Are you sure?
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
absolute maximum  the greatest yvalue that a function achieves
absolute minimum  the smallest yvalue that a function achieves
absolute value 
x if x 0
( )
x if x<0
f x
≥ ¦ ¹
=
´ `
¹ )
acceleration  the rate of change of the velocity with respect to time
amplitude  In periodic functions, the height of the function at the maximum to the middle line
antiderivative  an indefinite integral
antidifferentiation  the process of evaluating an indefinite integral
approximation  a number which serves as an estimate of a desired number
arccosine function  the inverse of the cosine function
arcsine function  the inverse of the sine function
arctangent function  the inverse of the tangent function
asymptote  a line related to a given curve such that the distance from the line to a point on the curve
approaches zero as the distance of the point from an origin increases without bound
average rate of change  derived as the ratio of the differences between the initial and final values of the
two quantities constituting the ratio
average value 
1
( )
b
a
f x dx
b a −
∫
axis of rotation  a line around which some body or curve rotates
axis of symmetry  a line araound which a geometric figure is symmetrical
base (exponential and logarithmic)  the number which, raised to the power of a given logarithm,
produces a given number
bounded above  if there exists a number u such that ( ) f x u ≤
bounded below  if there exists a number l such that ( ) f x l ≥
bounded  a restriction on the range of a function
Cartesian coordinate system  a coordinate system in which the position of a point is determined by its
relation to reference lines called axes
Chain Rule  a method of obtaining the derivative of a composite function
circle  the set of points in a plane that are equidistant from a given point
circular functions  function obtained from the unit circle
closed interval [a,b]  a x b ≤ ≤
coefficient  the product of all the factors in an expression except for a specified factor
complex number  a number of the type , where i is a bi + 1 − and a and b are real numbers
composition  the operation that forms a single function from two given functions by applying the
second function to the value of the first for any argument; it is only defined when the range of the first is
contained in the domain of the second
concave down  having a decreasing derivative as the independent variable increases; having a negative
second derivative
concave up  having an increasing derivative as the independent variable increases; having a positive
second derivative
conic section  one of a group of curves formed by the intersection of a plane and a right circular cone
constant function  a function that is a fixed numerical value for all elements of the domain of the
function
constant of integration  an arbitrary constant term in the expression of the indefinite integral of a
function
continuity at a point  a function that is continuous on both the left and right side at that point
continuity on an interval  a function that is continuous at every point on the interval
continuous function  a function such that the following is true:
1. exists lim ( )
x a
f x
→
2. exists ( ) f a
3. = ( ) f a lim ( )
x a
f x
→
coordinate axes  one of the lines used to locate a point in a coordinate system in terms of its
perpendicular or angular distance from them
cosecant function  the reciprocal of the sine function
cosine function  the ratio x/r with r being the distance of (x, y) from the origin
cotangent function  the reciprocal of the tangent function
critical point  any ordered pair (x, y) where or is undefined ( ) 0 f x ′ =
critical value  any x values where or is undefined ( ) 0 f x ′ =
crosssectional area  a plane geometric configuration formed by cutting a given figure with a plane
which is at right angles to an axis of the figure
decay models  applications where the rate of change of a variable y is proportional to the value of y and
is negative
decreasing function  when x<y, ( ) ( ) f x f y ≥
decreasing on an interval  for all x in [a, b], ( ) 0 f x ′ <
definite integral  the expression for the evaluation of the indefinite integral of a positive function
between two limits of integration
delta notation ( )  a finite increment in the value of a variable ∆
derivative  the slope of the tangent line at a point on a curve
difference quotient  a ratio of the form
( ) ( f x x f x
x
+ ∆ −
∆
)
differentiability  if a function has a welldefined derivative for each element of the domain
differential  an increment in a given function; an infinitesimal change in a function of one or more
variables, resulting from a small change in the variables
differential equation  an equation that contains derivatives or differentials of a function
differentiation  the process of finding the derivative of a function
discontinuity  a point or value of the independent variable at which the value of a function is not equal
to its limit as the value of the independent variable approaches that point, or where it is not defined
disk method  in finding the volume of a solid of revolution, use one of the following depending on the
axis of revolution  for a horizontal axis of revolution, for a vertical axis of
revolution
2
[ ( )]
b
a
R x dx π
∫
2
[ ( )]
d
c
R y dy π
∫
distance (from velocity)  ( )
t b
t a
v t dt
=
=
∫
distance formula 
2 2
2 1 2 1
( ) ( x x y y − + − )
domain  the set of all values that can be assumed by the independent variable of a function
dummy variable of integration  a variable occurring in a function, but on which the value of the
function does not depend
dy/dx (Leibniz notation)  notation used for the first derivative of a function
e  also called Euler’ s number, the transcendental number defined as
1
lim 1
n
n
n
→∞
 
+

\ .
