion and efficiency within the infrastructure itself.8 [The authors would like to thank David Eve and Nigel Snedker. The header features maximise the MEP infrastructure potential. and sustainable procurement. monthly waste inspections. and for monitoring waste recycling performance against LEED requirements. designers. and Michael Ming-Fun Waye. Tier III / IV Data Center tonnes of potential waste from landfill. http://www.

pbworld. diversification of traditional industries and strengthening of the economy. they had very little influence as to what would actually happen. and what infrastructure and services should be planned for.aspx Community CommunityEngagement Engagementand and Transport Social SocialMedia Sector Media NETWORK .herbert@pbworld. jon. questions have begun to be asked about what constitutes best practice. Now. ment that will comprise part of the statutory development plan for an area and which planning applications and proposals will need to be in accordance with. Although these represented the communities’ aspirations for an area.Planning in the Hands of the Community: A New Approach to ‘Bottom-Up’ Plan-Making by Jon Herbert. the opportunity does not come without responsibility. Food and Rural Affairs) with CLG. what should be in the plan. our work is identifying findings that will be of relevance to a wider audience – to Community-led planning There has been a long history of community-led planning in England and indeed across the UK. This was to signal the start of perhaps the single biggest shakeup of the planning system in England since the passing of the first Town & Country Planning Act in 1947. Parsons Brinckerhoff has been commissioned by Defra (Department for Environment. The UK Department for Communities and Local Government1 (CLG) is driving the agenda and has awarded funding to more than 200 communities across England to test this new approach. This has often taken the form of. +44(0)20 7337 1733. and conform to general planning objectives. 71 AUGUST 2013 http://www. The regional tier of planning that established strategic priorities – the scale and direction of growth – has been swept aside and a new bottom-up tier of planning. If these plans have the buy-in of the community at large. protection and retention of shops and services. parish plans and village design statements. These include: provision of affordable housing for local people. or what should be in it. commitment to delivering the plan and. has been introduced. Known as ‘neighbourhood planning’. for example. Thousands of pages of planning policy and supporting guidance have been recast into a slim-line handbag friendly document. there is no formal guidance as to what form or shape a neighbourhood plan should take. how people should engage. With more communities now seeking to start their own neighbourhood plan. This is where ‘neighbourhood planning’ is different. where there exists a particular set of planning matters. UK. this new policy tier provides local communities with a very real say in the future of the area in which they where. and protection of the character and quality of the rural environment. However. However. the community can prepare a planning docu1 2 The CLG is the government department responsible for the UK planning system. they will be formally adopted for planning purposes. in what form. for the very first time. implicit in the way this new approach has been set out. enhancement of Overhauling the system In May 2010. London. led by the community. The focus of the work is on those neighbourhood plans being undertaken in rural parts of the country. the Conservative and Liberal Democrat parties formed a new coalition government in the UK. many communities across the country have been excited by the opportunities that ’neighbourhood planning’ affords them. However. and what constitutes a robust policy document. Parsons Brinckerhoff is helping councils and communities better understand this innovative new approach to community planning through the development of case studies and tips prepared on behalf of the UK government. the need to understand policy and process. It puts the local community in the driving seat and enables them to establish how much development should take place. Understandably. Parsons Brinckerhoff has been commissioned by the UK government2 to undertake research into early progress on neighbourhood plans and to prepare a series of case studies which communities across the country can refer to for help and assistance.

What is happening? A neighbourhood plan can cover many things. Experience has shown us that a lengthy. it is felt that if a local community is given the opportunity to consider the qualities and needs of its area. But. Indeed. identify development and opportunity sites. Member of Parliament (MP). tested.3 put it: The new role of the planner? A recent London Assembly report5 highlighted what it terms the ‘capacity gap’ in ‘neighbourhood planning’. before being opened up to a wider catchment. Indeed. It can also include general principles and planning policies. February 2012. Our research has shown a variety of different approaches in the plans coming forward. That certainly wasn’t the UK government’s intention. Central to this will be the involvement of locally elected members. Instead. if we are to make places that are better for everyone and improve quality of life.4 Many early commentators suggested that this new approach would be no more than a charter for Nimby-ism ("Not In My Back Yard"-ism). Some of the neighbourhood plans we have looked at include policies that provide a definition of ‘local person’ and ‘need’. Interest must be maintained throughout the process. visionary plan if the people that are supposed to deliver it have lost all interest. when they have a proper say over what new homes will look like. 18 November 2010. It highlights the often bureaucratic and multi-layered planning process and the technical knowledge needed to navigate this. 5 London Assembly. what is clear is that for the plan to be successful it needs to be proactive and positive. and the lack of skills that often exists within the planning profession to facilitate planning and engage communities. and when they can influence where those homes go. there is little point in creating a fantastic. much of this is small scale and is only addressing matters of local need and What our research highlights is that perhaps the traditional role of the planner might need redefining – from one of planning and managing change to one of facilita- Minister of State for Decentralisation and Planning Policy. and establishing planning policy across a whole range of land-use topics. So. the lack of mutual trust that often exists between communities and local authority officers. establish the scale and location of growth and design parameters. Many of the changes to the planning system are set in the context of this being the lowest rate of house building the UK has seen in peacetime.Community Engagement and Transport Social Sector Media NETWORK communities and councils in both rural and urban parts of the country. “When people know that they will get proper support to cope with the demands of new development. the government thinks much of this is due to the planning system and the imposition of house building targets on communities from the top-down. But perhaps more important is the issue of speed.pbworld. This puts pressure on planners who need to marry important strategic decisions (and in the absence of any regional policy) with locally driven and derived plans. whilst new growth is being promoted. London. as much as anything it is political will that can drive a good plan forward. Some are focussing on a single issue that the local community holds dear. Rightly or wrongly. and which create a ‘cascade of opportunity’ where new affordable housing is offered first to those considered local. and adopted (some people we have spoken to have suggested in excess of two years). drafting masterplans that represent the spatial expression of the community’s aspirations. It can (and perhaps should) include a vision for the area. As Greg Clark. Although it is uncertain how long it will take for neighbourhood plans to be prepared. built upon the spirit of collaboration. it is unlikely to be anywhere near the scale needed to address the national housing shortage. AUGUST 2013 http://www. Beyond Consultation: The role of neighbourhood plans in supporting local involvement in planning 3 4 72 . although our work shows that some communities are planning for new development. then it is more likely to welcome growth and new development. whereas others are preparing ‘mini-local plans’. they have reasons to say ’yes’ to growth”. it is only through a local or neighbourhood-based approach that we can get under the skin of an area.aspx Is it delivering growth? The underlying rationale behind ’neighbourhood planning’ is the UK government’s intention to deliver growth. allocating sites for development. our research has shown that local groups and organisations are coming together and planning collaboratively for what is best for the town or village in which they live. drawn out plan-making process leads to apathy. which were often opposed at a local level. May 2010 – September 2012 Speaking at Localis. Localis is an independent think-tank with an interest in local government issues.

all encompassing role that leads and supports all aspects of the agenda. 73 AUGUST 2013 http://www. • Participating in steering group discussions. but it is at least bringing people and communities together. providing information and data.Parsons Brinckerhoff identified some new and innovative approaches taken by local UK authorities to benefit communities in the ‘neighbourhood planning’ process: • Advising community groups on the interpretation of legislation and policy. It is only through working together that the challenges can be understood and solutions generated to truly balance local and strategic issues. and even educating. such as education and transport. Jon Herbert is a Regional Associate and part of the new Masterplanning and Urban Integration team in the UK. Whether this will deliver the scale of growth needed remains to be seen. It requires a cultural shift and a move away from the silo mentality of separating forward planning from development management. We as planners will need to embrace a wider. mediating. • Establishing community networks and discussion forums so that communities can come together and share ideas. • Drafting maps and plans. toolkits and advice notes for community groups. In some instances. trained up in the new approach to planning. We will need to be out in the field far more. then this. the result can be far greater than the sum of the parts. • Restructuring and hiring new team members specifically to assist communities. he has worked on many policy and design studies. A planner with more than fifteen years’ experience.aspx Community Engagement and Transport Social Sector Media NETWORK . • Facilitating discussions between the community and different council departments. officers have made themselves available for people to come in on a specific date. and • Running ‘drop-in surgeries’ where officers. thus allowing them to make informed to ask for advice. where resources are shared and the council acts in an enabling role. are available to provide support and direction to community groups. tion and communication. Where this happens. helping to foster civic pride and ownership.pbworld. If neighbourhood planning delivers little else. • Providing training to community groups on planning and design. engaging. and printing leaflets and posters. without the need for a meeting. including single points of contact. must be seen as an excellent achievement. assisting. • Helping to run and facilitate consultation events. • Preparing guidance. in its own right. He is also a Built Environment Expert at the Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment (CABE).

