18 views

Uploaded by முத்து குமார்

- Schmeling a Et Al
- Robust Sclera Recognition System With Novel
- Diagnosis of Chondral Injury After Supination Trauma
- Guidelines Radiation
- ACC ACR CCTA Expert Consensus 2663
- Curriculum MIT ASRT
- JURNAL.pdf
- Nursing Abbreviations
- Perth Radiological Services
- ARTICLE EBR FINALIZED
- Chest Radiology
- Di Ct Brochure Somatom Go Now-04198325
- imaging qa jenny
- jcdr-8-103
- The Man That List His Mind CR
- capitulo 15
- PEDIATRIC RADIOGRAPHY.ppt
- Trauma Bedah Saraf
- 0046
- RT 200 Finals Topic 4

You are on page 1of 7

B.Vijayakumar, B.E., M.Tech.,(PhD) K.Muthu Kumar,B.Tech.,(M.Tech)

Department of computer science and engg Department of computer science and engg

AP, PSN Engineering College Student, PSN College of Engineering

vijaymtech29@gmail.com conferancemuthu@gmail.com

Abstract Medical Imaging is perceived to designate the set of techniques that

noninvasively produce images of the internal aspect of the body. MRI is more suitable for

imaging the brain due to its ability of discriminating soft tissues with no side effects.

Manual segmentation of brain tumors by medical practitioners is a time consuming task and

has inability to assist in accurate diagnosis. Several automatic methods have been developed

to overcome these issues. Tumors doesnt exhibit any shape and causes deformations of

nearby structures of the brain. Active contour models play a vital role in accurately

delineating the boundary of the tumor. Several active contour models such as traditional

snake, Gradient Vector Flow, Boundary Vector Flow, Magnetostatic Active Contour

models, Fluid Vector Flow are in existence of which Fluid Vector Flow addresses problems

of insufficient capture range and poor convergence for concavities faced by the other

models. Fluid vector flow is insensitive to initialization that make it attractive one for

segmenting brain tumor. Fluid Vector Flow is utilized for segmentation of two dimensional

brain tumor MR images to extract the tumor and that tumor can be projected into the

three dimensional plane to analyze the depth of the tumor.

Keywords Active contour models, brain tumor, snakes, vector flow,

projection.

I. Introduction

Medical imaging is a technique and process used to create images of the human body for

clinical purposes such as medical procedures seeking to reveal, diagnose or examine disease.

Medical Science incorporates the study of normal anatomy and physiology. In the clinical

context, medical imaging is generally equated to radiology or clinical imaging and the

medical practitioner responsible for interpreting the images is a radiologist. As a field of

scientific investigation, medical imaging constitutes a sub-discipline of biomedical

engineering, medical physics or medicine depending on the context. Research and

development in the area of instrumentation, image acquisition, modeling and quantification

are usually the preserve of biomedical engineering, medical physics and computer science. [1]

Medical imaging constitutes various modalities to create images of t he human

body such as X-RAY, Comput ed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging

(MRI), and Ultrasound. X-RAY, invented by Winhelm in 1895 is the oldest source of

electromagnetic radiation used for imaging having wavelength in the range of 0.01 to 10

nanometers. It emits high radiation to create images of the human body thereby causing side

effects such as cancer and eye cataract. Then Computed Tomography (CT) came into

existence. CT scan utilizes X-ray to produce two dimensional images of the structures in the

thin section of the body. CT produces a volume of data which can be manipulated through a

process known as windowing, in order to demonstrate various bodily structures based on

their ability to block the X-ray beam. Although most common in medicine, CT is also used

in other fields, such as nondestructive materials testing. Since it has a greater ionizing

radiation dose burden, repeated scans must be limited to avoid health effects.

Active Contour Models or Snakes are effective tools for segmentation. There are two

types of active contour models, parametric and level set active contour models. Parametric

active contour models are able to extract a single object and are often faster than level set

models. Parametric snakes have two weaknesses; the capture range is limited and inability to

capture acute concave shapes. Level set active contour models are able to capture multiple

objects and complex geometries and are slower than parametric methods. In the presence

of noise level set snakes capture multiple false objects. In the existing work parametric active

contour models such as Gradient Vector Flow (GVF), Boundary Vector Flow (BVF) and

Fluid Vector Flow (FVF) and level set active contour models such as Magnetostatic Active

Contour model (MAC) were used for extracting the boundary of the brain tumor but these

models differ by their capture range and their ability to capture acute concavities. FVF

demonstrated improvements over other techniques with its large capture range and better

convergence for concavities. It is proposed to utilize Fluid Vector Flow for extracting the

tumor in brain MR image and projection of extracted tumor into the three dimensional space

i.e. 3D visualization to analyze the depth of the tumor.

