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Department of Horticulture College of Agriculture and Food Science Visayas State University ViSCA, Baybay, Leyte Group 3 Date Performed: June 18, 2013 Lab. Sched.: 1-4 Tuesday Date Submitted: August 9, 2013 Rating: Hort 111 - Postharvest Physiology of Perishable Crops Laboratory Exercise 2 MORPHO-ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES INTRODUCTION Fruit and vegetables are living structures. The botanical definition of fruit- the product of AND PHYSIOLOGICAL

determinate growth from an angiospermous flower or inflorescence- is too strict for the edible, fleshy fruits of commerce. The botanist s definition encompasses the fleshy fruits that arise from expansion of the ovary of the flower, and does not include fleshy fruits that arise from the growth of structures other than the ovary, such as receptacle (apple, strawberry), bract and peduncle (pineapple). Nevertheless, it does include dry fruits such as the nuts, grains, and legumes, that are not commercially considered fruits. Consumers define fruit as the plant products with aromatic flavours, which are either naturally sweet or normally sweetened before eating ; they are essentially dessert foods. These definitions are more suited to the common usage of the term fruit (Wills et al, 1989). Vegetables do not represent any specific botanical grouping, and exhibit a wide variety of plant structures. They can, however, be grouped into three main categories: seeds and pods; bulbs, roots and tubers; flowers, buds, stems, and leaves (Wills et al, 1989). Plant cells are bounded by a more or less rigid cell wall composed of cellulose fibres, and other polymers such as pectic substance, hemicelluloses and lignins (Wills et al, 1989). An important feature of the plants and therefore of fruit and vegetables, is that they respire by taking up oxygen and giving off carbon dioxide and heat. Respiration is essentially the reverse of photosynthesis by which energy derived from the sun is stored as chemical energy, mainly in carbohydrates containing glucose. They also transpire, that is, lose water. While attached to the plant, the losses due to respiration and transpiration are placed from the flow of sap, which contains water, photosynthesis (principally sucrose and amino acids) and minerals (Wills et al, 1989). This report will consider the postharvest behaviour and causes of quality loss of fruit and vegetables. OBJECTIVES To characterize some morphological-anatomical attributes of fruits and vegetables, relate these to the rates of physiological processes and postharvest life. To determine the effects of temperature, RH and air movement on the rate of water loss of fruits and vegetables. To familiarize with gas chromatographic measurement of CO 2 and ethylene, calculate the rates of respiration and ethylene production of given produce, and relate these to potential postharvest life. METHODOLOGY Morpho- anatomical characterization Two samples of onion, banana and tomato were weighed individually and its volume was identified by displacement method. Each sample was submerged in a container, fully filled with water and the volume of the spilled water was assumed as the volume of the sample. The surface area (SA) of each sample was estimated by the cut-and-weigh method. The leaf or peel of the samples was traced on a paper, was cut and the paper outline of the sample was weighed (if wet, the paper must be oven-dried first). The SA was calculated against a known area of polygon paper using the following formula: Area of polygon paper, cm 2 SA of sample, cm 2 = (Wt. of sample paper) x -----------------------------------Wt of polygon paper SA to weight and SA to volume ratios were calculated. Results were in Table 1. Under a compound microscope, L-sections of epidermal tissues were observed. Cell size, arrangement, the