agencies are re-examining their public involvement toolbox and rethinking how stakeholder engagement can take Public involvement for National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) studies has always been focused on early and ongoing outreach to engage people in decisions that affect their lives. but instead focuses on the intent of public involvement to provide notification. create a more informed public that yields more meaningful comments. Barron. Other than a required public Murray. barron@pbworld. With the advent of social media. In part. the project team needs the flexibility to be ‘social’. and Shane Peck. and engage in dialogue. Social media can be a prime vehicle for posing questions and soliciting input from project stakeholders. Parsons Brinckerhoff’s recommended approach is to leverage social media as a tool for engagement where interactive dialogue takes place.pbworld. and provide opportunities for comment from a broad range of stakeholders. the NEPA project team should have detailed discussions about the purpose of social media outreach. and generate valuable discussion and input to the NEPA decision-making process. This takes social media beyond its current use by transportation agencies for projects. Social media is a powerful tool for sharing information and has potential to reach a broad audience. and most recently a National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) study on the potential use of social media during The research findings will be presented later this year in a report that will cover the innovative use of social media during NEPA and will provide suggestions for implementing social media. Long Bridge Widening project in New Orleans which earned awards from the Association of Government Communicators and AASHTO’s Transportation Communications Subcommittee in 2012 for its successful Facebook outreach. AUGUST 2013 http://www. Like any other public involvement tool. Chicago. how can NEPA project teams capitalize on the interactive nature of social media and the critical mass of people who already congregate online? Parsons Brinckerhoff’s Communications & Public Involvement staff is implementing innovative use of social media for public outreach in a range of venues including the Huey P . a Twitter feed and Facebook page for Los Angeles Metro’s Express Lanes that included Spanish language posts which helped it become one of the most active accounts for a toll facility in the nation. UT. and a federal roundtable. and how to implement it effectively. Social media presents a whole new world of opportunities and challenges as a place where people (virtually) meet. A more robust use of social media can broaden stakeholder outreach. share information. This study includes a survey of 50 transportation agencies. case study interviews with five NEPA project teams. Project teams will gain insight to stakeholder values and be better able to tailor outreach and decision-making through real-time interactions. one-way communication to build project awareness. But using social media only for information-sharing misses the opportunity for interactive dialogue. pecks@pbworld. 1-801-288-3256. in order for social media to be a successful public involvement tool. 1-312-803-6496.aspx Making social media engagement successful Because using social media for public involvement during planning and environmental phases is fairly new. Importantly. NEPA does not dictate the tools for public outreach. exchange information. what tools to use. project teams should consider how social media can best support the NEPA public involvement process and define the purpose of its use. IL. As public expectations for transparency and accountability continue to grow. this means that posts should What’s so innovative about social media? Although present social media use primarily consists of 74 . social media provides a forum to share information and hear people’s reactions during the study process. It can provide an opportunity to gauge real-time reactions to project information and can serve as a key tool for assessing public sentiment about the study process and project alternatives.Community Engagement and Transport Social Sector Media NETWORK Social Media and NEPA Public Involvement: Opportunities to Innovate Stakeholder Engagement by Eileen R. But.