The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In Section II, related work is described.

Section III introduces segmentation and projection of tumor. Discussions are presented in

Section IV, the study of conclusion in Section V.

II. RELATED WORK

Soft Computing techniques such as fuzzy logic and neural networks have been used for

segmentation of brain tumor. Segmentation of brain tumor using HSOM (Hierarchical Self

Organizing Map), an unsupervised clustering technique maps high dimensional inputs to one

or two dimensional discrete lattice of neuron units [2]. HSOM method aids physicians in

tumor diagnosis and monitoring. Another segmentation technique which is an extension to

traditional Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering algorithm which considers two influential

factors: feature difference between neighboring pixels and the relative locations of

neighboring pixels in the image [4].

FCM, by considering those factors greatly restrained the influence of noise. Fuzzy

algorithms for Learning Vector Quantization (FALVQ), an unsupervised learning process

discriminated normal tissues and abnormalities of the brain by partitioning the set of feature

vectors obtained from an MR image into a relatively small number of clusters [6]. Yan Zhu

and Hong Yan proposed an optimization framework for detection of tumor boundaries

using a Hopfield neural network [8]. The tumor boundary was detected in consecutive

slices in such a way to extensively making use of the aspect of connectivity to speed up the

process. Since a tumor doesnt have accurate shapes, detection of tumor boundary is a

difficult task. Active Contour Models play a vital role in accurately capturing the boundary of

the tumor. One such is the traditional snakes or active contours. They are nothing but curves

defined within an image domain that can move under the influence of internal forces coming

from within the curve itself and external forces

computed from the image data [5], [7]. There

are two key difficulties with snakes. First,

the initial contour must, in general, be close to

the true boundary or else it will likely

converge to the wrong result.

The second problem is that active contours

have difficulties progressing into boundary concavities. Then a new class of external forces

for active contour models that addresses both problems called Gradient Vector Flow (GVF)

[9] emerged. It diffuses the edge information from the object contour to its neighborhood.

Particular advantages of the GVF snake over a traditional snake are its insensitivity to

initialization and its ability to move into boundary concavities. Its initializations can be

inside, outside, or across the objects boundary and it does not need prior knowledge about

whether to shrink or expand toward the boundary. Then a new external force which is

generated by a novel interpolation scheme which reduced the computational requirement

significantly called Boundary Vector Flow (BVF) [10] came into existence. It has improved

the capture range and concave object extraction capability than Gradient Vector Flow.

BVF provided large downward force thus reducing the evolution steps required to converge

to the object. Magnetostatic Active Contour model (MAC) utilized bidirectional force field

with the ability of dynamically updating itself while the contour evolves [3]. MAC being a

level set active contour model may capture multiple false objects in the presence of noise. S.

Lobregt described a new technique called discrete dynamic contour model [7] for defining

contours in 2D images.

It consists of a set of connected vertices as the initial model and undergoes

deformations to extract the boundary of the object. It incorporated elegant solutions to

shrinking and clustering problems. Tao Wang developed a new concept called Fluid

Vector Flow (FVF) [1] for addressing the problems of limited capture range and poor

convergence for concavities. FVF is insensitive to initialization by taking advantage of the

boundary map generated from the image. The capture range of FVF extends to the whole

image because the vector flow energy spreads around the entire image.

Figure-1 Proposed system flow diagram

III .Proposed Method

The Objective is to segment the brain tumor using Fluid Vector Flow (FVF) and

three dimensional visualization of tumor. The contour evolves to capture the target object i.e.

the brain tumor. The methods used are preprocessing, binary boundary map generation,

vector flow initialization, FVF and Depth Analysis. Fig.1 shows the flow diagram of the

proposed method which starts with smoothing the input image using a Gaussian smoothing

filter and edge finding using a gradient operator. Then binary boundary map is generated,

and vector flow is initiated, and FVF is computed iteratively until the object i.e. the tumor is

extracted. Then the extracted tumor is projected onto the three dimensional plane for

analyzing the depth or volume of the tumor

A. Preprocessing

Gaussian Filter: A Gaussian filter [34] is a filter whose impulse response is a Gaussian

function. Gaussian filters are created to shun overshoot of step function input while reducing

the rise and fall time. Gaussian filter has the minimum possible group delay. In mathematical

terms, a Gaussian filter changes the input signal by convolution with a Gaussian function and

this change is also called as Weierstrass transform. The input image undergoes smoothing

using Gaussian smoothing filter for elimination of noise. Gaussian filter is a linear spatial

filter which is used for reducing the high frequency components of an image as a result it

smooths the edges of the input image. Gaussian Smoothing is performed by convolving the

input image with the Gaussian function i.e.

