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 NeWpq< VW* qye 7]VNe7 yW q=i=NeWq 3N!

G7 40
7 LEGTH AO TI^E SCALES I TlHHl-
LET FLOVS
JnrLnlcni moiions occnr ovcr a wioc rangc of lcngil ano iimc scalcs. Ior cxamplc,
consiocr ilc growil of a cnmnlns clono. Jlc largc scalc of ilc clono can Lc of ilc orocr
of kilomcicrs ano may grow or pcrsisi ovcr long pcrioos of iimc. Wiilin ilc clono,
mixing of ory cxicrnal' air ano moisi air wiilin ilc clono may occnr ovcr scalcs on
ilc orocr of millimcicrs. In morc oown io caril applicaiions consiocr a niiliiy Loilcr.
Largc cooics iranspori fncl ano oxioizcr ilrongloni ilc comLnsiion clamLcr, wlilc
mixing ano clcmical rcaciion nliimaicly occnr ai ilc vcry small scalcs wiil vcry
slori iimc scalcs comparco wiil ilc largc scalc moiions. Jlis variaiion in lcngil ano
iimc scalcs is an imporiani claracicrisiic of inrLnlcni ows, ano a claracicrisiic ilai
is in pari rcsponsiLlc for ilc oimcnliy cnconnicrco in ilc nnmcrical ano ilcorciical
analysis of inrLnlcni ows. Hcrc wc iakc somc iimc io oiscnss somc of ilc fcainrcs
associaico wiil ilc lcngil ano iimc scalcs of inrLnlcncc.
Wc lavc alrcaoy sccn ilai scaling laws arc an imporiani iool for ocscriLing inr-
Lnlcncc. Mncl of wlai wc say ano conclnoc aLoni inrLnlcncc is Lasco on orocr of
magniinoc csiimaics ilai follow from logical applicaiions of scaling laws ano oimcn-
sional analysis. Also iocniifying ilc appropriaic scalings nsing scalc analysis along
wiil an nnocrsianoing of low oincrcni lcngils ano iimcs scalc las vcry praciical
nscs. Wiilin ilc class lccinrcs a loi of morc pariicnlar cxamplcs ano nscs will Lc
oiscnssco.
7.1 TurIuIont Longth ScaIos
Iirsi lci ns consiocr ilc rangc of lcngil scalcs (cooy sizcs) ilai onc may cxpcci io
cnconnicr in inrLnlcni ows. Jlc sizc of ilc largcsi cooics in ilc ow will Lc givcn
Ly 1, ilc smallcsi cooics Ly j. As prcvionsly oiscnssco, ilc largcsi cooics in ilc ow
acconni for mosi of ilc iranspori of momcninm ano cncrgy. Jlc sizc of ilcsc cooics
is only consirainco Ly ilc plysical Lonnoarics of ilc ow. Wc will rcfcr io 1 as ilc
.nj:n| lcngil scalc. Jlc sizc of ilc smallcsi scalcs of ilc ow will Lc ocicrminco Ly
viscosiiy. Wc lavc alrcaoy oiscnssco ilc ioca ilai as wc approacl smallcr ano smallcr
lcngil scalcs, ilc cnccis of viscosiiy Lccomc morc imporiani. Jlc smallcsi lcngil
scalcs cxisiing in a inrLnlcni ow arc ilosc wlcrc ilc kinciic cncrgy is oissipaico inio
lcai. Ior vcry ligl Icynolos nnmLcr ows, ilc viscons forccs Lccomc incrcasingly
small wiil rcspcci io ilc incriial forccs. Smallcr scalc moiions arc ilcn ncccssarily
gcncraico nniil ilc cnccis of viscosiiy Lccomc imporiani ano cncrgy is oissipaico.
Ior a siaiisiically sicaoy inrLnlcni ow, ilc cncrgy oissipaico ai ilc small scalcs
mnsi cqnal ilc cncrgy snpplico Ly ilc largc scalcs. Irom ilc argnmcnis lcaoing io
 NeWpq< VW* qye 7]VNe7 yW q=i=NeWq 3N!G7 0
Kolmogorov`s 1si similariiy lypoilcsis, ilc only faciors inncncing ilc Lclavior of
ilc small scalc moiions arc ilc ovcrall kinciic cncrgy proonciion raic (wlicl cqnals
ilc oissipaiion raic) ano ilc viscosiiy. Jlc oissipaiion raic will Lc inocpcnocni of
viscosiiy, h& h :n|: n &h.h h.: n:jj .: n.::.nn &.|| nnn n hh h
n.::.n.n :n nnn .::.j.
Jo arrivc ai an csiimaic for ilc scalcs ai wlicl ilc cncrgy is oissipaico wc mnsi
ilcn form a lcngil scalc Lasco only on ilc oissipaiion raic ano viscosiiy. Jlc oissipa-
iion raic pcr nnii mass (c) las oimcnsions (n
1
,-cc
n
) ano viscosiiy, i las oimcnsion
(n
1
,-cc). Jlc lcngil scalc formco from ilcsc qnaniiiics is:
j =
X
i
n
c
~
d>;
(7.1)
Jlis lcngil scalc is callco ilc 1|nj: lcngil scalc ano is ilc smallcsi lyorooy-
namic scalc in inrLnlcni ows.
Jo rclaic ilis lcngil scalc io ilc largcsi lcngil scalcs in ilc ow wc ncco an
csiimaiion for ilc oissipaiion raic in icrms of ilc largc scalc ow fcainrcs. Sincc ilc
oissipaiion raic is cqnal io ilc kinciic cncrgy proonciion raic, wc ncco io oLiain an
approximaiion for ilc raic ai wlicl kinciic cncrgy is snpplico io ilc small scalcs. Jlc
kinciic cncrgy of ilc ow is proporiional io l
1
. Jlc iimc scalc of ilc largc cooics
(commonly rcfcrrco io as ilc largc cooy inrnovcr' iimc) can Lc csiimaico as 1,l.
Ii is rcasonaLlc io assnmc ilai ilc kinciic cncrgy snpply raic will Lc rclaico io ilc
invcrsc of ilis iimc scalc. Jlc oissipaiion raic can now Lc csiimaico Ly ilc rclaiion
c
ll
1,l

