You are on page 1of 212

ASPECTS FOR ARRANGING FOR DRUM CORPS: IT'S ALL ABOUT THE MUSIC!!! by JOHN A. LEGGETT, B.M.

A THESIS IN MUSIC THEORY Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of Texas Tech University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF MUSIC

Approved

Chairperson of the Committee

Accepted

Dean of the Graduate School May, 2004

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Thank You, LORD for granting me the strength to realize my dreams, my destiny, and how I may serve others Thank you Dr. Michael Stoune for your extreme patience, fatherly advice and determination in the creation of this project. To Dr. Paul Cutter, a professor that I admired ...I respect the both of you and will always remember you with a smile on my face. There are no words to express how the both of you influenced my life. To Dr. Edward Pearsall, a music theorist with a Heart of Gold and the passion of a true musician. Without your leadership and genuine concern in my academic life, I would have never achieved my dream. Thank You Drs. Peter Fischer and Thomas Hughes...for your compassion, advice, and tutelage to help me "stay the course." I could not ask for a better choice of advisors on this project. To Joan Arlene Mueller (deceased) ...you taught me to believe in and help others in a way that I will always treasure ...I will always miss you.

To my daughter Tracy, you taught me to love and protect those that are special to me and to go forth and make a difference. I will always love you. To my wife (deceased) Donna Jean ...as every day passes, I realize how much you mean to me and what I meant to you. As my life goes on, I patiently wait until we meet again under the arches of Vahalla. To G-Angel....for showing me what is and what can be....I will always love you and be your friend. To those who participate (d) in the Summer Music Games, DCA and Especially Syracuse Brigadiers....May the Contest Always Continue Project is for All of You. This

Ill

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF MUSICAL EXAMPLES CHAPTER I. JUSTIFICATION II. THE BIRTH OF DRUM CORPS INTERNATIONAL (DCI) III. BRASS INSTRUMENTS USED IN DRUM AND BUGLE CORPS CIRCA 1976 IV. ASPECTS OF ARRANGING FOR A DRUM CORPS HORNUNE V. HOW THE CHANNEL ONE Sf/TE ARRANGEMENT WAS CREATED VI. CH/4A//VEL0A/ESL//TE: MELODIC ANALYSIS VII. BLUEPRINT OF CH/\/\//VEL0A/ESL//7E VIII. HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF CHANNEL ONE SUITE IX. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

ii vi vii

1 17

38

52 72 92 118 135 146 150

IV

APPENDIX A. PERMISSION LETTER FROM WARNER BROTHERS PUBLICATIONS B. CHANNEL ONE SUITE SCORE ARRANGED BY JOHN A. LEGGETT

154

156

LIST OF TABLES 1: Distribution of Brass Instruments in DCI Sanctioned Corps 2: Distribution of the Battery in DCI Sanctioned Corps 3: Channel One Suite Mvt. I 4: Channel One Suite Mvt. I 5: Channel One Suite Mvt. I 6: Channel One Suite Mvt. I 7: Channel One Suite MvL II 8: Channel One Suite MvL II 9: Channel One Suite Mvt. II 10: Channel One Suite Mvt. Ill 11: Channel One Suite M\n. Ill 12: Channel One Suite Mvt. Ill 13: Channel One Suite Mvt. Ill 58 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134

55

VI

LIST OF MUSICAL EXAMPLES

1. Table of Octaves 2. Soprano Bugle Written and Sounding Ranges 3. French Horn Bugle Overtone Series 4. French Horn Bugle Written and Sounding Ranges 5. Mellophone Bugle Written and Sounding Ranges 6. Baritone/Euphonium Bugle Written and Sounding Ranges 7. Contra Bugle Written and Sounding Range 8. MM. 4-9: Channel One Suite, Mvt. Ill Arr. By John A. Leggett 9. MM. 31-36: Channel One Suite, Mvt. I Arr. By John A. Leggett 10. MM. 18-25: Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett 11. MM. 27-34: Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett 12. MM. 23-31: Channel One Suite, Mvt. II Arr. By John A. Leggett 13. MM. 99-100: Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett 14. MM. 10-13: Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett

45 46 47 48 50 52 54

62

62

63

64

64

65

66

vu

15. MM. 55-61: Channel One Suite, Mvt. II Arr. By John A. Leggett 16. MM. 3-7: Channel One Suite, Mvt. II Arr. By John A. Leggett 17. MM. 10-13: Channel One Suite, Mvt. I Arr. By John A. Leggett 18. MM. 9-14: Original Com position, Channel One Suite 19. MM. 10-13: Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett 20. Bass Ostinato: MM. 15-16, Original Composition Channel One Suite 21. Bass Ostinato, Contra, MM. 14-15, Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett 22. Saxophone Section: MM. 41-49, Channel One Suite 23. Mellophone Section: MM. 41-49, Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett 24. 3/4, 3/8 and12/8 Time Alterations, MM. 79-85, Original Composition, Channel One Suite 25. 6/8 Time Alterations: MM. 87-93, Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett 26. MM. 8-15, Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett 27. Trumpet Section: MM. 119-127. Original Composition, Channel One Suite

69

70

71 76

77 78

78 79

79 81

82

83

84

vni

28. Soprano I and II: MM. 23-31, Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett 29. Flute Section: MM. 128-133, Original Composition, Channel One Suite 30. Mellophone Section: MM. 32-37, Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett 31. Bass Guitar: MM. 128-131, Channel One Suite 32. MM. 32-35, Contra, Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett 33. Bass Guitar: MM. 36-142, Channel One Suite 34. Rhythmic Alterations Contra, MM. 40-47, Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett 35. 1^' Tenor Sax Solo: MM. 143-151, Original Composition, Channel One Suite 36. Solo Mellophone: MM. 47-55, Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett 37. Saxophone Section: MM. 201-203, Original Composition, Channel One Suite 38. Mellophone Section: MM. 38-41, Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett 39. MM. 53-55, Contra, Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett

85

85

85 86

86 87

87 88

88

91

91

92

IX

40. Form: Mvt. I, Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett 41. Motive 1,MM. 2-3, MvL I, Channel One Suite 42. Motive 1, MM. 2-8, Mvt. I, Channel One Suite 43. Motive 2,MM. 10-13, Mvt I, Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett 44. MM. 10-13: Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett 45. Motive 3, MM. 14-15, MvL I, Channel One Suite 46. Theme A: MM. 18-21, Mvt. I Channel One Suite 47. Motive 4, MM. 27-28, Mvt. I, Channel One Suite 48. Motive 5, MM. 27-33, Mvt. I, Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett 49. Theme A 1 : MM. 40-49, Mvt. I Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett 50. MM. 57-58, MvL I Channel One Suite 51. Theme B: MM. 58-65, MvL I Channel One Suite 52. MM. 38-39, Mvt. I Channel One Suite

94

95

95

96

97

98

99

100

101

102 103

104

104

53. Theme C: MM. 79-82, Mvt. I Channel One Suite 54. Form: Mvt. II, Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett 55. Theme A: MM. 1-5, MvL II Channel One Suite 56. Theme A: MvL I Channel One Suite 57. Theme B: MM. 7-15, Mvt. II Channel One Suite 58. Theme C: MM. 15-23, Mvt. II Channel One Suite 59. Theme A1: MM. 23-31, MvL II C/7anne/One Suite 60. Section B: MM. 32-37, Mvt. II, Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett 61. Theme D: MM. 39-43, MvL II Channel One Suite 62. Theme B2: MM. 47-55, Mvt. II Channel One Suite 63. Theme C I : MM. 55-57, MvL II Channel One Suite 64. Ad. Lib. Soprano Solo, MM. 61-64, Mvt. II, Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett 65. Form: Mvt. Ill, Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett
XI

104

105

106

106

106

107

108

108

109

109

110

110

Ill

66. Motive A: MM. 4-6, Mvt. Ill, Channel One Suite 67. Motive B: MM. 15-16, Mvt. Ill, Channel One Suite 68. Motive 4: MM. 27-28, Mvt. I, Channel One Suite 69. Theme A3: MM. 5-13, MvLIII, Channel One Suite 70. Motive B1: MM. 15-17, MvL III, Channel One Suite 71. Complex Call and Response: MM. 22-30, Mvt. Ill, Channel One Suite 72. Section A 1 : MM. 33-41. Brass Reduction, Mvt. Ill, Channel One Suite 73. Variant of Motive A: Motive A^ 74. Theme C: MM. 47-51, MvL III, Channel One Suite 75. Theme B1: MM. 62-67, Mvt. Ill, Channel One Suite 76. Section A3: MM. 69-72, Mvt. Ill, Channel One Suite

111

112

112

113

114

115

116 117

117

118

119

Xll

CHAPTER I JUSTIFICATION

Within the past two decades, the drum corps movement in North America (United States and Canada) has influenced its counterparts in the United Kingdom ^England, Scotland), Europe ^(Belgium, Germany, Sweden, France, the Netherlands), South Africa^ (Eastern Gauteg Province, Western Cape, and Kwazulu-Natel Province) and Southeast Asia ^(Philippine Islands, Republic of China, Japan and Indonesia). The majority of the corps use music arranged specifically for the Individual corps by American composers/arrangers. The aspects of arranging music for a drum corps detailed in this project can be utilized by any corps worldwide whether it is large or small.

^ Steven Hars, "United Kingdom." A History of Drum and Bugle Corps. Vol. 2 (Madison: Sights & Sounds, Inc., 2003) pp. 132-139. 2 Hans Kloppert, "Europe." A History of Drum and Bugle Corps. Vol. 2 (Madison: Sights & Sounds, Inc, 2003) pp. 120-125. ^Retha Cillers, "South African Field Band Foundation." A History of Drum and Bugle Corps. Vol. 2 (Madison: Sights & Sounds, Inc., 2003) pp. 126-125. ''Christopher Atkinson, "Southeast Asia." A History of Drum and Bugle Corps. Vol. 2 (Madison: Sights & Sounds, Inc., 2003) pp. 128-131.

This project is designed to offer a method of arranging for the drum corps hornline based on a logical thought process, using comprehensive methods and techniques that have never before been presented in an organized manner.

Review of Literatiir^ Publicationss Over the past six decades, many different periodicals have been published on the subject of drum and bugle corps in the United States, Canada and Europe. This section will focus on those periodicals published in America after the 1971 change in the activity from military emphasis to more creativity and pageantry. Though the periodicals (and websites) are devoted to various aspects of drum corps, the concepts of arranging music for a drum corps hornline have not been part of the discussion.

5 Steve Vickers, "Drum Corps Periodicals." A History of Drum and Bugle Corps. Vol. 2 (Madison: Sights & Sounds, Inc., 2003) pp. 92-99.

The general contents of the major periodicals remained consistent throughout their lifetime. These periodicals covered current news about various drum corps circuits and associations. Other articles included reviews of previous drum corps shows and show scores. The repertoire of the corps was also included in the articles. Drum Corps America began publication in April of 1971, by Drum Corps America Enterprises of Racine, Wisconsin. Edward Porcaro, director of the Racine Kilties was the publisher. The magazine was moved to Pennsylvania and renamed The Marching Musician in May of 1976. It ceased publication in 1977 after eight issues. In January 1965, Drum Corps Digest Association of Glenview, Illinois, published its first monthly issue of Drum Corps Digest. The publication used unusual page designs, black type on black background, a variety of large headline typefaces to call attention to features. The magazine dropped from circulation in 1973. Drum Corps News began publication in 1961 by Raymond Samora of Lynn, Mass. It was the second-longest-running drum corps publication in the history of the activity. It sponsored the World Open Drum Corps

Championships from the early 1960's to the mid-1970's. Drum Corps News ceased publication in 1985. Drum Corps World was originally published in Denver, Colorado in October 1971 .This first issue was distributed at the American Legion Uniformed Groups Congress (the first Drum Corps International meeting) in Indianapolis, Indiana. One of the founders of the newspaper was Jim Jones, founder and director of the Casper Troopers. Drum Corps World has existed for over thirty-two years and is the longest running drum corps publication. Its current publisher is Steve Vickers of Madison, Wisconsin. Drum Corps Today is the only publication ever produced by Drum Corps International (DCI). It began publication in 1974 under the name Contest Guild and was printed quarterly until 1977. In 1978, the publication title was changed to its current name. The tabloid newspaper produced issues six times a year until 1995 when DCI ceased publication. In 1996, Sight & Sounds, Inc. began to resumed publication under the title, DCI Today on a schedule of three times per year. A History of Drum and Bugle Corps is a two-volume compilation set written and published by Steve Vickers, editor and publisher of Drum

Corps World. Volume One contains seventeen chapters covering all aspects (with the exception of brass and percussion composition and arranging) of the drum corps activity from 1920s to 2001. Volume Two covers a brief history of field musicians from the wars in Ancient Greece to the War between the States. Examples of other chapters discuss United States, and Canadian Senior Corps, ^ the history of senior corps, and drum corps in the armed forces. The remainder of the volume presents the history of various drum corps from Canada, Europe, South Africa, Southeast Asia and the United Kingdom. Though the compilation is the chief source general information for this project, it does not contain any material or articles for the subject of arranging for a drum corps hornline.

6 Senior corps minimum age limit is 14 years of age with unlimited maximum age requirement. Drum Corps Associates has elected to drop the name Senior from its titles.

Information Superhighway Since the advent of Internet, drum corps periodicals have almost ceased to exist in hardcopy form. Drum Corps International changed its information format from hardcopy to its current website, WWW.DCI.Org.7 in 1995. This website provides information about current corps news, drum corps scores, event calendar, online store, various articles, and a directory to DCI member corps websites. Various drum corps have created their own websites to provide information about their organizations, repertoire, instructional staffs, and corps history. The sites may also include members' only sections for the corps members to discuss issues or topics that are related to the corps or the activity. Other websites include group or forum formats where drum fans and members may discuss current issues of the activity. These sites include www.drumcorpsplanet.com ^ ar\ti Recreational Arts: Marching Drum Corps (RAM-D) ^ located through Google.com.

^ Drum Corps International Monday 08 Dec 2003 WWW.DCI.Org ' Drum Corpsplanet.com Monday 08 Dec 2003 www.drumcorpsplanet.com 5 Rec.Arts. Marching Drum Corps Monday 08 Dec 2003 WWW.google.com, Recants. Marching Drum Corps.

The search engines, Google, First Search, WorldCat, and keywords: Drum Corps-Music-arranging produced no articles for drum corps brass arranging.

Scores The arrangements used by drum corps are the property of the writer and are used by the corps. No copies of any arrangement are available for study unless the requesting individual(s) is on staff with the said corps and their position entitles them access to any scores. There are no models or requirements for arranging for a drum corps hornline.

Aspects of Arranging Though the drum corps media has evolved with the activity, the author has been unable to find articles published on the subject of arranging music for the drum corps horn line. Arrangers learn their craft through observation, score study, experimentation with voicing, and information passed on from one arranger to another. Since corps arrangements have become more highly

valued by school music teachers, a discussion of the techniques is needed which is the principal purpose of this project.

Sample Arrangement The arrangement to be used is William Reddle's Channel One Suite. The piece is in three movements: Fast-Slow-Fast. The arrangement will be analyzed using traditional and contemporary techniques. Graphic illustrations will be used to demonstrate the effects of texture, dynamics, and tessitura of the arrangement. Samples of various tonal colors will also be presented in support of the arrangement.

Analvsis of the Three Movements The analysis of the movements of the arranged score will include harmonic analysis and chord functions. In addition, any ostinatos, polyphony, and any unique harmonic devices (i.e., chord planning) will be discussed. Any motives, motivic fragments, themes and variants of themes will be identified and discussed.

Blueprint of Channel One^ .q/f/f^ The writer may elect to create a flowchart of the composition before the start of the arrangement. The flowchart or blueprint serves several functions: 1. It can be used as a guide in the analysis of the composition to determine the composer's intent. 2. It may be used to map out the arrangement in graphic form, which makes it easier to assemble or rearrange various sections in the arrangement. 3. It may be used as a musical storyboard for the percussion, visual and auxiliary designers. It is a tool that other designers may use to support the musical program through their medium. 4. In order to use the flowchart, the writer must understand its makeup. There are seven (7) basic components of the flow chart^:

^ Robert Garofalo. Blueprint for Band. (Ft. Lauderdale: Meredith Music, c.1983) pp. 32-38.

A. Form Schemei. Used to determine if the composition belongs to a standard form (i.e., sectional, variational, developmental, imitative, dance, free, multi-movement or a combination (hybrid) of the aforementioned forms). ii. Used to determine sections, periods and phrases in relationship to melodic and harmonic materials. ill. Other considerations within form are balance, continuity, variety, number and relationship of movements, and total length of movements and sections. B. Melodic Design-Used to indicate, identify, and locate main themes, subordinate themes and counter-melodies.

10

C. Rhythmic Elements-Used to indicate tempo as a factor for general moods (Slow- tragic, majestic, heavy), identify and locate various meters, special rhythmic devices (ostinatos, hemiolias, polyrhythms, syncopation, etc.). D. Bandstration(*)-used to indicate instrumentation of thematic materials and harmonic accompaniment materials. E. Harmonic Structure-Indicates tonal (key) or pitch centers, and important cadences, modulations and chord progressions. F. Texture-lf desired, indicate the basic textures of sections and subsections. G. Dynamic Curve-Indicate important dynamics, especially climaxes. It may be helpful to include a graphic curve illustration of the overall dynamic scheme.

*Term developed by Garofalo.

11

The writer may construct a flowchart using any additional components that she (or he) feels necessary. For this project, the author has modified Garofalo's flowchart for the bugle instrumentation. Tempo markings and meters are located in the form section where they occur in the music. Bandstration has been replaced by Primary Contrapuntal Instrumentation (which is defined in the next section). Harmonic Structure has also been replaced by Harmony and is defined in the next section. The identification of the types and styles texture replaces the basic texture format. The format for the Dynamic Curve has been re-defined and is discussed in the next section. This modified format allows musicians and non-musicians the opportunity to intimately study the arrangement and work toward coordination of all elements (brass, percussion, visual, and auxiliary) with the aural presentation of the program.

12

Interpreting the Flowchart The author suggests reading the flowchart as follows: 1. Form-The double bars mark the movements. The vertical bars of shorter lengths mark the sections. The horizontal brackets and numbers indicate in the number of measure within the section. The sections are identified with a capital letter at the beginning of the brackets. 2. Melody-Indicates the location of the main themes, subordinate themes and countermelodies in correlation of the measures. 3. Rhythmic Elements-Primary rhythmic/special devices or ideas of the melody are located in this area in (correlation of the measures). 4. Primary Contrapuntal InstrumentationPrimary rhythmic/special devices or ideas of the accompaniment located in this area (in correlation of the measures).

13

5.Harmonic Structure-(Though chord progressions would be listed in this section, for this project they will be discussed in the next chapter). The various types of voicing and rhythms used in correlation of the measures are presented in this location. 6.Texture-The various styles and types of texture are presented in correlation of the measures and instrument(s) it affects. 7. Dynamic Curve-Graphic illustration indicating dynamic markings, texture density and aural shaping of the arrangement in correlation of the measures. Graphics will illustrate the density of texture (thick, thin; bottom, middle or top heavy); volume (loudness, softness) and instrumentation (soprano, mellophone, baritone, euphonium, contra or combination there of) used in the arrangement. These graphics are based upon Robert Garofalo's book entitled, Blueprint For Band.^^

^^ Robert Garofalo, Blueprint for Band. (Ft. Lauderdale: Meredith Music, c. 1983).

14

Creation of the Arrangement There are several methods an arranger may choose to become familiar with a composition before she (or he) begins to put "ink to paper." The arranger may: 1. Listen to a recording of the original composition. This will establish a base for tonal colors, type of textures, and the variety of styles (if any) the composer may have used. 2. Listen to various arrangements of the composition to determine how the arrangement(s) differ from the original composition. Some factors to consider might be tone color, texture, rhythm, style, interpretation and instrumentation. 3. Obtain a copy of the original composition to compare and/or contrast various arrangements. In addition to determining chord structure and function, the arranger may begin to formulate ideas about the arrangement of his (or her) own score.

15

4. The author suggests a combination of the abovementioned methods. The arranger will usually elect to make changes to the original composition in the arrangement. Because of time constraints, the arranger/writer must determine the following: 1. What sections can be omitted from the score (i.e., repeats with multiple endings, incidental phrases). This is based upon their artistic value and interpretation. 2. What additions to the harmonies and/or melodic lines would enhance the arrangement. What additions to tone color, texture and instrumentation strength or reduce the character of the score. 3. What way(s) can changing the meter and/or rhythm(s) of the composition enhance the performance of the arranged score. 4. Since omissions and additions to the arranged score are ongoing, the arranger must be prepared to have subsequent changes in mind.

16

CHAPTER II THE BIRTH OF DRUM CORPS INTERNATIONAL (DCI)

The history of Drum Corps International (DCI) began the summer of 1970 at a locally sponsored drum corps show in Delevan, Wisconsin. The Chicago Cavaliers, the Midwest powerhouse, were in competition with the Casper Troopers, the western powerhouse. The Cavaliers' 1960s record included 192 state and local 1^' place awards out of 240 contests. They also earned six Veterans of Foreign War (VFW) National Titles, three American Legion (AL) National Titles between 1948 and 1960. The Troopers 1960s record was six VFW National Titles and three AL National Titles, three World Open Titles, three Catholic Youth Organization (CYO) National Titles, and two North American Open National Titles (NAO). This meeting of the two corps would forever change the history of drum corps. Don W. Warren, founder and director of the Chicago Cavaliers and Jim Jones, founder and director of the Troopers from Casper, Wyoming, leaders of these two icons of the drum and bugle corps activityhappened to be standing next to each other in the men's restroom. Both men discussed problems facing even the most successful and powerdrum 17

corps in the activity. They quickly realized that no drum corps was the master of its own destiny.^ ^ They realized that the inherent power of drum corps, its entertainment value, was in the control of the veterans (VFW and AL) organizations and major show sponsors (CYO and NAO).

Problems with the Activity Among the problems that Warren and Jones wanted to overcome were the numerous inconsistencies throughout the drum corps activity administered by the VFW and the AL Drum Corps Committees. Some examples of these inconsistencies were: 1. The VFW Drum Corps Committee required corps to march 128-132 beats per minute; the AL Drum Corps Committee had no such requirement.

^^William Howard, "Masters of Their DestinyDCI is Established," A History of Drum and Bugle Corps, Vol.1 (Madison: Sights & Sounds, Inc., 2003) 319.

18

2. The AL allowed the use of marching tympanis while the VFW did not. This meant the corps had to change their programs to accommodate the veteran-organizationsponsored VFW or AL event in which they were competing. 3. There was no agreement on any rules between the VFW and the AL. 4. The corps that placed first and second were offered substantial prize money donated by local sponsors while third place and lower corps received miniscule payments. 5. The contest organizers kept most of the money generated from ticket sales and application fees, while the corps saw very little revenue. 6. Corps made no money from the sale of "live" vinyl recordings sold to fans. 7. The Drum Corps Committees of the AL, VFW, CYO, and other major show sponsors made no effort to ease or eliminate scheduling conflicts of the corps.

19

8. At AL and VFW National contests, drum corps were required to go through haircut and uniform inspections as part of the military aspect of the activity. Since most competitions were in the summer while corps members wore wool battle jackets, the exercise was very stressful. 9. Each AL and VFW National contest required corps to carry the respective VFW or AL flag and the name of the sponsoring post painted on one of calfskin head of one of the bass drums. The insignia would crack or peel if the bass drum head was played, rendering it unusable. 10. The VFW National contest mandated a 13 to 15 minute time limit. The AL National contest mandated an 11 to 13 minute time limit. There was a required minimum amount of time that the entire corps had to be moving and a maximum time that the corps was not in motion. A required maximum time limit of five minutes was used to enter the football field and stand on the starting line (left end zone line) as well as a maximum of one minute for the entire

20

corps to cross the finish line (right end zone) once any corps member stepped over this line. 11. The required format for a show was rigidly adhered to: an opening tune, American Flag presentation, concert tune (standstill), out-of-concert or production tune, a drum solo, and an exit piece. 12. Both organizations required a color presentation with the American Flag. All color guard sections of the corps were susceptible to American Flag Code violations. These regulations prohibited certain drill moves causing major flag code violations. 13. All corps members were strictly forbidden to "ground equipment" or place any piece of equipment on the ground. All equipment had to be carried onto the football field and used by the corps members. 14. There were restrictions on what constituted legal drum equipment placed upon the percussion sections. The uses of accessory percussive instruments was not permitted such as temple blocks, maracas, shakers, gurus, etc.

21

15. All performers were assessed a penalty for any dropped pieces of equipment. The penalized performer would continue the show without the equipment. 16. There were mandatory VFW and AL requirements on the state and national level, i.e. every VFW or AL sponsored corps would participate in state and national convention parades. The state parades were typically 6-7 miles in length and lasted about four hours; however, the national parades average 12 miles of stop-and-go movement and last for a minimum of five hours.

Anton Schlechta and the All-American Judges Association The major obstacles to the growth of drum corps were the actions of Anton Schlechta. Schlechta, a World War I veteran, was the administrative "bandmaster" of the Chicago Fire and Police Band. Though he was not a trained musician, Schlechta was one of the founders of the All-American Judges Association whose principal duty was to adjudicate drum corps contests. World War I veterans dominated the All-American

22

Judges Association and placed emphasis on the military aspect of drum corps. By the late 1940s, Schlechta had become chair of the VFW National Drum Corps Committee and had absolute control of all parades, competitions, and contests. He was the dominant figure in the world of competitive drum corps judging before he retired in 1972. Bob Bray, (VFW chair contest committee 1973-1984) stated^^
The All-American [Judges Association] supplied all the judges for everything and Schlechta selected all the judges in All-American. He was a dictator and nobody dared to cross him. He really set the tone for competitive drum corps from World War I era onward and he exerted tremendous power, both in the All-American and in his role as chairman of the contest committee of the VFW. (p.47)

The All-American Judges Association refused to acknowledge that the activity needed change. The Association upheld the idea that old drills (movements), company fronts, American Flag presentations, military haircuts, and other items of the past were still important. In essence, Schlechta controlled all aspects of the drum corps venue.

" Raphael Osheroff and Robert Zinko, "The Big Parade-The Veterans Organizations and the Drum and Bugle Corps Movement," A History of Drum and Bugle Corps^^o\.^ (Madison: Sights & Sounds, Inc., 2003) 46.

23

According to former Drum Corps Associate Senior Corps President Mickey Petrone, "If Schlechta didn't like you, you were in trouble."^^ Military appearance was Schlechta's philosophy of judging, not musicality or drill design. You could judge linear forms only; musical expressions were far less important than military bearing. "Uniformity" of movement, timing, angles of equipment, were the order of the day. The lack of consistent rules between VFW and AL was another issue. The VFW and the AL Drum Corps Committees were run by individuals who never marched in a drum corps within these organizations and were deciding how the corps would judged.^ ^

1" Steve Vickers, "The Big Parade -The Veterans of World War I form a Unique Organization," A History of Drum and Bugle Corps, Vol.1 (Madison: Sights & Sounds, Inc. 2003) 47. 1 5 Rick Beckham, "The Birth, Growth, and Metamorphosis of Competitive Rudimental Drumming," A History of Drum and Bugle Corps, Vol.2 (Madison: Sights & Sounds, Inc. 2003) 57.

24

Another issue was the corps' instructional staffs wanted to expand the creative envelope; from the military judged system where execution, inspection, and precision marching were the deciding factors, to one that allowed more creativity and expression.^^ Schlechta, the All-American Judges Association, and the lack of consistency between the VFW and the AL Drum Corps Committees, plus more creativity and expression were the main reasons that Warren and Jones felt drum corps needed to go in a new direction.

The Development of the Combine Jim Jones and Don Warren sought other corps directors from the midwest and western regions who had the same management qualities they themselves possessed. Jones founded his own construction company in Casper, Wyoming as well as founding the Troopers. Warren was the Vice President of Finance for Kemper Insurance Company in Chicago. They believed the ideal corps director should have the ability and

16 Rick Beckham, "The Birth, Growth, and Metamorphosis of Competitive Rudimental Drumming,"/\ History of Drum and Bugle Corps, Vol. 2 (Madison: Sights & Sounds, Inc., 2003) 57.

25

authority to commit his corps to managerial and financial changes. He had to be able to make hard decisions and stick to them. He had to contribute to the philosophy that the center of power should be the unity of all the corps organizations. Warren and Jones selected three such directors to help further their concept: David Kampschroer, Director of The First Federal Blue Stars of LaCrosse, Wisconsin, Assistant Superintendent of Schools for the city of LaCrosse, William Howard, Director of the Madison Scouts from Madison, Wisconsin. Howard was part owner and vice president of a construction company and Gail Royer, a music educator from Sunnyvale School District of Santa Clara County, California. Royer was the director of The Santa Clara Vanguard. The Blue Stars, Drum Corps wasformed in 1965, and was relatively new to the drum corps activity. Under Kampschroer's leadership, they were financially sound and highly competitive. The Madison Scouts was rescued from peril by Howard after the death of its founder, C. H. Beebe. Howard, an alumnus of the corps, successfully reconstructed the Scouts organization and restored it to its popular status. Jones chose Gail Royer because he was a former marching member of the Troopers and the majority of his instructional

26

staff were former members or instructors of the Troopers. Kampschroer, Howard, and Royer agreed to join Warren and Jones under the group name, "The Combine." The group chose the name Combine to disguise any negative connotations of their activities to any outsiders. The Combine's overall plan was to market the five highly competitive corps as one package directly to the show sponsors. The plan had six tenets: 1. The sponsors would be required to take all five corps or none at all. 2. The allocation of prize money would be on an appearance schedule. 3. This schedule would be in $100 increments from first place to fifth place. 4. The Combine established a set price to the sponsors for all five corps. This fee would cover fuel and mileage from the previous show site to the current site for the corps' convoy.

27

5. The Combine agreed to cancel certain dates if the sponsors tried to bully any of the five corps in the combine or contact any of the corps privately. 6. They also agreed to sponsor their own shows. The first Combine Show was held on July 7 1971 in Michigan City, Indiana. The Santa Clara Vanguard wor\ the event. The plan had a very high risk. Should the sponsors not go for such a plan. Troopers, Cavaliers and Scouts could cease to exist. The three corps could lose their VFW and AL post sponsorships. This meant the loss of renvue for the corps. The corps could be severely penalized by their respective drum corps associations. Penalties might include being invited to fewer shows.. Without sustained income, the corps could lose their line of credit with their financial institutions. The corps would be forced to shut down and sell their inventory to satisfy the banks. Blue Stars and Santa Clara being new would be able to sun/ive such a disaster. The impact of the plan on show sponsors proved to be favorable. At a set cost, a sponsor receives a package of five highly competitive corps at a slightly higher cost than one highly competitive corps and four mid-range corps. The additional cost was to be passed to the drum corps

28

fans. This meant more revenue of ticket sales, commissary and town profits supporting the shows. An example of town profits was food. There were no food trucks during this time. Each corps consisted of 128 hungry teenagers, approximately 12 people on the instructional staff, drivers for three buses, and an equipment truck all had to have three meals a day for each day in town. Laundry service for personal clothes and corps uniforms was needed as well as bus or truck repair, and recreational opportunities. This meant additional money for the small town retailers. In addition, the drum corps fans spent additional money on hotel rooms, meals, sightseeing, besides the admission fee to attend a show where any of the five corps could win on any given night.

The East Coast Version of the Combine The corps on the east coast formed their own alliance after hearing of the Combine. The top five corps aligned themselves as the United Organization of Junior Corps (UOJC). The founding members were George Bonfiglio, Director of the 2 7"" Lancers oi Revere, Massachusetts, and Hugh Mahon, Director of the Garfield Cadets from Garfield, New Jersey.

29

The remaining three east coast corps directors to join were Joe Dowling, Director of the Crusaders from Boston, Massachusetts; Dominic Sciarra, Director of Blue Rock from Wilmington, Delaware, and Fred Dooley, Director of the Blessed Sacrament Golden Knights from Newark, New Jersey. The drum corps community now had two organizations united under the same philosophy.

Protests against the Combine Even though the competition season progressed smoothly for the both organizations, this was not the case for the cigar smoking Warren. Warren became the focal point of hostility for the Illinois Drum and Bugle Corps Association (IBDCA). The IBDCA was one of the strongest circuits within the community with over 60 member corps in Illinois alone. The members felt threatened that the Combine could replace them at any show site causing a loss of what little revenue the corps earned. Since Jones was in Wyoming and Kampschroer, Royer, and Howard were new to the activity, Warren was therefore the likely focal point of the frustration in regards to the Combine. In one incident, Warren was trying to explain the reasons and motivation of the combine to the other members of

30

IBDCA; he was ushered out of the meeting. Another incident was the cartoon of a grain combine operator with a cigar in his mouth crushing a corps member. The caption read, "Drum Corps is dead."

The Theme and Total Show Concept is Created The 1971 season for the Combine was the beginning of "theme" and "total show" concepts. A central idea was the basis of the theme show, while entertainment was the concept of the total show program. The 1971 Madison Scout program was the first theme show ever presented. It was entitled, "Scouts in Fantasyland." The central theme was Alice in Wonderland meets the white rabbit, Pinocchio, and the seven dwarfs. This was the only time a girl marched in the corps. Bonnie, William Howard's daughter, portrayed "Alice." Other examples of this show included the presentation of the American Flag with rifle line acting as toy soldiers while the corps played March of the Toys by Victor Herbert. The closing number was Ding, Dong, the Witch is Dead by Harold Arlen and E.Y. Harburg along with a dancing color guard. The 1971 Cai^a//er program was the unofficially entitled, "The Circus Show" as a total show concept.

31

The original definition of the total show concept was a program that had no related themes in its production. Each selection was an independent theme within itself. The philosophy was to perfectly integrate all elements (brass, percussion, marching & maneuvering, and colorguard) so each element enhanced the others to such a degree that the whole equaled more than the sum of it parts.^^ (Dr. Sward defines the total show concept as "implying that the entire show was created to convey a single story or set of related ideas,thus marking the beginning of a trend toward a musical and visual theme show that allowed the production to be tied together by a single idea or concept rather than a program of totally unrelated music selections."^^) It was initiated in the latter half of the 1970 season by percussion instructor Larry McCormick. McCormick studied Madison's 1970 performance which included Ding, Dong, the Witch is Dead as the closer. He presented his idea to Warren and the staff at the end of the 1970 season.

i^Dr. Rosalie Sward, "The Evolution of Drum and Bugle Corps, Vol.1 (Madison: Sights 1 8 Dr. Rosalie Sward, "The Evolution of Drum and Bugle Corps, Vol.1 (Madison: Sights

Musical and Visual Design," A History of & Sounds, Inc., 2003) 115. Musical and Visual Design," A History of & Sounds, Inc., 2003) 118.

32

The opening number was a series of Irish tunes entitled, A Salute to the Green arranged by Ray Baumgradt, the Madison Scout's brass arranger. The high point of the opener was the Guard Sergeant dancing a solo Irish Jig followed by the rifle line also dancing. The flag presentation was the march, Americans We by Millard Fillmore. Between the musical "dogfight" or interlude before the final section, a soprano/snare drum duet played Yankee Doodle while the hornline ran to a company front set by the flag line. The corps stepped off the front to a ritardando to the final strain. In the concert set, the corps played Eleanor Rigbyby the Beatles, while the performers for the next production changed into costumes. The rest of the program was the actual circus show. The out-of-concert production. The Greatest Show on Earth introduced a three-ring circus, a ringmaster and acts of a juggler, an acrobat, and a clown. During the circus acts, the corps played the songs Man on a Flying Trapeze by George Leybourne and Alfred Lee and There's No Business like ShowBbusiness by Walter Lang. The drum solo featured the four marching tympanis playing the Theme to Peter Gunn by Henry Mancini. The closer was I'm Always Chasing Rainbows by Howard E. Johnson and Somewhere

33

Over the Rainbow by Harold Arlen. The visual strong pointof this tune was four expanding arcs of the hornline and guard representing a rainbow. The clown in a sea of green, white, and black paneled flags as the corps left the field heightened the impact. The bass drum line played the piece Gym Shoes in a Dryer by Jim Russell (the Cavalier street beat) underneath the horns. Russell wrote this piece after listening to a pair of gym shoes tumbling in a dryer at the corps hall above Ferrera's Laundromat. The Cavaliers members had tee shirts made with the caricature of the clown dancing next to a headstone with the inscription, "Drum Corps, R.I.P." Underneath the by-line read, "1971: The Year Drum Corps Died." It was their response to the cartoon criticizers. The Madison Scouts and the Chicago Cavaliers had several characteristics in common while performing these shows: 1. They were all male corps. 2. The strong reputation of their male rifle lines enhanced their performances. 3. They were the only corps performing these types of programs. 4. Both shows were extremely successful.

34

1971 VFW Nationals. Dallas. Texas The stage was now set for the conflict between VFW Drum Corps Rule Committee (Schlechta), the Combine and United Organization of Junior Corps (UOJC) to come to a head at VFW Nationals held at the end of the 1971 drum corps season. Madison had elected to participate in the VFW Nationals in Dallas, Texas. The Cavaliers opted to go further south to AL Nationals in Houston. Schlechta remained in Dallas at the VFW Nationals. Every contest is preceded by a drum corps manager's meeting to discuss the field condition, the judges' assignments or changes, and to field any questions. Neither the VFW nor the AL National Drum Corps Rule Committees had strict rules on the definition of a uniform. Schlechta was in charge of the meeting at Dallas, and since he viewed costumes as nonmilitary wardrobe, he announced that no corps would be permitted to use costumes. If any costumes were used, a two-point penalty for each costume was to be assessed by the timing and penalty judge. This meant that if Madison were to perform with costumes, they would lose 20 points in penalties. The corps directors viewed this edict as an affront and an attack on the drum corps activity. Madison opted to go on without the costume changes than to lose 20 points before the contest began.

35

The Combine and UOJC directors immediately held an impromptu meeting and determined that the time was right to abandon the VFW and the AL and start their own organization. They also agreed to invite three additional corps directors to join the newly formed alliance of Combine and UOJC. The final three corps were: Robert Cobham, Director of the De La Salle Oaklands from Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Glen Opie, Director of the Argonne Rebels from Great Bend, Kansas, and Donald Porter, Sr. Director the Anaheim Kingsmen of Anaheim California.

DCI 1$ Created The next meeting was held in November at the AL Uniformed Group Congress in Indianapolis, Indiana. As the alliance instructors met in the rules sessions, the directors met in secret to work up the details to establish the new organization. The first item was to create a name for the organization. Within a short amount of time, someone suggested "Drum Corps Nationals" but before congratulations were in order, Cobham asked, where did that leave De La Salle? Since the Oaklands were the only Canadian corps invited to join, the name "National" did not seem

36

appropriate. The name "International" replaced National. Drum Corps International (DCI) was born.

37

CHAPTER III BRASS INSTRUMENTS USED IN DRUM AND BUGLE CORPS CIRCA 1976

Two-Valve R i i g l f i - 1 9 7 6 to 1989

In 1975, l/anguarof Director Gale Royer and Madison Scouts Director Bill Howard submitted a proposal entitled. No. 1035, to the Drum Corps International (DCI) Brass Caucus^^to allow the use of a two-valve vertical piston bugle. The proposal stated: Each bugle shall be pitched in the key of G and may have two piston valves or one piston valve and one rotary or two rotary valves used freely to play in two additional keys (Keys not mentioned). Any other variation of these types of instruments and all other types of instruments are illegal. No two -piston soprano bugles may be utilized before the 1977 season. No two-piston bass baritones may be utilized before the 1978 season. No two-piston mellophone, French horns, flugles (no longer used, sic), or contra bass bugles may be utilized before the 1979 season. Note: DCI would like to go on record as being permanently opposed to any three-valve instruments. ^

1 3 The Brass Caucus is a panel of brass instructors and composer/arrangers elected by the DCI member corps directors and brass instructors to set policy for the brass caption. Other caucuses include percussion and visual for their policy-making agendas. ^Drum Corps News, 26 November 1975, p. 13.

38

As brass instrument manufacturers began retooling their assembly lines for the vertical two-valve piston bugle, instrument designers such as Ziggy KanstuI, Jr. (of the E.F. Olds Music Company) and David Peterson (of the Dynasty Bugle Corporation) submitted two and three-valve piston design amendments to the proposal for the Brass Caucus to consider. The manufacturers felt that a three-valve instrument would eliminate the twovalve phase and would be more in line with common bell-front brass instruments. This concept gained approval from local band directors and small corps directors. This was countered by opponents of the threevalve instrument amendment and the lack of finances of smaller corps to afford such instruments.21 The DCI Brass Caucus pushed the proposal through fearing that the three-valve amendment would fail. In 1977, DCI authorized the use of the two-valve soprano. Each following year, DCI permitted a new two-valve voice to be used.

21 Zigmant KanstuI, Letter to Steve Vickers. 20 March 1996.

39

Three-Valve Bugle-1990 to Present In 1990, DCI legalized the use of three-valve bugles. European drum corps had been using three-valve bugles shipped from the United States since 1979. A new proposal (name unknown) for the legalization of threevalve instruments was submitted to the DCI Rules Congress in 1985. An additional amendment attached proposed the use of electronic equipment such as electronic keyboards/synthesizers and amplification equipment (these devices were successfully used by some high-school bands in the California Band Circuit). The proposal was soundly defeated and returned to the Brass Caucus. Since the Rules Congress met every two years, the 1985 proposal was amended in the fall of 1989 for three-valve instruments only. This gained gradual acceptance by the corps directors. The corps that were ready to upgrade their brass instrument inventory had to decide whether to purchase two-valve instruments or wait for DCI to legalize three-valve instruments. This caused the manufacturers to be put in an unstable climate. Purchases of new instruments would have to be made in early fall in order for the corps to have instruments for the winter rehearsal. Again, DCI allowed the corps to upgrade their instrument stock by adding a new three-valve voice every year.

40

The Switch to Any Keyed Three Valve Instrument(s) The DCI Brass Caucus approved the switch to any keyed three-valve brass wind instrument in 2001. By permitting instruments of different keys, the middle horns could be lowered to the key of "D" or "C" and according to some, be permitted to truly bridge the gap between the soprano and baritone voice. ^2

Modern Day Instruments The Table of Octaves ^s shows the range of octaves the instruments to be discussed will play (as shown in Example 1).

22 Bobby Pirtle, "An Interview with Mike Dennis," Tfie Middle Horn Leader (March,

1993) 5.
23 Stephen D. Burton, Orchestration (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.,

1982) 567.

41

Example 1. Octave Register Notation


Table of Octaves

cc

CO

c1 Same R ch

c1

c2

c3

c4

Soprano Voice The Soprano The modern day soprano bugle is similar in design to the trumpet; however, there are several differences between the two instruments: 1. The soprano is two inches shorter than the trumpet. 2. It has a slightly larger lead pipe and tubing than the trumpet. 3. The bore size of the pistons and tones holes is bigger than the trumpet. 4. The soprano sounds a minor third lower than concert pitch.

42

The soprano has three and one-half octave written/sounding range from f# to c'^ (as shown in Example 2). Example 2. Soprano Bugle Written and Sounding Ranges Sopiano ^

m
Written Range Soundhg Range The timbre of the instrument in the low register is rich in overtones but the sound will not travel as far as in the upper register. The middle register is bright and full of overtones with the sound cutting through any other instrument(s). In the altissimo register, the soprano tone quality is more focused yet, with fewer overtones.

Alto Voice The French Horn Before 1957, there was no need for alto voicing in the drum corps horn line. The soprano voicing consisted of the soprano, tenor soprano, and baritone soprano horns.

43

Though the French Horn bugle has mainly been replaced by the mellophone, some east coast corps still use them.^" In 1941, Whaley Royce Company Limited (Ltd.) of Toronto, Ontario, Canada began manufacturing French Horn Bugles. The French horn was the first alto or "middle voice" instrument used in drum corps. The French horn quickly became popular for its ability to sound more notes than any other bugle using the lower portion of the overtone series ^s (as shown in Example 3). This allowed composers/arrangers an additional voice in which to write and create a more realistic four-part harmony. Example 3. French Horn Bugle Overtone Series

2'* Larry Kerchner, Arranger Hawthorne Muchachos Drum Corps. Conversation with Author. 29 Dec 03. 25 Bobby Pirtle, "The Evolution of the Bugle," A History of Drum and Bugle Corps. Vol.1 (Madison: Sights & Sounds, Inc., 2003) 75.

44

By the 1990s, when DCI announced the legalization of the threepiston bugle, the French horn was phased out of the alto voice setting in the majority of the corps; however, it is still in the horn line of some east coast corps. The French horn sounds an octave lower than written pitch and has a written range from f# to e^ (as shown in Example 4). Example 4. French Horn Bugle Written and Sounding Ranges
French Horn ^

Unwritten Range

Sounding Range

Its timbre is like the concert horn: fairly even throughout the range of the instrument. Below g the notes become weak dynamically and unfocused. The altissimo range can be played effectively at forte. The best tone quality occurs between g and g^. The main reason for the demise of the French horn was that it was difficult to control the partials in the mid to upper registers.