( , ) * ( , ) G x y I x y

o

2 2

2

2

2

1

( , )

2

x y

G x y e

o

o

to

+

=

Where I(x, y) is the input image, G

(x, y) is Gaussian smoothing filter with standard

deviation , x and y are the spatial coordinates, and * is the convolution operator.

Gradient operator is then applied to the smoothened image to find edges in the image which

have been suppressed by the Gaussian filter i.e.

( ( , )* ( , )) G x y I x y

o

V

Where is the gradient operator which calculates the directional changes in intensity values.

B. Binary Boundary Map Generation

The boundary map is defined as

( , ) ( ( , )* ( , )) MB x y G x y I x y

o

= V

Where G

convolution operator, and is the gradient operator. The normalized boundary map is

defined as

( , ) min( ( , ))

( , )

max( ( , ) min( ( , ))

B B

NB

B B

M x y M x y

M x y

M x y M x y

( , ) 1 ( , )

0

BB NM

M x y if M x y T

else

= >

The choice of suitable threshold value varies depending on the intensity distribution and

contrast associated with the set of i mages bei ng anal yzed. For t he br ai n MR

i mages a threshold of 0.1 is used to achieve object continuity and for extracting the low

intensity region. The extracted boundary provides an envelope to ensure that final

convergence is not out of bound.

C. Vector Flow I nitialization

The contour must be initialized to initialize the external force field. The initial contour can

be inside, outside or overlapping the target objects. FVF is insensitive to initialization by

taking advantage of the binary boundary map. Contour C can be represented as

( ) ( ) 0,1,..... 1

i i

c i x y i P ={ , } e| |

Where P is the number of points on the contour. An external energy function is defined as

( , ) ( cos , sin )

e x y

E x y f f _ o u o u = + + ---------------------------------------- (8)

When M

BB

(x, y) = 0 , E

e

(x,y) holds the first value in (8), otherwise holds zero.

Where is a normalization operator, = 1 (controls the inward or outward direction when

the contour is outside or inside),

( ) ( ( , ))

x y

f f I x y _

,

= V and [ , 2 ] o u t e

D. FVF Computation and Contour Extraction

A trace method is applied to the binary boundary map to get a list of control points. The

control points are used to generate the external force fields. FVF has directional and gradient

forces. The directional force attracts the evolving contour toward the control points even for

control points in a concave region. When the contour is close to the object, the gradient force

fits the contour onto the object. One control point is sequentially selected and this point flows

freely along the o b j e c t b o u n d a r y a n d g e n e r a t e s e x t e r n a l f o r c e f i e l d

dynamically. A parameter is used to manage the selection of control point. The method

selects 1 out of control points to achieve better time efficiency. Once the control point

moves to its new location it generates new external force field for further evolution of contour

until convergence is achieved. FVF computation is iteratively performed to extract the tumor.

Figure -2

Comparision of the segmenting image

E. Volumetric Projection and Depth Analysis

Volumetric projection of brain tumor is needed for diagnostic application such as

analyzing the depth of the tumor. The extracted tumor enclosed by the contour can be

projected on to the three dimensional plane (i.e. x, y, z plane). Mesh is used for three

dimensional visualization or projection of t u mo r . Three Di me n s i o n a l mode l i n g

a l s o k n o wn a s meshing is the process of developing a mathematical representation of

any three dimensional surfaces or object. To perform meshing, a grid must be set up in X and

Y directions and then create a two dimensional grid of coordinate[x, y] with mesh-grid. It

generates x and y arrays for three dimensional projection. As a result of this projection

the tumor is visualized in three dimensions i.e. length, breadth and depth. Depending upon the

gray variations of the projected tumor the depth of the tumor is analyzed. This projection

method requires considerable interactive guidance for satisfactory results since it is sensitive

to image noise and pseudo edges which are common problems in medical images. Compared

to traditional methods the model based segmentation i.e. Fluid vector flow aids in accurate

projection and analysis of depth of tumor.

