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76 views5 pagesCourse Goals
The basic objective of Calculus is to relate small-scale (differential) quantities to large-scale (integrated) quantities. This is accomplished by means of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Students should demonstrate an understanding of the integral as a cumulative sum, of the derivative as a rate of change, and of the inverse relationship between integration and differentiation.
Students completing 18.01 can:
Use both the definition of derivative as a limit and the rules of differentiation to differentiate functions.
Sketch the graph of a function using asymptotes, critical points, and the derivative test for increasing/decreasing and concavity properties.
Set up max/min problems and use differentiation to solve them.
Set up related rates problems and use differentiation to solve them.
Evaluate integrals by using the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.
Apply integration to compute areas and volumes by slicing, volumes of revolution, arclength, and surface areas of revolution.
Evaluate integrals using techniques of integration, such as substitution, inverse substitution, partial fractions and integration by parts.
Set up and solve first order differential equations using separation of variables.
Use L'Hospital's rule.
Determine convergence/divergence of improper integrals, and evaluate convergent improper integrals.
Estimate and compare series and integrals to determine convergence.
Find the Taylor series expansion of a function near a point, with emphasis on the first two or three terms.

Jul 05, 2009

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Course Goals
The basic objective of Calculus is to relate small-scale (differential) quantities to large-scale (integrated) quantities. This is accomplished by means of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Students should demonstrate an understanding of the integral as a cumulative sum, of the derivative as a rate of change, and of the inverse relationship between integration and differentiation.
Students completing 18.01 can:
Use both the definition of derivative as a limit and the rules of differentiation to differentiate functions.
Sketch the graph of a function using asymptotes, critical points, and the derivative test for increasing/decreasing and concavity properties.
Set up max/min problems and use differentiation to solve them.
Set up related rates problems and use differentiation to solve them.
Evaluate integrals by using the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.
Apply integration to compute areas and volumes by slicing, volumes of revolution, arclength, and surface areas of revolution.
Evaluate integrals using techniques of integration, such as substitution, inverse substitution, partial fractions and integration by parts.
Set up and solve first order differential equations using separation of variables.
Use L'Hospital's rule.
Determine convergence/divergence of improper integrals, and evaluate convergent improper integrals.
Estimate and compare series and integrals to determine convergence.
Find the Taylor series expansion of a function near a point, with emphasis on the first two or three terms.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

76 views

Course Goals
The basic objective of Calculus is to relate small-scale (differential) quantities to large-scale (integrated) quantities. This is accomplished by means of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Students should demonstrate an understanding of the integral as a cumulative sum, of the derivative as a rate of change, and of the inverse relationship between integration and differentiation.
Students completing 18.01 can:
Use both the definition of derivative as a limit and the rules of differentiation to differentiate functions.
Sketch the graph of a function using asymptotes, critical points, and the derivative test for increasing/decreasing and concavity properties.
Set up max/min problems and use differentiation to solve them.
Set up related rates problems and use differentiation to solve them.
Evaluate integrals by using the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.
Apply integration to compute areas and volumes by slicing, volumes of revolution, arclength, and surface areas of revolution.
Evaluate integrals using techniques of integration, such as substitution, inverse substitution, partial fractions and integration by parts.
Set up and solve first order differential equations using separation of variables.
Use L'Hospital's rule.
Determine convergence/divergence of improper integrals, and evaluate convergent improper integrals.
Estimate and compare series and integrals to determine convergence.
Find the Taylor series expansion of a function near a point, with emphasis on the first two or three terms.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Fall 2006

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

Lecture 15 18.01 Fall 2006

Diﬀerentials

New notation:

dy = f � (x)dx (y = f (x))

Both dy and f � (x)dx are called diﬀerentials. You can think of

dy

= f � (x)

dx

as a quotient of diﬀerentials. One way this is used is for linear approximations.

Δy dy

≈

Δx dx

f (x) = x1/3

1 −2/3

f � (x) = x

3

f (x) ≈ f (a) + f � (a)(x − a)

1

x1/3 ≈ a1/3 + a−2/3 (x − a)

3

A good base point is a = 64, because 641/3 = 4.

Let x = 65.

