APPENDIX A-2

TABLES NOT DISPLAYED IN TEXT

CHAPTER 2 TABLES NOT DISPLAYED IN TEXT

Table A2-2.1. Number of Leaves Taken: 1995 and 2000 Surveys Percent of Leave-Takers Number 1 2 3 or more 1995 Survey 73.8% 16.3% 10.0% 2000 Survey 75.2% 14.5% 10.2%

Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A2-2.2. Length of Longest Leave: 1995 and 2000 Surveys Percent of Leave-Takers Length of Longest Leave 1- 3 days 4 – 5 days 6 – 10 days 11 – 20 days 21 – 30 days 31 – 40 days 41 – 60 days More than 60 days Number of Leave-Takers 1995 Survey 10.0% 24.4% 20.2% 12.7% 8.0% 7.4% 8.0% 9.3% 2000 Survey 12.3% 21.5% 20.3% 12.1% 6.8% 7.9% 9.2% 9.9% 23,830,305

20,359,640 Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees.

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Table A2-2.3. Reason for Leave Within Length of Leave Groups: 2000 Survey Percent of Leave-Takers Within Each Length Category (Row Percent)
Care for Newborn, Newly Maternity- Adopted or Disability Foster Child

Length of Longest Leave** 1 – 3 days 4 – 5 days 6 – 10 days 11 – 30 days 31 – 60 days More than 60 days

Own Health

Care for Ill Child

Care for Ill Spouse

Care for Ill Parent

Number of Leave-Takers

33.2% 37.3% 43.4% 61.9% 53.1% 53.7%

---7.4% 18.1% 22.5%

15.6% 23.1% 15.8% 12.8% 22.9% 17.8%

22.0% 10.8% 15.5% 7.3% ---

11.6% 10.0% 5.5% ----

16.9% 16.8% 17.2% 7.8% ---

2,888,266 5,037,080 4,760,928 4,444,064 3,990,431 2,316,369

** Difference across length of leave groups is significant at p<.05. -- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. Note: Row percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Employees

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Table A2-2.4. Demographic Characteristics of Leave-Takers Versus Other Employees: 2000 Survey Percent of Leave-Takers Gender** Male Female Age** 18 – 24 25 – 34 35 – 49 50 – 64 65 or over Race/Ethnicity White non-Hispanic Black non-Hispanic Hispanic Asian All others Marital Status** Married/Living with partner Separated/Divorced/Widowed Never been married Children Under 18 in Household** None One or more Education Less than high school High school graduate Some college College graduate Graduate school Annual Family Income Less than $20,000 $20,000 to less than $30,000 $30,000 to less than $50,000 $50,000 to less than $75,000 $75,000 to less than $100,000 $100,000 or more Compensation Type Salaried Hourly Other Population Totals 41.9% 58.1% 10.0% 27.8% 39.7% 20.4% 2.1% 76.2% 10.6% 8.2% 2.2% 2.8% 75.0% 12.7% 12.3% 40.4% 59.6% 5.9% 27.9% 32.8% 22.2% 11.2% 14.9% 12.4% 25.5% 25.7% 11.3% 10.2% 36.4% 54.5% 9.1% 23,830,305 Percent of Other Employees 53.2% 46.8% 15.8% 21.8% 39.5% 19.7% 3.2% 78.2% 9.4% 7.0% 2.9% 2.5% 65.7% 10.1% 24.2% 63.3% 36.7% 5.1% 30.0% 27.7% 26.2% 11.0% 16.4% 14.0% 24.8% 22.5% 12.2% 10.0% 37.4% 50.8% 11.8% 120,188,991 Percent of All Employees 51.3% 48.7% 14.8% 22.8% 39.6% 19.8% 3.0% 77.9% 9.6% 7.2% 2.8% 2.6% 67.2% 10.5% 22.3% 59.5% 40.5% 5.2% 29.6% 28.6% 25.5% 11.1% 16.2% 13.7% 25.0% 23.1% 12.1% 10.0% 37.3% 51.4% 11.3% 144,019,296

** Difference between leave-takers and other employees is significant at p<.05. Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Employees. A-2-3

Table A2-2.5. Demographic Characteristics of Leave-Takers: 1995 and 2000 Surveys Percent of Leave-Takers 1995 2000 Survey Survey Gender Male Female Age 18 – 24 25 – 34 35 – 49 50 – 64** 65 or over Race/Ethnicity White non-Hispanic Black non-Hispanic Hispanic Asian All others Marital Status Married/Living with partner* Separated/Divorced/Widowed* Never been married Children Under 18 in Household None* One or more* Education Less than high school** High school graduate Some college College graduate Graduate school Annual Family Income Less than $20,000* $20,000 to less than $30,000** $30,000 to less than $50,000** $50,000 to less than $75,000** $75,000 to less than $100,000 $100,000 or more** Compensation Type Salaried Hourly Other Number of Leave-Takers 43.8% 56.2% 11.1% 30.1% 40.8% 15.1% 2.9% 78.2% 10.9% 8.9% NA 2.0% 70.9% 16.4% 12.7% 45.5% 54.5% 10.3% 26.8% 29.5% 19.5% 13.8% 18.8% 18.3% 30.6% 19.0% 8.8% 4.5% 36.5% 54.5% 9.0% 20,359,640 41.9% 58.1% 10.0% 27.8% 39.7% 20.4% 2.1% 76.2% 10.6% 8.2% 2.2% 2.8% 75.0% 12.7% 12.3% 40.4% 59.6% 5.9% 27.9% 32.8% 22.2% 11.2% 14.9% 12.4% 25.5% 25.7% 11.3% 10.2% 36.4% 54.5% 9.1% 23,830,305

* Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.10. ** Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.05. NA Indicates Asian was not a race category in the 1995 survey. Asians are included in “All others.” Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees. A-2-4

Table A2-2.6. Reasons for All Leaves Taken Within Demographic Groups: 2000 Survey Percent of Leave-Takers in Each Demographic Category (1) that Took at Least One Leave for Following Reasons
Care for Newborn, Newly Adopted Maternity- or Foster Child Disability

Own Health

Care for Ill Child

Care for Care for Ill Spouse Ill Parent

Gender Male Female Age 18 – 24 25 – 34 35 – 49 50 or over

57.6%** 48.6% 57.1%** 34.9% 54.7% 67.7%

& 13.6% 24.2% 13.5% 4.5% &

22.8%* 15.3% 20.9%** 40.0% 10.0% --

10.4% 12.2% -- ** 10.7% 18.1% 4.5%

7.5% 5.5% -- ** 3.4% 6.1% 12.4% 6.3% ---7.9% -& 8.3%** 5.0% 6.4% 5.7% 6.2% 8.6% --5.6% 8.2% 5.4% -8.9%** 5.0% --

11.0% 14.5% -- ** 6.9% 16.6% 15.8% 14.5%** 10.4% --12.1% 15.1% 15.8% 18.5%** 9.3% 11.0%** 11.3% 12.5% 25.5% 12.4% 11.2% 10.9% 15.7% 15.0% 14.6% 15.6%* 10.5% 18.1%

Race/Ethnicity White non-Hispanic 52.3% 7.4% 18.4% 10.1% Black non-Hispanic 62.4% 9.6% 10.2% 22.4% Hispanic 42.1% 10.2% 31.5% -All others 49.0% -16.3% -Marital Status Married/Living with partner 47.7%** 8.9% 22.4%** 9.9% Separated/Divorced/Widowed 61.2% --19.1% Never been married 70.3% 7.3% 9.8% 13.6% Children Under 18 in Household None 70.3%** -- ** 5.7%** 3.5%** One or more 40.1% 13.2% 27.1% 16.9% Education High school graduate or less 59.8%** 8.9% 15.6% 11.0% Some college 56.3% 7.1% 15.0% 13.1% College graduate 46.4% 8.0% 24.7% 10.5% Graduate school 29.4% 7.4% 24.9% 10.0% Annual Family Income Less than $20,000 55.4%** 17.7%** 15.5%* 11.0% $20,000 to less than $30,000 62.2% -13.4% 12.9% $30,000 to less than $50,000 61.5% 6.8% 13.0% 16.8% $50,000 to less than $75,000 47.2% 9.8% 17.7% 8.9% $75,000 to less than $100,000 40.4% 8.8% 25.4% 8.1% $100,000 or more 38.3% -41.0% 9.7% Compensation Type Salaried 41.8%** 6.5% 24.7%** 9.6% Hourly 60.1% 9.3% 14.4% 12.8% Other 47.2% -18.0% 11.3% (1) Rows do not sum to 100% because some respondents took more than one leave. * Difference among demographic groups is significant at p<.10. ** Difference among demographic groups is significant at p<.05. & No significance test was conducted because of zero cell. -- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

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Table A2-2.7. Leave-Taking Within Demographic Groups: 1995 and 2000 Surveys Percent of Employees Within Each Demographic Category that Took Leave (for a Covered Reason) 1995 Survey Gender Male Female Age 18 – 24 25 – 34 35 – 49 50 – 64** 65 or over Race/Ethnicity White non-Hispanic Black non-Hispanic Hispanic Asian All others Marital Status Married/Living with partner* Separated/Divorced/Widowed Never been married Children Under 18 in Household None One or more** Education Less than high school High school graduate Some college College graduate Graduate school Annual Family Income Less than $20,000 $20,000 to less than $30,000 $30,000 to less than $50,000 $50,000 to less than $75,000* $75,000 to less than $100,000 $100,000 or more Compensation Type Salaried Hourly Other * Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.10. ** Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.05. NA Indicates Asian was not a race category in the 1995 survey. Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees. A-2-6 12.7% 20.0% 12.8% 21.1% 15.8% 12.9% 14.4% 15.0% 19.7% 20.2% NA 16.0% 16.4% 19.6% 11.7% 12.8% 20.2% 21.4% 14.7% 16.3% 14.5% 17.8% 16.9% 19.2% 16.0% 15.7% 17.5% 16.7% 15.5% 17.2% 12.6% 2000 Survey 13.5% 19.8% 11.2% 20.2% 16.6% 17.0% 11.6% 16.2% 18.3% 18.9% 12.8% 18.2% 18.5% 20.0% 9.2% 11.3% 24.4% 18.7% 15.6% 19.0% 14.4% 16.7% 16.5% 16.2% 18.3% 19.9% 16.8% 18.1% 16.2% 17.6% 13.3%

Asians are included in “All others.”

Table A2-2.8. Demographic Characteristics by Reason for Longest Leave, Based on Total Employee Population: 2000 Survey Percent of Employees in Each Demographic Category that Took Their Longest Leave for Following Reasons
Care for Newborn, Newly Adopted Maternity- or Foster Child Disability

Own Health

Care for Ill Child

Care for Ill Spouse

Care for Ill Parent

Gender Male Female Age 18 – 24 25 – 34 35 – 49 50 or over Race/Ethnicity White non-Hispanic Black non-Hispanic Hispanic All others Marital Status Married/Living with partner Separated/Divorced/Widowed Never been married Children Under 18 in Household** None One or more Education* High school graduate or less Some college College graduate Graduate school

6.9% 8.6% 5.5% 5.9% 8.0% 10.6% 7.8% 8.5% 6.3% 7.0% 7.8% 11.5% 5.5%

& 2.6% 2.7% 2.7% 0.7% & 1.2% 1.8% 2.0% -1.6% -0.7%

2.9% 3.0% 2.1% 7.9% 1.6% -2.9% 1.7% 6.1% 2.3% 4.0% -0.8%

1.2% 2.0% -1.7% 2.6% 0.7% 1.3% 3.8% --1.5% 3.5% --

0.9% 1.0% -0.6% 0.9% 1.8% 0.9% ---1.3% -&

1.4% 2.4% -1.4% 2.5% 2.1% 2.0% 1.6% --2.0% 2.7% 1.0%

7.6% 7.9% 8.8% 9.2% 5.9% 4.8%

-3.1% 1.4% 1.3% 1.2% 1.2%

0.6% 6.4% 2.3% 2.8% 3.5% 4.2%

0.4% 3.5% 1.3% 2.3% 1.3% 1.3%

0.8% 1.2% 1.0% 1.0% 0.8% 1.3%

1.7% 2.1% 1.3% 2.0% 1.7% 3.7%

A-2-7

Table A2-2.8. Demographic Characteristics by Reason for Longest Leave, Based on Total Employee Population: 2000 Survey (continued) Percent of Employees in Each Demographic Category that Took Their Longest Leave for Following Reasons
Care for Newborn, Newly Adopted Maternity- or Foster Child Disability

Own Health

Care for Ill Child

Care for Ill Spouse

Care for Ill Parent

Annual Family Income* Less than $20,000 $20,000 to less than $30,000 $30,000 to less than $50,000 $50,000 to less than $75,000 $75,000 to less than $100,000 $100,000 or more Compensation Type** Salaried Hourly Other

7.8% 9.4% 9.2% 8.7% 6.7% 5.8% 6.2% 9.2% 6.0%

2.9% -1.2% 1.8% 1.5% -1.0% 1.6% --

2.5% 1.9% 2.1% 3.5% 4.3% 7.4% 3.9% 2.4% 2.3%

1.5% 1.8% 2.6% 1.6% 1.4% 1.2% 1.4% 1.8% 1.4%

--0.9% 1.6% --1.3% 0.8% --

1.4% 1.7% 1.6% 2.8% 2.2% 2.6% 2.3% 1.5% 2.3%

* Difference between demographic groups is significant at p<.10. ** Difference between demographic groups is significant at p<.05. -- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. & Indicates no significance test was conducted because of zero cell. Source: 2000 Survey of Employees

A-2-8

Table A2-2.9. Demographic Characteristics by Reason for Longest Leave, Based on Total Employee Population: 1995 Survey Percent of Employees in Each Demographic Category that Took Their Longest Leave for Following Reasons
Care for Newborn, Newly Adopted Maternity- or Foster Child Disability

Own Health

Care for Ill Child

Care for Ill Spouse

Care for Ill Parent

Gender Male Female Age 18 – 24 25 – 34 35 – 49 50 or over Race/Ethnicity White non-Hispanic Black non-Hispanic Hispanic All others Marital Status Married/Living with partner Separated/Divorced/Widowed Never been married Children Under 18 in Household** None One or more Education* High school graduate or less Some college College graduate Graduate school

8.5% 11.4% 7.5% 9.0% 10.5% 10.9% 9.2% 12.4% 11.5% -8.9% 14.9% 9.4%

& 1.7% 1.3% 1.9% -& 0.6% ---1.0% ---

1.9% 2.7% 2.3% 5.9% 1.5% -2.3% 1.7% 2.7% -2.9% 1.2% --

0.8% 2.0% 1.1% 2.6% 1.2% -1.1% 2.4% --1.7% 1.1% --

0.7% 0.4% -0.6% 0.5% 0.9% 0.6% -& & 0.7% -&

0.8% 1.8% -1.1% 1.7% 0.8% 1.2% ---1.2% 1.5% 1.0%

10.7% 8.7% 11.0% 9.8% 7.7% 9.9%

-1.7% 0.5% 0.9% 1.1% --

-5.2% 1.8% 2.2% 2.8% 3.1%

0.3% 2.7% 1.4% 1.4% 1.2% 1.5%

0.5% 0.7% 0.6% 0.8% ---

1.3% 1.1% 0.7% 1.3% 1.3% 2.2%

A-2-9

Table A2-2.9. Demographic Characteristics by Reason for Longest Leave, Based on Total Employee Population: 1995 Survey (continued) Percent of Employees in Each Demographic Category that Took Their Longest Leave for Following Reasons
Care for Newborn, Newly Adopted Maternity- or Foster Child Disability

Own Health

Care for Ill Child

Care for Ill Spouse

Care for Ill Parent

Annual Family Income Less than $20,000 $20,000 to less than $30,000 $30,000 to less than $50,000 $50,000 to less than $75,000 $75,000 to less than $100,000 $100,000 or more Compensation Type** Salaried Hourly Other

11.7% 12.2% 10.3% 8.4% 9.2% 7.1% 8.3% 11.3% 8.5%

--0.8% 0.9% --0.9% 0.7% --

2.3% 1.9% 2.1% 2.8% 3.2% 3.7% 2.9% 2.0% 1.3%

1.1% 2.9% 1.1% 1.3% --1.1% 1.7% --

-1.0% 0.6% 0.9% 0.9% & 0.5% 0.8% --

0.9% -1.1% 1.3% 2.2% -1.8% 0.8% --

* Difference between demographic groups is significant at p<.10. ** Difference between demographic groups is significant at p<.05. -- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. & Indicates no significance test was conducted because of zero cell. Source: 2000 Survey of Employees

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Table A2-2.10. Demographic Characteristics of Leave-Needers Versus Other Employees: 2000 Survey Percent of Leave-Needers Gender Male Female Age 18 – 24 25 – 34 35 – 49 50 – 64 65 or over Race/Ethnicity White non-Hispanic Black non-Hispanic Hispanic Asian All others Marital Status** Married/Living with partner Separated/Divorced/Widowed Never been married Children Under 18 in Household** None One or more Education Less than high school High school graduate Some college College graduate Graduate school Annual Family Income Less than $20,000 $20,000 to less than $30,000 $30,000 to less than $50,000 $50,000 to less than $75,000 $75,000 to less than $100,000 $100,000 or more Compensation Type** Salaried Hourly Other 46.0% 54.0% 8.6% 27.3% 41.7% 20.5% -72.3% 12.7% 8.8% --68.5% 18.6% 13.0% 45.0% 55.0% 8.4% 28.2% 26.5% 27.4% 9.5% 16.8% 16.3% 24.3% 27.2% 7.0% 8.3% 23.8% 62.3% 13.9% Percent of Other Employees 51.5% 48.5% 15.0% 22.7% 39.5% 19.8% 3.1% 78.0% 9.5% 7.1% 2.7% 2.6% 67.2% 10.3% 22.5% 59.9% 40.1% 5.2% 29.7% 28.6% 25.5% 11.1% 16.1% 13.6% 25.0% 22.9% 12.2% 10.1% 37.6% 51.1% 11.3% Percent of All Employees 51.3% 48.7% 14.8% 22.8% 39.6% 19.8% 3.0% 77.9% 9.6% 7.2% 2.8% 2.6% 67.2% 10.5% 22.3% 59.5% 40.5% 5.2% 29.6% 28.6% 25.5% 11.1% 16.2% 13.7% 25.0% 23.1% 12.1% 10.0% 37.3% 51.4% 11.3%

** Difference between leave-needers and other employees is significant at p<.05. -- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Employees. A-2-11

Table A2-2.11. Demographic Characteristics of Leave-Needers: 1995 and 2000 Surveys Percent of Leave-Needers 1995 Survey Gender Male Female Age 18 – 24 25 – 34 35 – 49 50 – 64 65 or over Race/Ethnicity White non-Hispanic Black non-Hispanic Hispanic Asian All others Marital Status Married/Living with partner Separated/Divorced/Widowed Never been married Children Under 18 in Household None One or more Education Less than high school High school graduate Some college* College graduate** Graduate school Annual Family Income Less than $20,000 $20,000 to less than $30,000 $30,000 to less than $50,000 $50,000 to less than $75,000** $75,000 to less than $100,000 $100,000 or more** 53.1% 46.9% 9.3% 29.3% 40.5% 19.7% -71.8% 16.9% 8.7% NA -64.7% 21.8% 13.5% 45.9% 54.1% 9.0% 26.0% 35.8% 17.0% 12.3% 23.5% 19.0% 30.6% 14.9% 8.9% -2000 Survey 46.0% 54.0% 8.6% 27.3% 41.7% 20.5% -72.3% 12.7% 8.8% --68.5% 18.6% 13.0% 45.0% 55.0% 8.4% 28.2% 26.5% 27.4% 9.5% 16.8% 16.3% 24.3% 27.2% 7.0% 8.3%

Compensation Type Salaried 29.0% 23.8% Hourly 61.3% 62.3% Other 9.6% 13.9% ** Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.05. -- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. NA Indicates Asian was not a race category in the 1995 survey. Asians are included in “All others.” Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees. A-2-12

Table A2-2.12. Reasons for Not Taking Leave, Based on Total Employee Population: 1995 and 2000 Surveys Percent of All Employees Reason for Not Taking Leave Thought job might be lost Thought job advancement might be hurt Did not want to lose seniority Not eligible—worked part-time* Not eligible—had not worked long enough for employer Employer denied request Could not afford to take leave Wanted to save leave time Work is too important Some other reason 1995 Survey 1.0% 0.7% 0.5% 0.5% NA 0.3% 2.2% 0.9% 1.3% NA 2000 Survey 0.8% 1.0% 0.7% 0.3% 0.4% 0.5% 1.9% 0.8% 1.3% 0.3%

* Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.10. NA Indicates item not asked in 1995 survey. Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A2-2.13. Reasons for Most Recent Needed Leave: 2000 Survey Percent of Leave-Needers 47.2% -6.9% 17.4% 7.3% 19.7%

Reason for Needing Leave Own health Maternity-disability Care for a newborn, newly adopted, or newly placed foster child Care for ill child Care for ill spouse Care for ill parent -- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

A-2-13

Table A2-2.14. Demographic Characteristics by Reasons for All Leaves Taken, Based on Total Employee Population: 2000 Survey Percent of Employees in Each Demographic Category that Took at Least One Leave for Following Reasons
Care for Newborn, Newly Adopted Maternity- or Foster Child Disability

Own Health

Care for Ill Child

Care for Care for Ill Spouse Ill Parent

Gender Male Female Age 18 – 24 25 – 34 35 – 49 50 or over Race/Ethnicity White non-Hispanic Black non-Hispanic Hispanic All others Marital Status Married/Living with partner Separated/Divorced/Widowed Never been married Children Under 18 in Household None One or more Education High school graduate or less Some college College graduate Graduate school Annual Family Income Less than $20,000 $20,000 to less than $30,000 $30,000 to less than $50,000 $50,000 to less than $75,000 $75,000 to less than $100,000 $100,000 or more Compensation Type Salaried Hourly Other

7.8%* 9.6% 6.4%** 7.0% 9.1% 11.0% 8.5% 11.4% 8.0% 7.5% 8.8%** 12.2% 6.4% 7.9%* 9.8% 9.6%** 10.7% 6.7% 4.9% 9.2% 10.1% 11.2% 9.4% 6.8% 6.9% 6.8%** 10.6% 6.3%

& 2.7% 2.7% 2.7% 0.7% & 1.2% 1.8% 1.9% -1.6%* -0.7% --** 3.2% 1.4% 1.4% 1.2% 1.2% 2.9%** -1.2% 1.9% 1.5% -1.0%* 1.6% --

3.1% 3.0% 2.3%** 8.1% 1.7% -3.0% 1.9% 6.0% 2.5% 4.1%** -0.9% 0.6%** 6.6% 2.5% 2.9% 3.6% 4.2% 2.6% 2.2% 2.4% 3.5% 4.3% 7.4% 4.0%* 2.5% 2.4%

1.4%** 2.4% --** 2.2% 3.0% 0.7% 1.6% 4.1% --1.8% 3.8% 1.3% 0.4%** 4.1% 1.8% 2.5% 1.5% 1.7% 1.8% 2.1% 3.1% 1.8% 1.4% 1.8% 1.6% 2.2% 1.5%

1.0% 1.1% --** 0.7% 1.0% 2.0% 1.0% ---1.5% -& 0.9% 1.2% 1.0% 1.1% 0.9% 1.4% --1.0% 1.6% 0.9% -1.4%** 0.9% --

1.5%** 2.9% --** 1.4% 2.8% 2.6% 2.3%* 1.9% --2.2% 3.0% 1.4% 2.1% 2.3% 1.8%** 2.1% 1.8% 4.3% 2.0% 1.8% 2.0% 3.1% 2.5% 2.6% 2.5% 1.8% 2.4%

* Differences among demographic groups is significant at p<.10. ** Differences among demographic groups is significant at p<.05. & Indicates no significance test was conducted because of zero cell. -- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. Source: 2000 Survey of Employees. A-2-14

Table A2-2.15. Demographic Characteristics by Reason for Longest Leave: 2000 Survey Percent of Leave-Takers in Each Demographic Category that Took Their Longest Leave for Following Reasons
Care for Newborn, Newly Adopted Maternity- or Foster Disability Child

Own Health

Care for Ill Child

Care for Ill Spouse

Care for Ill Parent

Gender Male Female Age 18 – 24 25 – 34 35 – 49 50 or over Race/Ethnicity White non-Hispanic Black non-Hispanic Hispanic All others Marital Status Married/Living with partner Separated/Divorced/Widowed Never been married Children Under 18 in Household** None One or more Education High school graduate or less Some college College graduate Graduate school Annual Family Income** Less than $20,000 $20,000 to less than $30,000 $30,000 to less than $50,000 $50,000 to less than $75,000 $75,000 to less than $100,000 $100,000 or more Compensation Type** Salaried Hourly Other

51.9% 43.9% 49.3% 29.1% 49.0% 65.7% 48.5% 46.6% 36.1% 46.5% 43.0% 58.0% 60.0% 68.2% 32.9% 54.8% 49.5% 41.3% 28.9% 47.3% 59.1% 52.3% 43.8% 40.1% 32.1% 38.6% 53.3% 44.9%

& 13.3% 24.4% 13.2% 4.2% & 7.3% 9.7% 11.2% -8.8% -7.3% -13.0% 8.5% 7.1% 8.0% 7.5% 17.7% -6.8% 9.1% 8.8% -6.5% 9.0% --

21.8% 15.2% 18.5% 39.2% 9.8% -17.7% 9.5% 34.6% 15.0% 21.8% -9.2% 5.5% 26.4% 14.1% 15.0% 24.5% 25.3% 14.9% 12.0% 11.7% 17.4% 25.4% 41.2% 24.2% 13.9% 17.1%

9.0% 10.3% -8.5% 15.8% 4.3% 8.2% 21.1% --8.1% 17.4% -3.3% 14.3% 8.3% 12.6% 9.0% 8.1% 8.9% 11.0% 14.8% 7.9% 8.1% 6.6% 8.6% 10.6% 10.5%

6.9% 5.1% -3.1% 5.7% 11.3% 5.7% ---7.2% -& 7.4% 4.8% 6.0% 5.3% 5.6% 7.7% --5.1% 7.8% --8.1% 4.7% --

10.3% 12.1% -6.9% 15.5% 13.1% 12.6% 9.0% --11.1% 13.4% 11.0% 15.4% 8.6% 8.4% 10.6% 11.6% 22.5% 8.4% 10.7% 9.2% 14.0% 13.2% 14.7% 14.1% 8.4% 17.7%

** Differences among demographic groups is significant at p<.05. & Indicates no significance test was conducted because of zero cell. -- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

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Table A2-2.16. Demographic Characteristics by Reason for Longest Leave: 1995 Survey Percent of Leave-Takers in Each Demographic Category that Took Their Longest Leave for Following Reasons
Care for Newborn, Newly Adopted Maternity- or Foster Disability Child

Own Health

Care for Ill Child

Care for Ill Spouse

Care for Ill Parent

Gender Male Female Age 18 – 24 25 – 34 35 – 49 50 or over Race/Ethnicity White non-Hispanic Black non-Hispanic Hispanic All others Marital Status Married/Living with partner Separated/Divorced/Widowed Never been married Children Under 18 in Household** None One or more Education** High school graduate or less Some college College graduate Graduate school Annual Family Income Less than $20,000 $20,000 to less than $30,000 $30,000 to less than $50,000 $50,000 to less than $75,000 $75,000 to less than $100,000 $100,000 or more Compensation Type** Salaried Hourly Other

66.8% 57.1% 58.5% 42.5% 66.6% 82.9% 61.4% 62.8% 57.1% -54.5% 75.8% 80.5% 83.4% 43.1% 68.7% 59.8% 53.3% 55.8% 69.3% 63.6% 64.1% 53.7% 52.7% 42.6% 53.3% 65.6% 67.6%

& 8.3% 9.8% 9.1% 2.0% & 4.3% ---5.8% ---8.3% 3.0% 5.5% 7.9% ---5.3% 5.5% --5.9% 3.9% --

15.1% 13.6% 17.9% 27.8% 9.4% -15.2% 8.5% 13.2% -17.8% 6.0% --25.8% 11.2% 13.4% 19.4% 17.2% 13.4% 9.9% 13.2% 18.2% 18.4% 22.0% 18.8% 11.9% 10.4%

6.6% 10.0% 8.2% 12.3% 7.9% -7.3% 12.4% --10.2% 5.7% -2.5% 13.5% 8.7% 8.4% 8.5% 8.7% 6.3% 14.9% 7.0% 8.4% --7.1% 9.8% --

5.5% 2.2% -2.9% 3.5% 6.6% 3.9% -& & 4.3% -& 3.6% 3.6% 3.8% 4.8% ---5.2% 3.5% 5.7% -& 3.2% 4.4% --

6.0% 8.8% -5.4% 10.6% 6.4% 7.8% ---7.4% 7.8% 8.6% 9.9% 5.7% 4.6% 8.1% 9.3% 12.2% 5.3% -6.9% 8.6% 12.6% -11.7% 4.4% --

** Differences among demographic groups is significant at p<.05. & Indicates no significance test was conducted because of zero cell. -- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

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Table A2-2.17. Use of Intermittent leave, Based on Total Employee Population: 2000 Survey Percent of All Employees 4.6% 95.4%

Leave-Takers Who: Took intermittent leave at least once in previous 18 months Did not take intermittent leave Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

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Table A2-2.18. Needing Leave Within Demographic Groups: 1995 and 2000 Surveys Percent of Employees Within Each Demographic Category that Needed (But Did Not Take) Leave 1995 Survey 2000 Survey Gender Male* 3.0% 2.2% Female 3.2% 2.7% Age 18 – 24 2.1% 1.4% 25 – 34 4.0% 2.9% 35 – 49 3.0% 2.6% 50 – 64 3.3% 2.5% 65 or over --Race/Ethnicity White non-Hispanic 2.7% 2.3% Black non-Hispanic* 5.9% 3.3% Hispanic 3.9% 3.0% Asian NA -All others --Marital Status Married/Living with partner 2.9% 2.5% Separated/Divorced/Widowed 5.0% 4.3% Never been married 2.4% 1.4% Children Under 18 in Household None* 2.5% 1.9% One or more 3.9% 3.3% Education Less than high school 3.6% 3.9% High school graduate 2.8% 2.3% Some college** 3.8% 2.3% College graduate 2.4% 2.6% Graduate school 3.0% 2.1% Annual Family Income Less than $20,000 4.2% 2.8% $20,000 to less than $30,000 4.0% 3.2% $30,000 to less than $50,000 3.2% 2.6% $50,000 to less than $75,000 2.5% 3.2% $75,000 to less than $100,000* 3.5% 1.6% $100,000 or more -2.3% Compensation Type Salaried** 2.4% 1.6% Hourly 3.7% 3.0% Other 2.6% 3.0% * Difference between demographic groups is statistically significant at p<.10. ** Difference between demographic groups is statistically significant at p<.05. NA Indicates Asian was not a race category in the 1995 survey. Asians are included in “All Others.” -- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees

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Table A2-2.19. Reasons for Needing Leave, Based on Total Employee Population: 1995 and 2000 Surveys Percent of All Employees Reason for Needing Leave Own health Maternity-disability Care for a newborn, newly adopted, or newly placed foster child Care for ill child Care for ill spouse Care for ill parent -- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees. 1995 Survey 1.5% -0.3% 0.6% 0.3% 0.6% 2000 Survey 1.2% -0.2% 0.5% 0.2% 0.6%

Table A2-2.20. Reasons for Most Recent Needed Leave: 2000 Survey Percent of All Employees 1.1% -0.2% 0.4% 0.2% 0.5%

Reason for Needing Leave Own health Maternity-disability Care for a newborn, newly adopted, or newly placed foster child Care for ill child Care for ill spouse Care for ill parent -- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

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Table A2-2.21. Perceived Future Need for Family or Medical Leave: 1995 and 2000 Surveys Employees’ Likelihood of Taking Leave for Family or Medical Reasons in the Next 5 years: Very likely** Somewhat likely Somewhat unlikely** Very unlikely ** Difference between years is significant at p<.05. Source: 2000 Survey of Employees. Table A2-2.22. Expected Reasons for Needing Future Leaves : 1995 and 2000 Surveys Percent of Employees Who Say it is Likely They Will Take Leave in the Next 5 Years Expected Reason: Own self Newborn Newly adopted New foster child Child** Spouse** Parent Other relative Other non-relative 1995 Survey 34.0% 20.6% --14.3% 11.1% 34.9% 6.9% 1.7% 2000 Survey 36.4% 19.5% --19.3% 17.4% 33.0% 8.6% 2.2% Percent of Employees 1995 Survey 17.8% 21.5% 26.1% 34.6% 2000 Survey 22.2% 23.8% 20.3% 33.8%

** Difference between years is significant at p<.05. -- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. Note: Percentages do not sum to 100% because respondents could choose more than one reason. Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees.

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CHAPTER 3 TABLES NOT DISPLAYED IN TEXT

Table A2-3.1. Coverage and Eligibility of Employees Under the Family and Medical Leave Act: 2000 Survey Percent of All Employees Eligible Employees at FMLA-Covered Worksites Non-eligible Employees at Covered Worksites Employees at Non-covered Worksites Source: 2000 Survey of Employees. 61.7% 14.9% 23.3%

Table A2-3.2. Eligibility of Employees Under the Family and Medical Leave Act: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered Employees Eligible Employees Non-eligible Employees Source: 2000 Survey of Employees. 80.5% 19.5%

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Table A2-3.3 Demographic Profiles of Covered, Covered and Eligible, and Non-covered Employees: 2000 Survey Percent of Employees Covered Total Weighted Number Gender* Male Female Age**++ 18 – 24 25 – 34 35 – 49 50 – 64 65 and over Race/Ethnicity**+ White non-Hispanic Black non-Hispanic Hispanic Asian All others Marital Status**++ Married/Living with partner Separated/Divorced/Widowed Never been married Children Under 18 in Household None One or more Education**++ Less than high school High school graduate Some college College graduate Graduate school 110,398,726 50.1% 49.9% 16.1% 23.0% 39.5% 19.1% 2.3% 74.8% 11.6% 7.5% 3.4% 2.7% 65.1% 10.9% 24.0% 60.6% 39.4% 4.3% 27.8% 29.5% 25.6% 12.7% Covered and Eligible 88,920,791 51.8% 48.2% 10.5% 23.3% 42.8% 21.4% 2.1% 75.3% 11.1% 7.7% 3.3% 2.5% 69.5% 11.0% 19.5% 58.6% 41.4% 3.7% 27.4% 28.7% 27.0% 13.2% Non-covered 33,620,570 55.3% 44.7% 10.6% 22.2% 39.7% 22.1% 5.4% 88.0% 2.7% 6.1% -2.2% 74.1% 9.3% 16.6% 55.9% 44.1% 8.1% 35.5% 25.4% 25.2% 5.7% All Employees 144,019,296 51.3% 48.7% 14.8% 22.8% 39.6% 19.8% 3.0% 77.9% 9.6% 7.2% 2.8% 2.6% 67.2% 10.5% 22.3% 59.5% 40.5% 5.2% 29.6% 28.6% 25.5% 11.1%

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Table A2-3.3 Demographic Profiles of Covered, Covered and Eligible, and Non-covered Employees: 2000 Survey (continued) Percent of Employees Covered Annual Family Income++ Less than $20,000 $20,000 to less than $30,000 $30,000 to less than $50,000 $50,000 to less than $75,000 $75,000 to less than $100,000 $100,000 or more Compensation Type**++ Salaried Hourly Other 14.8% 13.8% 24.9% 23.5% 12.5% 10.5% 38.3% 54.0% 7.7% Covered and Eligible 9.9% 14.0% 25.2% 25.6% 13.6% 11.8% 42.7% 50.3% 6.9% Non-covered 20.9% 13.3% 25.3% 21.5% 10.5% 8.6% 34.0% 42.7% 23.3% All Employees 16.2% 13.7% 25.0% 23.1% 12.1% 10.0% 37.3% 51.4% 11.3%

* Difference between covered and non-covered employees is significant at p<.10. ** Difference between covered and non-covered employees is significant at p<.05. + Difference between covered and eligible employees and all other employees is significant at p<.10. ++ Difference between covered and eligible employees and all other employees is significant at p<.05. Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

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Table A2-3.4 Coverage Under FMLA Within Demographic Groups: 2000 Survey Percent of Employees Within Each Demographic Category Who Are: Covered Gender* Male Female Age**++ 18 – 24 25 – 34 35 – 49 50 – 64 65 and over Race/Ethnicity**+ White non-Hispanic Black non-Hispanic Hispanic Asian All others Marital Status**++ Married/Living with partner Separated/Divorced/Widowed Never been married Children Under 18 in Household None One or more Education**++ Less than high school High school graduate Some college College graduate Graduate school 74.9% 78.5% 83.3% 77.3% 76.7% 74.0% 58.7% 73.5% 93.3% 80.2% 92.0% 79.8% 74.3% 79.3% 82.6% 78.2% 74.8% 63.8% 72.1% 79.4% 77.1% 88.0% Covered and (1) Eligible 62.3% 61.2% 43.8% 63.0% 66.8% 66.7% 42.8% 59.7% 71.8% 66.2% 73.4% 60.3% 63.8% 64.3% 54.1% 60.9% 63.2% 44.2% 57.1% 62.2% 65.3% 73.8% Non-covered 25.1% 21.5% 16.7% 22.7% 23.3% 26.0% 41.3% 26.5% 6.7% 19.8% -20.2% 25.7% 20.7% 17.4% 21.8% 25.2% 36.2% 27.9% 20.6% 22.9% 12.0%

Total Weighted Number 73,924,070 70,095,226 21,153,991 32,561,862 56,504,145 28,259,470 4,351,449 111,083,972 13,627,195 10,236,269 4,004,675 3,671,119 96,298,974 15,065,817 31,888,960 85,333,367 58,076,078 7,509,891 42,531,907 40,985,586 36,647,973 15,880,292

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Table A2-3.4 Coverage Under FMLA Within Demographic Groups: 2000 Survey (continued) Percent of Employees Within Each Demographic Category Who Are: Covered Annual Family Income++ Less than $20,000 $20,000 to less than $30,000 $30,000 to less than $50,000 $50,000 to less than $75,000 $75,000 to less than $100,000 $100,000 or more Compensation Type**++ Salaried Hourly Other 71.8% 78.8% 77.9% 79.7% 81.1% 81.4% 78.7% 80.6% 52.1% Covered and (1) Eligible 38.6% 64.5% 63.9% 70.2% 70.9% 74.0% 70.8% 60.5% 37.7% Non-covered 28.2% 21.2% 22.1% 20.3% 18.9% 18.6% 21.3% 19.4% 47.9%

Total Weighted Number 19,347,474 16,390,438 29,880,436 27,611,099 14,460,432 12,023,351 53,468,194 73,725,383 16,278,079

(1) The “Covered and Eligible” column is a subset of the “Covered” column.

* Difference between covered and non-covered employees is significant at p<.10. ** Difference between covered and non-covered employees is significant at P<.05. + Difference between covered and eligible employees and all other employees is significant at p<.10. ++ Difference between covered and eligible employees and all other employees is significant at p<.05. Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

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Table A2-3.5. Demographic Characteristics of Covered and Eligible Leave-Takers by Reason for Longest Leave: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered and Eligible Leave-Takers in Each Demographic Category that Took Their Longest Leave for Following Reasons
Care for Newborn, Newly Adopted Maternity- or Foster Child Disability

Own Health

Care for Ill Child

Care for Care for Ill Spouse Ill Parent

Gender Male Female Age 18 – 24 25 – 34 35 – 49 50 or over Race/Ethnicity White non-Hispanic Black non-Hispanic Hispanic All others Marital Status** Married/Living with partner Separated/Divorced/Widowed Never been married Children Under 18 in Household None One or more Education** High school graduate or less Some college College graduate Graduate school Annual Family Income Less than $20,000 $20,000 to less than $30,000 $30,000 to less than $50,000 $50,000 to less than $75,000 $75,000 to less than $100,000 $100,000 or more

45.0% 55.0% 8.7% 15.6% 39.7% 36.1% 76.2% 12.3% 6.3% 5.1% 70.6% 15.9% 13.6% 58.5% 41.5% 41.1% 33.1% 18.0% 7.9% 9.4% 16.8% 27.3% 27.2% 11.5% 7.6%

& 100.0% -50.4% 28.7% & 59.8% ---82.8% --& 100.0% 35.1% 26.0% 28.2% ---26.8% 32.6% 23.0% --

44.3% 55.7% 10.2% 57.4% 20.5% -82.4% ---90.2% ---86.8% 29.8% 27.7% 31.5% 11.0% 12.4% -12.0% 30.3% 23.2% 14.3%

39.1% 60.9% -26.3% 62.6% -57.2% 32.4% --55.3% 23.5% -13.0% 87.0% 20.3% 50.9% 18.8% 10.0% --41.2% 24.5% 11.7% -35.4% 59.9% --

55.8% 44.2% --35.4% 42.0% 73.5% ---94.5% --54.5% 45.5% 37.5% 29.5% 22.2% ---22.6% 37.4% --53.4% 45.6% --

41.3% 58.7% -20.3% 54.4% 20.5% 80.8% 10.3% --71.4% 13.2% 15.3% 51.3% 48.7% 25.5% 25.9% 22.7% 25.9% --23.4% 32.1% 13.8% 9.2% 47.9% 39.8% 12.4%

Compensation Type Salaried 33.4% 43.3% 47.5% Hourly 61.4% 55.0% 44.8% Other 5.2% --** Difference among demographic groups is significant at p<.05. & No significance test was conducted because of zero cell. -- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

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Table A2-3.6. Covered and Eligible Leave-Takers Within Demographic Groups: 1995 and 2000 Surveys Percent of Leave-Takers Within Demographic Category Who (1) Were Covered and Eligible 1995 2000 Survey Survey Gender Male 60.7% 65.6% Female 62.7% 64.5% Age 18 – 24 52.4% 53.5% 25 – 34 63.3% 60.1% 35 – 49 62.0% 66.4% 50 – 64 68.3% 75.1% 65 and over 47.0% 55.3% Race/Ethnicity White non-Hispanic 59.9% 62.6% Black non-Hispanic 74.3% 83.1% Hispanic 65.4% 62.7% Asian NA 72.4% All others 57.3% 57.9% Marital Status Married/Living with partner* 59.8% 64.5% Separated/Divorced/Widowed 68.9% 66.6% Never been married 64.1% 65.5% Children Under 18 in Household None 64.2% 66.5% One or more 60.0% 63.9% Education Less than high school 66.6% 57.0% High school graduate** 57.0% 67.2% Some college 60.6% 66.0% College graduate 59.1% 62.3% Graduate school 74.4% 65.4% Annual Family Income Less than $20,000 53.7% 45.3% $20,000 to less than $30,000 61.9% 65.2% $30,000 to less than $50,000** 57.3% 68.1% $50,000 to less than $75,000 69.4% 72.1% $75,000 to less than $100,000 75.8% 80.0% $100,000 or more 70.0% 51.5% Compensation Type Salaried 66.6% 69.8% Hourly 63.9% 65.8% Other 31.4% 41.8% (1) Table includes leave-takers who were covered and eligible at the time they took their (longest) leave. * Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.10. ** Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.05. NA Indicates Asian was not a race category in the 1995 survey. Asians are included in “All Others.” Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees.

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Table A2-3.7. Demographic Characteristics of Covered and Eligible LeaveTakers: 1995 and 2000 Surveys Percent of Leave-Takers Within Demographic Category Who (1) Were Covered and Eligible 1995 2000 Survey Survey Gender Male 43.0% 42.3% Female 57.0% 57.7% Age 18 – 24 9.4% 8.2% 25 – 34* 30.8% 25.7% 35 – 49 40.9% 40.6% 50 – 64** 16.7% 23.6% 65 and over 2.2% 1.8% Race/Ethnicity White non-Hispanic 75.6% 73.6% Black non-Hispanic 13.1% 13.6% Hispanic 9.4% 7.9% Asian NA 2.4% All others 1.9% 2.5% Marital Status Married/Living with partner* 68.5% 74.5% Separated/Divorced/Widowed** 18.3% 13.0% Never been married 13.2% 12.4% Children Under 18 in Household None* 47.2% 41.4% One or more* 52.8% 58.6% Education Less than high school** 11.1% 5.2% High school graduate 24.7% 28.9% Some college 28.9% 33.3% College graduate 18.6% 21.3% Graduate school** 16.6% 11.3% Annual Family Income Less than $20,000** 16.3% 10.4% $20,000 to less than $30,000** 18.2% 12.4% $30,000 to less than $50,000 28.3% 26.7% $50,000 to less than $75,000** 21.3% 28.5% $75,000 to less than $100,000 10.8% 13.9% $100,000 or more* 5.1% 8.0% Compensation Type Salaried 39.3% 39.1% Hourly 56.2% 55.1% Other 4.6% 5.8% (1) Table includes leave-takers who were covered and eligible at the time they took their (longest) leave. *Difference between years is statistically significant at p<.10. **Difference between years is statistically significant at p<.05. NA Indicates Asian was not a race category in the 1995 survey. Asians are included in “All Others.” Source: 1995 and 2000 Surveys of Employees. A-2-28

Table A2-3.8. Length of Longest Leave by Eligibility Status: 2000 Survey Percent by Eligibility Status Covered and All Eligible Other LeaveLeave-Takers Takers 13.0% 20.8% 20.2% 20.5% 15.9% 9.6% 11.1% 22.7% 20.5% 16.0% 19.2% 10.5%

Length of Longest Leave 1- 3 days 4 – 5 days 6 – 10 days 11 – 30 days 31 – 60 days More than 60 days Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A2-3.9 Establishment Awareness of FMLA Coverage Status: 1995 and 2000 Surveys Percent of Covered Establishments Does the Family and Medical Leave Act apply to this location? Yes No Don’t know 1995 Survey 86.5% -12.3% 2000 Survey 84.0% 1.0% 15.0% Percent of Non-covered Establishments 1995 Survey 8.3%** 35.2% 56.5% 2000 Survey 16.1% 28.4% 55.5%

** Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.05. -- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-3.10 Awareness of Eligibility for FMLA Among Covered and Non-covered Employees: 1995 and 2000 Surveys Percent of Employees Covered 1995 Survey Employees who believe they are/were eligible to take advantage of FMLA Employees who believe they are/were not eligible to take advantage of FMLA Employees who do not know if they are/were eligible to take advantage of FMLA 2000 Survey Non-covered 1995 Survey 2000 Survey All Employees 1995 Survey 2000 Survey

29.0%**

37.9%

10.4%**

22.4%

22.7%**

34.3%

11.4%

13.1%

21.4%

26.4%

14.7%

16.2%

59.6%**

49.0%

68.2%**

51.2%

62.5%**

49.5%

** Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.05. Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees.

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CHAPTER 4 TABLES NOT DISPLAYED IN TEXT

Table A2-4.1. Receipt of Pay During Longest Leave Within Demographic Groups: 2000 Survey Percent of Employees Within Each Demographic Category Received Pay During Received No Pay Longest Leave During Longest Leave Gender** Male Female Age** 18 – 24 25 – 34 35 – 49 50 – 64 65 or over Race/Ethnicity White non-Hispanic Black non-Hispanic Hispanic Asian All others Marital Status** Married/Living with partner Separated/Divorced/Widowed Never been married Children Under 18 in Household None One or more Education** Less than high school High school graduate Some college College graduate Graduate school Annual Family Income** Less than $20,000 $20,000 to less than $30,000 $30,000 to less than $50,000 $50,000 to less than $75,000 $75,000 to less than $100,000 $100,000 or more Compensation Type** Salaried Hourly Other 70.4% 62.5% 30.3% 65.0% 68.5% 80.3% 55.8% 66.4% 58.8% 72.6% 62.6% 56.6% 69.1% 73.5% 37.4% 66.2% 65.6% 39.8% 58.7% 62.3% 80.9% 77.2% 26.2% 62.4% 67.7% 76.2% 81.2% 79.4% 87.7% 54.0% 49.2% 29.6% 37.5% 69.7% 35.0% 31.5% 19.7% 44.2% 33.6% 41.2% 27.4% 37.4% 43.4% 30.9% 26.5% 62.6% 33.8% 34.4% 60.2% 41.3% 37.7% 19.1% 22.8% 73.8% 37.6% 32.3% 23.8% 18.8% 20.6% 12.3% 46.0% 50.8%

** Difference among demographic groups is significant at p<.05. Source: 2000 Survey of Employees. A-2-31

Table A2-4.2. Ease of Making Ends Meet During Leave: 2000 Survey Percent of Leave-Takers Receiving Less Than Full Pay 13.5% 13.8% 14.5% 35.7% 22.5%

How easy or difficult was it for you to make ends meet during your longest leave? Very easy Somewhat easy Neither easy nor difficult Somewhat difficult Very difficult

Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Employees. Table A2-4.3. Satisfaction with the Length of the Longest Leave: 1995 and 2000 Surveys Percent of Leave-Takers How satisfied were you with the amount of time you took? Very satisfied** Somewhat satisfied Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied Somewhat dissatisfied Very dissatisfied 1995 Survey 48.2% 27.9% 6.5% 11.9% 5.6% 2000 Survey 42.2% 30.4% 8.7% 12.5% 6.2%

** Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.05. Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees. Table A2-4.4. Reasons for Leave-Takers’ Not Returning to Work: 2000 Survey Percent of Leave-Takers Not Returning to Work & 21.9% -29.0% ---

Reason for Not Returning to Work: Obtained other income source Health condition continued Laid off/Fired/Replaced Did not want to return to work Could not find child care Other reason -- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. & Indicates zero cell. Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

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Table A2-4.5. Reasons for Being Denied Leave: 1995 and 2000 Surveys Percent of Leave-Takers (1) Denied Leave Reason: Employer does not offer family/medical leave Had not worked for employer long enough Had worked too few hours in the previous year Had no leave left Reached the FMLA limit Other reason than one reason for being denied leave. NA Indicates item was not asked in 1995 Survey. Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees. Table A2-4.6. Benefit Status During Longest Leave: 1995 and 2000 Surveys Percent of Leave-Takers 1995 Survey Lost benefits during longest leave* Kept benefits during longest leave* 8.9% 91.1% 2000 Survey 6.5% 93.5% 1995 Survey 46.2% 16.5% NA NA NA NA 2000 Survey 35.5% 17.6% 13.9% 19.5% 13.5% 65.5%

(1) Percentages do not sum to 100% because respondents could report more

* Difference between 1995 and 2000 significant at p<.10. Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees.

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CHAPTER 5 TABLES NOT DISPLAYED IN TEXT

Table A2-5.1. Family and Medical Leave Policies by Establishment Size: Reasons for Which Up to 12 Weeks of Leave is Provided: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered Establishments With: Establishment Provides Leave For: Employee’s Own Serious Health Condition Yes No Depends on circumstances Mother’s Maternity-Related Reasons Yes No Depends on circumstances Parents to Care for Newborn Yes No Depends on circumstances Parents for Adoption or Foster Care Placement Yes No Depends on circumstances Care of Child, Spouse, or Parent for Serious Health Condition Yes No Depends on circumstances All FMLA Reasons Yes No or Depends on circumstances
(1) Order of items was changed in 2000 survey.
(1)

1−250 − Employees

251+ Employees

All Covered Establishments

91.5% 2.9% 5.6%

98.8% ---

91.9% 2.8% 5.3%

93.9% 3.5% 2.6%

96.0% ---

94.1% 3.4% 2.5%

87.3% 5.2% 7.5%

96.0% ---

87.8% 5.1% 7.2%

85.2% 6.8% 8.0%

94.2% ---

85.7% 6.6% 7.7%

88.2% 4.7% 7.1%

95.4% ---

88.6% 4.6% 6.8%

83.3% 16.7%

90.2% 9.8%

83.7% 16.3%

-- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. Notes: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-5.2. Family and Medical Leave Policies by FMLA Coverage Status: Reasons for Which Up to 12 Weeks of Leave is Provided: 1995 and 2000 Surveys Percent of Covered Establishments Establishment Provides (1) Leave For: Employee’s Own Serious Health Condition Yes No Depends on circumstances Mother’s Maternity-Related Reasons Yes No Depends on circumstances Parents to Care for Newborn Yes No Depends on circumstances Parents for Adoption or Foster Care Placement Yes No Depends on circumstances Care of Child, Spouse, or Parent for Serious Health Condition Yes No Depends on circumstances All FMLA Reasons Yes No or Depends on circumstances 1995 Survey 2000 Survey Percent of Non-covered Establishments 1995 Survey 2000 Survey Percent of All Establishments 1995 Survey 2000 Survey

92.6% 3.6% 3.8%

91.9% 2.8% 5.3%

45.7%** 41.8%** 12.6%

66.4% 21.3% 12.2%

50.8%** 37.5%** 11.6%

69.2% 19.3% 11.5%

96.6% 2.9% --**

94.1% 3.4% 2.5%

42.3%** 46.9%** 10.9%

65.7% 23.2% 11.1%

48.4%** 42.0%** 9.7%

68.8% 21.0% 10.1%

92.4% 6.0% 1.6%*

87.8% 5.1% 7.2%

32.3%** 53.8%** 13.9%

50.5% 33.5% 16.1%

38.9%** 48.6%** 12.5%

54.5% 30.4% 15.1%

91.3% 7.7% 1.0%**

85.7% 6.6% 7.7%

29.0%** 57.4%** 13.7%**

43.5% 35.9% 20.6%

35.5%** 52.2%** 12.4%**

48.1% 32.7% 19.2%

94.2% 4.4% 1.4%

88.6% 4.6% 6.8%

41.6%** 46.8%** 11.6%

57.1% 29.3% 13.6%

47.4%** 42.2%** 10.5%

60.6% 26.6% 12.9%

88.0% 12.0%

83.7% 16.3%

20.7%** 79.3%**

33.5% 66.5%

27.9%** 72.1%**

39.1% 60.9%

(1) Order of items was changed in 2000 survey.

* Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.10. ** Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.05. -- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. Notes: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-5.3. Family and Medical Leave Policies by Establishment Size: Reasons for Which Health Benefits Are Continued During FMLA Leave: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered Establishments With: Establishment Continues Health (1) Benefits During Leave For: Employee’s Own Serious Health Condition Yes No Depends on circumstances Mother’s Maternity-Related Reasons Yes No Depends on circumstances Parents to Care for Newborn** Yes No Depends on circumstances Parents for Adoption or Foster Care Placement Yes No Depends on circumstances Care of Child, Spouse, or Parent for Serious Health Condition** Yes No Depends on circumstances
(1) Order of items was changed in 2000 survey.

1−250 − Employees

251+ Employees

All Covered Establishments

86.5% 0.9% 12.7%

96.5% & 3.5%

87.0% 0.8% 12.2%

90.6% -8.7%

98.3% & --

91.0% -8.4%

89.0% 1.2% 9.8%

97.1% ---

89.4% 1.2% 9.4%

89.0% 1.3% 9.6%

96.0% -3.4%

89.4% 1.3% 9.3%

84.4% 1.5% 14.1%

97.3% ---

85.1% 1.4% 13.5%

** Difference between sizes categories is significant at p<.05. -- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. & Indicates no significance test was conducted because of zero cell. Notes: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Includes establishments that provide up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-5.4. Family and Medical Leave Policies by FMLA Coverage Status: Reasons for Which Health Benefits are Continued During Leave: 1995 and 2000 Surveys Percent of Covered Establishments 1995 Survey 2000 Survey Percent of Non-covered Establishments 1995 Survey 2000 Survey Percent of All Establishments 1995 Survey 2000 Survey

Establishment Continues Health Benefits During (1) Leave For: Employee’s Own Serious Health Condition Yes No Depends on circumstances Mother’s Maternity-Related Reasons Yes No Depends on circumstances Parents to Care for Newborn Yes No Depends on circumstances Parents for Adoption or Foster Care Placement Yes No Depends on circumstances Care of child, Spouse, or Parent for Serious Health Condition Yes No Depends on circumstances

95.2%* 1.3% 3.5%**

87.0% 0.8% 12.2%

77.9% 9.1% 13.0%

84.0% 4.4% 11.6%

82.2% 7.2% 10.6%

84.5% 3.8% 11.7%

96.3% 1.2% 2.5%*

91.0% -8.4%

86.3% 4.3% 9.4%

89.0% 2.4% 8.6%

88.9% 3.5% 7.6%

89.3% 2.1% 8.6%

95.7%* 0.9% 3.4%*

89.4% 1.2% 9.4%

72.4% 7.7% 19.8%

78.0% 7.1% 14.9%

78.8% 5.9% 15.3%

80.1% 6.0% 13.9%

95.8% 1.0% 3.2%

89.4% 1.3% 9.3%

75.9% 10.4% 13.7%

76.2% 6.6% 17.2%

81.7% 7.7% 10.6%

78.7% 5.6% 15.7%

95.2%** 1.5% 3.3%**

85.1% 1.4% 13.5%

69.0%* 11.7%* 19.3%

81.7% 4.0% 14.4%

75.9% 9.0%* 15.1%

82.3% 3.5% 14.2%

(1) Order of items was changed in 2000 survey.

* Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.10. ** Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.05. -- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. Notes: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Includes establishments that provide up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave. Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-5.5. Family and Medical Leave Policies by FMLA Coverage Status: Reasons for Which Job Return is Guaranteed: 1995 and 2000 Surveys Percent of Covered Establishments 1995 Survey 2000 Survey Percent of Non-covered Establishments 1995 Survey 2000 Survey Percent of All Establishments 1995 Survey 2000 Survey

Establishment Guarantees Same or Equivalent Job on (1) Return from Leave For: Employee’s Own Serious Health Condition Yes No Depends on circumstances Mother’s Maternity-Related Reasons Yes No Depends on circumstances Parents to Care for Newborn Yes No Depends on circumstances Parents for Adoption or Foster Care Placement Yes No Depends on circumstances Care of child, Spouse, or Parent for Serious Health Condition Yes No Depends on circumstances

94.7% -4.6%

94.1% -5.5%

86.8% -11.6%

88.5% 1.5% 10.0%

88.1% -10.4%

89.2% 1.3% 9.4%

99.2%* & 0.8%

98.2% -1.6%

87.3%** -10.6%*

93.2% 1.3% 5.5%

89.5%* -8.8%

93.9% 1.2% 5.0%

99.2%** & 0.8%**

96.7% -2.8%

83.8%** -14.2%**

93.8% 1.9% 4.3%

86.9%** -11.5%**

94.2% 1.7% 4.0%

99.0% & 1.0%

93.8% -5.6%

85.5% -11.2%

89.7% -8.9%

88.2% -9.2%

90.3% 1.3% 8.4%

98.9% & 1.1%

93.4% -5.8%

86.0% -11.4%

87.7% 1.4% 10.9%

88.3% -9.5%

88.5% 1.3% 10.2%

(1) Order of items was changed in 2000 survey.

* Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.10. ** Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.05. -- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. & Indicates no significance test was conducted because of zero cell. Notes: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Includes establishments that provide up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave. Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-5.6. Family and Medical Leave Policies by Establishment Size: Reasons for Which Job Return is Guaranteed: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered Establishments With: 1−250 − Employees 251+ Employees

Establishment Guarantees Same or Equivalent Job on Return from (1) Leave For: Employee’s Own Serious Health Condition Yes No Depends on circumstances Mother’s Maternity-Related Reasons Yes No Depends on circumstances Parents to Care for Newborn Yes No Depends on circumstances Parents for Adoption or Foster Care Placement Yes No Depends on circumstances Care of Child, Spouse, or Parent for Serious Health Condition Yes No Depends on circumstances
(1) Order of items was changed in 2000 survey.

All Covered Establishments

94.0% -5.6%

96.5% & --

94.1% -5.5%

98.3% -1.5%

96.5% & --

98.2% -1.6%

96.6% -2.8%

98.1% & --

96.7% -2.8%

93.6% -5.7%

97.6% & --

93.8% -5.6%

93.2% -6.0%

97.6% & --

93.4% -5.8%

-- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. & Indicates no significance test was conducted because of zero cell. Notes: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Includes establishments that provide up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-5.7. Provision of Leave Beyond that Guaranteed by FMLA by Establishment Size: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered Establishments With: Establishment Provides Guaranteed Leave For: More Than 12 Weeks Per Year Yes No Depends on circumstances Employees Who Have Worked for Establishment Less Than 12 Months Yes No Depends on circumstances Employees Who Have Worked for Less Than 1,250 Hours in the Past Year Yes No Depends on circumstances 1−250 − Employees 22.5% 50.0% 27.5% 251+ Employees 30.1% 42.6% 27.3%

All Covered Establishments 22.9% 49.6% 27.5%

29.0% 42.8% 28.2%

24.3% 56.6% 19.2%

28.7% 43.6% 27.7%

27.1% 45.4% 27.5%

26.1% 54.0% 19.9%

27.0% 45.9% 27.0%

Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

Table A2-5.8. Provision of Leave for Additional Reasons by FMLA Coverage Status: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered Establishments Percent of Non-covered Establishments Percent of All Establishments

Establishment Allows Additional Leave For: Attending School Meetings or Activities** Yes − Separate from other leave Yes − Not separate from other leave No Depends on circumstances Routine Medical Appointments for Self and Family** Yes − Separate from other leave Yes − Not separate from other leave No Depends on circumstances

40.9% 27.5% 22.2% 9.4%

60.5% 15.7% 18.7% 5.1%

58.3% 17.0% 19.1% 5.6%

30.9% 42.5% 20.1% 6.5%

62.0% 22.6% 12.1% 3.3%

58.6% 24.8% 12.9% 3.7%

** Difference between covered and non-covered establishments is significant at p<.05. Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-5.9. Provision of Leave for Additional Reasons by Establishment Size: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered Establishments With: Establishment Allows Additional Leave For: Attending School Meetings or Activities* Yes − Separate from other leave Yes − Not separate from other leave No Depends on circumstances Routine Medical Appointments for Self and Family Yes − Separate from other leave Yes − Not separate from other leave No Depends on circumstances 1−250 − Employees 251+ Employees

All Covered Establishments

41.0% 27.5% 22.6% 8.9%

39.3% 27.2% 15.1% 18.4%

40.9% 27.5% 22.2% 9.4%

31.0% 42.5% 20.2% 6.3%

28.9% 42.6% 17.3% 11.2%

30.9% 42.5% 20.1% 6.5%

* Difference between size categories is significant at p<.10. Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-5.10. Employee Access to Leave for Additional Reasons: 2000 Survey Does/Did your employer allow you to take leave for the following reason: Taking part in children’s school and early childhood educational activities Attending to routine family medical needs Helping with elderly relatives’ health care needs Source: 2000 Survey of Employees. Table A2-5.11. Employee Use of Additional Leave: 2000 Survey Percent of Employees With Access to Leave for this Reason Has employee taken this kind of leave? Taking part in children’s school and early childhood educational activities Attending to routine family medical needs Helping with elderly relatives’ health care needs Source: 2000 Survey of Employees. Yes 35.4% 49.4% 22.4% No 64.6% 50.6% 77.6% Percent of Employees Yes No Depends

59.5% 84.3% 56.6%

35.3% 14.1% 40.2%

5.2% 1.6% 3.1%

Table A2-5.12. Employee Need of Additional Leave: 2000 Survey Percent of Employees Without Access to Leave for this Reason Has employee needed this kind of leave? Taking part in children’s school and early childhood educational activities Attending to routine family medical needs Helping with elderly relatives’ health care needs Source: 2000 Survey of Employees. Yes 14.8% 23.1% 7.1% No 85.2% 76.9% 92.9%

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Table A2-5.13. Continuation of Pay During Leave by Establishment Size: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered Establishments With: Establishment Provides: Paid Sick Leave Yes No Depends on circumstances Paid Disability Leave** Yes No Depends on circumstances Paid Vacation Yes No Depends on circumstances Other Paid Time Off Yes No Depends on circumstances 1−250 − Employees 73.8% 18.4% 7.8% 251+ Employees 82.7% 7.7% 9.6%

All Covered Establishments 74.3% 17.9% 7.9%

61.7% 25.5% 12.8%

80.3% 8.0% 11.7%

62.7% 24.6% 12.7%

94.8% 1.0% 4.2%

92.6% -6.8%

94.7% 0.9% 4.4%

43.5% 54.6% 1.9%

40.9% 57.6% --

43.3% 54.8% 1.9%

** Difference between size categories is significant at p<.05. -- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-5.14. Continuation of Pay During Leave by Establishment Size: Reasons for Which Pay is Continued: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered Establishments With: Establishment Continues Pay During Leave For: Parents to Care for Newborn Full pay Partial pay Depends on circumstances No Pay Parents for Adoption or Foster Care Placement Full pay Partial pay Depends on circumstances No Pay Employee’s Own Serious Health Condition Full pay Partial pay Depends on circumstances No Pay Mother’s Maternity-Related Reasons Full pay Partial pay Depends on circumstances No Pay Care of Child, Spouse, or Parent for Serious Health Condition Full pay Partial pay Depends on circumstances No Pay 1−250 − Employees 17.3% 5.8% 22.6% 54.3% 251+ Employees 16.8% 9.7% 23.9% 49.6%

All Covered Establishments 17.3% 6.0% 22.7% 54.1%

16.5% 2.5% 20.7% 60.3%

17.1% 6.0% 17.2% 59.7%

16.5% 2.7% 20.5% 60.3%

32.7% 16.7% 20.1% 30.5%

38.0% 22.0% 22.2% 17.8%

32.9% 17.0% 20.3% 29.8%

30.5% 17.7% 16.0% 35.9%

33.2% 25.4% 22.3% 19.0%

30.7% 18.1% 16.3% 35.0%

15.9% 3.6% 21.2% 59.3%

14.8% 5.0% 18.8% 61.4%

15.9% 3.6% 21.1% 59.4%

Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-5.15. Continuation of Other Benefits During Leave by FMLA Coverage Status: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered Establishments Percent of Non-covered Establishments Percent of All Establishments

Establishment Continues: Contributions to Pension or Retirement** Yes No Depends on circumstances Contributions to Life or Disability Insurance** Yes No Depends on circumstances

59.1% 25.6% 15.4%

43.2% 46.2% 10.5%

45.3% 43.5% 11.1%

82.4% 10.2% 7.4%

59.8% 33.8% 6.4%

62.7% 30.8% 6.5%

** Difference between covered and non-covered establishments is significant at p<.05. Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

Table A2-5.16. Continuation of Other Benefits During Leave by Establishment Size: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered Establishments With: Establishment Continues:: Contributions to Pension or Retirement Yes No Depends on circumstances Contributions to Life or Disability Insurance Yes No Depends on circumstances 1−250 − Employees 251+ Employees

All Covered Establishments

59.1% 26.1% 14.8%

58.2% 17.9% 23.9%

59.1% 25.6% 15.4%

82.4% 10.4% 7.2%

81.6% 7.0% 11.4%

82.4% 10.2% 7.4%

Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-5.17. Continuation of Other Benefits During Leave by FMLA Coverage Status: 1995 and 2000 Surveys Percent of Covered Establishments Establishment Continues: Contributions to Pension or Retirement Yes No Depends on circumstances Contributions to Life or Disability Insurance Yes No Depends on circumstances 1995 Survey 2000 Survey Percent of Non-covered Establishments 1995 Survey 2000 Survey Percent of All Establishments 1995 Survey 2000 Survey

62.5% 20.4% 17.1%

59.1% 25.6% 15.4%

38.1% 59.0%** 3.0%**

43.2% 46.2% 10.5%

41.7% 53.2%* 5.1%**

45.3% 43.5% 11.1%

91.3%** 5.9% 2.8%**

82.4% 10.2% 7.4%

62.0% 35.5% 2.5%**

59.8% 33.8% 6.4%

66.0% 31.4% 2.5%**

62.7% 30.8% 6.5%

* Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.10. ** Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.05. Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-5.18. Provision of Other Work-Life Benefits by FMLA Coverage Status: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered Establishments Child Care Assistance** Yes No Depends on circumstances Elder Care Assistance** Yes No Depends on circumstances Flexible Work Schedules Yes No Depends on circumstances Employee Assistance Program** Yes No Depends on circumstances Adoption Assistance** Yes No Depends on circumstances Workplace Provisions for Lactation* Yes No Depends on circumstances 47.2% 51.0% 1.8% Percent of Non-covered Establishments 13.5% 83.8% 2.7% Percent of All Establishments 17.2% 80.2% 2.6%

16.9% 82.1% 1.0%

3.0% 94.8% 2.2%

4.5% 93.4% 2.1%

61.3% 26.0% 12.7%

71.6% 23.0% 5.4%

70.5% 23.4% 6.2%

53.3% 45.1% 1.5%

13.9% 84.1% 2.0%

18.2% 79.8% 2.0%

20.5% 77.5% 1.9%

1.9% 97.0% 1.1%

3.9% 94.9% 1.2%

35.5% 53.0% 11.6%

21.2% 76.7% 2.1%

22.7% 74.2% 3.1%

* Difference between covered and non-covered establishments is significant at p<.10. ** Difference between covered and non-covered establishments is significant at p<.05. Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-5.19. Provision of Other Work-Life Benefits by Size of Covered Establishment: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered Establishments With: Establishment Provides Leave For: Child Care Assistance Yes No Depends on circumstances Elder Care Assistance Yes No Depends on circumstances Flexible Work Schedules* Yes No Depends on circumstances Employee Assistance Program** Yes No Depends on circumstances Adoption Assistance Yes No Depends on circumstances Workplace Provisions for Lactation Yes No Depends on circumstances 1-250 Employees 46.6% 51.6% 1.8% 16.4% 82.7% 0.9% 61.6% 26.1% 12.3% 251+ Employees 58.5% 39.7% -25.8% 71.9% -56.7% 24.1% 19.2%

All Covered Establishments

47.2% 51.0% 1.8% 16.9% 82.1% 1.0% 61.3% 26.0% 12.7%

52.1% 46.4% 1.5% 20.5% 77.6% 1.9%

74.9% 22.1% -21.6% 76.2% --

53.3% 45.1% 1.5% 20.5% 77.5% 1.9%

34.9% 53.2% 12.0%

45.5% 49.9% 4.6%

35.5% 53.0% 11.6%

** Difference between covered and non-covered establishments is significant at p<.05. -- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. Note. Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-5.20. Additional Benefits Offered by Employers (as Reported by Employees): 2000 Survey Percent of Employees Yes Flextime Flexplace/telecommuting Job sharing Referral services for child care Vouchers for child care Onsite child care Referral services for elder care Adoption assistance Employee Assistance Program Paid parental leave Workplace provisions for lactation -- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. Source: 2000 Survey of Employees. 44.7% 16.1% 24.6% 18.5% 6.2% 8.7% 12.6% 8.4% 43.4% 29.0% 13.9% No 53.4% 82.3% 74.7% 81.4% 93.6% 91.1% 87.3% 91.5% 56.3% 69.9% 85.4% Depends 1.9% 1.6% 0.7% ------1.1% 0.7%

Table A2-5.21. Benefits Perceived as Most Important by Employees: 2000 Survey Percent of Employees Reporting that Three or More (1) Benefits are Offered 60.1% 16.4% 18.3% 11.7% 3.3% 7.1% 7.1% -38.4% 25.0% 3.3%

Which two are most important to you? Flextime Flexplace/telecommuting Job sharing Referral services for child care Vouchers for child care Onsite child care Referral services for elder care Adoption assistance Employee Assistance Program Paid parental leave Workplace provisions for lactation indicate two benefits as most important. -- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

(1) Percentages do not sum to 100% because respondents were asked to

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CHAPTER 6 TABLES NOT DISPLAYED IN TEXT

Table A2-6.1. Methods Used to Inform Employees of Their Rights Under FMLA by Establishment Size: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered (1) Establishments With: 1−250 − Employees Employee handbook* Notice on bulletin board Memos Computer network, Intranet, or e-mail Oral notification Some other method 92.2% 92.4% 62.4% 31.2% 80.9% 20.5% 251+ Employees 87.3% 92.4% 64.0% 43.8% 83.9% 26.1%

All Covered Establishments 91.9% 92.4% 62.5% 32.0% 81.0% 20.9%

(1) Does not total to 100% because respondent could select more than one.

* Difference between size categories is significant at p<.10. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

Table A2-6.2. Awareness of FMLA Notice Among Covered Employees: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered Employees Aware of FMLA Employees reporting there is/was a notice posted that explains FMLA Employees reporting there is/was not a notice posted that explains FMLA Employees who do not know if there is/was a notice posted that explains FMLA Source: 2000 Survey of Employees. 55.8% 23.6% 20.6%

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Table A2-6.3. Management Practices for FMLA Leave: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered Establishments Establishment Requires Employees To: Provide medical documentation for covered leave due to a serious health condition Yes No Depends on circumstances Use their paid leave before taking unpaid leave Yes No Depends on circumstances Establishment Provides Employees: Alternative work arrangements instead of leave Yes No Depends on circumstances Written notice of how much FMLA leave they have taken Yes No Depends on circumstances Written notice of how the Act is coordinated with preexisting leave and benefit policies Yes No Depends on circumstances Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments. 43.4% 33.4% 23.2%

92.0% 3.4% 4.6%

63.2% 30.8% 5.9%

82.3% 15.0% 2.7%

92.6% 6.1% 1.3%

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Table A2-6.4. Frequency That a Leave for Family and Medical Reason is Not Classified as FMLA Leave: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered Establishments 0.7% 3.8% 27.8% 36.0% 27.6% 4.2%

Leave is Not Classified as FMLA: All of the time Most of the time Some of the time Rarely Never Establishment does not maintain records

Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

Table A2-6.5. Most Frequently Used Method to Cover Work When an Employee Takes Leave for a Week or Longer: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered Establishments That Reported More Than One Method 74.5% 18.0% -2.4% -4.3%

Establishment Covers Work By:

Assigning work temporarily to other employees Hiring an outside temporary replacement Hiring a permanent replacement Putting work on hold until the employee returns from leave Having the employee perform some work while on leave Some other method -- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Note: Limited to establishments that reported more than one method. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-6.6. Comparing Covered Establishments with 50-99 Employees to Non-covered Establishments with 25-49 Employees: Methods Used to Cover Work When Employees Take Leave: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered (1) Establishments With: 1−250 − Employees Assign work temporarily to other employees Hire an outside temporary replacement** Hire a permanent replacement Put work on hold until the employee return from leave Have the employee perform some work while on leave* Cover work some other way 98.2% 39.8% 4.3% 15.1% 8.7% 10.9% 251+ Employees 99.1% 68.5% 6.6% 23.9% 13.3% 5.2%

All Covered Establishments 98.3% 41.3% 4.4% 15.5% 9.0% 10.6%

(1) Does not total to 100% because respondent could select more than one.

* Difference between size categories is significant at p<.10. ** Difference between size categories is significant at p<.05. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

Table A2-6.7. How Work is Covered When Employees Take Leave: 1995 and 2000 Surveys Percent of Leave-Takers Work Was Covered By: Assigning it to other employees* Hiring a permanent employee** Hiring an outside temporary employee** Leaving work for when employee returned 1995 Survey 72.3% 6.3% 16.8% NA 2000 Survey 76.5% 9.0% 12.7% 47.1%

* Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.10. ** Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.05. NA Indicates item not asked in 1995 survey. Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees.

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Table A2-6.8. Methods Used Most Often When Employees Take Leave: 2000 Survey Percent of Leave-Takers Reporting More than One Method of Covering Work 55.2% 9.1% 13.4% 22.3%

Method Most Often Used Assigning it to other employees Hiring a permanent employee Hiring an outside temporary employee Leaving work for when employee returned Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A2-6.9. Usefulness of Provisions in Managing Employee Use of Leave by FMLA-Covered Establishments: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered Establishments Exception for Highly Paid Key Employees Very useful Somewhat useful Not at all useful Written Medical Certifications Very useful Somewhat useful Not at all useful Second and Third Medical Opinions Very useful Somewhat useful Not at all useful Advance Notice of Foreseeable Leave Very useful Somewhat useful Not at all useful Transfer to Alternative Position Very useful Somewhat useful Not at all useful 8.3% 48.4% 43.3%

55.1% 36.8% 8.1%

18.0% 53.0% 29.0%

61.6% 32.0% 6.5%

16.2% 63.5% 20.3%

Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-6.10. Effects of FMLA-Related Administrative Activities by Establishment Size: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered Establishments With: Establishment Provides Leave For: Maintaining Additional Record-Keeping** Very/Somewhat easy Very/Somewhat difficult Determining Whether the Act Applies to the Organization Very/Somewhat easy Very/Somewhat difficult Determining Whether Certain Employees are Eligible** Very/Somewhat easy Very/Somewhat difficult Coordinating State and Federal Leave Policies Very/Somewhat easy Very/Somewhat difficult Coordinating the Act with Other Federal laws Very/Somewhat easy Very/Somewhat difficult Coordinating the Act with Other Leave Policies Very/Somewhat easy Very/Somewhat difficult Coordinating the Act with Employee Attendance Policies Very/Somewhat easy Very/Somewhat difficult Administering FMLA’s Notification, Designation, and Certification Requirements Very/Somewhat easy Very/Somewhat difficult Determining if a Health Condition is a Serious Health Condition Under FMLA Very/Somewhat easy Very/Somewhat difficult 1−250 − Employees 251+ Employees

All Covered Establishments

63.4% 36.6%

41.8% 58.2%

62.0% 38.0%

85.4% 14.6%

93.8% 6.2%

86.0% 14.0%

84.0% 16.0%

73.5% 26.5%

83.4% 16.6%

56.7% 43.3%

63.1% 36.9%

57.1% 42.9%

47.2% 52.8%

47.2% 52.8%

47.2% 52.8%

60.0% 40.0%

58.9% 41.1%

59.9% 40.1%

66.2% 33.8%

54.9% 45.1%

65.5% 34.5%

45.5% 54.5%

47.2% 52.8%

45.6% 54.4%

57.8% 42.2%

56.2% 43.8% 57.0% 43.0%

57.7% 42.3% 63.6% 36.4%

Overall Ease of Complying with FMLA Very/Somewhat easy 64.0% Very/Somewhat difficult 36.0% ** Difference between size categories is significant at p<.05. Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments. A-2-55

Table A2-6.11. Effects of FMLA-Related Administrative Activities by Standard Industrial Classification: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered Establishments Manufacturing Maintaining Additional RecordKeeping Very/Somewhat easy Very/Somewhat difficult Determining Whether the Act Applies to the Organization Very/Somewhat easy Very/Somewhat difficult Determining Whether Certain Employees are Eligible Very/Somewhat easy Very/Somewhat difficult Coordinating State and Federal Leave Policies Very/Somewhat easy Very/Somewhat difficult Coordinating the Act with Other Federal Laws** Very/Somewhat easy Very/Somewhat difficult Coordinating the Act with Other Leave Policies Very/Somewhat easy Very/Somewhat difficult Coordinating the Act with Employee Attendance Policies Very/Somewhat easy Very/Somewhat difficult Administering FMLA’s Notification, Designation, and Certification Requirements Very/Somewhat easy Very/Somewhat difficult Retail Service All Other Industries All Establishments

61.6% 38.4%

54.6% 45.4%

70.9% 29.1%

58.7% 41.3%

62.0% 38.0%

86.7% 13.3%

78.1% 21.9%

82.2% 17.8%

92.0% 8.0%

86.0% 14.0%

82.1% 17.9%

72.3% 27.7%

91.8% 8.2%

82.3% 17.7%

83.4% 16.6%

66.5% 33.5%

53.1% 46.9%

63.9% 36.1%

51.4% 48.6%

57.1% 42.9%

55.3% 44.7%

51.1% 48.9%

65.4% 34.6%

29.7% 70.3%

47.2% 52.8%

65.9% 34.1%

71.2% 28.8%

57.9% 42.1%

55.0% 45.0%

59.9% 40.1%

69.4% 30.6%

63.1% 36.9%

74.9% 25.1%

58.5% 41.5%

65.5% 34.5%

54.0% 46.0%

51.0% 49.0%

58.7% 41.3%

31.2% 68.8%

45.6% 54.4%

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Table A2-6.11. Effects of FMLA-Related Administrative Activities by Standard Industrial Classification: 2000 Survey (continued) Percent of Covered Establishments Manufacturing Determining if a Health Condition is a Serious Health Condition Under FMLA Very/Somewhat easy Very/Somewhat difficult Overall Ease of Complying with FMLA Very/Somewhat easy Very/Somewhat difficult Retail Service All Other Industries All Establishments

60.7% 39.3%

57.8% 42.2%

67.7% 32.3%

49.3% 50.7%

57.7% 42.3%

67.4% 32.6%

72.4% 27.6%

62.9% 37.1%

59.2% 40.8%

63.6% 36.4%

** Difference between economic sectors is significant at p<.05. Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-6.12. Effects of Complying with FMLA on Business and Employee Performance by Establishment Size: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered Establishments With: 1−250 − Employees Business Effects Productivity* Positive effect Negative effect No noticeable effect Profitability** Positive effect Negative effect No noticeable effect Growth Positive effect Negative effect No noticeable effect Employee Effects Productivity Positive effect Negative effect No noticeable effect Absences* Positive effect Negative effect No noticeable effect Turnover Positive effect Negative effect No noticeable effect Career Advancement Positive effect Negative effect No noticeable effect Morale Positive effect Negative effect No noticeable effect 15.9% 16.9% 67.2% 4.5% 18.1% 77.4% 5.4% 8.7% 85.8% 3.8% -95.8% 23.4% 11.0% 65.7% 14.1% 22.2% 63.8% 10.3% 30.7% 59.0% 9.7% 2.8% 87.5% 5.5% -93.5% 36.7% 13.8% 49.5% 15.8% 17.2% 67.0% 4.8% 18.9% 76.3% 5.7% 8.4% 85.9% 3.9% -95.6% 24.2% 11.1% 64.7% 6.7% 15.7% 77.6% 2.5% 9.0% 88.6% 2.5% 10.0% 87.5% 14.3% 26.1% 59.6% 4.6% 23.5% 71.9% 4.1% 4.9% 91.0% 7.1% 16.3% 76.5% 2.6% 9.8% 87.6% 2.6% 9.7% 87.7% 251+ Employees

All Covered Establishments

* Difference between size categories is significant at p<.10. ** Difference between size categories is significant at p<.05. -- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-6.13. The Impact of Intermittent Leave Taken Under FMLA on Covered Establishments by Size: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered Establishments With: 1−250 − Employees Productivity Large negative impact Moderate negative impact Small negative impact** No impact* Small positive impact Moderate positive impact Large positive impact Profitability Large negative impact** Moderate negative impact** Small negative impact** No impact** Small positive impact Moderate positive impact Large positive impact 251+ Employees

All Covered Establishments 0.5% 12.2% 5.4% 81.2% --&

-12.0% 4.8% 82.3% --&

3.2% 14.6% 14.5% 65.7% --&

-1.5% 3.8% 94.5% -& &

1.2% 5.5% 10.7% 81.7% --&

0.1% 1.7% 4.2% 93.7% --&

* Significant at p<.10, using a t-test. ** Significant at p<.05, using a t-test. & Indicates no significance test was conducted because of zero cell. -- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. Note. Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-6.14. Changes in Costs Due to FMLA Since Coverage Began by Establishment Size: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered Establishments With: 1−250 − Employees Administrative Costs Increased Decreased Did not change Cost of Continuing Benefits During Leave (e.g., health plans)** Increased Decreased Did not change Hiring/Training Costs Increased Decreased Did not change 41.9% -58.0% 251+ Employees 63.3% & 36.7%

All Covered Establishments 43.4% -56.6%

26.9% -73.0%

45.7% -54.0%

28.1% -71.8%

21.6% -78.3%

35.6% -64.3%

22.5% -77.4%

** Difference between size categories is significant at p<.05. & Indicates no significance test was conducted because of zero cell. -- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-6.15. Changes in Costs Due to FMLA in Past 18 Months by Size: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered Establishments With: 1−250 − Employees Administrative Costs** No increase Small increase Moderate increase Large increase Cost of Continuing Benefits During Leave (e.g., health plans)** No increase Small increase Moderate increase Large increase Hiring/Training Costs** No increase Small increase Moderate increase Large increase 50.2% 40.5% 8.5% -251+ Employees 24.0% 41.2% 28.6% 6.2%

All Covered Establishments 48.6% 40.6% 9.7% 1.2%

65.0% 25.2% 9.0% --

43.9% 23.8% 31.6% --

63.7% 25.1% 10.3% 0.8%

67.1% 26.6% 5.7% --

48.3% 28.9% 20.4% 2.4%

65.9% 26.8% 6.6% 0.7%

** Difference between size categories is significant at p<.05. -- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-6.16. Change in Costs Due to FMLA in Past 18 Months: 1995 and 2000 Surveys Percent of Covered Establishments 1995 Survey Administrative Costs No increase Small Increase Moderate Increase Large Increase Cost of Continuing Benefits During Leave (e.g., health plans) No increase Small Increase Moderate Increase Large Increase Hiring/Training Costs No increase Small Increase Moderate Increase Large Increase 76.3% 18.5% 4.2% 1.0% 65.9% 26.8% 6.6% 0.7% 52.8% 36.4% 9.4% 1.4% 48.6% 40.6% 9.7% 1.2% 2000 Survey

65.8% 27.6% 5.2%** 1.5%

63.7% 25.1% 10.3% 0.8%

** Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.05. Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-6.17. FMLA-Related Cost Savings by Establishment Size: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered Establishments With: Cost Savings:** Yes No 1−250 − Employees 7.5% 92.5% 251+ Employees 16.3% 83.7%

All Covered Establishments 8.1% 91.9%

** Difference between size categories is significant at p<.05. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

Table A2-6.18. FMLA-Related Cost Savings: 1995 and 2000 Surveys Percent of Covered Establishments Cost Savings: Yes No 1995 Survey 2.5%** 97.5%** 2000 Survey 8.1% 91.9%

** Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.05. Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Establishments.

Table A2-6.19. Cost Savings Associated with FMLA Compliance: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered Establishments Decreased turnover Increased employee morale Other cost savings -- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments. 77.4% -21.7%

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Table A2-6.20. Establishments Having FMLA Leave-Takers Not Returning to Work: 1995 and 2000 Surveys Percent of Covered Establishments Establishments Had Leave-Takers That Did Not Return to Work Yes No 1995 Survey 33.0% 67.0% 2000 Survey 29.8% 70.2%

Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Establishments.

Table A2-6.21. Number of FMLA Leave-Takers Not Returning to Work: 1995 and 2000 Surveys Percent of Covered Establishments With Nonreturning Leave-Takers Number of Leave-Takers Who Did Not Return to Work One** Two** More than two** 1995 Survey 85.4% 7.8% 6.8% 2000 Survey 52.6% 22.0% 25.4%

** Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.05. Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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CHAPTER 7 TABLES NOT DISPLAYED IN TEXT

Table A2-7.1. Standard Industrial Classification of Establishments Not Covered Under FMLA: 1995 and 2000 Surveys 1995 Survey % 6.2% 22.1% 38.1% (N) 404,609 1,450,036 2,497,445 % 4.5% 18.4% 35.1% 41.9% 2000 Survey (N) 283,506 1,159,619 2,211,895 2,640,982

Establishment Standard Industrial Classification Manufacturing Retail Service

All other industries 33.5% 2,195,718 Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Establishments.

Table A2-7.2. Size of Establishments Not Covered Under FMLA: 1995 and 2000 Surveys 1995 Survey Establishments With: Less than 10 employees 11 – 24 employees 25 – 49 employees % 82.5% 12.4% 5.1% (N) 5,403,060 812,378 332,370 % 80.3% 15.9% 3.8% 2000 Survey (N) 5,056,694 999,829 239,479

Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-7.3. Family and Medical Leave Policies by State Laws: Reasons for Which Up to 12 Weeks of Leave is Provided: 2000 Survey Percent of Establishments in a State: With Family and Medical Leave Laws Without Family and Medical Leave Laws

Establishment Provides Leave For: Employee’s Own Serious Health Condition Yes No Depends on circumstances Mother’s Maternity-Related Reasons Yes No Depends on circumstances Parents to Care for Newborn Yes No Depends on circumstances Parents for Adoption or Foster Care Placement Yes No Depends on circumstances Care of Child, Spouse, or Parent for Serious Health Condition Yes No Depends on circumstances All FMLA Reasons Yes No

65.3% 21.5% 13.2% 68.9% 22.0% 9.1% 51.8% 33.6% 14.6%

68.7% 20.9% 10.4% 59.7% 25.5% 14.8% 47.9% 33.2% 18.9%

43.8% 36.6% 19.6%

42.9% 34.6% 22.4%

56.2% 29.6% 14.2%

59.0% 28.6% 12.4% 34.4% 65.6%

33.1% 66.9% Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-7.4. Methods Used to Cover Work When an Employee Takes Leave for a Week or Longer by Coverage Status: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered Establishments 98.3% 41.3% 4.4% 15.5% 9.0% 10.6% Percent of Non-covered Establishments 86.2% 32.9% 7.3% 31.3% 21.7% 9.6% Percent of All Establishments 87.5% 33.8% 6.9% 29.6% 20.3% 9.7%

Establishment Covers Leave By: Assigning work temporarily to other employees** Hiring an outside temporary replacement Hiring a permanent replacement Putting work on hold until the employee returns from leave** Having the employee perform some work while on leave** Some other method

** Difference between covered and non-covered establishments is significant at p<.05. Note: Percents do not total to 100% because a respondent could answer “yes” to more than one source. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-7.5. Effects of Current Family and Medical Leave Policies on Establishment and Employee Performance Among Non-covered Establishments: 2000 Survey Percent of Non-covered Establishments Business Performance Productivity Positive effect Negative effect No noticeable effect Profitability Positive effect Negative effect No noticeable effect Growth Positive effect Negative effect No noticeable effect Employee Performance Productivity Positive effect Negative effect No noticeable effect Absences Positive effect Negative effect No noticeable effect Turnover Positive effect Negative effect No noticeable effect Career Advancement Positive effect Negative effect No noticeable effect Morale Positive effect Negative effect No noticeable effect 25.6% 9.3% 65.1% 17.2% 9.6% 73.2% 18.2% 5.1% 76.8% 15.1% -83.5% 37.3% 5.0% 57.7% 23.3% 5.8% 70.9% 11.3% 17.5% 71.2% 9.8% 13.0% 77.2%

-- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-7.6. Non-covered Establishments’ Anticipated Impact of FMLA on Business and Employee Performance: 2000 Survey Percent of Non-covered Establishments Business Performance Productivity Positive effect Negative effect No noticeable effect Profitability Positive effect Negative effect No noticeable effect Growth Positive effect Negative effect No noticeable effect Employee Performance Productivity Positive effect Negative effect No noticeable effect Absences Positive effect Negative effect No noticeable effect Turnover Positive effect Negative effect No noticeable effect Career Advancement Positive effect Negative effect No noticeable effect Morale Positive effect Negative effect No noticeable effect 17.2% 40.0% 42.8% 8.2% 31.5% 60.4% 9.0% 25.2% 65.9% 11.8% 17.6% 70.5% 24.6% 23.9% 51.5% 9.9% 50.5% 39.6% 6.4% 51.1% 42.5% 7.2% 38.6% 54.2%

Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-7.7. Non-covered Establishments’ Anticipated Cost of FMLA: 2000 Survey Percent of Non-covered Establishments Administrative Costs No increase Small Increase Moderate Increase Large Increase Hiring/Training Costs No increase Small Increase Moderate Increase Large Increase Litigation Costs No increase Small Increase Moderate Increase Large Increase Would There Be Any Cost Savings? Yes No 8.9% 91.9% 34.5% 23.4% 28.6% 13.5% 28.5% 26.3% 31.1% 14.0%

57.7% 18.8% 12.6% 10.9%

Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-7.8. Anticipated Effects of Complying with FMLA Among Non-covered Establishments: Business and Employee Performance: 1995 and 2000 Surveys Percent of Non-covered Establishments 1995 2000 Survey Survey Business Effects Productivity Positive effect Negative effect No noticeable effect Profitability Positive effect Negative effect No noticeable effect Growth Positive effect* Negative effect No noticeable effect* Employee Effects Productivity Positive effect Negative effect* No noticeable effect** Absences Positive effect Negative effect No noticeable effect Turnover Positive effect Negative effect** No noticeable effect* Career Advancement Positive effect* Negative effect** No noticeable effect** Morale Positive effect Negative effect No noticeable effect 12.2% 31.0% 56.8% 7.8% 28.1% 64.0% 11.4% 14.9% 73.7% 6.0% 8.5% 85.5% NA NA NA 17.2% 40.0% 42.8% 8.2% 31.5% 60.4% 9.0% 25.2% 65.9% 11.8% 17.6% 70.5% 24.6% 23.9% 51.5% 7.0% 46.8% 46.1% 5.5% 46.5% 48.0% 3.6% 33.8% 62.6% 9.9% 50.5% 39.6% 6.4% 51.1% 42.5% 7.2% 38.6% 54.2%

* Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.10. ** Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.05. NA Indicates item was not asked in 1995 survey. Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-7.9. Anticipated Impact of Complying with FMLA: Business Costs: 1995 and 2000 Surveys Percent of Non-covered Establishments 1995 Survey Administrative Costs No increase Small increase Moderate increase Large increase Hiring or Training Costs No increase Small increase Moderate increase** Large increase Litigation Costs No increase Small increase Moderate increase Large increase Cost Savings Yes** No** 35.2% 22.4% 25.5% 16.9% 2000 Survey 28.5% 26.3% 31.1% 14.0%

43.2% 20.8% 17.8% 18.2%

34.5% 23.4% 28.6% 13.5%

NA NA NA NA 4.2% 95.8%

57.7% 18.8% 12.6% 10.9% 8.9% 91.1%

** Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.05. NA Indicates item was not asked in 1995 survey. Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-7.10. Family and Medical Leave Policies by FMLA Coverage Subgroup Status: Reasons for Providing Up to 12 Weeks of Unpaid Leave: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered Establishments with 50-99 Employees Percent of Non-covered Establishments with 25-49 Employees

Reasons for Providing Leave: Employee’s Own Serious Health Condition Yes No Depends on circumstances Mother’s Maternity-Related Reasons Yes No Depends on circumstances Parents to Care for Newborn* Yes No Depends on circumstances Parents for Adoption or Foster Care Placement Yes No Depends on circumstances Care of Child, Spouse, or Parent for Serious Health Condition* Yes No Depends on circumstances All FMLA Reasons** Yes No or Depends on circumstances

90.9% -4.6%

82.2% 11.8% 6.0%

90.3% 5.5% 4.2%

75.7% 11.6% 12.6%

88.1% 6.5% 5.4%

68.5% 17.0% 14.5%

83.1% 10.5% 6.4%

67.8% 22.1% 10.1%

90.0% 4.5% 5.5%

75.5% 16.0% 8.5%

81.6% 18.4%

59.6% 40.4%

* Difference between subgroups is significant at p<.10. ** Difference between subgroups is significant at p<.05. -- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-7.11. Family and Medical Leave Policies by FMLA Covered Subgroup Status: Continuation of Health Benefits: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered Establishments with 50-99 Employees Employee’s Own Serious Health Condition Yes No Depends on circumstances Mother’s Maternity-Related Reasons Yes No Depends on circumstances Parents to Care for Newborn Yes No Depends on circumstances Parents for Adoption or Foster Care Placement Yes No Depends on circumstances Care of Child, Spouse, or Parent for Serious Health Condition Yes No Depends on circumstances Percent of Non-covered Establishments with 25-49 Employees

89.0% -8.8%

89.2% -8.6%

90.5% -8.2% 88.2% -9.1%

90.6% -6.7% 89.5% 3.5% 7.0%

87.5% -9.4%

88.7% -7.9%

85.8% -9.9%

85.9% -11.9%

-- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. Notes: Includes establishments that provide up to 12 weeks of leave for each reason. Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-7.12. Family and Medical Leave Policies by FMLA Coverage Status: Reasons for Which Job Return is Guaranteed: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered Establishments with 50-99 Employees Employee’s Own Serious Health Condition Yes No Depends on circumstances Mother’s Maternity-Related Reasons Yes No Depends on circumstances Parents to Care for Newborn Yes No Depends on circumstances Parents for Adoption or Foster Care Placement Yes No Depends on circumstances Care of Child, Spouse, or Parent for Serious Health Condition* Yes No Depends on circumstances Percent of Non-covered Establishments with 25-49 Employees

95.6% -4.1%

82.9% -14.2%

96.9% -2.9%

94.9% -3.5%

95.1% -4.6%

94.4% -3.7%

94.9% -4.2%

86.0% -13.1%

93.5% -3.7%

72.3% -25.6%

* Difference between subgroups is significant at p<.10. -- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. Notes: Includes establishments that provide up to 12 weeks of leave for each reason. Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-7.13. Provision of Leave Beyond that Guaranteed by FMLA by Coverage Subgroup Status: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered Establishments with 50-99 Employees More Than 12 Weeks Per Year Yes No Depends on circumstances Employees Who Have Worked for Establishment Less Than 12 Months* Yes No Depends on circumstances Employees Who Have Worked for Less Than 1,250 Hours in the Past Year** Yes No Depends on circumstances 18.2% 55.9% 25.8% Percent of Non-covered Establishments with 25-49 Employees 17.9% 36.0% 46.2%

25.1% 54.1% 20.9%

17.9% 40.2% 41.9%

22.9% 56.6% 20.5%

17.7% 38.6% 43.7%

* Difference between subgroups is significant at p<.10. ** Difference between subgroups is significant at p<.05. Note: Percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-7.14. Provision of Additional Leave for Additional Reasons by FMLA Coverage Subgroup Status: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered Establishments with 50-99 Employees Percent of Non-covered Establishments with 25-49 Employees

Establishment Allows Additional Leave For: Attending School Meetings or Activities Yes − Separate from other leave Yes − Not separate from other leave No Depends on circumstances Routine Medical Appointments for Self and Family** Yes − Separate from other leave Yes − Not separate from other leave No Depends on circumstances

46.8% 24.5% 16.1% 12.5%

59.9% 17.7% 12.5% 9.9%

40.8% 40.1% 8.3% 10.7%

62.4% 30.7% 4.6% --

** Difference between covered and non-covered establishments is significant at p<.05. -- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

Table A2-7.15. Continuation of Other Benefits During Leave by FMLA Coverage Subgroup Status: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered Establishments with 50-99 Employees Percent of Non-covered Establishments with 25-49 Employees

Establishment Continues: Contributions to Pension or Retirement Yes No Depends on circumstances Contributions to Life or Disability Insurance Yes No Depends on circumstances

43.8% 39.8% 16.4%

44.8% 43.8% 11.4%

74.8% 16.0% 9.2%

75.8% 15.8% 8.4%

Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-7.16. Continuation of Pay During Leave by FMLA Coverage Subgroup Status: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered Establishments with 50-99 Employees 68.3% 21.1% 10.6% Percent of Non-covered Establishments with 25-49 Employees 67.6% 19.4% 13.0%

Establishment Continues Pay For: Paid Sick Leave Yes No Depends on circumstances Paid Disability Leave Yes No Depends on circumstances Paid Vacation Yes No Depends on circumstances Other Paid Time Off** Yes No Depends on circumstances

56.2% 22.9% 21.0%

53.3% 30.9% 15.9%

90.3% -8.1%

87.8% ---

44.3% 52.0% 3.6%

26.7% 71.1% --

** Difference between subgroups is significant at p<.05. -- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-7.17. Continuation of Pay During Leave by FMLA Coverage Subgroup Status: Reasons for Which Pay is Continued: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered Establishments with 50-99 Employees 19.8% 4.1% 21.0% 55.1% Percent of Non-covered Establishments with 25-49 Employees 26.5% 14.4% 25.5% 33.6%

Establishment Continues Pay During Leave For: Parents to Care for Newborn Full pay Partial pay Depends on circumstances No Pay Parents for Adoption or Foster Care Placement Full pay Partial pay Depends on circumstances No Pay Employee’s Own Serious Health Condition Full pay Partial pay Depends on circumstances No Pay Mother’s Maternity-Related Reasons Full pay Partial pay Depends on circumstances No Pay Care of Child, Spouse, or Parent for Serious Health Condition Full pay Partial pay Depends on circumstances No Pay

15.3% 2.7% 20.7% 61.4%

20.3% -17.8% 48.6%

37.8% 10.0% 22.5% 29.7%

31.0% 16.6% 29.1% 23.3%

32.3% 10.2% 19.4% 38.1%

31.9% 13.0% 25.8% 29.3%

22.0% -21.8% 53.9%

25.7% 11.6% 28.7% 34.0%

-- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-7.18. Provision of Other Work-Life Benefits by FMLA Coverage Status: 2000 Survey Percent of Percent of Covered Non-Covered Establishments with Establishments with 50-99 Employees 25-49 Employees Child Care Assistance* Yes No Depends on circumstances Elder Care Assistance** Yes No Depends on circumstances Flexible Work Schedules** Yes No Depends on circumstances Employee Assistance Program** Yes No Depends on circumstances Adoption Assistance** Yes No Depends on circumstances Workplace Provisions for Lactation Yes No Depends on circumstances 35.2% 62.4% -18.2% 81.4% --

9.4% 89.8% --

3.2% 96.1% --

60.5% 27.6% 12.0%

76.2% 16.2% 7.6%

41.0% 56.1% 2.9%

17.4% 81.1% --

7.7% 90.2% --

-97.0% --

26.2% 65.7% 8.1%

9.5% 79.4% --

* Difference between subgroups is significant at p<.10. ** Difference between subgroups is significant at p<.05. -- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. Note: Percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-7.19. Comparison of Non-covered Subgroup’s Anticipated Impact of FMLA to Covered Subgroup’s Actual Impact of FMLA: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered Establishments with 50-99 Employees 10.1% 10.2% 79.7% 4.6% 12.8% 82.6% -4.0% 92.8% Percent of Non-covered Establishments with 25-49 Employees -43.1% 49.8% -43.9% 54.2% -33.5% 64.9%

Business Effects Productivity Positive effect Negative effect** No noticeable effect** Profitability Positive effect* Negative effect** No noticeable effect** Growth Positive effect Negative effect** No noticeable effect** Employee Effects Productivity Positive effect Negative effect* No noticeable effect* Absences Positive effect Negative effect No noticeable effect Turnover Positive effect Negative effect* No noticeable effect* Career Advancement Positive effect Negative effect** No noticeable effect* Morale Positive effect Negative effect No noticeable effect

11.7% 14.4% 73.9% 5.8% 15.6% 78.6% 7.5% -89.8% 4.1% -94.8% 26.9% 7.3% 65.7%

13.2% 35.1% 51.6% 6.2% 33.1% 60.7% 6.7% 23.4% 69.9% 5.4% 6.8% 87.8% 22.7% 21.1% 56.2%

* Difference between subgroups is significant at p<.10. ** Difference between subgroups is significant at p<.05. -- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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Table A2-7.20. Comparison of Non-covered Subgroups’ Anticipated Cost of FMLA to Covered Subgroups’ Actual Cost of FMLA: 2000 Survey Percent of Covered Establishments with 50-99 Employees Administrative Costs No increase** Small Increase Moderate Increase Large Increase** Hiring/Training Costs No increase** Small Increase Moderate Increase** Large Increase** 70.1% 18.6% 9.3% -29.0% 15.8% 43.7% 11.5% 46.8% 39.2% 13.2% -Percent of Non-covered Establishments with 25-49 Employees 17.3% 49.3% 26.4% 7.0%

** Difference between subgroups is significant at p<.05. -- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases. Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding. Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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