ellipse  a closed geometric figure shaped like an elongated circle and symmetric about two axes of
different lengths; eccentricity is between 0 and 1
end behavior – or lim ( )
x
f x
→∞
lim ( )
x
f x
→−∞
endpoint extremum  when an absolute maximum or minimum occurs at the endpoint of the interval for
which the function is defined
even function  f(x) = f(x)
exponent laws 
( )
1
0
1
a b a b
b
a a
a
a b
b
x x x
x x
x
x
x
x x
x
+
−
=
=
=
=
=
b
exponential growth and decay  If y is a differentiable function of t such that y>0 and y’=ky, for some
constant k, then , where C is the initial value of y, and k is the proportionality constant. Growth
occurs when k>0, and decay occurs when k<0.
kt
y Ce =
exponential function  any function closely related to the exponential function, and in particular ,
for any a
x
y a =
extremum  the local and global maximums and minimums of a function
factorial  the function that computes the product of the first n natural numbers, written n!
First Derivative Test  when testing critical values, if the first derivative changes from negative to zero
to positive, then that critical value is a local minimum of the function. If the first derivative changes
from positive to zero of negative, then that critical value is a local maximum of the function.
frequency of a periodic function  the number of times that a periodic function repeats itself in every unit
of the independent variable; the reciprocal of the period of the function
function  a relation such that each element of the domain has one and only one element of the range.
Fundamental Theorem of Calculus  Expresses the relationship between integration and differentiation,
namely that if the integral exists, and a function F(x) also exists for which in [a,
b], then .
( ) f x dx
∫
( ) F a
( ) ( ) F x f x ′ =
( ) ( )
b
a
f x dx F b = −
∫
graph  a diagram showing a relationship between two variables
growth models  applications where the rate of change of a variable y is proportional to the value of y
and is positive
growth rate  the rate at which a function is increasing
halflife  the amount of time that is needed for half of a substance to decay
hyperbola – a geometric figure produced by cutting a cone by a plane parallel to the axis of rotation of
the cone; eccentricity is greater than 1
imaginary number  a number in the form of bi, where 1 = − i
implicit differentiation  the differentiation of an implicit function with respect to the independent
variable
increasing function  when x<y, ( ) ( ) f x f y ≤
increasing on an interval  for all x in [a, b], ( ) 0 f x ′ >
increment  a positive or negative change in a variable; used to mean small change
indefinite integral  an integral without any specified limits, whose solution includes an undetermined
constant C; antiderivative
infinite limit  a limit in which f(x) increases or decreases without bound as x approaches c
inflection point  a point where a function changes concavity; also, where the second derivative changes
signs
initial condition  a boundary condition involving a differential equation at the beginning of the relevant
time period
initial value problem  a problem involving a boundary condition involving a differential equation at the
beginning of the relevant time period
inscribed rectangle  a rectangle whose area lies entirely inside a geometric figure or curve; all vertices
of the rectangle lie on the curve
instantaneous rate of change  the rate of change of a function occurring at or associated with a given
instant, or as a limit as a time interval approaches zero; the derivative
instantaneous velocity  the rate of change of the position function occuring as a limit as a time interval
approaches zero; the derivative of the position function
integer  a number that may be expresses as the sum or difference of two natural numbers
integrable function  a function that possesses a finite integral; the function must be continuous on the
interval of integration
integrand  the function that is integrated in an integral
integration  the process by which an antiderivative is calculated
integration by substitution  in integrating composite function, either using pattern recognition or change
of variables to perform the integration
Intermediate Value Theorem  If f is continuous on the closed interval [a, b] and k is any number
between f(a) and f(b), then there is at least one number c in [a, b] such that f(c) = k.
