(In effect as of January 1, 2006*) TABLE 1.

TYPE OF LAW AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT Employer to Insure Through: Jurisdiction Type of Law: Compulsory or Elective Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Waivers Permitted No Yes 1/ Yes Yes No No 2/ Yes No No Yes 3/ Yes No No No No Yes 4/ No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No State Fund No No Competitive No Competitive Competitive No No No No No Competitive Competitive No No No No Competitive Competitive Competitive Competitive No No Competitive Pvt. Carrier Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Self-Insurance By: Indiv. Employer Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Grp. of Employers Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Dist. of Col. Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota *See Introduction page.

TABLE 1. TYPE OF LAW AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT (cont.) Employer to Insure Through: Jurisdiction Type of Law: Compulsory or Elective Waivers Permitted State Fund Pvt. Carrier Self-Insurance By: Indiv. Employer Grp. of Employers

Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Puerto Rico Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Virgin Islands

Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Elective 5/ Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Elective Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory

No No Yes No No No No Yes No 6/ No No Yes 7/ No 8/ No No No Yes 9/ Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No

No No Competitive No No No No Competitive Competitive No Exclusive Exclusive Competitive Competitive Competitive Exclusive Competitive No No No Competitive Competitive No No Exclusive

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No

Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 10/ No Yes No

TABLE 1. TYPE OF LAW AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT (cont.) Employer to Insure Through: Jurisdiction Type of Law: Compulsory or Elective Waivers Permitted State Fund Pvt. Carrier Self-Insurance By: Indiv. Employer Grp. of Employers

Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming 11/ United States*: FECA LHWCA

Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory Compulsory

No No No No No No

Exclusive Exclusive No Exclusive Exclusive No

No No Yes No No Yes

Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes

Yes No No No No Yes

* Federal Employees' Compensation Act. Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act.

FOOTNOTES: 1/ Alaska: 2/ Colorado: Officers of for-profit corporations may waive coverage. However, a person, company or corporation may not be construed to be an employer subject to workers' compensation liability under the specific criteria defined in section 8-40-302, C.R.S. Corporate officers may elect to be exempt. In the construction industry, no more than three corporate officers may be exempt, and each must demonstrate at least 10% ownership. Limited to Corporate Officers. Technically coverage is elective, but practically compulsory. Waiver agreements, with respect to the benefits in a particular claim, are permitted when all parties to the agreement agree to terms, and the agreement is approved by Workers' Compensation Board. Yes, but only for employer sponsored recreational activities.

3/ Florida:

4/ Iowa: 5/ New Jersey: 6/ New York

7/ Ohio:

TABLE 1. TYPE OF LAW AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT (cont.)

8/ Oklahoma: 9/ Rhode Island:

Partial waiver allowed under certain circumstances for silicosis and asbestosis Employees are allowed to claim common law rights and opt out of the workers’ compensation system Public mutual insurance groups only. The law is compulsory for all employers engaged in extrahazardous occupations and elective for all other occupations.

10/ Utah: 11/ Wyoming: