The Industrial Revolution

Politics The woollen industry was no longer the most important industry of the time by 1830 the citizens traded in their spinning wheels and handlooms. They went to the factories that were being established in the North, the Midlands and South Wales. (Lane, P.1972,13). This meant that a lot of people were moving away creating larger populations around factories and expanding industries. Cotton, Coal , Iron industries were expanding. (Lane, P.1972,13). Towns Health and Housing Local Government When a mine owner or business owner developed their company, new homes had to be made, “ There was no national law laying down standards of housing , or the width of streets.” (Lane, P.1972,44). More people equalled more waste that the builders of the time were not prepared. They didn’t know how to deal with this problem, resulting in poor sanitation problems that also resulted in an inadequate water supply for most places (Lane, P.1972,44). The local councils of the time were also unsure about how to deal with the rising issues. Lancashire had their own Lord of the manor, he was responsible for the area of Mosley but he was understaffed and inexperienced, unable to cope with the “rapid growth of the new giant” (Lane, P.1972,44). The referral to this age as a new giant explains a lot about the time this was a huge step up from the small towns, the industrial revolution supersized everything but this was a large leap forward into the future that the government and local authorities were not prepared for. Housing The industrial industry took a lot of the funds from the National Income resulting in money being spent on building new factories and equipment for mass production. Money was also being spent on canals , bridges, shops, reservoirs and early railways. This decision on how to spend money on these growing cities resulted in a small amount of money being left over to develop the towns and to create new houses.(Lane, P.1972,44). From the little left over the rich were also claiming back some money using this to build new homes or rebuilding older homes. The builders and landlords at the time new that the working class having a low salary could only pay a small amount of rent resulting in the builders only creating “low quality houses” (Lane, P.1972,45) for the working class citizens.

Figure 1 Figure 1,Working Class housing- Jacob’s Island in London (2013) Figure 1 is an example of what a working class home would have looked like, very shabby with little attention to detail or workmanship. These houses looked more like death traps than homes, and it can be seen that these homes were very inadequate. Houses like these would normally have had no sanitary system or a water supply inside, a toilet and water supply ( stand pipe) at the end of a row of 200 houses would be placed for the residents to share. Some towns took their water supplies from the local rivers, London took theirs from the Thames which was also where their sewage was dumped.(Lane, P.1972,46) The industrial revolution meant the increase of death rates because of poor sanitation the average life span for working class children was 17 and for a middle class child was 20. (Lane, P.1972,47) Radical Reform, The 1819 Massacre Reformers were people who wanted the government to change their ways and to allow fair elections. Parliament elections were usually rigged majority of the members of the houses of commons, “were the sons of lords waiting for their fathers to die so that they could also be lords” (Lane, P.1972,52) and the others who made up the remaining government got in through rigged elections. The people wanted a change and a reformed parliament. Radical reformers encouraged others to demand reform from the government also Hunt and Robert Owen held meetings across the country encouraging people to demand reform. Their meeting at St Peter’s field ended in a massacre 11 people died and 400 people were wounded. The magistrates feared that their meeting on reform would cause an uprising so ordered the “the local yeomen to arrest Hunt. The

crowd resisted and the yeomen charged, killing and wounding members of the crowd as they went.”( British Library .1820) The government’s actions show how they tried to cut off people who were trying to oppose them but the massacre created martyrs for the cause. The Cato Street Conspiracy that failed (1820) Although some believed in a reformation others believed that the only way to save the government was to wipe it out and start fresh. Arthur Thistlewood plotted to blow up the Cabinet but his plan failed when the police got a hold of his plot and guards arrested some of his companions although Thislewood escaped he was captured and arrested the next day. He was later decapitated for being guilty of high treason( M, Bloy . 2011). Chartism The Chartism movement occurred during 1838-1848, the people who supported this movement wanted 6 things; “manhood suffrage; the ballot; abolition of property qualifications for MPs; payment of MPs; equal electoral districts; and annual elections.” (S,Roberts.1999). These things would allow for the workingman to able to also run as a member of parliament.

Wars Temne War –Britain against the Susu tribe. Britain won. 1801-1805 First Kandyan War- Britain against the Kingdom of Kandy. Britain won. 18031805. Napoleonic Wars occurred between 1803-1815 (Napoleonic War)Gunboat War – Britain against Denmark Norway- Britain won.1807-1814. (Napoleonic War)Peninsular war – United kingdom, Spain & Portugal against the French Empire. 1807-1814.

Bibliography Lane, P.(1972).The Industrial Revolution. Great Britain. Anchor Press. British Library .(1820). Peterloo report At: http://www.bl.uk/learning/histcitizen/21cc/struggle/chartists1/his toricalsources/source1/peterloo.html (Accessed on 24.09.2013) M, Bloy . (2011). A web of English history.At: http://www.historyhome.co.uk/people/thistle.htm (Accessed on 24.09.2013) S,Roberts.(1999). At: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/victorians/chartist_01.shtml (accessed on 24.09.2013)

Figure 1,Working Class housing- Jacob’s Island in London (2013). At:http://lh4.ggpht.com/-btIJoky4uPU/SAXA9bvhrvI/AAAAAAAABBg/lskRsGNkmo/Jacobs%252520Island%252520Bermondsey%2525201855.jpg (Accessed on 24.09.2013)

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