interval  a set containing all real numbers or points between two given real numbers or points
inverse function 
1
( ) f x
− 1 1
( ( )) ( ( )) f f x f f x x
− −
= =
irrational number  a number that cannot be written as an integer or as a quotient of two integers
Law of Cosines  in an oblique triangle,
2 2 2
2 cos c a b ab C = + −
Law of Sines  in an oblique triangle,
sin sin sin A B
a b c
= =
C
lefthand limit  the value that a function is approaching as x approaches a given value through values
less than x
lefthand sum  a rectangular sum of the area under a curve where the domain is divided into sub
intervals and the height of each rectangle is the function value at the leftmost point of the subinterval
limit of integration  either of the endpoints of an interval over which a definite integral is to be
evaluated
limit  the value that the function is approaching as x approaches a given value; the left and righthand
limits must agree
limit at infinity  the value the function approaches as x increases or decreases without bound
linear function  a function that a can be expressed in the form ( ) f x mx b = +
linear approximation  approximating the value of a function by using the equation of the tangent line at
a point close to the desired point
local linearization  zooming in at a point on the graph of a function until the function approaches the
tangent line at that point
local extrema  local maximums and minimums of a function
log log log
log log log
log log
log 1
log 1 0
b b
b b
n
b b
b
b
mn m n
m
m n
n
m n m
b
= +
= −
=
=
=
b
b
local linearity  if a functionf(x) is differentiable at x = a, then, close
to a, its graph resembles the tangent line at a
logarithm laws 
logarithmic function  the function y= that is the inverse of the exponential function log
a
x
x
y a =
lower bound  a function is bounded below on a given domain if there is a number m such that m f
for all x in the domain
( ) x ≤
maximum  the highest value of a function for each value of the domain
mean value 
1
( )
b
a
f x dx
b a −
∫
Mean Value Theorem for Definite Integrals  If f is continuous on [a, b], then at some point c in [a, b],
1
( ) ( )
b
a
f c f x dx
b a
=
−
∫
Mean Value Theorem for Derivatives  If y = f(x) is continuous at every point of the closed interval [a,
b] and differentiable at every point of its interior (a, b), then there is at least one point c in (a, b) at
which
( ) ( )
( )
f b f a
f c
b a
−
′ =
−
middle sum  a rectangular sum of the area under a curve where the domain is divided into subintervals
and the height of each rectangle is the function value at the midpoint of the subinterval
midpoint formula 
1 2 1 2
) ( ,
2 2
m m
x x y y
x y
+ +
= ( , )
x
minimum  the smallest value of a function for each value of the domain
monotonic  a function is increasing(decreasing) for every point in the domain
motion  any change in the position of a body
natural logarithm  the function is the inverse of the exponential function ln y =
x
y e =
nonremovable discontinuity  a discontinuity c of the function f for which f(c) cannot be redefined so
that l im ( ) ( )
x c
f x f c
→
=
normal line  a line perpendicular to a tangent line at the point of tangency
numerical derivative  an approximation of the derivative of a function using a numerical algorithm
numerical integration  an approximation of the integral of a function using a numerical algorithm
odd function  ( ) ( ) f x f x − = −
onetoone function  a function in which each element of the range has one and only one element of the
domain
open interval (a,b)  a x b < <
optimization  in an application, maximizing or minimizing some aspect of the system being modeled
order of a derivative  if y is a function of x,
dy
y
dx
′ = is the first order, or first, derivative of y with
respect to x
origin  the point (0, 0) in the Cartesian coordinate plane
parabola  a type of conic that is ushaped and has eccentricity equal to 1
parallel curves  in a plane, curves that differ from one another by a vertical translation or shift
parameter  a dummy variable, usually t, that is the independent variable in function x and y where x =
f(t) and y = g(t)
partition of an interval  dividing an interval into n subintervals
percentage error 
approximate value  exact value
100
exact value
X ; relative error x 100
period  the smallest positive number p for which f(x + p) = f(x) for every value of x
periodic function  a function for which there is a smallest positive number p for which f(x + p) = f(x)
for every value of x
perpendicular curves  two curves that have perpendicular tangents at the point of tangency
piecewisedefined function  a function that is defined by applying different formulas to different parts
of its domain
polynomial  an expression in the form
1
1 1
...
n n
n n
a x a x a x a
−
−
+ + +
0
+
′
position function  a function f that gives the position f(t) of a body on a coordinate axis at time t
prime notation  if y = f(x), then both and denote the derivative of the function with
respect to x
( ) f x ′ y′ ( ) f x ′
Product Rule  ( ) uv uv vu ′ ′ = +
proportionality  a relationship between four numbers or quantities in which the ratio of the first pair
equals the ratio of the second pair
quadrant  any of the four sections into which the coordinate plane is divided by the coordinate axes,
counted counterclockwise
quadratic formula 
2
4
2
b b ac
x
a
− ± −
=
Quotient Rule 
2
u vu u
v v
′
′ ′ −  
=

\ .