l
n
1
(7.2)
Wiil ilis csiimaic for c, Lq. 7.1 Lccomcs:
j =
X
i
n
1
l
n
~
d>;
(7.8)
Jo rcpcai wlai wc saio carlicr, wc can scc from Lq. 7.2 ano 7.8 ilai ilc oissipaiion
oocs noi ocpcno on ilc viscosiiy. Viscosiiy scrvcs only io ocicrminc ai wlai lcngil
scalc ilc oissipaiion occnrs. Jlis now immcoiaicly givcs an csiimaic for ilc raiio of
ilc largcsi io smallcsi lcngil scalcs in ilc ow:
1
j

w
l1
i
W
n>;
= 1c
n>;
(7.4)
wlcrc 1c is ilc Icynolos nnmLcr Lasco on ilc largc scalc ow fcainrcs. As wc slonlo
ininiiivcly cxpcci, ilc scparaiion of ilc largcsi ano smallcsi lcngil scalcs incrcascs
as ilc Icynolos nnmLcr is incrcasco. Jlis is a wiocly nsco rclaiionslip.
Anoilcr commonly cnconnicrco lcngil scalc in inrLnlcncc is ilc Jnj|: microscalc.
Jlis lcngil scalc oocs noi lavc ilc samc casily nnocrsiooo plysical signincancc as
 NeWpq< VW* qye 7]VNe7 yW q=i=NeWq 3N!G7 1
ilc Kolmogorov or inicgral lcngil scalcs Lni proviocs a convcnicni csiimaic for ilc
ncinaiing sirain raic nclo. Jlc Jaylor microscalc, \ is ocnnco ilrongl ilc rclaiion:
X
cn
1
ca
~
1
=
n
11
\
1
(7.)
n
1
is ilc rms of ilc ncinaiing vclociiy nclo. Wc will laicr ialk aLoni somc fcainrcs
of inrLnlcncc wlcrc ilc Jaylor Microscalc is ilc appropriaic lcngil scalc.
Sincc ilc Jaylor microscalc is rclaico io ilc inrLnlcncc ncinaiions, ii is somc-
iimcs callco ilc &:h&|n |njh :n|. A inrLnlcncc Icynolos nnmLcr can Lc com-
pnico Lasco on ilc Jaylor microscalc ano ilc rms vclociiy ncinaiions:
1c

=
n
1
\
i
(7.0)
Jlc Jaylor microscalc, \, las a lisiorical signincancc as wcll as ii was ilc nrsi lcngil
scalc ocrivco io ocscriLc ilc inrLnlcncc.
7.2 TIno ScaIos
In ilc prcvions snLscciion wc lavc alrcaoy rcfcrrco io ilc largc cooy inrnovcr' iimc
ocnnco Ly
t
7
=
1
l
(7.7)
Irom ilc informaiion wc lavc alrcaoy prcscnico, wc can also gcncraic a iimc scalc
for ilc small cooics nsing ilc viscosiiy ano ilc oissipaiion:
t

=
w
i
c
W
d>1
(7.8)
Using onr prcvions csiimaic for ilc oissipaiion raic wc oLiain
t

=
w
i1
l
n
W
(7.0)
Jlc raiio of iimc scalcs is ilcrcforc:
t
7
t

=
w
l1
i
W
d>1
= 1c
d>1
7
(7.10)
Jlc largc scalc sirncinrcs in ilc ow arc sccn io lavc a mncl largcr iimc scalc
(onraiion) ilan ilc smallcsi cncrgy oissipaiing cooics. As ilc Icynolos nnmLcr of
ilc ow incrcascs, ilc magniinoc of ilc scparaiion Lciwccn Loil iimc ano lcngil
scalcs incrcascs.
Ii is woril iaking somc iimc io look ai ilc ocnniiion of ilc largc cooy inrnovcr
iimc in a liiilc morc ociail ano low ii rclaics io somc plysical proccsscs. Jlc cooy
inrnovcr iimc of a sizc | cooy (t
G
) can Lc rclaico io ilc iimc ii iakcs for ilai sizc cooy
 NeWpq< VW* qye 7]VNe7 yW q=i=NeWq 3N!G7 2
io iravcrsc ilc incriial rangc (t
G
) (i.c., Lc rconcco io ilc Kolmogorov scalc). Irom
oimcnsional analysis wc gci
d|
dt

|
t
G
(7.11)
wlcrc ilc claracicrisiic iimc scalc of a sizc | cooy can Lc rclaico io ilc largc cooy
inrnovcr iimc, t
7
nsing Kolmogorov scalings applicaLlc io ilc incriial rangc:
t
G