45

The Mellnphnnp

In 1957, C. G. Conn Ltd. of Elkhart, Indiana, produced the first bellfront mellophone called the Mellophonium. The body of the instrument was a circular design like the French horn but the instrument is played using a trumpet mouthpiece. This design was similar to the custom-made bell-front instrument used by jazz artist Don Elliott. The Stan Kenton Orchestra used the Mellophoniums both in 1960 and 1963. However, Kenton and his arranger Johnny Richards were not involved in the initial design of the instrument. The Mellophonium received such great success in marching bands that it was inevitable that the concept would be utilized by drum corps.^^ In 1963, Whaley Royce Ltd. introduced the forerunner of the modern day mellophone. The Imperial Mellophone was developed and designed by Dominic Delray, the music director of the Interstatemen Drum and Bugle Corps of Pittsfield, Massachusetts. Delray created the prototype and had Whaley Royce manufacture it in the fall of 1963."

26 Bobby Pirtle, "The Stan Kenton Mellophonium," The Middle Horn Leader May 1993. 27 Whaley Royce Co. Ltd. Drum and Bugle Corps Accessories Catalog, January 1967.

46

The Imperial Mellophone design was similar to that of the flugel horn without the tuneable leadpipe. It was one and half times the size of the soprano. The instrument used a straight bell front as the French horn. In comparison with the French horn bugle, the mellophone is an easier instrument to play. Though the instrument is played with a trumpet mouthpiece, later models of the instrument could be played with a French horn or cornet mouthpiece and a mouthpiece adapter. The modern day mellophone is considered the workhorse of the horn line. It is used as a color instrument, a middle voice solo instrument, and a supporting instrument for lower soprano or middle baritone parts. The register of the Mellophone is the same as the soprano. It sounds a perfect fourth below as the written pitch. It has a three-octave written/sounding range extending from f# to e^ (as shown in Example 5). Example 5. Mellophone Bugle Written and Sounding Ranges Melophone

1 * ^
Written Range Sounding Range

47

The timbre of the instrument is rich in the low range but not very loud. The best quality of tonal color occurs in the middle register. The upper register produces a bright sound with fewer overtones.

Tenor Voice The Bass Baritone In the mid 1950s, the Frank Helton Company of Elkhorn, Wisconsin is said to have produced the first bass baritone bugle.28 The bass baritone bugle (now referred as the baritone bugle), is three times the size of the soprano. The design of the modern day baritone bugle is similar to the baritone horn used in concert band. The main difference between the two instruments is that the valve casing is mounted vertically between the lead pipe and the bell crook. The instrument is played from behind the bell crook like a trumpet. The mouthpiece receiver accepts any trombone or baritone mouthpiece. The baritone sounds one-octave below written pitch. Its written range is three octaves from f# to e^ and a sounding range from F# to e^ (as shown in Example 6).

28 "A History of the G Bugle," WWW. Anchormen.org.uk/

48

Example 6. Baritone/Euphonium Bugle Written and Sounding Ranges Baritone/Euphonum

f
Soundhg Range

VWitten Range

The baritone can be written in bass or treble clef. The timbre of the baritone is a dark tenor sound in the low and middle register. The tone quality is bright and full in the upper range and becomes lighter and focused in the altissimo range.

Bass Voice

The Euphonium The euphonium bugle specifically designed for drum corps use was invented by Whaley Royce, Ltd. in 1964. Its intended purpose was to add a darker tone quality to the low brass section of the hornline. It is three and half times the size of the soprano. The euphonium (like the baritone) sounds one-octave below written pitch. Its written/sounding range is that of the baritone.

49

Contra Bass The contra bass bugle was first fabricated in 1959 by Whaley Royce, Ltd. was similar to concert Eb or BBb tuba. The difference between the two instruments was that the contra bass bugle used the piston/rotor system with a lead pipe designed to play the instrument over the shoulder. The concert tuba is designed to be played upright while sitting. The left hand operated the piston on the contra bass while the right hand operated the rotor and provided additional support to hold the instrument in place. The modern day contra bass (sometimes referred as "Contra") uses a three-valve system (some models have an optional fourth valve) and is pitched two octaves below written pitch. Like the baritone and euphonium, the contra can be written in treble or bass clefs. The written range of the contra is three-octaves from f# to e^ while its sounding range is from F F# to e^ (as shown in Example 7).

50

Example 7. Contra Bugle Written and Sounding Ranges

Contra
ixr

Written Range

Soundhg Range

The timbre of the contra is very dark and rich in the low register. As the instrument moves up the scale, the tone quality becomes lighter.

51

CHAPTER I V ASPECTS OF ARRANGING FOR A DRUM CORPS HORN LINE

Before the composer/arranger (referred as the writer), can begin to write music for the horn line, several factors must be determined: 1. The style of music to played by the drum corps (i.e., jazz, swing, contemporary, or orchestral) and the selection of appropriate musical piece(s). These are determined by the design team of the instructional staff. 2. The writer must know how many horn players the composition going to composed or arranged for and distribution of horns within each section. To prevent the sound of an overbalanced hornline, the author recommends a one to two ratio of mellophones to sopranos, one to one ratio of baritones to sopranos, and a one to two ratio of contras to sopranos (refer to Tablel.). 3. The capabilities of the lead soprano and lead baritone players are a factor in arranging. If the notes are out of the playing range, then re-writes are in order. The writer

52

must decide if split lead (altissimo /upper lead and lower lead) soprano and baritone parts are warranted. Other considerations are the technical ability of the horn players. Are the horn players familiar with all the major scales? Do they have an understanding of the pitch tendencies of their instrument? 4. The writer must decide on the texture(s) of the piece to be written. The choices are a thick texture, thin texture, or a combination of both where the melody may be one texture and the harmony another. 5. The complexity of the arrangement is another consideration of arranging. The writer must consider the choices between composing easy, medium-easy, medium, medium-advanced, or advanced arrangements in terms of rhythm, chordal, and metrical factors. 6. Other choices include various tonal colors to be displayed in the composition, any horn doubling(s) and special effects (i.e., composing a choir within a choir). Examples will be provided of each texture identified in #4 above.

53

How Manv Horn Playprs

The writer needs to know the composition of the group before beginning. This is to insure that the music written is size appropriate for the corps. Overwriting a score for a horn line would cause over-blowing, distortion, and over-taxing the musicians to make up for additional players. Underwriting a piece entertains ideas that the music is too easy, boring, and has no challenge to its content. The writer also needs to know the approximate breakdown of horn players. Each of the three divisions of Drum Corps International has different size classifications. Division III has a size limit of 8 to 60 total marching members (Drum majors, front line ensemble, battery, horn line and colorguard). The Division II limit is 61 to 89 total marching members. Division I limit is 90 to 135 total marching members. The hornline constitutes one-half to three-quarters of the total marching members of the corps). The following is an average distribution of horns in each division based upon the observation and teaching experience of the author Table 1. Distribution of Horns in DCI Sanctioned Corps.

54

Table 1: Distribution of Brass Instruments in DCI Sanctioned Corps Division III Division II 54 16 6 3 3 5 5 12 6 6 16 4 3 3 4 4 4 6 Division 1 64-72 24 7 3 4 8 9 12 6 6 24 7 3 4 8 N/A 9 12

Min Ave fntai d


Horns Sopranos (Total) Lead Altissimo Lower Lead 2"'* Soprano 3'^ Soprano Mellophones Total 1='Mello 2nd Mello Baritones Total Lead Altissimo Lower Lead 2"" Baritone 3'"* Baritone Euphonium Contra

30 10 4 N/A N/A 3 3 6 3 3 10 4 N/A N/A 3 3 N/A 4

55

Capabilities of Lead Players The range and strength of the lead soprano and lead baritone players is the next concern of the writer. How high can these individuals play and at what strength? This will determine if parts can be doubled at the octave, lead parts above C^ can written and sustained, or altissimo solo work can be written. Most writers lean toward composing "split lead" parts for lead soprano and baritones. The lead players have the opportunity to trade off duties in the high or altissimo range. This allows the players to rest and recuperate. It also allows the lower lead players the opportunity to play upper lead parts with more frequency this also places less mental, psychological, and physical stress on lead players.

Distribution of Percussion (Batterv) Though composing for the battery is not the focus of this project, it is an intergal part of the total music compostion/arrangment process. The specification of the battery is important to the writer in order to achieve balance within the battery and horn line. The distribution of the

56

battery is based upon the DCI sanctioned total size requirements of all the marching members in three divisions of DCI. The battery constitutes one-eighth to one-quarter of the total marching members of the corps. The following is an average distribution of battery personnel in each division based upon the observation and teaching experience of the author. The author recommends the following battery instrumentation for the aforementioned horn lines (Table 2, Distribution of the Battery in DCI Sanctioned Corps). The size of the battery is dependent upon not only on the size of the horn line, but also on the overall strength of volume of the horn line. A 30-member horn line can overbalance one snare drum if sound projection is not apparent. The ratio of multiple drums to snare drums is one to two. Anything more would constitute an imbalance in the percussion section. The number of bass drums is also dependent on the depth of the snare and multiple drums. An excessive number of bass drums will cause the percussion to become bottom heavy in sound projection causing entire musical ensemble to be bottom heavy causing an overbalance issue.

57

Table 2. Distribution of the Battery in DCI Sanctioned Corps Division III


Min A v e Tntal nf

Division II 12-15 5-6 3-4 4-5 2-3

Division 1 16-21 8-10 4-5 4-6 4-5

8-1 1 3-4 2-3 3-4 2-3

Battery Snare Drums Multiple Drums (*) Bass Drums Marching Cymbals {+)

(*) Multiple drums or tenor drums is defined as a series of three-seven multi-dimensional drums on a carrier played by one percussionist. (+) The number of marching cymbal players is usually dependent upon the number of snare drummers. The ratio of cymbal players to snares is one to two.

58

Texture The writer must be creative in terms of devising different techniques to make use of the various textures available with five or six voices in a composition. There are four differentJypes of texture within the three styles of texture that a writer may use.

Stvles of Texture The writer may choose from three styles of textures in the arrangement. The styles are arranged in order of most common usage to least common usage: 1. Combination style: Thick/thin texture is where the harmonic line may be of thick texture while the melodic line is a thin texture. In addition, thick/thin texture is where the melodic line may be of thick texture while the harmonic line is a thin texture. 2. Thick texture: The harmonies include three or more voices. 3. Thin texture: The harmonic/ melodic lines covers one or two voices only.

59

As in normal part writing, all harmonic structures may be open or closed.

Tvpes of Texture The author has developed four types of textures a writer may use with the styles of textures in a composition. 1. Top Heavy- A thick or thin texture in which the soprano voice mainly carries the harmonic or melodic lines as in Example 8 shows soprano top-heavy-thin texture and Example 9 shows soprano top-heavy-thick texture.

60

Example 8. MM.4-9: Channel One Suite, Mvt. Ill Arr. By John A. Leggett
Sop I

SopU

SopUI

Reprinted with Permission by Warner Bros., Inc.

Example 9. MM.31-36: Channel One Suite, Mvt. I Arr. By John A. Leggett


A >

>

>

Sop I

^ > >

i
>

t*

" ' ^ _ >

&

^m
^ ^
^ ^ ' > -

Lih, MPff^^i I
^ ^

>

^^fr

\>o
Sop II

~~^

"

- -*

^ ^ ^* > B ^ . ^ . ^A>

m
^ ^

^a
^ ^
- >

> >

A>

Sop III

^ ^ ^

^S

^^S s
' > /

Reprinted with Permission by Warner Bros., Inc.

61

2. Middle Heavy- A thick or thin texture in which the mellophone (and/or French horn) voice mainly carries the harmonic or melodic lines. Examples 10 show mellophonemiddle-heavy-thin texture with mellophones in unison and lead baritone sounding one octave below.

Example 10. MM.18-25: Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett


Mdlo

Reprinted with Permission by Warner Bros., Inc

3. Bottom HeavyA thick or thin texture in which the lower brass (baritone, euphonium, and/or contra) voice(s) mainly carries the harmonic or melodic lines. Example 11 shows lower voice bottom-heavy-thick texture of baritones in a triadic open harmony, and Example12 shows lower voice bottom-heavy-thin texture with voices in thirds. 62

Example 11. MM.27-34: Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett

Bar! I

Bari II

Euph

Y^' i I'gU- [J 11 I I hg^. ^ |i|J IJ |7g.^^-^| r r i h g g - ^ ^


28 29 30 31 32 33

Reprinted with Permission by Warner Bros., Inc

Example 12. MM.23-31: Channel One Suite, Mvt.ll Arr. By John A. Leggett

Lead

Bari II

Euph

Reprinted with Permission by Warner Bros., Inc

4. Unison/Octave Equivalent-A thick or thin texture in which any combination of voice(s) in unison or octaves may carry the harmonic or melodic lines. Example 13 shows soprano top-octave equivalent-thin texture.

63

Example 13. MM.99-100: Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett

Sop I

,l\KJ/pJ..m
(|> ^K (^ p 7 J M p 7 i ' 7 (^, ^'l^ (^ P 7 J' 7 p 7 i ' 7
99

"

>

> p7 ^II M ^ ^ ff^7 p


7 J'7
^ ^

>

Sop II

K7

Sop III

r^y 7 J'7 r}'K7 ^


>
100

Reprinted with Permission by Warner Bros., Inc

5. Choir within a choir-Usually a moving thick textured voicing of a specific instrument within thick or thin textured voicing of other instruments. It is usually in prolongation of chord intervals or counter-melody. Example 14 shows a four-part-moving mellophone voicing in thirds surrounded by intervals of an E^ chord.

64

Example 14. MM.10-13: Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett

Split Lead Sop

Mello

Split Lead

Contra

Reprinted with Permission by Warner Bros., Inc

Complexitv of Arrangement As in the types and styles of textures, the writer has five different levels or grades of difficulty to compose an arrangement/composition. The level chosen must not be over or under the level of musicianship for the players. It must be attainable and set a new standard of musicianship in the long run. These levels from most complex to least complex are:

65

1. Advanced level: will include complex advanced rhythms, complex meters, various keys, and an overall range of three octaves. 2. Medium advanced level: incorporates a combination of compound and simple meters, poly-rhythms, along with items from the medium level. 3. Medium level: includes compound meters, major/ minor keys, semi-complex rhythms, i.e.:

J. ^J

iJXJ^DJJJ

and a range of two half octaves. 4. Medium-easy level: includes simple (4/4, 3/4, 2/4) and simple-compound (9/8, 6/8) meters, major and minor scales, modes, simple dotted rhythms and an overall range of 1-2 octaves. 5. Easy level: contain simple meters, basic major keys/scales and basic rhythms. An octave and a half may be the overall octave range.

66

Tonal Colors Voice Cnmbinatinn.ti

The writer has several tonal color options at his disposal to create various tonal colors. The soprano/mellophone would be useful in generating a mellow lyrical color in the middle to upper register for a melodic line in ballads, because the mellophone voice tends to temper the bright tone quality of the soprano. The mellophone/baritone is good for melodic lines in ballads in the lower register, because the mellophone voice brightens the dark tonal quality of the baritone. The baritone/soprano combination is extremely powerful for impact phrases (especially when the lead baritones are at octaves with the lead sopranos) as the euphonium/baritone combination presents a very dark color for the lower brass line. The contra/baritone/euphonium combination can be used to create darker contrast of the lower voice line.

67

Part Writing The writer may use various part-writing techniques, such as four, five, or six voice parts. One example is the four-voice-top-heavy technique. This technique uses the split lead soprano, 2"'' soprano, third soprano, 1^' mellophone (doubling the lower split lead soprano), and the 2"-^ mellophone (doubling the 3 ^ " ^ soprano) as shown in Example 15.

Example 15. MM.55-61: Channel One Suite, Mvt. II Arr. By John A. Leggett
-].

>

Sop I

Sop II

SopUI

Mello I

Reprinted with Permission by Warner Bros., Inc

68

Another example is the four-voice-bottom-heavy technique, where the split-lead baritone, 2"^ baritone and 3 ^ " ^ baritone with contra providing counter-melody as shown in Example 16.

Example 16. MM.3-7: Channel One Suite, Mvt. II Arr. By John A. Leggett
Split Lead Bari

Bari II

^' " I * r
^ ^

i^ s
ig

Euph

sS

3^2

33=

Contra

I!

u'
Reprinted with Permission by Warner Bros., Inc

Choir within a Choir Creating a "choir within a choir" is another tonal combination that is used by some writers. It is used to thicken musical arrangements by chord extensions or chord tones of one instrumental voicing creating a moving mini-choir with the horn line. The distinction between choir within a choir and melody-countermelody is the supporting voices of the choir are usually sustained.

69

This technique is used sparingly to: (1) introduce a theme and (2) to heighten the effect of an impact point. An example of this technique is shown in the mellophone parts 1 and 2 in Example 17.

Example 17. MM.10-13: Channel One Suite, Mvt.l Arr. By John A. Leggett

Split Lead

Mellon

Split Lead

Contra

Reprinted with Permission by Warner Bros., Inc

Playing Time of Arrangement The writer is usually expected to compose/arrange music that is eight to ten minutes in length within a required show format. The format

70

of modern day drum corps shows usually consists of an opener, a production piece (usually a ballad with percussion being tacit), a percussion feature, another ballad and a closing production. While this format is not mandated by DCI, it has become the standard design. It is up to each corps to develop a format for their program and to determine how to present the music to the audience. Some may choose to present a ballad immediately after the opening production, while others may elect to combine the ballad with the opening piece, or choose not to present a ballad at all. The average playing time for the opening production is 1:30 -2:30(minutes) the average performance time for a ballad is 2:00 minutes, while the closing production may be 1:00 to 2:00 minutes.

71

CHAPTER V HOW THE CHANNEL ONE SUITE ARRANGEMENT WAS CREATED

The arrangement selected for this project is William Reddie's big band straightahead (or mainstream^^) jazz composition, Channel One Suite. (Circa 1966-1968). 3 (This piece, made famous by Buddy Rich and His Orchestra, appears on the "previously un-issued live recording" of their Europe '77 tour on compact disc (DAWE60-Produced in 1995). Various drum corps have performed arrangements of this piece since 1971 (De La Salle Oaklands (Toronto, Ontario) 1971-74; Argonne Rebels (Great Bend, Kansas) 1976; Blue Devils (Concord, California) 1976, 1977, 1986, and 2002, Capitalaires (all girl corps: Madison, Wisconsin.) 1992, and Tarheel Sun (Phoenix, Arizona) 2000.^^

29 Sadie, Stanley. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. V.12, 2"" Edition (London: MacMillan Publishers, Limited.2001) P 9 1 7 . Straightahead or mainstream jazz is a genre of jazz based upon improvised solos over cyclical, repeating chorus forms, using popular songs, blues or short original compositions with a swing feeling as the basic units of structure. It is reliant on functional harmony within a tonal system with emphasis on individual improvisation than on pre-set composed material) 3 Bill Reddie. "Channel One Suite," Warner Brothers Publications. (Miami: Warner Music Group Copyright 1969). 3 ^ De La Salle Oaklands, Argonne Rebels, Capitalaires and Tarheel Sun failed to make the cutoff position of 12 place in order make any DCI recording s during the years the piece was played. This information is on the website, www.corpsreps.com.

72

The original instrumentation is for 1=' and 2"-^ Alto Sax, 1^' and 2""^ Tenor Sax, Eb Baritone Sax, 1^', 2"^ 3rd & 4"^ Trumpet, 1=', 2"^ 3^^ g^ 4th Trombone, and Rhythm section (guitar, bass guitar, piano and trapset drums). The piece in its entirety is 25:15 and arranged in three sections in a fast-slow-fast form. The level of difficulty for jazz band performance is advanced. For the purpose of this project, the focus will be the first draft of this piece. There several methods an arranger may choose to become familiar with a composition before she (or he) begins to put "ink to paper." The arranger may: 1. Listen to recording of the original composition. This will establish a base for tonal colors, type of textures, and the variety of styles (if any) the composer may have used. 2. Listen to various arrangements of the composition to determine how the arrangement(s) differ from the original composition.

73

The factors to consider would be tone color, texture, rhythm, style, interpretation and instrumentation. 3. Obtain a copy of the original composition to compare and/or contrast various arrangements. In addition to determining chord structure and function, the arranger may begin to formulate ideas to the arrangement of his (or her) own score. 4. The author suggests using a combination of all the abovementioned methods. The following is a comparison of Reddie's original three-movement jazz band composition and the author's drum corps hornline arrangement. This comparison is based upon the author's changes and additions of the original composition to the arranged score.

74

Movement I MM. 1-8 is arranged in a pyramid sequence from contra/lower brass (baritones/euphonium), mellophones to sopranos. MM.9-14 of the original composition has been changed to a one-measure rest followed by a mellophone choir within the brass choir at mm. 10-13 of arranged score (as shown in Examples 18 and 19). Example 18. MM. 9-14: Original Composition, Channel One Suite
AltoSscophone 1

AltoS9[ophone2

Tmor S acophone 1

Toior S iKophone 2 Baitone Saxophone

TninpetinBtl

TnjnpetinBk2

Trumpet inSkS

TnjnpetinBt4

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

75

Example 19. MM.10-13: Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett

Split Lead Sop Sop II Sop III

Mello I

Mello II

4'''"!, jJ-O'gj

Split Lead Bari 6 a II

Euph

Contra

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

The two-measure rest at mm.13-14 of the original composition has been omitted and replaced by the bass ostinato of m.15 of the composition (m.14 of the score. Examples 20 and 21).

76

Example 20. Bass Ostinato: MM. 15-16, Original Composition Channel One Suite
Guitar

Bass

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

Example 21. Bass Ostinato, Contra, MM. 14-15, Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett
Contra

i ^^t;=^
14

>
15

i i

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

The bass ostinato played by the contra (mm.14-17), is the introduction to saxophone section of mm. 19-26 played by the mellophones and lead baritone (mm. 18-26). MM.27-35 of the score is the same as the original composition with the exception of the saxophone section, which is played in thirds by the mellophones at mm.29-35 of the arranged score. The section ends on the first beat of m.36 while the bass ostinato is elided to the ending. MM.36-49 of the arranged score is similar to the original composition (mm.36-49). The major difference is that the saxophone

77

section at mm.41-49 (original composition) has been re-written for mellophone to include a four-part harmony on the sustained passages at mm.41-49 of the score (as shown in Examples 22 and 23).

Example 22. Saxophone Section: MM.41-49, Channel One Suite

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

Example 23. Mello phone Section: MM.41-49, Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett
Mello I

Mello
42 43 44 45 48 49

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

The percussion break of both manuscripts remains in the same location (mm.52) however in the arranged score, the break ends one measure earlier (m.56) than the original composition (m. 57).

78

The meter of 12/8 at mm. 58-70 of the original composition is changed to 6/8 in the arranged score (mm. 57-78). The author believes it is easier to read in this meter. MM. 79-86 returns to 4/4 time in the arranged score as well as mm.71-78 of the original composition. MM. 79-83 of the original composition is an alternation of 3/4 and 3/8 time signatures with m. 84 as a12/8 time signature that has been changed to 6/8 time signature in the corresponding measures of 87-93 in the arranged score (refer to Examples 24 and 25).

79

Example 24. 3/4, 3/8 and12/8 Time Alterations, MM.79-85, Original Composition, Channel One Suite

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

80

Example 25. 6/8 Time Alterations: MM.87-93, Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

Again, readability is the major factor for this change. This section also ends on the first beat of m. 93 of the score, while the bass ostinato of mm. 93-105 is elided to the ending. MM. 93-105 of the score is the final similarity of the movement to the original composition (mm. 85-96) the pyramid returns in the same sequence as the beginning. In mm. 99-105 of the score, the instruments play eighth notes instead of the staccato quarter notes as written in the original composition (mm. 85-96).

81

Movement II MM. 1-7 of the arranged score is the same as the original composition (mm. 97-103). The tenor saxophone solo at mm. 103-119 is played by solo soprano at mm. 7-23. The intervals played by the piano comping (harmonic improvisation by chord symbols) from mm. 104-111 are written in random arpeggiation in the lower sopranos, mellophones and lower brass voices from mm. 8-10 in the score (see Example 26).

Example 26. MM. 8-15, Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett
Solo

Contra
10 11 12 13 14 15

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

82

MM. 11-15 returns to the formal chord structure in the aforementioned supporting voices. The flute part is omitted at mm. 112119, while the lower brass plays the trombone parts (mm. 16-23 of arranged score). The pick-up sixteenth notes at mm. 119-127 of the composition (the trumpet parts) have been reduced to a lead and second soprano sectional duet at mm. 23-31 in the arranged score. MM. 124 and 127 of the composition has been re-arranged to an altered rhythm of mm. 28 and 31 of the score (as shown in Examples 27 and 28).

Example 27. Trumpet Section: MM. 119-127, Original Composition, Channel One Suite

Tnunpetin & IV

Trptl&n

Trpim&rv

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

83

Example 28. Soprano I and II: MM. 23-31, Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett
Sop I

Sop

Sop I

Sop I

Alered Rhythm

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

The continuing tenor saxophone solo at mm. 128-135 is omitted from the arranged score while the mellophone section (mm.32-37 of arranged score) plays the flute melodic line in fifths (of mm. 128-133 of the composition, see Examples 29 and 30).

Example 29. Flute Section: MM. 128-133, Original Composition, Channel One Suite
FlutEl

Flute II

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

84

Example 30. Mellophone Section: MM. 32-37, Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett
Melo I

Mello

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

The bass part at m. 128 has been altered to reflect a slight counter-melody in the contra part at m. 32 of the arranged score (Examples 31 and 32).

Example 31. Bass Guitar: MM. 128-131, Channel One Suite


^
M

0.

Bass Guitar V ' J^ {3-

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

Example 32. MM. 32-35, Contra, Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett
Cont B

Change fom original

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

85

The arranged score continues with the original composition at mm. 135-143 as mm. 39-47 of arranged score with rhythmic alterations in the bass line at mm. 138 and 141 of the original composition (mm. 42 and 45 of the score Examples 33 and 34).

Example 33. Bass Guitar: MM. 136-142, Channel One Suite

Bass Guitar *J' L^' {* \

IE 137
140 141 142

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

Example 34. Rhythmic Alterations Contra, MM. 40-47, Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett
Contra

i
40

,42

.43

Change from original z=z


45

^W

ZC 46

Change from original Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

The second tenor saxophone solo at mm. 143-151 is played by solo mellophone at mm. 47-55. The eighth to sixteenth note rhythms on beats three and four at m. 147 of the composition is replaced by the quarter note triplets in the corresponding measure of the arranged score (m. 51) (see Examples 35 and 36).

86

Example 35.1 Tenor Sax Solo: MM. 143-151, Original Composition, Channel One Suite
1st Tenor Sax

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

Example 36. Solo Mellophone: MM. 47-55, Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett
Solo Mello

47

^ ^

4S

49

50

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

Both manuscripts retain the shout chorus or the main section of the movement. In the original composition, this begins with the pick-ups to mm. 152 to the downbeat of m. 157 (in the score, this is the pick-ups to m. 56 to the downbeat of m. 61).

87

The final tenor saxophone solo (mm. 157-162) of the original composition is omitted from the arranged score. A four-measure ad lib. soprano solo replaces the tenor saxophone cadenza (mm. 61-64 of arranged score). Finally, mm. 163-165 (as mm. 65-67 of the arranged score) completes the movement as written.

Movement III The last measure of movement II (the ballad) is elided to the tympani break at the beginning of movement III. MM. 1-14 of the arranged score is the same as mm. 165-168 of the original composition without the repeat. MM. 15-22 of the arranged score are the same as mm. 187-194 of the composition. MM. 195-207 is presented later in the movement while mm. 208-218 is omitted from the arranged score. However, mm. 219-227 is used in the arrangement but is displaced in the score. The arrangement continues with the pick-ups to m. 230-237 of the composition and is labeled as mm. 24-30 in the arrangement. This is followed by the first of two optional percussion breaks.

88

There are two options for the placement of an extended percussion break within movement III. The percussion break serves several functions: 1. It allows the brass players a break from playing. 2. The battery and front line ensemble have the opportunity to perform in a solo environment. 3. The audience has the opportunity to observe and listen to the percussion section. The first optional percussion break (Option A) occurs after m. 30 and is approximately twenty-five measures in length. The second optional percussion break (Option B) occurs at m. 46 and is also approximately twenty-five measures in length. The design team has the option of determining which percussion break would best serve the audio/visual program. MM. 195-200 of the original composition is presented in the arranged score as mm. 33-38. MM. 201-207 is the next segment presented in the score as mm. 39-45. This section contains a rhythmic change in the mellophone part from the original composition as beat one has been changed from two eighth notes to a quarter rest in mm. 201203 (mm. 39-41; arranged score as in Examples 37 and 38).

89

Example 37. Saxophone Section: MM. 201-203, Original Composition, Channel One Suite
1 St Alto Sax

2nd Alto Sax

1st Tenor Sax

2nd Tenor Sax

Baritone Sax

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

Example 38. Mellophone Section: MM. 38-41, Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett
Mellophone I & 1 1 =

4^''i^M n^ff^rju J^^rjffl^|l fr^''i'r''^ri':


^ 39 ^ ^ J^ > I'II J\

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

As previously stated, the second optional percussion break (Option B) occurs at m. 46 and extends for twenty-five measures. The arranged score continues with the pick-ups to mm. 47-55 (mm. 220-227 of composition) as the shout chorus or main tutti section of the movement.

90

The contra part at m. 55 includes an octave doubling on beats three and four to increase the depth of the bass line at m. 55 (Example 39). Example 39. MM. 53-55, Contra, Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett
Contra fM f $ r
53

J'jj,jj^^
Change from original
Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

MM. 195-200 returns as mm. 56-61 of the arrangement and mm.256, 257 and 259-264 (as mm. 61-69 of the score) completes the penultimate segment of the movement. MM. 265-270 (mm. 70-75) of the original composition is the final segment of composition and ends the composition and the score.