presence/absence and number of natural openings (e.g. stomates, lenticels, and cuticular breaks) were taken into importance. Observations were drawn in Figure 2. Transpiration and Psychrometrics The initial weight and degree of wilting/shrivelling (1-none, 2-very slight, 3-slight, 4-moderate, 5severe) of the sweet potato taps (2 samples/treatment) were taken and results were entered in Table 2. Sweet potato taps was subjected for at least 1 hour the following treatments: T1 20 o C holding T2 20 o C holding with exposure to high air velocity (use an electric fan) T3 ambient holding T4 ambient holding with exposure to high air velocity The dry and wet bulb temperatures of the sweet potato taps were monitored. RH and VPD, using the psychrometric chart and following formula, were estimated: Actual VP, mb RH (%) = --------------------------- x 100 Saturation VP, mb VPD, mb = Saturation VP - Actual VP Above reading was compared with those measured using a psychrometer or digital temperatureRH meter. Results are at Table 2. After the treatment, weight was taken and percent weight loss was calculated using the formula below. Rate of degree of wilting or shrivelling was entered in Table 2. Initial weight - Final weight Weight loss (%) = --------------------------------------- x 100 Initial weight Respiration and ethylene production rates Tomato was used for this parameter. Respiration, ethylene production rate and the heat of respiration of tomato were calculated using the following formula. Results are in table 4. C 1 C 0 1 44 mg CO 2 Respiration rate = ---------- x V x -------- x ------------------(mg CO 2 .kg -1 .h -1 ) 100 (t) (w) 24 ml CO 2 Where: C 1 % CO 2 after a time interval C 0 % CO 2 at zero time, 0.03% V Headspace volume, ml=vol. of respiration jar-vol. of commodity t Time interval, hour w Weight of commodity, kg E 1 V Ethylene production (nl .g -1 .h -1 ) = ------ x C x ---------E 2 (t) (w) Where: E 1 ethylene reading for sample E 2 ethylene reading for standard V Headspace volume, ml t time interval, hour w weight of commodity, g Heat of respiration:

0.00255 Kcal Kcal. kg -1 .h -1 = mg CO 2 .kg -1 .h -1 x --------------------mg CO 2 BTU.ton -1 .d -1 = mg CO 2 .kg -1 .h -1 x 220 RESULTS and OBSERVATION Table 1. Morpho-Anatomical Observations Commodity Classification * Wt., g Vol., ml SA, cm 2 SA:Wt. SA:Vol. Natural openings Onion Subterranean 27 21 25 22 34.12 32.88 1.26 1.57 1.36 1.49 Stomates Banana Multiple 103.5 122 101 125 119.719 159.419 1.16 1.31 1.18 1.28 Stomates Tomato Simple 112 127 88 115 135 92 62.81 58.78 43.27 0.56 0.46 0.49 0.55 0.44 0.47 Cuticle breaks *Classify fruits based on number of carpel from which they originate (simple, aggregate or multiple) and based on the nature of the pericarp (e.g. berry, drupe, capsule, etc.). Classify vegetables whether fruit, leafy, subterranean, floral or stem type, and based on their family (e.g. crucifers, cucurbits, solanaceous, vegetable-legumes, etc.). L-sections X-sections Figure 2. Anatomical structures Table 2. Psychrometrics and rate of water loss in sweet potato taps

Treatment DBT, o C* WBT, o C RH, %* SVP, mb AVP, mb VPD, mb Weight, g Weight loss, % Wilting/shrivelling degree Initial Final Initial Final 20 o C 23 20 76 28.10 21.36 6.74 9 8.5 5.6 2 3 20 o C + air 8 7 12.5 2 4 Ambient 29 25 69 40.06 27.64 12.42 7 6.6 5.71 2 4 Ambient + air 6.8 6 11.76 2 5 *For psychrometer readings, place them parenthetically under each condition. Table 3. Respiration rates and heat of respiration of tomato Commodity Respiration mg CO 2 .kg -1 .h -1 Heat of respiration Kcal. kg -1 .h -1 BTU.ton -1 .d -1 Tomato (yellow) 9.21x10 -3 2.35 x10 -6 0.20 Tomato (yellow green) 1.82x10 -3 4.64 x10 -6 0.40 Tomato (green) 1.4x10 -3 3.57 x10 -6 0.31 DISCUSSION In this experiment, results showed that the commodity's weight and volume was not directly proportional with its surface area. The commodity's surface area will directly depend on the width of the commodity and its peel. Hence, the greater surface area to volume ratio, results to greater water loss and commodities quality loss. Cuticle is resistant to the passage of water or water vapour and thus, maintains high water content of the commodity. For tomato, its cuticle has been broken, which favour decay and letting its water content easily escape, result will be wrinkling of the said tomato, which will eventually, lose its quality and consumers acceptability. Stomates serves natural opening for fruit and vegetable. Furthermore, banana and onion has stomates and when stomates open the said commodities can absorb moisture from the surrounding, at the same time, commodities can also loss water. If this happens, banana will easily be ripened and onion will develop sprout that are signs of banana and onion s loss of quality. With the said natural openings, commodities rate of post harvest processes will be faster as well. Ryall et al, 1979, stated that computation for the relative humidity depends on the quantity of water vapour in the space around the water surface at a given temperature. Results in table 2