X
|
1
~
1>n
t
7
(7.12)
Now snLsiiiniing ilc valnc of t
G
in Lq. 7.12 inio Lq. 7.11 ano ilcn inicgraiing from
ilc inicgral scalc io ilc Kolmogorov scalc, j givcs ilc iimc ii iakcs for an inicgral
scalc cooy io Lc rconcco io ilc Kolmogorov scalc:
t
7
t
7
= 1
w
j
1
W
1>n
= 1 1c
d>1
(7.18)
wlcrc ilc nnal cqnaliiy is oLiainco nsing ilc rclaiionslip 1,j 1c
n>;
for incriial
rangc inrLnlcncc. Noic from Lq. 7.18 ilai ilc largc cooy inrnovcr iimc is ilc iimc
scalc for an cooy io iravcrsc ilc incriial rangc for ligl 1c ows. Lqnaiion 7.18
illnsiraics ilc 1c ocpcnocncc of ilis proccss, wlicl vanislcs for ligl-1c ows.
In ilc prcvions snLscciion ii was slown low ilc scparaiion of lcngil scalcs cnccis
ilc aLiliiy io nnmcrically prcoici a inrLnlcni ow. A similar argnmcni lolos for ilc
scparaiion of iimc scalcs. In a nnmcrical calcnlaiion of ilc iimc ocvclopmcni of ilc
vclociiy nclo, ilc iimc sicp mnsi Lc small cnongl io rcsolvc ilc fasi iimc scalcs of
ilc small scalc moiion. Implicii algoriilms conlo Lc nsco io avoio ilis iimc sicpping
rcsiriciion, Lni iimc accnraic solniions rcqnirc ilc small iimc sicps.
0.8 Lcngil ano Jimc Scalcs of ilc Scalar Iiclo
A scalar in a inrLnlcni ow nclo will cxpcricncc sircicling ano siraining onc io
ilc inrLnlcni moiions, as wcll as oinnsc nnocr ilc aciion of molccnlar oinnsiviiy.
Wc lavc slown prcvionsly ilai ilc cnccis of ilc inrLnlcncc on ilc iranspori of ilc
scalar nclo oominaic ovcr ilc cnccis of oinnsion. Howcvcr, molccnlar oinnsion plays
an imporiani rolc in inrLnlcni iranspori, mixing ano rcaciion. Ior cxamplc, mixing
Lciwccn iwo spccics can only occnr nnocr ilc aciion of molccnlar oinnsiviiy. If ilc
molccnlar oinnsiviiy was aLscni, ilc iwo consiiincnis conlo Lc wcll siirrco ano ois-
iriLnico Ly ilc inrLnlcncc, Lni ilcy wonlo ncvcr scc cacl oilcr ai a molccnlar lcvcl.
Unocr ilis conoiiion ilc scalar lcngil scalc will Lc rconcco io a molccnlar scalc. In
rcaliiy, oinnsion acis ovcr ilc scalar nclo, mosi cncciivc ai ilc smallcsi lcngil scalcs,
so ilai ilc scalar nclo is lomogcnizco ai lcngil scalcs mncl largcr ilan ilc molcc-
nlar scalcs. Jlis smallcsi lcngil scalc of ilc scalar nclo wlcrc ilis lomogcnizaiion
occnrs is callco ilc 1nh|: scalc if ii is smallcr ilan ilc Kolmogorov scalc, ano
ilc OLnkov-Corrsin scalc if ii is largcr ilan ilc Kolmogorov scalc. Jlc rclaiivc sizc
of ilc smallcsi scalar lcngil scalc io ilc Kolmogorov scalc ocpcnos on ilc rclaiivc
 NeWpq< VW* qye 7]VNe7 yW q=i=NeWq 3N!G7 8
magniinocs of ilc kincmaiic viscosiiy ano molccnlar oinnsiviiy. A major focns of ilis
conrsc is io sinoy ilc ociails of ilc ovcrall inrLnlcni mixing proccss. A ocrivaiion of
ilc scalar lcngil scalcs ano a oiscnssion of ilc scalar cncrgy spccirnm will Lc ocfcrrco
nniil wc spccincally ircai ilc mixing proccss.
7.3 InIIcatIons on tho unorIcaI SoIutIon oI TurIuIont FIovs
Jlc raiio of largcsi io smallcsi lcngil scalcs in ilc ow las jnsi Lccn slown io Lc
proporiional ilc Icynolos nnmLcr raisco io ilc ilrcc-qnaricrs powcr. Jlis rcsnli
las imporiani implicaiions conccrning ilc nnmcrical solniion of a inrLnlcni ow.
Ior cxamplc, in a ow wiil a Icynolos nnmLcr of 10
x
, ilc raiio 1,| is proporiional
io 10
dx>;
. Howcvcr, inrLnlcncc is ilrcc-oimcnsional ano io rcsolvc ilc cniirc rangc of
lcngil scalcs in a inrLnlcni ow simnlaiion wc wonlo ncco a compniaiional oomain
ilai consisico of ai lcasi 10
d(
grio poinis. Consiocring ilai ilis rcsolniion wonlo
Lc nccoco for cacl of ilc ocpcnocni variaLlcs, ii is casy io scc ilai ilis amonni
of informaiion far cxcccos ilc capaciiy of any cxisiing compnicr. Jlis Lccomcs
cvcn clcarcr wlcn ilc nnsicaoy, iransicni nainrc of inrLnlcncc is consiocrco. In an
accnraic nnmcrical solniion, iimc mnsi Lc oiscrciizco ano ilc govcrning cqnaiions
mnsi Lc inicgraico in iimc nsing small iimc sicps. Lvcn if compnicr mcmory was
largc cnongl io coniain all ilc informaiion nccoco io ocscriLc ilc inrLnlcni ow nclo
in ociail, ilc iimc nccoco io inicgraic ilc cqnaiions in Loil spacc ano iimc wonlo Lc
complcicly nnpraciical. Lvcn ilongl 40 somciling ycars lavc passco sincc ilis iypc
of argnmcni was nrsi maoc ano compniing powcr las grown Ly orocrs of magniinoc,
ilc argnmcni is siill valio iooay.
Sincc fnll nnmcrical simnlaiions of inrLnlcni ow arc impossiLlc, wlai implicaiions
oocs ilis lavc rcgaroing onr aLiliiy io prcoici ilc Lclavior of inrLnlcni ows in
applicaiions of praciical imporiancc Sincc ilc ow nclo cannoi Lc prcoicico cxacily,
ilc gcncral approacl is io nsc approximaic mciloos ano siaiisiical mciloos ilai givc
ns ilc ocsirco informaiion aLoni ilc ow. In ilc aLscncc of ilc nccoco icclnology
io solvc ilc cxaci govcrning cqnaiions, mncl of ilc cnori in inrLnlcncc rcscarcl is
oirccico ai ocvcloping nn|: ilai can Lc nsco in convcniional solniion procconrcs.
Jlcsc moocls iakc on a wioc variciy of forms, ranging from ilc vcry cmpirical io
somc ilai arc vcry complcx ano plysically Lasco. Ai somc lcvcl, lowcvcr, all moocls
rcly on cmpirical oaia. Jlc goal of ilc moocls is io provioc as gooo as ocscripiion
as possiLlc of ilc inrLnlcncc wiilin a framcwork ilai allows for solniions of praciical
proLlcms. As wc will scc, ilcrc lavc Lccn many sncccsscs along wiil many failnrcs
in ilis vcninrc. Jlc cnrrcni ano coniinnco rcscarcl in ilc inrLnlcncc moocling arca
inoicaics ilc oimcnliy in ocscriLing ilc inrLnlcncc. Jlc ncxi scvcral scciions will
oiscnss somc of ilc moocling approaclcs nsco io ircai ilc cnccis of inrLnlcncc.