TABLE -1

Comparative results on segmented images (%)

ACTIVE

CONTOUR

Segmentation validation

Correct

detection

False

detection Pf

MODELS

Pc (%) (%)

BVF 65.67 6.48

MAC 78.53 9.34

FVF 87.38 4.79

Discussion

This paper presented an active contour model based approach for automatic

segmentation of tumor in brain MRI images and three dimensional visualization to

analyze the depth of the tumor. Since MRI is the best modality for imaging the brain

which is composed of soft tissues, this method utilizes two dimensional brain MR images.

Compared to traditional segmentation methods active contour models aids in efficient

segmentation of tumor. There are several active contour models such as Gradient vector flow,

Boundary vector flow and Magnetostatic active contour models. All these models have

difficulties regarding capture range and convergence. Since Fluid Vector Flow model has the

ability of capturing the entire object i.e. the tumor and acute convergence into boundary

concavities. Since segmentation aids in diagnosing the area of the tumor, volumetric

projection is performed to visualize the depth of the tumor. Since manual segmentation of

tumors by physicians is a time consuming

task, this segmentation method with projection is time preserving and also provides accurate

diagnosis.

V. CONCLUSIONS

A parametric Fluid Vector Flow (FVF) active contour model is utilized for automatic

segmentation of tumor in brain MR images and the segmented tumor is visualized in three

dimensions for depth analysis. Since a tumor doesnt exhibits any prior shape, delineating the

tumor accurately is a difficult task. FVF is utilized for segmentation because it can deform

in all directions for capturing the tumor. It also addresses the issues of limited capture range

and the inability to extract complex contours with acute concavities.Segmentation aids in

visualization of area of tumor. Volumetric projection is proposed to analyze the third

dimension i.e. the volume or depth o f the tumor. This automatic method for brain tumor

segmentation and three dimensional visualization will help physicians in accurate diagnosis.

REFERENCES

[1] Tao Wang, Irene Cheng and Anup Basu, "Fluid Vector Flow and Applications in Brain Tumor

Segmentation," IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering., vol. 56, no. 3, March. 2009.

[2] T.Logeswari and M.Karnan, "An improved implementation of brain tumor detection based on soft

computing," Journal of Cancer Research and Experimental Ontology on Medical Imaging., vol. 2(1),

March.2010.

[3] Xianghua Xie, and Majid Mirmehdi, "MAC: Magnetostatic Active Contour Model," IEEE Transactions on

Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence., vol. 30, no. 4, April. 2008.

4] Shan Shen, William Sandham, Malcolm Granat, and Annette Sterr, "MRI Fuzzy Segmentation of Brain

Tissue Using Neighbourhood Attraction With Neural Network Optimization," IEEE Transactions on Information

Technology in Biomedicine., vol. 9, no. 3, September.2005.

[5] Chenyang Xu, and Jerry L. Prince, "Snakes, Shapes and Gradient Vector Flow," IEEE Transactions on

Image Processing., vol. 7, no. 3, March. 1998.

[6] Nicolas B.Karayiannis, and Pin-I Pai, "Segmentation of Magnetic Resonance Images Using Fuzzy

Algorithms for Learning Vector Quantization," IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging., vol. 18, no. 2, February.

1999.

[7] M. Kass, A.Witkin and D.Terzopoulus, "Snakes: Active Contour Models," International Journal of

Computer Vision on Medical Imaging., vol. 1,no. 4, 1988.