Negative comments will most certainly occur. Conversations about the project will occur online with or without the project team participating on social media sites. The NCHRP research will address these concerns with a suggested practices guidance resource and webinar as part of the final report. Intermountain Chapter. Although project teams often discuss the risks of having a social media presence. However. The 2013 AASHTO social media survey noted a shift in tone and a growing number of transportation agencies discovering the effectiveness of a more informal. and upcoming community festival. are already familiar with project facts and processes. there will be some discussion and opinions about the weather.1 Posts also need to be interesting and relevant to the audience the project is trying to reach. If your project team is considering social media as an outreach tool. Regular participants 1 Leading the transportation industry in innovative social media use The complete NCHRP report will be available within the next year detailing the survey results. Challenges of social media in NEPA Social media presents a new form of engagement for the NEPA process. expertise. and sponsoring agency. a disgruntled stakeholder can change his or her attitude when he or she feels acknowledged and heard. we’re trying to humanize the feed. Misinformation is a growing issue whether the project chooses to implement its own online social media tools or not. Ultimately. A negative post can turn into a positive conversation based on how the project team responds. agencies are also wrestling with staff resources. A quoted survey comment read: “We used to be very rigid and formal in all our responses. dance recital. we encourage you to contact the Parsons Brinckerhoff Communications & Public Involvement group. building an engaged community of social media users from the start can help mitigate misinformation. Our success is based on a philosophy of engagement that means we work to build an online community that participates in an exchange of information that adds value to the user and to the project. human voice. It has helped tremendously and we’ve received really good public feedback!” 75 AUGUST 2013 http://www. Such decisions are being made on a case-by-case basis with agency legal counsel and regional federal agency representatives. Similar to a workshop with people seated at multiple tables to work on a common problem. Eileen Barron is a Senior Professional Associate in Public Involvement who built her career implementing public involvement for complex NEPA projects. Shane was named Communicator of the Year by the New Orleans chapter for the International Association of Business Communicators. A unique aspect of social media is the layering of conversations over time and the ability for users to talk to each other.. There may be criticism of the project. case studies.tend to be written in an informal tone with a human voice. In addition to questions about legal standing of online dialogue. Now. We recommend embracing the full interactive capabilities of social media to contribute meaningful dialogue and information to the NEPA study. there will be off-topic conversations and posts that do not seem to make sense. technical work. Concerns about whether social media posts are considered formal comments in the project record are also common. We … answer the feed as people (saying I and we) instead of an agency (DOT says.). Parsons Brinckerhoff will continue to track industry trends and be a leader in social media innovation for public A sign of success is when people answer each other’s questions. In 2012. the team should also consider the risks of not participating in social media sites. the social media page should include off-topic conversations as communitybuilding and trust-building endeavors.aspx Community Engagement and Transport Social Sector Media NETWORK . Social media is not simply two-way communication between the project team and an individual stakeholder. and internet access to social media sites in the workplace as barriers to implementation. a basketball game. process. Shane Peck is Senior Communications Coordinator and manages social media sites for transportation projects. and practical tips for implementation. She is a member of the Transportation Research Board (TRB) Committee on Public Involvement in Transportation and is a founding member of the International Association for Public Participation. and therefore they are more equipped to respond to each other when misinformation occurs. and we suggest that project teams consider including social media posts as part of the project file..pbworld. it has the potential to be a multi-vocal forum for interactive discussion. As a result. Fears of potential misinformation often hold back project teams from fully using social media as a public involvement tool. In order to encourage discussion. No federal guidance currently exists to address the legal considerations of social media interactions during NEPA. there is no regulation that precludes the inclusion of online dialogue as formal comment. which means that not all posts are necessarily going to be directly related to the project or agencies.

and a national park. lessen right-of-way impacts. located in the fastgrowing northern suburbs of the Atlanta metropolitan Due to rapidly increasing regional traffic demand on SR 9. Jacksonville. environmental documentation. where most of the historic properties are located. Georgia by Jonathan Reid. which is one of only a few crossings of the wide Chattahoochee River on the north side of Atlanta. SR 9 is fronted by residential and business properties (some historic). in the mid-1980s. The design solution replaced a deficient bridge on Riverside Road over a river tributary. Innovation in Design In the northern portion of the corridor. Nashville. Atlanta. public involvement preserve historic properties. Parsons Brinckerhoff studied and recommended an innovative “bowtie” concept that reduces the median width – and thereby property impacts – between two multi-lane roundabouts that are used to accommodate left turn movements to access the properties in between the roundabouts (see Figure 2). with an historic district on the banks of the Chattahoochee River and remnants of the Roswell Manufacturing Company cotton mills that operated in the mid-1850s. The study recommendations to significantly widen the corridor and long bridge over the Chattahoochee were met with stiff resistance by the community over concerns about historic preservation and environmental impacts. However. the reversible lane conversion resulted in a significant increase in car crashes along the corridor. GA. The Parsons Brinckerhoff team used photosimulations and video animation tools to show the public how the project would impact operations. In the early 1990s the Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT) initiated a project to widen SR 9 and remove the reversible lanes.aspx Figure 1 – Reversible lanes on State Route 9 76 . At the south end of the corridor. In 2010. and greatly minimized impacts to the National Park and other historic and environmentally important sites AUGUST 2013 http://www. the city of Roswell was able to reenergize the project among its citizens with a focus on quality of life issues and with the help of innovative concepts developed by the Parsons Brinckerhoff team. 1-404-364-5225. Parsons Brinckerhoff devised another innovative solution by grade-separating the current at-grade intersection of SR 9 with Riverside Road. separated the scenic Riverside Road (that runs along the Chattahoochee riverbed) from intersecting with SR 9. the original three-lane roadway was modified to include a reversible lane system – two lanes operate in the peak direction by time of day (see Figure 1) – to better serve peak directional flow demands. improve business and property access compared to a traditional median-divided roadway design. and the project ultimately failed to achieve consensus on a solution. The city contracted Parsons Brinckerhoff to provide traffic analysis. yet Roswell preserves a small-town feel. several places of worship.Community Engagement and Transport Social Sector Media NETWORK Using Innovation and Collaboration to Solve a Decades-Old Transportation Problem in Roswell.pbworld. FL Roswell is Georgia’s eight-largest city. For nearly two decades the corridor remained a safety problem and a bottleneck without a solution. context-sensitive approach to the project was ultimately what moved this project forward. TN. The team’s ability to apply an innovative. this intersection had the worst safety problems and was the largest bottleneck in the and design plans for the project. and substantially improve vehicle and pedestrian safety in the corridor. and safety in the corridor. The community liked the idea of iconic roundabouts and the bowtie concept for its ability to slow traffic. 1-615-340-9186. access. Valerie Birch. and Alice Wiggins. Located at the foot of the Chattahoochee River Bridge and at the beginning of the reversible lane system. The main stretch of roadway that runs through Historic Roswell is State Route 9 (SR 9). birchv@pbword. reid@pbworld.

etc. saving tens of millions dollars and ultimately making the project affordable to the community.Figure 2 – “Bowtie” concept for the corridor. contextual insight in defining the problems and potential solutions. Innovation in Approach When people hear the term “Context Sensitive Solutions” (CSS). The grade-separated design (see Figure 3) improved intersection efficiency to such an extent that the long bridge over the Chattahoochee River did not need to be widened. and for them to engage in the thought process from inception to conclusion of the project. Parsons Brinckerhoff created both a technical advisory group (TAG) and community advisory group (CAG). and operators. illustrating vehicles turn right and use the roundabouts to turn left Figure 3 – Design Concept and Photosimulation of SR 9 / Riverside Road Grade Separation along the corridor.aspx residents. environmentalists. While that is certainly a part of the philosophy. roadway users. CSS differs from the traditional design approach in that it is driven by proactive collaboration and creativity and does not employ a standards-driven prescriptive and reactive approach. acting as leaders and champions of the project. a major reason for the success in moving the project forward is that the Parsons Brinckerhoff public involvement team created a number of opportunities for the voices of the citizens to be heard. These CAGs and TAGs were made up of broadly-diverse constituents. To that end.pbworld. gave invaluable. including Traditional Approach • Constrained • Sequential • Arms Length • Standards Driven • Prescriptive • Transportation Trumps Context CSS Approach • Creative • Iterative • Collaborative • Adaptive • Flexible • Transportation/ Contextual Parity 77 AUGUST 2013 http://www. they usually think about sustainable design that respects the natural environment. and to define the needs and issues before designing the project. CSS also considers the approach of the project – to be inclusive of all modes of travel and all people in the community. By the end of the process. business owners. To maximize public participation. the very members of the community who resisted previous recommendations became the strongest advocates of the final version of the project – because they had developed buy-in to the need for the Community Engagement and Transport Social Sector Media NETWORK .com/news/publications. These engaged groups. community/civic organizations. schools.