simply showed that lower RH, which means air of the environment is hotter, gave higher vapour pressure deficit (VPD). Thus, high temperature caused faster water loss and high VPD. Weight loss reflects the effect of high temperature on the sweet potato taps. Since large surface area of sweet potato was exposed to high temperature, greater amount of water evaporates and escape to the environment that result to weight depression and higher degree of wilting or shrivelling. Oxygen was prevented to have contact with the tomatoes, by placing tomatoes at closed container, while allowing carbon dioxide to be disposed of, with the aid of small hose, at the same time. In addition, lower oxygen supply can result to faster respiration. In Table 3 results showed that young tomato with green peel colour has lower respiration rate, in comparison to that mature and near to be ripe tomatoes, which has highest value of respiration rates. The type of tomato with highest value of respiration rate has lowest value of heat of respiration. This means that only few amount of energy, 2.35 x10 -6 Kcal. kg -1 .h -1 , is liberated, in yellow colour tomato, when its sugars respired at 9.21 x10 -3 mg CO 2 .kg -1 .h -1 ; and plenty of energy was liberated when sugar respired at younger (green) tomato. Amount of ethylene in this experiment was not computed. CONCLUSION Thus, greater surface area and natural openings such as stomates and cuticle breakage, causes high water loss, which result to faster rates of physiological processes and shorter postharvest life. High temperature means low RH and faster air movement, which result to the high or greater water loss in fruits and vegetables. Faster rate of respiration and ethylene production caused shorter postharvest life of fruits and vegetables. QUESTIONS w/ ANSWERS Questions for morpho-anatomical characterization: Based on SA: W and SA: V, rate the commodities in terms of intensity of postharvest processes and relative postharvest life. --Onion>banana>tomato . What is the role of appendages in postharvest deterioration of produce? --- Appendages will enhance the postharvest deterioration of the produce, by causing removal of plenty water in the produce (if and only if, produce are not tn with care). Based on the anatomical characteristics, rate the commodities in terms of intensity of postharvest processes and relative postharvest life. --- Tomato>banana=onion Commodities with similar morpho-anatomical characteristics exhibit similar rate of quality deterioration. Why or why not? --- No, because rate of quality deterioration does not depend only on commodities morpho-anatomical characteristics but on plenty factors also, such as pH and water activity of the commodities. Questions for physiological characterization: What is the relationship between weight loss and RH, VPD and air movement? --- RH (either high or low) cause weight loss --- If air is dense (in high temperature), its movement is fast, causing high VPD. If air is heavier (in humid or high temperature, its movement is slow, causing low VPD.

What are the implications of the rates of respiration and ethylene production? --- Rate of respiration determines the quantity of oxygen that must be available per unit time and the quantities of carbon dioxide and heat that must disposed of at the same time. --- Ethylene production helps and dictates the rate of ripening. What is the consequence of heat of respiration? --- Heat of respiration dictates the amount of energy transformed during respiration. REFERENCES RYALL , A et al.1979. HANDLING, TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES: VOLUME 1, 2 nd Edition VEGETABLE AND MELON. AVI Publishing Company, INC.: Connecticut. page 1-3, 564-565. WILLS, R et al.1989. POSTHARVEST: An Introduction to the Physiology and Handling of Fruit and Vegetable. BSP Professinal Books: Oxford. pages 3,7 and 17.