- Schmeling a Et AlUploaded byTiara Lio
- Robust Sclera Recognition System With NovelUploaded bydipesh
- Diagnosis of Chondral Injury After Supination TraumaUploaded bypuchio
- Guidelines RadiationUploaded byspicy777jp
- ACC ACR CCTA Expert Consensus 2663Uploaded byojohnls1
- Curriculum MIT ASRTUploaded byMuhammad Tariq
- JURNAL.pdfUploaded bySaleh Alsadi
- Nursing AbbreviationsUploaded byKeysha Monita
- Perth Radiological ServicesUploaded byImaging Central
- ARTICLE EBR FINALIZEDUploaded byaisyahelv
- Chest RadiologyUploaded byA.h.Murad
- Di Ct Brochure Somatom Go Now-04198325Uploaded byOctavio Perez
- imaging qa jennyUploaded byapi-280277788
- jcdr-8-103Uploaded byRodrigo Rodrigues
- The Man That List His Mind CRUploaded byMogahed Hussein
- capitulo 15Uploaded bypaola
- PEDIATRIC RADIOGRAPHY.pptUploaded byHakim Abdul
- Trauma Bedah SarafUploaded byandikaisnaeni
- 0046Uploaded byprantotti
- RT 200 Finals Topic 4Uploaded byYola Razo
- Detection of Brain Tumor its Segmentation & Classification using PNN ClassifierUploaded byIJIRST
- PETCT in the Evaluation Of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of head and neckUploaded bySukhvinder Singh Rana
- JOrofacSci612-5037915_012357Uploaded byYusmiati
- Brochure Siemens AVANTO IClassUploaded byhgaucher
- Pregnancy GuidelinesUploaded byDaniid
- Beauregard JM Hofman MS CancerImaging 2011 - Quantitative Lu-177 SPECT QSPECT imaging using a commercially available SPECT-CT system.pdfUploaded byDidine Boutaghane
- Carotidyniaa Case Report With Clinical and Imaging Follow UpUploaded byElizabeth Lie
- Karen ThesisUploaded byGiedon Quiros
- bjr-85-1118Uploaded byrachma30
- AIP Pros and Cons of LF MRIUploaded byStanislav Vyrva

- Matlab Interesting CommandsUploaded byமுத்து குமார்
- brain tumor segmentation by K.Muthu Kumar, PSN COLLEGEUploaded byமுத்து குமார்
- BRAIN TUMOR CONCAVITY ANALYSIS by K.Muthu Kumar,PSN CollegeUploaded byமுத்து குமார்
- Neoplasm in Huddling Stain Image in FCM by K.Muthu Kumar, PSN college of engineering, melathediyoorUploaded byமுத்து குமார்
- Packet Hiding Methods for Preventing Working 23.2Uploaded byGopinathmurali M Gopinathmurali M
- JAVA PROJECTS ON 2013 IEEE PAPERSUploaded byமுத்து குமார்
- Risk-Aware Mitigation ForUploaded byமுத்து குமார்
- Packet-Hiding Methods for Preventing Selective Jamming AttacksUploaded byமுத்து குமார்
- Packet-Hiding Methods for Preventing Selective Jamming AttacksUploaded byமுத்து குமார்
- NYMBLEUploaded byமுத்து குமார்
- IEEE projects by K.MUTHU KUMARUploaded byமுத்து குமார்

- Amec PMC SHEQ HandbookUploaded byrobythoppil
- Congenital AnomaliesUploaded byRobbert
- McGoldrick_Infection Control Ritual to Science- Based PracticeUploaded byUswaPutriemelela
- Class dirUploaded byUpdatest news
- 1A79E Jing Song PhytoremediationUploaded byLuca Sacilotto
- ubat amoebasisUploaded byFarahin Jumari
- SICKLE CELL ANEMIAUploaded byDr. Ashish Jawarkar
- The Basel ConventionUploaded byAnonymous iOYkz0w
- ESP Lisabona 2013 AbstractsUploaded bystripandslip
- getting paidUploaded byapi-267816246
- Technical CAPS Civil Technology With SpecialisationUploaded byqanaq
- Muco CeleUploaded bySholihin Syah Putra
- Psychology MCQsUploaded byMuhammad Ibraheem
- Weight Training 1-4 - PEAC 004 Z2 - Course SyllabusUploaded byContinuing Education at the University of Vermont
- rws annotated bibliographyUploaded byapi-294998755
- bab 5Uploaded byTrisusiloWahyuAji
- Anton Black Prosecutor StatementUploaded byFOX 5 DC
- Chronic Constipation and EncopresisUploaded byMohamed Abo Seif
- Crystal Ball EssayUploaded byMarlena T
- pccm-2014Uploaded byPrastyaGalih
- fotoperiodoUploaded byBel Minda Costa
- Study Progress of Tuina for Insomnia in Recent 10 YearsUploaded byeamianti
- Protraction Facial Mask (Berkowitz)Uploaded byMaria-Lavinia Hoinaru
- art%3A10.1186%2F1748-7161-4-S1-O25Uploaded bykang soon chul
- Bss Bisadm 2010 FakokundeUploaded byDr-Syed Ali Tarek
- Cabergoline and PharmacokineticsUploaded byhaydunn55
- IPS+e-max+CAD+LabsideUploaded bycriveli
- Bio6.2Uploaded byHarmonyChui
- [5] Declaration of Dr. Magda Havas, Ph. DUploaded bySarah Smile
- Environment Study Bhatara UnionUploaded byFarhad