The 2012 Georgia Partnership for Transportation Quality Program presented its award in the category of Public Involvement and Context Design to the Roswell Gateway Project. the community helped the project team frame the project purpose and needs. agency coordination. Parsons Brinckerhoff was able to deliver an award-winning project to its client. as well as provide a solution to a decades-old problem for the citizens of Roswell and users of SR 9. He published a monograph. and Principle Professional Associate with Parsons Brinckerhoff and has over 18 years of progressive traffic engineering and traffic planning project experience with emphasis on traffic simulation modeling. at which the community credited the success of the project to the open process and the team’s availability to truly listen to the public’s comments and concerns before recommending solutions that reflected the desires of the community and the city. com/ 78 . Alice Tolbert-Wiggins has over 25 years of experience as a National Leader in public involvement for Parsons Brinckerhoff.aspx?nid=837 Conclusion For its project efforts. and project management. what was more rewarding to the team were the comments received at the final public information open house meeting. She currently manages Parsons Brinckerhoff’s South Planning and Environment Technical Excellence Center. which resulted in its support and engagement in the project as advisors. She recently left Parsons Brinckerhoff to become Director of Public Involvement for the City of Jacksonville. Also very importantly. public involvement. and served as the interdisciplinary team and public involvement lead for the Roswell Historic Gateway project. More information about this project can be found on the City of Roswell Project website at: http://www. and refine the alternatives to a singular concept to move forward.Community Engagement and Transport Social Sector Media NETWORK project and for the creative solutions that were offered. plus the ongoing availability of the team for community briefings. intersection operations and concept design. the project has Jonathan Reid is a Professional Engineer. However. AUGUST 2013 http://www. Florida. conducted as workshops. The approach also included proactive outreach to the National Park Service. “Unconventional Arterial Intersection Design”. the Parsons Brinckerhoff team received an award from the Georgia Department of Transportation. as recipient of the William Barclay Parsons Fellowship in 2002. The four rounds of public meetings.roswellgov. Professional Traffic Operations Engineer. consider numerous alternatives that could potentially meet those needs. Valerie Birch is an Environmental Planner and Principal Professional Associate with Parsons Brinckerhoff. provided the Parsons Brinckerhoff team and the city with greater insight into the community’s and public’s needs.pbworld. As a result of the process. served as a model for public involvement and contextsensitive design innovation for future challenging projects in the city of Roswell and state of Georgia. In the end. She has over 22 years of environmental project experience with an emphasis on NEPA documentation.

the students created an actual working version of a stakeholder engagement mobile application. The 79 AUGUST 2013 http://www. provided training and mobile app development software to IIT students. Coleman. The voter initiative failed to pass. 2012.”1 The author assisted the undergraduate students in meeting the course objective – the development of a mobile stakeholder involvement However. 2011.g. We have developed a social media philosophy and protocol that emphasizes stakeholder engagement in the transportation planning processes. the project visualization practice manager. the app was recognized as a valued service performed by Parsons Brinckerhoff and local officials. IL. Parsons Brinckerhoff currently oversees interactive media outreach on many projects across the US and is delivering our clients a direct return on investment by the sheer number of people participating in our projects through interactive media sites. the courses led to the development and use of a new mobile application by Parsons Brinckerhoff and GeneXus for the Metropolitan Atlanta Voter Education Network (MAVEN). During the second semester. offered courses within “a team-based learning environment in which students from various concentrations and disciplines work together to solve a real-world problem. GeneXus USA. ranging from clients and agencies. a Chicago based technology In the age of increasing media awareness. and the public. Android. and Blackberry smartphones and was downloaded over 10. manage. and a member of the communications and public involvement practice team to explore various strategies for the increased use of technology by stakeholders to the idea of advancing the way we communicate and connect within the confines of the projects at Parsons Brinckerhoff was conceptualized. The app allowed the user to learn more about the projects proposed for funding by viewing an interactive project map of the Atlanta region and accessing information on the proposed 157 transportation projects in the region. MAVEN is a coalition of businesses and civic groups that ran a public information campaign to educate voters about a July 2012 transportation referendum. The Transform ATL was available for iOS. Facebook and Twitter) demonstrated a need for mobile tools to support transportation related projects. 1-312-294-5663. Chicago. colemant@pbworld. The first semester course served as a feasibility study and resulted in the development of a storyboard for the application by the students at the end of the semester. and share information that reflects their views. called the Interprofessional Projects Program (IPRO). http://ipro.aspx Community Engagement and Transport Social Sector Media NETWORK . 2011. In a recent https://itunes. the recent growth of smartphones and use of social media applications (e. Strengthening the Initiative A meeting was held in January 2010 with the Parsons Brinckerhoff highway market leader. to residents of a community. A project-based mobile application could promote enhanced communication and sharing among project teams. our project teams must understand the use of social media and other media outlets to receive and share information with stakeholders and the general public. Furthermore. 21 Sept. The “Transform Atl"2 application was introduced to assist with voter education in the 10-county Atlanta region.pbworld.000 times by July 31. Web. Users could also submit public comments on the projects. Eventually. The discussion produced consensus that Parsons Brinckerhoff has a responsibility to stakeholders at several levels.Creating Connections With Mobile Applications by Thomas L. Interprofessional Projects Program. 1 2 Expanding Our Reach Within the public involvement process of a project. and is now available for use on Parsons Brinckerhoff’s projects worldwide.. stakeholders. the author served as co-instructor for a course at the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) in Chicago.iit. During the 2010 summer and fall semesters. prototyped.