v
radian  a unit of measurement of angles; the angle between two radii that cut off on the circumference
of a circle an arc equal in length to the radius
radius of a circle  a segment from a the center of the circle to a point on the circle
range  the set of yvalues that the function takes on for each xvalue in the domain for which the
function is defined
rate of change  the amount of change divided by the time it takes
rational function  a function that can be expressed as the quotient of two polynomial functions
real number  any rational or irrational number
rectangular coordinates  a system for the representation of a point in a plane or in space in terms of its
distance, measured along a set of mutually perpendicular axes, from a given origin
region (in a plane)  a connected subset of twodimensional space, such as the set of points (x, y)
enclosed by equations of functions and boundary points
related rates  an equation involving two or more variables that are differentiable functions of time can
be used to find an equation that relates the corresponding rates
relative error  a measure of the difference between a number b and an estimate z given by the ratio of
a b − to b ; for a quantity Q, the ratio of
dQ
Q
relative maximum  a function has a relative maximum if the derivative changes signs from positive to
zero to negative
relative minimum  a function has a relative minimum if the derivative changes signs from negative to
zero to positive
removable discontinuity  a discontinuity c of the function f for which can be (re)defined so that
( ) f c
lim ( ) ( )
x c
f x f c
→
=
Riemann sum  A sum of the form where f is a continuous function on a closed interval [a,
b]: c is some point in, and ∆ the length of, the kth subinterval in some partition of [a, b]
1
( )
n
k
k
f c x
=
⋅ ∆
Σ k
k k
x
righthand limit  the limit of f as x approaches c from the right, or lim ( )
x c
f x
+
→
righthand sum  a rectangular sum of the area under a curve where the domain is divided into sub
intervals and the height of each rectangle is the function value at the right endpoint of the subinterval
root of an equation  zero of a function; a solution of the equation f(x)=0 is a zero of the function f or a
root of the equation or a xintercept of the graph
roundoff error  error due to rounding
secant function  the reciprocal of the cosine function
secant line  a line through two points on the curve
second derivative  the derivative of the first derivative
Second Derivative Test  If and , then f has a local maximum at . If
and , then has a local minimum at .
( ) 0 f c ′ = ( ) 0 f c ′′ <
x c =
x c = ( ) 0 f c ′ =
( ) 0 f c ′′ >
separable differential equation  a differential equation in which f can be expressed as a
product of a function of x and a function of y
( , ) y f x y ′ =
set  a collection of any kind of objects
sigma notation = notation using the Greek letter capital sigma, , for writing lengthy sums in compact
form
Σ
Simpson’s Rule  a method af approximating to an integral as a sum of quadratic terms
sine function  the trigonometric function that is equal in a rightangled triangle to the ratio of the side
opposite the given angle to the hypotenuse
slope  the steepness of a line; the ratio of the rise of a line divided by the run of a line between any two
points; the tangent of the angle between the direction of the line and the xaxis
solid (in 3space)  having, or relating to, three dimensions
solid of revolution  the solid figure generated by revolving a plane region around a line
speed  the absolute value or magnitude of velocity
sphere  a set of points equidistant from a given point
subset  a set of all the members of which are members of some given set
symmetry  for a curve to have
(1) symmetry about the xaxis, the point (x, y) must lie on the curve if and only if (x, y) lies on the
curve
(2) symmetry about the yaxis, (x, y) must lie on the curve if and only if (x, y) lies on the curve
(3) symmetry about the origin, (x, y) must lie on the curve if and only if (x, y) lies on the curve
tangent function  a trigonometric function that in a rightangled triangle is the ratio of the length of the
side opposite the given angle to that of the adjacent side
tangent line  to the graph of a function y = f(x) at a point x = a where exists, the line through (a,
f(a)) with slope
f ′
( ) f a ′
transcendental function  a function that is not algebraic; example are: trigonometric, inverse
trigonometric, exponential, and logarithmic functions
Trapezoidal Rule  A method of approximating to an integral as the limit of a sum of areas of trapezoids
trigonometric function  any of a group of functions expressed in terms of the ratios of the coordinates of
the points on the circumference of a circle centered on the origin and the radius as the latter sweeps out
that angle
usubstitution  a method of integration in which is rewritten as by
substituting u = g(x) and
( ( )) ( ) f g x g x dx ′ ⋅
∫
( ) f u du
∫
( ) du g x dx ′ =
unit circle  a circle of radius 1 whose center is at the origin
upper bound  a function is bounded above on a given domain if there is a number M such that
for all x in the domain ( ) f x M ≤
velocity  the rate of change of position with respect to time
vertex  any point of intersection of two sides of a polygon or plane surfaces of a solid
viewing window  on a graphing calculator, the portion of the coordinate plane displayed on the screen
volume by slicing  a method for finding the volume of a solid by evaluating where A(x)
(assumed integrable) is the solid cross section area at x
( )
b
a
A x dx
∫
xaxis  the horizontal axis of the Cartesian coordinate system
xintercept  the xcoordinate of the point where a curve intersects the xaxis
yaxis  the vertical axis of the Cartesian coordinate system
yintercept  the ycoordinate of the point where a curve intersects the yaxis
zero of a function  a solution of the equation f(x) = 0 is a zero of the function f or a root of the equation
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Use one of your book credits to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.