� �

1 1 1 1

1/3

65 1/3

= 64 + 64−2/3 (65 − 64) = 4 + (1) = 4 + ≈ 4.02

3 3 16 48

Similarly,

1

(64.1)1/3 ≈ 4 +

480

Method 2 (review)

� �1/3

1 1/3 1 1

651/3 = (64 + 1)1/3 = [64(1 + )] = 641/3 [1 + ]1/3 = 4 1 +

64 64 64

1 1

Next, use the approximation (1 + x)r ≈ 1 + rx with r = and x = .

3 64

1 1 1

651/3 ≈ 4(1 + ( )) = 4 +

3 64 48

This is the same result that we got from Method 1.

1

Lecture 15 18.01 Fall 2006

y = x1/3 |x=64 = 4

� �

1 −2/3 1 1 1

dy = x dx|x=64 = dx = dx

3 3 16 48

1

We want dx = 1, since (x + dx) = 65. dy = when dx = 1.

48

1

(65)1/3 = 4 +

48

y = x1/3

dy 1 −2/3

= x |x=64

dx 3

Anti-derivatives

�

F (x) = f (x)dx means that F is the antiderivative of f .

F � (x) = f (x) or, dF = f (x)dx

Examples:

�

1. sin xdx = − cos x + c where c is any constant.

xn+1

�

2. xn dx = + c for n �= −1.

n+1

�

dx

3. = ln |x| + c (This takes care of the exceptional case n = −1 in 2.)

x

�

4. sec2 xdx = tan x + c

�

dx 1

5. √ = sin−1 x + c (where sin−1 x denotes “inverse sin” or arcsin, and not )

1 − x2 sin x

�

dx

6. = tan−1 (x) + c

1 + x2

Proof of Property 2: The absolute value |x| gives the correct answer for both positive and negative

x. We will double check this now for the case x < 0:

ln |x| = ln(−x)

� �

d d du

ln(−x) = ln(u) where u = −x.

dx du dx

d 1 1 1

ln(−x) = (−1) = (−1) =

dx u −x x

2

Lecture 15 18.01 Fall 2006

If F � (x) = f (x), and G� (x) = f (x), then G(x) = F (x) + c for some constant factor c.

Proof:

(G − F )� = f − f = 0

Recall that we proved as a corollary of the Mean Value Theorem that if a function has a derivative

zero then it is constant. Hence G(x) − F (x) = c (for some constant c). That is, G(x) = F (x) + c.

Method of substitution.

�

Example 1. x3 (x4 + 2)5 dx

Substitution:

1

u = x4 + 2, du = 4x3 dx, (x4 + 2)5 = u5 , x3 dx = du

4

Hence,

u6 u6

� �

3 4 5 1 1 4

x (x + 2) dx = u5 du = = +c= (x + 2)6 + c

4 4(6) 24 24

�

x

Example 2. √ dx

1 + x2

� �

x

√ dx = x(1 + x2 )−1/2 dx

1 + x2

d 1

(1 + x2 )1/2 = (1 + x2 )−1/2 (2x) = x(1 + x2 )−1/2

dx 2

Therefore, �

x(1 + x2 )−1/2 dx = (1 + x2 )1/2 + c

�

Example 3. e6x dx

d 6x

e = 6e6x

dx

Therefore, �

1 6x

e6x dx = e +c

6

3

Lecture 15 18.01 Fall 2006

�

2

Example 4. xe−x dx

d −x2 2

e = (−2x)(e−x )

dx

Therefore, �

2 1 2

xe−x dx = − e−x + c

2

�

1

2

Example 5. sin x cos xdx = sin x + c

2

�

1

2

This seems like a contradiction, so let’s check our answers:

d

sin2 x = (2 sin x)(cos x)

dx

and

d

cos2

x = (2 cos x)(− sin x)

dx

So both of these are correct. Here’s how we resolve this apparent paradox: the diﬀerence between

the two answers is a constant.

1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2

So,

1 1 1 1 1

sin2 x − = (sin2 x − 1) = (− cos2 x) = − cos2 x

2 2 2 2 2

The two answers are, in fact, equivalent. The constant c is shifted by 12 from one answer to the

other.

�

dx

Example 6. (We will assume x > 0.)

x ln x

Let u = ln x. This means du = dx. Substitute these into the integral to get

x

� �

dx 1

= du = ln u + c = ln(ln(x)) + c

x ln x u

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