May 2012. The collaboration with the project visualization group and the communications and public involvement teams in developing Parsons Brinckerhoff’s mobile application services has supported Parsons Brinckerhoff’s reputation as an innovator. • Build brand awareness and increase the number of project stakeholders at digital speed. • Enable rapid content delivery. • Present measurable engagement and analytics. Android. and HTML 5. Japanese. a roundtable event held in Chicago on October https://itunes. A novel invention or a new application of an existing one can turn the tides. • Provide a community-building tool for sharing and conversation. iOS) AUGUST 2013 http://www. German. the functionality of the application and the website still enables access to decision makers and planners. Innovation starts with an idea. was developed in September 2012. Android. (Blackberry. “PB Demo App”. five mobile applications (see Figure 1) have been released by Parsons Brinckerhoff and GeneXus USA: • Transform Atlanta. March 2013 (Android.aspx The resources are assembled to develop native mobile applications for • Create efficacy for project stakeholder participation. Windows 8. simplified Chinese. This mobile application complements the conventional methods of public meetings and project websites with the native features of smartphones to promote two-way interactivity with project stakeholders. sponsored by Parsons Brinckerhoff. What does all of this mean? Parsons Brinckerhoff’s mobile app service is a dynamic tool that can be used to engage stakeholders and incite a sense of ownership for the community in which they reside. A new application for use during the 2013 American Planning Association (APA) conference in Chicago was unveiled on April 13. 20123. Parsons Brinckerhoff’s demo application was presented at the Chicago Metropolitan Planning Council’s "Plugging into Placemaking: Technology’s Role in Community Planning". April 2013.pbworld. A unique demonstration application. iOS) • ACEC Arizona Roads and Streets Conference. (Android. whenever. Portuguese. April 2013 (Android. 3 4 See MPC YouTube website (http://www. Since June 2013. If someone is unable to attend a public meeting in person. iOS) • Transform Woodward. 2013 at the APA Expo opening reception. and • Support diverse constituents in languages such as English. The mobile application tool is designed to overcome the constraints of location and time. Spanish. Italian. The feeling of ownership comes from having increased opportunities to state an opinion about the next project planned for a community. iOS) • Chicago Planning Tour.metroplanning. This app expanded on Parsons Brinckerhoff's mobile application capabilities with data provided by the Center for Neighborhood Technology in Chicago. BlackBerry. Smart and compelling apps can now be created that: • Are accessible to participants wherever. The Chicago Planning Tour Application provided a virtual tour of over 30 community planning projects to conference attendees4. and traditional 80 . On the Brink of Innovation Parsons Brinckerhoff has a heritage of Engagement and Transport Social Sector Media NETWORK Figure 1 – Five mobile apps released by Parsons Brinckerhoff and GeneXus traditional methods utilize surveys and in-person meetings to gather public opinions about a project.

when we are hindered from connecting by long distance and time conflicts. or as hardcopy at: http://pbworld. He has 20 years of experience as a transportation planner and project manager for transit.• IDA Midwest Urban District and http://pbworld. Thomas Coleman is a Supervising Planner in Parsons Brinckerhoff’s Chicago office. We can use social media technologies to strengthen lines of a technology such as the Parsons Brinckerhoff mobile application can enhance our projects and the public we Collaboration-at-work. if the obstacles of location and time do not present themselves.aspx Community Engagement and Transport Social Sector Media NETWORK .com. The book Exploring Innovation and its companion book Collaboration at Work are both available as downloads.balfourbeatty. and highway projects and is leading the development of mobile applications for Parsons Brinckerhoff projects and programs Employees can also find additional related information and download PDF or Word versions of the books from the 360 Intranet site: • Exploring Innovation: https://home360. iOS) A Look Into the Future Have you ever e-mailed a colleague a simple question. as collaborationatwork Employees from Parsons Brinckerhoff and across the Balfour Beatty Group can request copies of either book for their key clients by emailing UK-Communications@pbworld. May 2013 (Android.pbworld.aspx 81 AUGUST 2013 http://www. However. although they sit two offices down from you? The chance to connect face to face should not be taken for granted.aspx • Collaboration at Work: https://home360. Parsons Brinckerhoff’s mobile application is developed to add value to a project. roadway. improving the means by which we connect with our clients and the public.