91

CHAPTER VI

CHANNEL ONE SUITE. MELODIC ANALYSIS

Movement I Each movement analysis begins with a form structure diagram to illustrate the author's intent on constructing the movement for the arrangement. Example 40 is the form for Movement I. Example 40. Form: Mvt. I, Channel One Suite Arr By John A. Leggett
Tempo: J=120 Intro J=164
Motive 4 rain.27-28 Motive 5 mm 27-3 3

Measure: Key: C Minor

4^
Al

Motive 1 MM. 2-3 Motive 2 MM.10-13

Motive 3

Theme A

1-13

14-26

27

36

D
Theme A mm. 40-49 Call/Response Motive Frag 3 mm 57-58 ThemeB. mm. 58-65 Motive 6 itmi 81-82 Theme C ram.79-82

A
I ik

Motive 3 mm.36-52

51

57-75

79-86

A2
C Development of Motive 6mm.87-92 Motive 3 nmi.93-105

87

93

93-105

The first movement is based upon a blues scale of 1-''3-4-''5-5-7 (CB-F-F'-G-B"). This is introduced in quadruple time as a part of motive 1 in

92

the lower brass from m. 2 to the first beat of m. 3 as shown in Example 41. Example 41. Motive 1, MM. 2-3, Mvt. I, Channel One Suite

Contra

f.'H'frrrirrno
Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

The motive is completed with the eighth-note triplet to the G half note. Motive 1 is imitated in the middle voice and upper voices, respectively, to complete a pyramid sequence as shown in mm. 2-8 in Example 42. Example 42. Motive 1, MM.2-8, Mvt. I, Channel One Suite

Lower Voices

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

93

The melodic line continues in mm. 10-13 with a development of motivel in the mellophone parts. Though the parts are written in thirds, the upper-split mellophone I part is the development of motive I.This motive is labeled motive 2 (Example 43).

Example 43. Motive 2, MM. 10-13, Mvt. I, Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett
Motive 2

Split Mello I

V ;jfffli'^
^

10

LJ

"^

m
12

S:
13

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

The triadic harmony of the mellophones functions as the choir within a choir of the other voices and serves to introduce this new motive as shown in Example 44.

94

Example 44. MM. 10-13: Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett

Split Lead Sop

Contra

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc

Section A (mm. 14-26) begins with a two-measure bass ostinato in the contra, developed from motive 1 in the form of a blues scale. This ostinato (now referred as motive 3 see Example 45) functions as a bridge to connect all the sections in the first movement.

95

Example 45. Motive 3, MM. 14-15, Mvt. I, Channel One Suite

-f-H^
Contra - \/g^ I* f f l b I, a5-:

^-t-i p^^P ptff r 1^ P P ^ f pi|^y 1


*-Zrz
15

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

Theme A is presented in MM. 18-25 using the mellophones and lead baritones in octaves for a middle-voice-heavy texture (as shown in Example 46). This is played over the bass ostinato.

Example 46. Theme A: MM. 18-21, Mvt. I Channel One Suite


'
i-"i. n i :
^

Mello I

fH>^

Lcr

Mello II

:'
i- [> (^ \

u Lf''-^'
_> m.

Bari I

^
> ^ >

m m
^
^ j >

^
>
. ] >

Contra

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

96

Section B (mm. 27-36) is in simple triple meter and introduces two new motives. The baritone/euphonium sections established a twomeasure motive (labeled motive 4) over a recurring contra F/C pedal as shown in Example 47.

Example 47. Motive 4, MM. 27-28, Mvt. I, Channel One Suite


Motive 4

Bari I

^'uhfrrrrr
*j
^

A >..

> ^

>

Bari II

I* I* I* ["O*
A >

?^r
^ > > >

Euph

i
^

't^yLT LS
^
28

Contra
27

iP

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc ,

97

Motive 3 is imitated in the sopranos at mm. 31-33. The mellophones play an ornamentation section written in minor thirds to the conclusion of section B, where the entire ensemble plays the ornamentation. Motive 5 is new counter-melody material played by the mellophones at mm. 27-33. Though, originally written as unison, it has been rearranged at m. 29 into minor thirds as shown in Example 48.

Example 48. Motive 5, MM. 27-33, Mvt. I, Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett
Motive 5
Mello I

Mello II

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

Section A^ (mm. 36-51) marks the return of motive 3 in the contra and Theme A (at mm. 40-49) in a soprano call and an altered response in the mellophones as shown in Example 49.

98

Example 49. Theme A l : MM. 40-49, Mvt. I Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett

Mello II

Contra

Sop III

Mello I

Contra

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

99

Section C (mm. 57-78) originally in 12/8 time has been rewritten in 6/8 for readability for the players. While fragments of motive 3 (Partial Motive 3-Example 45) are played by the upper and lower brass, the mellophones play theme B in a middle voice thin texture (Example 50).

100

Example 50. MM. 57-58, Mvt. I Channel One Suite


Partial Motive 3

>

>

Split Lead ^ i ^
S o p l ^ ^

7 J]J^
^ ^ ^

j.-^
TT
^

Sop II

i) ^^ w^Uh^
^ ' ' i ' ^1 rrr^
Theme B

Sop III

Mello I

i
^ ^

fe
> ^

Mello II

te
Partial Motive 3
-

Bari I

m^
^
rrr
> 57

m^^
#
>

>

>

f'
> ^ ^

> ?
^

Bari II

-rf
^

Euph
*J

i ^ ^

>

>

>

58

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

101

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

Example 51. Theme B: MM. 58-65, Mvt. I Channel One Suite

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

Section D (mm. 79-92) is a combination of the rhythmic idea of m. 38 (Example 52) of the baritone/euphonium and new material (labeled motive 6) presents Theme C (Example 53).

Example 52. MM. 38-39, Mvt. I Channel One Suite

Bari II
$

i^^l, (* ^ ft ^ l^
38

>

>

>

>

r Pr

': F - M

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

Example 53. Theme C: MM. 79-82, Mvt. I Channel One Suite


Motive 6 Rhythmic ideafrotti M.38
Mello I

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

102

MM. 87-92 is a short development of the new material in 6/8time. MM. 93-105 marks the final return of motive 3 in a pyramid sequence similar to mm. 2-8 in form only. Movement II The following illustrates the form structure diagram of the author's intent in constructing the second movement of this arrangement. Example 54 is the form for Movement II.

Example 54. Form: Mvt. II, Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett
Tempo: J, 76
Intro
L'^ ff Theme A | Theme B mm 7-14

A
Theme C mm 15-23

Al
| Theme Al mm 23-31

R
| Motive 7 mm 32-33 ] Theme D mm. 39-43

" ^ M e a s " ^ e : 1-7 Key: F Major

8-23

23-31

32 - 38

39-47

A2
Theme B2 mm 47-55 | Theme CI mm 55-66

D I 55-66

47-55

The introduction to movement II (labeled Theme A, Mvt. II), is the re-statement of Theme A of movement I with several distinct differences (as shown in Examples 55 and 56, respectively):

103

1. It is written a major second higher to establish the key of F Major. 2. Theme A, Movement II is based upon triplets. 3. Theme A is used as a bridge to the second movement.

Example 55. Theme A: MM. 1-5, Mvt. II Channel One Suite


>

Sop I (Solo)

ZE:

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

Example 56. Theme A: Mvt. I Channel One Suite

Mello I ^

I>"|, r,

r ^rVl^ ^ ^-, a^ jir

Lij-iJ^

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

104

Section A is based upon two combined themes. Theme B is a new eight-measure material from mm. 7-15 (as shown in Example 57).

Example 57. Theme B: MM. 7-15, Mvt. II Channel One Suite

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

Theme C begins in the second half of m. 15 to m. 23 and is eight measures in length (shown in Example 58).

Example 58. Theme C: MM. 15-23, Mvt. II Channel One Suite

Mello I A.^"

it i '

Mfz h fP^^
16

^i^n-^b. ,5-^r^^r^

,_ffPPf^

LiT
*

TtTr r
Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

105

Section Al contains Theme Al a variant of Theme A. The second soprano part is written entirely in major thirds to the lead soprano as a sectional duet (shown in Example 59).

Example 59. Theme A l : MM. 23-31, Mvt. II Channel One Suite

Euph

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

Section B is new material (labeled Motive 7) in which the mellophone section duet plays the melodic line of in response to the sectional duet of the sopranos (see Example 60).

Example 60. Section B: MM. 32-37, Mvt. II, Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

106

Section C (mm. 39-47) contains new material (labeled Theme D, mm. 39-43) in response to theme B and is repeated an octave higher (see Example 61).

Example 61. Theme D: MM. 39-43, Mvt. II Channel One Suite

Sopi /LV

fcji
39

^ \ *

^m
^

t=^k^i:
40

8r^

^
45

^ ^

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

Section A^ (mm. 47-55) is a mellophone solo in a slight variation of theme B. Labeled as Theme B^, it is similar to theme B without harmony (as shown in Example 62). Example 62. Theme B2: MM. 47-55, Mvt. II Channel One Suite

Mello Solo

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

107

Section D (mm. 55-61) is the shout chorus or the main section of movement II. It is based upon theme C of this movement. This variant of theme C is labeled Theme C^ (as in Example 63).

Example 63. Theme C I : MM. 55-57, Mvt. II Channel One Suite

I
Example 4).

MM
55 56 57

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

The movement concludes with an ad lib. soprano solo (mm. 61-64,

Example 64. Ad. Lib. Soprano Solo, MM. 61-64, Mvt. II, Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett Ad. Lib.
Sole Sop:

-.-.
rit. #-^<s^
64

;^^^t^ friCa-toJ^jiJ]j%h*^ 61

T2

63

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

108

Movement III This analysis begins with a form structure diagram of movement three. It is based upon the author's reconstruction of the movement for the arrangement. Example 65 is the form for Movement III.

Example 65. Form: Mvt. Ill, Channel One Suite Arr. By John A. Leggett
Tempo: 144 Intro
Theme A mm, 5- 13 JF IPI n ^^ Tympani Ostmato Motive Amm 5 - 6 Motive B mm 12-13 Bass Ostinato mm 5-14

B
ThemeB mm 15- 22 Motives m 15 MotiveB mm 15-16 Walking Bass Lme mm 1 5 - 2 2

Measure: Key: F Minor

1-4

5- 13

15-22

Al

A2
Theme A mm 33-38 Theme B2 mm 39-41 Motive BI mm 39-41

i i

I I I,**! P

Call/Response Motives mm 23-30 Call. Motive A mm. 23-24 Call Motive A2 mm 27 - 28 Res Motive A mm 25-26 Response Motives mm 27-30

23 -30

33-44

A3
Theme C mm.47 - 51 ShoutChorus mm 47-55 LI Motive A3 mm 47-48 Motive 9mm 4 9 - 5 1 Ln P Walk] ns Bass Line mm 48 - 55 ThemeAmm,56-61 Motive 32 mm 6 2 - 6 6

47-55

56-68

J- 88

Codetta

Theme Al mm.70-72

t ^

Sequntial Dotted quarter notes mm 70 - 72

69-75

109

This movement is in f minor and is based upon two motives. The first motive (labeled motive A) is the foundation of this movement (see Example 66).

Example 66. Motive A: MM. 4-6, Mvt. Ill, Channel One Suite
> ^
$

(* -

>

0 mP

^\[^^y

pi

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

The second motive (labeled Motive B, Example 67), is derived from motive 4 of movement I as shown in Example 68.

Example 67. Motive B: MM. 15-16, Mvt. Ill, Channel One Suite

Mellophones

^m

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

110

Example 68. Motive 4: MM. 27-28, Mvt. I, Channel One Suite

Mellophones

'I''.','' i

liuTJ

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

Section A (mm. 5-13) is composed of Theme A inwhich motive A is repeated and ends with motive B. This section is played by the sopranos and mellophones while the contra plays an Fm7 arpeggiation (see Example 69). This theme re-occurs throughout the movement.

Example 69. Theme A3: MM. 5-13, Mvt. Ill, Channel One Suite
Motive A

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

11 1

Section B (mm. 15-22) is composed of Theme B. The first half of the measure consists of new material while the second half of the measure is motive B and is repeated at mm. 19-21. The walking bass line of the contra completes section B as shown in Example 70.

Example 70. Motive B1: MM. 15-17, Mvt. Ill, Channel One Suite
Motive 8
I

_ja

l_i

Sops

Motive B

^
Mellos Contra fL

fe^^
k^

KS:

h-|," ( i

r5

a=:
Walking Bass Lne

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

Section A^ (mm. 23-30) consists of two call and response motives. In the first motive, the mellophones call with motive A and the sopranos respond, in strict imitation of motive A to this two-measure phrase. Motive A^ is immediately followed by a complex call-and-response passage (mm. 27-30). The baritones call to a series of ordered responses, mellophones, sopranos, mellophones and sopranos/baritones (as shown in Example 71). 112

Example 71. Complex Call and Response: MM. 22-30, Mvt. Ill, Channel One Suite
Ftesponse Molh/e A Split Lead Sop Response 2 Response * 4

>

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

Section A2(mm. 33-44) marks the return of section A with lower voice harmony and a slight variation of Theme B (labeled Theme B^). The first half of theme B^ is now shortened to only the eighth-note figures which is played by the. The second half of the motive is extended to include eighth-note figures before and after the sixteenth-note figure. Example 72 shows a horn line reduction of section A^from mm. 33- 41.

113

Example 72. Section A l : MM. 33-41. Brass Reduction, Mvt. Ill, Channel One Suite

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

Section C (mm. 47-55) is the shout chorus or the main section of the movement. It is based upon a variant of motive A labeled Motive A^ (Example 73) when combined with new material (labeled Motive 9), it forms theme C (Example 74). Theme C is played tutti over a walking bass line of the contra from mm. 48-55.

114

Example 73. Variant of Motive A: Motive A^

Sop I
*J 7l ^ 48

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

Example 74. Theme C: MM. 47-51, Mvt. Ill, Channel One Suite
Motive 9
Motive A3

> >.. >


Split Lead J f [,P| [ Sop (tT) " 1 * ^

> i\> M^\ip-

^ ^

f ^ ^^^ 1 k''^ ^

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

MM. 56-68 constitutes Section A^ where Theme A returns in the mellophone with no harmony other than the Fm7 arpeggiated chord in the contra part. Another variant of motive B (labeled motive B^as in Example 75) is presented as a displaced call by the sopranos and baritones/euphoniums against the extended response of the mellophones over a syncopated quarter note pedal point in the contra.

115

Example 75. Theme B1: MM. 62-67, Mvt. Ill, Channel One Suite

Pedal Point

Sop Reduction

^m
^"''' -1.1 J J P^r^r p: ^
t?fe=
#

Mello I

M e l l o II

"(LTir't^^
^

B a r i / Eupin Fteduotion

^m

^^m
J' J-' J

m
^

Cont B

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

Section A3 (mm.69-75) concludes the movement. Theme A (mm. 69-72) is presented a final time (in augmentation-labeled theme Al) within the soprano line. 116

This is supported by the sequential dotted quarter notes of the mellophone, baritone, euphonium and contra as shown in Example 76.

Example 76. Section A3: MM. 69-72, Mvt. Ill, Channel One Suite
Theme Al

Reprinted with Permission By Warner Bros., Inc.

117

CHAPTER VII BLUEPRINT OF CHANNEL ONE SUITE

The writers/arrangers are increasingly electing to create a flowchart of the composition before the start of the arrangement. The flowchart or blueprint serves several functions: 1. It can be used as a guide in the analysis of the composition to determine the composer's intent. 2. It may be used to map out the arrangement in graphic form, which makes it easier to assemble or rearrange various sections in the arrangement. 3. It may be used as a musical storyboard for the percussion, visual and auxiliary designers. It is a tool that other designers may use to support the musical program through their medium. In order to use the flowchart, the writer must understand its makeup. There are seven (7) basic components of the flow chart^^;

3 2 Robert Garofalo. Blueprint for Band. (Ft. Lauderdale: Meredith Music, c.1983) 3238.

118

1. Form SchemeA. Used to determine if the composition belongs to a standard form (i.e., sectional, variational, developmental, imitative, dance, free, multimovement or a combination [hybrid] of the aforementioned forms). B. Used to determine sections, periods and phrases in relationship to melodic and harmonic materials. C. Other considerations within form are balance, continuity, variety, number and relationship of movements, and total length of movements and sections. 2. Melodic Design-Used to indicate, identify, and locate main themes, subordinate themes and counter-melodies.

119

3. Rhythmic Elements-Used to indicate tempo as a factor for general moods (Slow-tragic, majestic, heavy), identify and locate various meters, special rhythmic devices (ostinatos, hemiolias, polyrhythms, syncopation, etc.). 4. Bandstration (*)-Used to indicate instrumentation of thematic materials and harmonic accompaniment materials 5. Harmonic Structure-Indicates tonal (key) or pitch centers, and important cadences, modulations and chord progressions. 6. Texture-lf desired, to indicate the basic textures of sections and subsections. 7. Dynamic Curve-To indicate important dynamics, especially climaxes. It may be helpful to include a graphic curve illustration of the overall dynamic scheme.

(*) Term coined by Garofalo.

120

The writer may construct a flowchart using any additional components that she (or he) feels necessary. For this project, the author has modified Garofalo's flowchart for the bugle instrumentation. Tempo markings and meters are located in the form section where they occur in the music. Bandstration has been replaced by Primary Contrapuntal Instrumentation (which is defined in the next section). Harmonic Structure has also been replaced by Harmony and is defined in the next section. The identification of the types and styles texture replaces the basic texture format. The format for the Dynamic Curve has been re-defined and is discussed in the next section. This modified format allows musicians and non-musicians the opportunity to intimately study the arrangement and work toward coordination of all elements (brass, percussion, visual and auxiliary) to the aural presentation of the program.

121

Interpretinn The Flowchart The author suggests reading the flowchart as follows: 1. Form-The double bars mark the movements. The vertical bars of shorter lengths to mark the sections. The horizontal brackets and numbers indicate in the number of measure within the section. The sections are identified the capital letter at the beginning of the brackets. 2. Melody-Indicates the location of the main themes, subordinate themes and countermelodies in correlation of the measures. 3. Rhythmic Elements-Primary rhythmic/special devices

(e.g., ormentation, asymmetrical rhythms, special effects) or ideas of the melody are located in this area (in correlation of the measures). 4. Primary Contrapuntal Instrumentation-Primary rhythmic/special devices or ideas of the accompaniment located in this area (in correlation of the measures).

122

5. Harmonic Structure-(Though chord progressions would be listed in this section, for this project they will be discussed in the next chapter). The various types of voicing and rhythms used in correlation of the measures are presented in this location. 6. Texture-The various styles and types of texture are presented in correlation of the measures and instrument(s) it affects. 7. Dynamic Curve-Graphic illustration indicating dynamic markings, texture density and aural shaping of the arrangement in correlation of the measures.

123

0,

K^

.2

C O
<b

xi-

c O IR
0 c-

J\
II '

^^

CO

,,

f>

ble

a.

S
K
(y

v.4-

05

1-

124

125

126

c o

If
l.\-

1
CD
3N

(0
V

41C

1?

127

/
O

o
U
V

01

ft.

o c

Ci.

CO

^3
u
.-ft

"53

c c

C X

"[^

00
.fi
I

CO

g
cc

o w

SI

.5

128

o a.
c^ V

.A

J!
Lyy
c

0 u

I. GQ

it c e o

yj\

its

V.

CO

0-

fj

\?
CCi\

c Ci c

I- o

>

-I

vr^

."IK

Co
V-v-

f^:
i o

.2

V 0 H
CC, CI

>
H

a
c c cc
^

CO 0)

E
^ -

e
o c'

g
aS _g) n
CO

5
0

^ i

^ ao

129

m^-

{ :
4-5
^ \

11 tJ V
H-

^
N-A.

>-

a'

CO

s
c c e n -c O

CI)

CO

It

*tf
0
CO ' i^
#~J

'^

-c
^

o
:5
^^

I-

,?

< v ^

-c cc

"^ H

Ci 3;

l5i

130

i -^,t
J N_JO

.2 3
CO Q)

"Q3

c c

cc

6
6
C O

(C

131

s
3
CO
CI)

"C)

c c

cc

C O

e
U

ft

132

so

3
CO Cl)

6
C
c

6
csi

cc

_g)
CO

5
o
I.

^ c

+-

5
H

V-

133

134

CHAPTER VIII HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF CHANNEL ONE SUITE

Movement I The key of the first movement is B'' major though it is played in C minor (the Dorian scale or minor ii of B" major). By using the C Dorian Mode, the composer has outlined the traditional jazz harmony of B": ii-VFm: i as the keys of the three movements in the composition. The formal structure of this movement is the Introduction-A-B-A^-C-D-A^. The Introduction is thirteen measures in length and is based upon a Cm triad (or ii). Motive 1 is introduced in pyramid form (mm. 2-8) over a chordal structure of Cm-Gm-F^-Eb9-B''-Gm^-A^-Gm^-B''^-A''^ It concludes with the presentation of motive 2 as a "Choir with in a choir" chord planning device in the mellophones over a sustained C#^ played by the rest of the ensemble [Cm^-Fm^-Gm^-B^-A^^-Gm^-Fm^-E'^^-Cm^-Fm^Bm^|C#^

135

Section A introduces the walking bass line as melodic material (motive 3) in mm. 14-17. This motive outlines the blues scale of 1-^3-4#4-5-(''7)-1 on Cm. MM.18-26 introduces the parallel period of theme A over motive 3. Section B, though only nine measures in length and in simple triple time, is the first contrasting section presented over the bass pedal. The section contains E^'^-Dm^ {D^-Cm''-F)-E^^-F^ (F-E'^-F) E'^s-Dm^(D7-F^^-F"7) B^-F over an F pedal in the contra. The parenthetical chords indicate the use of passing and/or neighboring chords within this parallel period ending with an F ( a d d e d 4 ) chord. The section uses motive 4 and motive 5 as part of the polyphonic form. Section A^ returns to quadruple time with motive 3 supporting theme A in a call/response structure over the lower brass accompaniment. The call/response sub-form is presented in the soprano /mellophone lines with the concept repeated in movement III. The chordal structure is basically Cm^-F-Cm^ with phrase endings on B^^ (i^-V/VII-i^Vl|3) with VIP as a substitute dominant.

136

Section C is played in compound duple time in a polyphonic chord structure over a fragmentary motive 3 F pedal within the contra part while theme B (mm. 57-64) is played by the mellophones being supported by the immediate outer voices (sopranos/baritones) in a syncopated accompanying line. This occurs as part of a four-measure sequential phrase as part of a sequential parallel period. The latter half of this period (mm. 65-69) occurs over an A'' pedal of the contra with a chord structure of E^m^-Fms-D'^^-E'^m^-D^^-E^'m^-Emtt^-Fm^ MM. 72-74 introduces several hybrid scales that resolve to an E"^^ chord that ends the section. The first hybrid scale is located in the mellophone part at m. 72 and is based on an F whole-tone scale with minor 2"^^ between the notes B-C and D-E" (F-G-A-B-C-D-E'^-F-G). The preceding two scales of mm. 74-75 are in outer contrasting motion of each other. The upper scale (played by sopranos) is another whole-tone pattern centered on F with minor 3 ^ ^ = between B-D, E-G and major 3 ^ = ^ between G-B (F-G-A-B-D-E-G-B). The lower scale pattern (played by the lower voice line) is a layered harmonic hybrid octatonic scale with a whole step between A'^-Ftt (F-E-D-D^-B-B'^-A^-Ftt-F).

137

Section D is the "shout chorus" or main tutti section of the movement. The rhythmic lines are linear with homophonic content over the walking bass line of the contra. Each phrase of the first parallel period consists of chord planing.under a hint of tonality and little overall tonal progression. The following short three-phrase period is the elaboration of the previous chord stream and elides the ending to the next section. Section A2 (mm. 93-98) marks the return of original motive 3 in pyramid form throughout the ensemble. A reverse pyramid form of motive 3 (mm. 99-105) is based upon the sequential movement of fifths (C-G), to end the section and the movement.

Movement II The second movement is based upon F major (or the V of B'' major) of the overall key structure of ii-V-i. The formal structure of this movement is A-A(i)-B-C-A(2)-D. The solo soprano plays theme A at the introduction of this movement, which is motive 3 of movement, I transposed up a major second. The supporting material of the first three measures of theme B section A (mm. 8-10) is a polyphonic random appreggiation of the chords
138

Gm7-C9-F(6/9) (or IP-V^-P.the first presentation of the basic traditional jazz harmony). M.11 consists of two-chord turnabout (Am^-Ab^) designed to lead back to part of the previous chord progression [Gm^-C^ (ii^-V^)]. This is followed by a downward chromatic chord progression (B^B''^- Am^- A^ (*9)) modulating to the key of A^ The second half of section A (mm. 16-23) is homophonic in nature with a progression of ii^-V^-ii^-IVl-IV'S-Vr (or W =F:V) with the VI chord modulating back to the key of F Major. Section Al (mm. 24-31) is a variant of the first half of section A (mm. 8-16). MM. 27-30 includes a linear chromatic progression with common tones (A, E, G within the first two chords and G, F for m. 28) Am^-A-A^o^-Gm-Gm^ ("s) _C9 (ttiD-B^-B^^-Am^-A^Mhis progression also includes turnabouts with the first four chords (Am^-A-A''^-Gm) and the last five chords (C^ (*")-B^-B''^-Am^-A^^) to return to Am^that is modulatory to A*" Major. Section B (mm. 32-39) is in the key of A" Major exhibits the second occurrence of the traditional ii-V-l jazz harmony at mm. 32-34. Section C (mm. 39-46) continues in Ab major and is polyphonic with four distinct lines played simultaneously. The three harmonic lines

139

are a repeated progression of ii-V within mm. 40-43 to set up the dominant chord at mm. 44-45 before resolving to an augmented IV^^ on D". The final A section returns as A^with theme B^ (in slight variation of the melodic line of sections A and A^) in the key of F major and is played by solo Mellophone. This melodic line occurs over the same bass line as in Sections A and A^ [ii^-V^-P'^/s'-iii^ (subV^)-[P"*]-ii7 ^'^^^-y^-W/yIV7-iii7(sub V^)].

Section D is a short shout chorus of the movement. The first six measures are polyphonic yet, homo-rhythmic in the structure. The section also modulates back to A" Major from F Major. M. 4 includes an A'' major scale in the contra supporting a sustained Fm^^ chord played in the other voices. M. 59 contains bitonality within the latter part of the quarter note triplet to the resolution in the dotted quarter-note (C''|A''-A''m|A''-E''").

* P=Passing chord. In this case, passing diminished seventh chord.

140

IVM. 61-64 is the final solo (played by soprano) in this movement and is a loosely structured form of the previous solos presented eariier in the movement. This phrase is the final modulation of this movement returning to F major. The final two measures of the movement are based upon dual sequential movements of the bass notes in the contra (sequence 1: in downward fifths: F-B^ E'' -A^ D^-G^ sequence 2: in upward fourths: B''-E^ A^-D*^). This idea was taken from the sequential movement ending of movement I.

Movement III The third movement is based upon F minor to complete the overall key structure of ii-V-i. The formal structure of this movement is a hybrid seven-part rondo form ending with a codetta (A-B-A(^)-A(2)-C-A(3)Codetta). The introduction (mm. 1-4) of the movement is played by a 4-piece tympani set outlining the Fm^ bass ostinato of the contra. The first A section (mm. 5-14) consists of the phrase group A-A^-B in which Theme A and Motive A dominate the section. The harmonic progression (supported only by the contra) is Fm^ for each of the two measure periods A and A\ Period A ends on a iv-l [Plagal Cadence (PC)]
141

while period A^ ends on an inverted PC. The four-measure B period though contrasting material has a harmonic progression based upon Fm^ and continues with an incomplete Cm^^^ progression for the last two measures before concluding with the Fm^ bass ostinato of the contra. Section B (mm. 15-22) is made up of a single period of two threemeasure phrases separated by a one-measure bridge and ending with a one-measure tag in support of theme B, motive 8 and motive B. The downward progression of the first phrase is as follows: Fm-E"^D''^ Within each measure of the first phrase is a related chord to this progression: Fm-Gm, E^^^-Dm^^and D''^-E''^ (with the E''^ as a chord substitute of a V^ chord). The bridge consists of A'^ B"", A^^ and B^^ and links the next phrase by a half-step downward progression. The second phrase is similar to phrase one in rhythmic form and tonal quality however with different the chord progressions. This phrase uses B''^-E''^ A''^-D''m^ and B^m^-Go^ Section A^ (mm. 23-30) is an eight-measure phrase based upon motive A in a call and response form from the idea of section A, movement I. This chord progression is also consistent with the traditional jazz harmony of i-ii-v-i.

142

The A motive deviates from the original composition with the addition of an implied Cm^ chord at the motive's end over the chord structure of Fm^-C^-Fm-Gm^-Cm^ (i7.v7.j.ii7.v9). Section A2(mm. 33-45) is a repeat (the third time) of the melody (played by the mellophones) of section A. The phrase group for this section is differs slightly from the original A section: A-A^-B-C. Though the bass ostinato remains the same as the original A section it is joined with a sequential rhythm played by the lower brass thus changing the chord structure to primarily outline a B^^-Cm^ deceptive move. Again the period A ends on with iv-i and period Abends on an inverted lAC. The initial two-measure melodic line of period B is also the same as its counterpart in section A. It is also supported by a lower brass accompaniment outling a progression of B^^-Fm^-B^m^ E^^-A^^-E^m^\ The last four measures of period B are based on the mellophone theme as FM/C (V/IV|v). The B section concludes with a linear chromatic scale (from B'^-E) played by the sopranos with the second sopranos in contrasting motion to the tonic Fm^ chord. Section C (mm. 48-55) is an immediate departure from the key of Fm up a half step to the key of B^m and is also the shout chorus or main

143

tutti section of this movement. The highlight of this section is the two four-measure phrases of a parallel period based upon chromatic chordplanning over a walking bass line in the contra. The chord streaming in the A phrase begins on an A"^ or VViii while the chord streaming of the A^ phrase starts a major second higher on 6"^ Section A^ (mm. 56-69) marks the return of phrase group A-A^-B-C of section A^' in the key of F minor with the original Fm bass ostinato of section A while melodic line is again played by the mellophones. The major difference of phrase C of this section as compared to phrase C of section A^ is the mellophone theme is an inverted form of section A^ over a syncopated quarter-note pedal rhythm within the lower brass line. The harmonic structure of these seven measures outlines an Ab^-Cm-C"A''^GPm progression. The codetta (mm. 70-75) begins with a chromatic eighth-note triplet played by the contra to present theme A (played by the sopranos). This motive serves as the original compositional form for which the third movement is based upon. This is supported by a dotted quarter-note sequence of descending fifths within the bass line of the contra under a

144

chord progression of (Dm-B^-Do^-D"^^ C^^-G^m). The movement concludes on an F Major chord.

145

CHAPTER IX SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

The North American drum corps movement has made its mark on other continents of the worid. The majority of music used by these corps are mainly composed or arranged by American writers. Techniques for arranging music for drum corps is traditionally based upon the writers' word of mouth, apprenticeship, or by trial and error method. Thoughout the past sixty years, drum corps publications have recorded changes in the activity from a military emphasis to its current state of creativity and pageantry. However, there have been no articles written on arranging for a drum corps hornline. The purpose of this project is to offer a variety of comprehensive methods and techniques on arranging for a hornline. In order to understand how to arrange for a drum corps hornline, a brief history of the birth of Drum Corps International (DCI) and the brass instruments (circa 1976) used within a drum corps has been presented in Chapters II and III.

146

The aspects of arranging specifically for this unique family of instruments is based upon several factors as outlined in Chapter IV: 1. Style of Music, 2. Number of horn players, 3. Distribution of the horn players within the sections, 4. Musical strength of the horn players,

5. Texture and complexity of the composition to be arranged. To demonstrate how this comprehensive method is applied, the author has chosen William Reddie's Jazz Band composition, Channel One Suite as a sample arrangement. In Chapter V, the author describes how the drum corps arrangement was made from the jazz band composition. In Chapter VI, the author introduces the melodic analysis of the three-movement composition. This is presented in the form of a structural diagram followed a comparison of motives between the original composition and the arrangement. Chapter VII is an introduction of a blueprint or flowchart based upon Robert Garofalo's Blueprint for Band. The seven basic concepts of Garofalo's flowchart have been modified to reflect a visual representation of the arrangement.

147

The project concludes with Chapter IX as the harmonic analysis section of the arrangement. Though the harmonic structure of the original composition and the arrangement are complex, the formal analysis consists of the primary chordal structure and its function as it relates to the traditional ii-V-i jazz harmony.

Conclusion The method of arranging for the hornline of a drum corps presented in this project is one of several that may be used by any composer/arranger. In the medium of drum corps arranging, it is one of the most approaches to the arrangement of the music. The author's intent in this project is to present a logical approach to composition and arrangement for the instructor and student of music for the drum corps. The hoped for outcome is to present a unified method or "sketch pad" technique, that can be retained as a technique arranging or compositional ideas to be used in future musical selections. In no way is the author advocating any standardization of music arranging within drum corps. To do so would undermine the musical creativity of the activity. It is the author's desire to recognize the

148

approach to arranging any musical composition to the five major voices of drum corps brass instrumentation and the creative genius of those who write for them.

149

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Atkinson, Chris. "The Drum Corps Activity takes to the Ainwaves." A History of Drum and Bugle Corps. Vol.1. Madison: Sights & Sounds, Inc., 2003. "Southeast Asia." A History of Drum and Bugle Corps. Vol. 2 Madison: Sights & Sounds, Inc., 2003. Beckham, Rick. "The Birth, Growth, and Metamorphosis of Competitive Rudimental Drumming." A History of Drum and Bugle Corps, Vol. 2. Madison: Sights & Sounds, Inc., 2003. Bilik, Jerry H. "The Corps Versus The Band." The Instrumentalist 29, No.11 June 1975:41-43. Burton,Stephen D. Orchestration, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1982 Cillers, Retha. "South African Field Band Foundation." A History of Drum and Bugle Corps. Vol. 2 Madison: Sights & Sounds, Inc., 2003. Duganne, W.T. The Army Bugler. W. D. No. 1019. Washington D. C: War Department, Government Printing Office. 1920. Garofalo, Robert. Blueprint for Band. Ft. Lauderdale: Meredith Music c.1983. Hars,Steven."United Kingdom." A History of Drum and Bugle Corps. Vol. 2 Madison: Sights & Sounds, Inc., 2003. Howard, William. "Masters of Their DestinyDCI is Established," A History of Drum and Bugle Corps. Vol.1. Madison: Sights & Sounds, Inc., 2003.

150

Kerchner, Larry. Arranger Hawthorne Muchachos Drum Corps. Conversation with Author. 29 Dec 03. Kloppert, Hans. "Europe." A History of Drum and Bugle Corps. Vol. 2 Madison: Sights & Sounds, Inc., 2003. Ludwig, Jr., William. Letter to Steve Vickers. 05 December 1995. Neidig, Kenneth L. "Bands of America Summer Workshop." Band Director's Guide No. [sic]4 (May/June 1990):2-5. Norman, Kenneth. Arranger (knorman@rootcom.net) E-mail with author. January 2004. Pirtle, Bobby. "The Evolution of the Bugle." A History of Drum and Bugle Corps. Vol. 1. Madison: Sights & Sounds, Inc., 2003. . "The Stan Kenton Mellophoniums." T/ie M/c/of/e Horn Leader. May 1993. Osheroff, Raphael and Robert Zinko. "The Big Parade-The Veterans Organizations and the Drum and Bugle Corps Movement." A History of Drum and Bugle Corps. Vol.1. Madison: Sights & Sounds, Inc., 2003. Reddie, Bill. "Channel One Suite." Warner Brothers Publications. Warner Music Group, Miami. Copyright 1969. Sadie, Stanley. " The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians." London: MacMillan Publishers, Ltd. 1980. . " The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians."2"'' Edition London: MacMillan Publishers, Ltd.2001. Sward, Rosalie Dr. "The Evolution of Musical and Visual Design."_/\ History of Drum and Bugle Corps. Vol.1. Madison: Sights & Sounds, Inc., 2003.
151

Tarr, Edward. TheTrumpet. (Portland: Amadeus Press. 1988. p.20). Vickers, Steve. "The Big Parade -The Veterans of Worid War I Form a Unique Organization."/\ History of Drum and Bugle Corps. Vol.1. Madison: Sights & Sounds, Inc., 2003. "Drum Corps Periodicals." A History of Drum and Bugle Corps. Vol. 2. Madison: Sights & Sounds, Inc., 2003 Whaley Royce Co. Ltd. Drum and Bugle Corps Accessories Catalog. January 1967. United States Marine Corps. Manual for Field Music. Washington, D.C.: 1935.

Websites A History of the G Bugle. WWW. Anchormen.org.uk/ Drum Corps International 08 Dec 2003 WWW.DCI.Org. Drum Corpsplanet.com Monday 08 Dec 2003 www.drumcorpsplanet.com Madison Scouts Monday 08 Dec 2003 http://madisonscouts.org/ Phantom Regiment Monday 08 Dec 2003 www.regiment.org Rec.Arts. Marching Drum Corps Monday 08 Dec 2003 WWW.google.com, Rec.Arts. Marching Drum Corps Santa Clara Vanguard Monday 08 Dec 2003 WWW.scvanguard.org/community_programs/index.php

Spirit from JSU Monday 08 Dec 2003 www.spiritdrumcorps.org/ The Cadets Monday 08 Dec 2003 www.yea.org/cadets

152

Discography Reddie, Bill. "Channel One Suite" Rich, Buddy. Europe 77. DAWE60 Magic Compact Disc. Middlesex, England: Submarine 1995).

153

APPENDIX A PERMISSION LETTER FROM WARNER BROTHERS PUBLICATIONS

154

WARNER BROS. PUBLICATIONS U.S. INC. 15800 Northwest 48* Avenue Miami, Florida 33014
January 13, 2004

John A. Leggett 1001 University Avenue #348 Lubbock, TX 79401 Dear Mr. Leggett: This letter serves as your permission to reprint musical excerpts from CHANNEL ONE SUITE, by Bill Reddie, published by United Artists Music Co., Inc/EMI U Catalog Inc., within the Master's thesis you are writing, at Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas, entitled ""ARRANGING FOR DR UM CORPS: IT'S ALL ABOUT THE MUSIC!!T. This permission is limited to the terms of your request dated January 6, 2004, and does not authorize the inclusion of the material in any other form for distribution, free or for charge, excluding microfilming. It is, however, understood by us that University Microfilms may supply single copies on demand. This permission is granted on a non-exclusive basis, and you shall afford all credits as they appear on the source material. The fee for this permission shall be $25.00 payable in U.S. funds. The Copyright Notice should appear on your copies, along with the words "Duplicated by Permission". Please acknowledge acceptance of the permissions by affixing your signature, on BOTH copies, in the space provided below. Please retain one copy, returning the second to this office. Thank you for your interest in our publications. We wish you well with this project. Accepted and Agreed to:

Sincerely, WARNER BROS. PUBLICATIONS U.S., INC.

Juliette Perez, Coordinator Copyright/Licensing Administration

155

APPENDIX B CHANNEL ONE SUITE SCORE ARRANGED BY JOHN A. LEGGETT

156

157

/1
\*C-

Rj
M

i-ii;^
./
/

(::;/> <::i:5

p....

~;;

/I

ti;:]l)
( )
>^'

J,
'-Ej

^
. vv -*i.

C!

L)
'ft'

;/

i
;ej A' ^gjo

A$$

A(>

ft

AO

-ft

'gj

A(i:

^^A

h^ A ^

'Sj

t>A

AH

:A

<>.

r.

"^'i^-i

*^'i!i'J * = ' ; [ ;

'^'s!;-*

<=>!;-

CO

CO

CQ

158

<1_

i i
:;:3 :::3

A'li

A
A'

A
2A

(")
c.ilj-S

f
c,;Er-s

(
c.^Er-s

( < >
CjEj-s

.(II,
) (

1 '
*='i[5^
IN

c.;E = -5

cc u

159

4
A'LL

"::'

':::;

'b ( h (:
CM

t,

A'lL

A'

Oill-i

c,;( = ^

c.jE^-s
ca

^'ii!^
CL,

_zffl*
n
(J

160

::>i

r.'t

l_jffl^
u

161

162

CO

CO CO

163

^7
\.

;;:? (

m
A

(h
A

(ii

'C
![3

<\

(^

\.

^'s!;^

^^v.-i

CjE;:}

ca

164

CO

in

.w ^ atte 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

CCN CN

*N

cs

<s

CN

"n

'^ . J

o J

l1 Ai
1 1 1 1 1 A 1

I
1 1 1 1

/ "
1

;i
} A
TiA

:
A
A'l

'
1
1 1

i
A

)
A ' i A ' t

">
iiA

1 A 1
'L.

::. >1-

1
1 (
( /1

iiA

1 A 1 Al 1. A 1

1
i)

,
( 1 A> 1
f
i' r "

^ 1

:oi

i>

j'lA

r
r
i::.

<
A u. 3 1
'L

o>

1
A
i A i
.1

'
A A 1
CO

pl^
rih

()
! ,. 1 i.

<
1
. Ik

1
1 .5 . 1

I1-'. i-

f lA

^s -

_ f

^'s ll-i

*'S 11^

E^- ^'^

^ ' i [l^

~ . <. 'ills

.: iL "" 's[l^ m

~1

f.

< [l^
C O

^\

1 ^ c. i ! ^
o

165

1
^L..
in

A-^-

B=;::i
''

'
K

s
::::

uB S
Ac :::: ::::

AI

^^^ ::::

iS

s
;::::

's
lO

CD lO

ID

lO

*='s[;^

*='5!;" *='5!;'s>

"^'slS^

'^'5[;'J>

*=';!?'

W
ca

166

AI '-'-i/ =^A A. I I
lO (O

) 1=0
:

B
\:
CO CO

::;3

fe
c ^E;-s c , IJ-i c.;( = -5 c,;Er-s

o
CO

iilfr itifr
C J

167

Ui

169

C Q

a.

170

171

C Q

172

173

174

175

'

H
\

i;;:

/'

''

^;

I
i::.

^;

<;;::

(i;::
.r.V
^ U

C(l

c . s E j - j O j E r ^ <:<i|r^
CO CN CO
r-, CO

*='ii;'

*=';!'" "^Sn"*
CN U)

'!!;
CO

(J

176

r
^1
\^

/ : ;

'$1

. Eri) .iE;- <<iE;-s >5(:-5


C N c n

c,;E;^
(N

*='5!J1> ^'siJ-J ' s i ; - 5


C N W

'iE;^
ca u

177

ic:>

i[:s

ic:i

|[:i

/ii

$1

$1

(
c.jEf-s
CQ

c.jIr^S c,jEr:S
CQ CQ

178

:;:i

.::,

A*::.

<,;;.

/ , Ct:.

/ .* : .

_5

_!

_:

.1.

-t.

.&

c.jEr-j

>5E;- C'^Ej-S

%?

"C'sEr-j
CQ U

179

C Q

ca

180

CQ

CN CQ

ua

eg

181

fS

<N

CQ

OQ

CQ

(J

182

oa

03

Ul

CQ

183

184

Ilu

<u
c o

<u
o

<3

;>
CA

5
CA

CA ,'

A'L

'

AU

.L L

AU

Sfcj A

.st^<

c .

ci-E = -s

OjEr-Sl '5E;-5

';:- c.jEr-j

c^E^-j

185

a u E u > o

8
S o H

c
o U

5
_

186

II-

J-

-I

y^-j

*"i[l-i
C Q

iE = ^
C Q

187

I
i

i\
"T^:

q;::i
A-

.f-'
ii *

ts ~7i<i

:C;;::i

'n

u
A5j^^

^ ;:!= A5fcj

I-

ifffP

TTffr

wr

Tfifr

wr
oa u

188

^i!;^
CN CO

i^

*ttl?P

TTffr
n u

r^ CO

189

C Q

190

C Q

<N

to

CQ U

191

u:>

ALt:. AiU:.

: : : i
'^ill

Ati::. Ai:.

A
A<

u
ACt::. Aiit:.

AU A'L

AU AU

ALt:.

A* A<

Ct:.

ilt:.

A Al

{::

Lt:.

A< A<

i:.

(\
A'L AU

Ci
AU SAU

o-ii
s

AU::. Aiit:.
ACt::.

Af Al

^ .

> A

^'ill-j

^f^

<='>E;-a

'(!;"

*='i!;^
C Q

192

1
H-1

'Z\

::.]

AS
5b^ A

!;:i'w '::iISti

i..-

Au

C.^E:^

C.jEr^

C,;E;^

C;

J^
(N UJ CQ U

CO

CO

CO

C Q

193

^1

AN I

'::i
c.jEr-s c.^Er^s *='iEr-8
C Q

194

CO

CO

CQ U

195

ca u

196

"::r
;'.:
':iF

Au

;S
^ ^

3
:;:i

(: a
;:i

;::i

::

(i

(:i (M
o;
AU

AU AU

c.^Er^

*='i!;^

*=S[>^

*='5 l-i

'5E;^

CjEj-s
C Q

C'iEj-s
CQ

197

' ; i
<-\i.

a
c::
i:i:
A <I

*i

^A

i::D

*A

>A '3

41:
i:::^;
\ A

c;:

.41:

*-H-

\::ll
(
Al

p::;'
<i.

a
J,
5+
.AS
T'AS

i;:D

.4.1:

CN

u:>AS

i
ca u

:;;;i
*='i!j*

c.jEr-S

c.jEr-j,

198

lit:.

^^

^^

I I:

<.

51:^:2

^ -i

S <->l

-^1

^A. '

5t^

' %

^'S^
CO

'^'i\l^
CO

C'sEr-a

< ^ ^

<j|s|||^
U3

C Q

ca

199

C Q

200

PERMISSION TO COPY

In presenting this thesis in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a master's degree at Texas Tech University or Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, I agree that the Library and my major department shall make it freely available for research purposes. Permission to copy this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Director of the Library or my major professor. It is understood that any copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my further written permission and that any user may be liable for copyright infringement.

Agree (Permission is granted.)

Student Signature

Date

Disagree (Permission is not granted.)

Student Signature

Date