• Encourage readers to contact authors for more information. Ephrata. Alan Hobson. Network Format File Formats (provide electronic files) AUGUST 2013 http://www. or technology? • Biographical Information: Please provide your title and a brief description of your work in 1–2 sentences at the end of your article. Bristol. • Introduction/Overview: Provide a brief paragraph stating your topic and how it is significant. PA. New York. Submit Your Article E-mail article and graphics files to: John Chow. New York. TX. Hong Kong 82 . – Provide exact name of client and state your firm’s role and responsibilities. lysaght@pbworld. Other future Network topics will include alternative project delivery systems. • Wastewater.onlineconversion. AUS.. or go directly to: We invite employees from all offices of Parsons Brinckerhoff and affiliates to share their knowledge and submit articles to the Network technical journal about Water (#77). This journal is intended to foster the free flow of ideas and information among Parsons Brinckerhoff Graphic Designer: Suzanne Daloisio. NY 10119. in parentheses. Steve Denton. Past issues of Network are available electronically on Parsons Brinckerhoff’s web site.aspx • Length: Articles should be Editor: Susan Lysaght. • Keep your article as short as you can—include only relevant details and descriptions. and building information management (BIM) systems. and projects in the broad areas of: • Drinking water/integrated water resources and asset management. Peter Kydd. This publication will focus on Parsons Brinckerhoff’s expertise. • Papers written for other publications will not be accepted unless they are modified to conform to Network format. Executive Editor: John Chow. tiff. All graphics files and a clear hard copy at least 165mm (7 inches) wide must also go to Suzanne Daloisio.pbworld. and ecosystem management. lysaght@pbworld. and proposals. (http://www. 4139 Oregon Pike. • Related Web Sites: Provide any web addresses that readers can go to for related information. capabilities. The opinions expressed by the writers are their own and are not necessarily those of Parsons Brinckerhoff. Lancaster. PA. – Tell what innovative technologies or approaches you developed or used. New York. For assistance in converting seminars. Alan Knott. eps. Lancaster. 1-717-859-7427. We look forward to hearing from you. Water Our Goal The goal of Network is to promote technology transfer by featuring articles that: • Tell readers about innovative Advisor: Judy Cooper. and • Program support. – Screen captures are only 72 dpi and not acceptable. • Graphics: – Format should be bitmap. Manchester. chow@pbworld. Contact editors John Chow (chow@pbworld.pbworld. Houston. Parsons Brinckerhoff Inc. watershed. 1-212-465-5000. building efficiency. All rights reserved. see http://www. Network ©August 2013. and Susan Lysaght (lysaght@pbworld. • Stormwater. NY Guest Reviewers for this issue: Karen Block. NY. 1-212-465-5249 and Susan Lysaght. Parsons Brinckerhoff Graphics Services. Employees may request printed copies to use for conferences. Past issues are available to employees via the Parsons Brinckerhoff intranet. Bristol. Brisbane. • Appeal to a broad range of readers. • Byline: Include the name. Articles may be reprinted only with permission from the executive editor. location. Guidelines for Articles • Articles should conform to Network format (defined below). • Hydraulic structures and flood UK. PA 17522. Steven Lai. • Body of text: – Clearly describe the challenge you faced and how you or your team solved it.200 words or less. New York. phone number. UK. • Conclusion: – What lessons did you learn? – What was the impact of your solution on your project? – What does your new technology or technique mean to our firm and the state-of-the-art of the industry? – What is the current status of your project.Transport Network Sector NETWORK Call for Articles We invite all employees to participate in technology transfer and submit articles to Network. – Provide all units of measures in metrics followed by US Customary • Text: must be an MS Word file without graphics embedded.pbworld. • Include only essential information in a readable format. Lancaster. 1-717-859-7449. – Resolution should be at least 240 dpi. and e-mail address of each author. Send your request to pbnetwork@pbworld. strategic consulting. or psd. Network 77.aspx. UK. One Penn

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