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of the people of India. In most of these movements, people were themselves encouraged to take action. Due to several factors, these movements failed to win Independence for India. However, they did promote a sense of nationalism among the people of the country. The failure of these movements made many people poor, uneducated and illiterate due to withdrawal from Government offices, schools, factories and services. Though they did manage to get a few concessions such as the Salt March in 1930, they did not help India much from the point of view of their objective. Contents [show] Early influences[edit source | editbeta] The void rising from the precipitous decline of the Mughal Empire from the early decades of 18th century allowed emerging powers to grow in the Indian subcontinent. These included the Sikh Confederacy, the Maratha Confederacy, Nizamiyat, the local nawabs of Oudhand Bengal and other smaller powers. Each was a strong regional power influenced by its religious and ethnic identity. However, the East India Company ultimately emerged as the predominant power. One of the results of the social, economic and political changes instituted in the country throughout the greater part of 18th century was the growth of the Indian middle class. Although from different backgrounds and different parts of India, this middle class and its varied political leaderships contributed to a growing "Indian" identity". The realisation and refinement of this concept of national identity fed a rising tide of nationalism in India in the last decades of the 19th century.  Swadeshi movement== Swadeshi or boycott were the movements when Indians stopped using the British products and started using their own handmade products. Indian textile industry has played an important role in the freedom struggle of India. The mechanization of the textile industry pioneered the industrial revolution in England and soon she was producing cotton cloth in such great quantities that the domestic market was saturated and in… required to capture foreign markets to sell the production. On the other hand, India was rich in cotton produce and was in a position to supply British mills with the raw material, they required. This was the time when India was under British rule and the East India Company had already established its roots in british india. Raw materials went to England at very low rates and very cotton cloth are refined quality was brought back to India and sold here at very high prices. This was draining the economy and textile industry of India suf.fered greatly. This led to a great resentment among cotton cultivators and traders. To add fuel to fire Lord Curzon announced the partition of Bengal in 1905, and there was massive opposition of the people Bengal. Initially the partition plan was opposed through press campaign in partition. The total follower of such techniques led to boycott of British goods and the people of India pledged to use only swadeshi or Indian goods and to wear only Indian cloth. Imported garments were viewed as hateful. At many places, public burnings of foreign cloth were organized. Shops selling foreign cloths were stopped. Swadeshi movement emanated from the partition of Bengal in 1905 and continued upto 1908. The swadeshi movement which was a part of the Indian freedom struggle was a successfully economic strategy to remove the British empire from par and improve economic conditions in India.The swadeshi movement soon stimulated local enterprise in many areas. The cotton textile industry is rightly described as swadeshi industry. The period witnessed the growth of swadeshi textile mills. swadeshi factories came into existence everywhere. Surendranath Banerji,Rabindranath Tagore, Ramesh Chandra Dutt, Bipin Chandra Pal, V. O. Chidambaram Pillai, Ashwini Kumar Dutt, Ambika Charan Majumdar were some of the prominent leaders of this movement. The swadeshi movement was the most successful of the preGandhian era. According to Surendranath Banerji , swadeshi movement changed the entire texture of our social and domestic life. The songs composed by Rabindranath Tagore, Rajinikant Singh and Syed Abu Mohd became the moving spirit from for the nationalists. The movement soon spread to the rest of the country and the partition of Bengal have to be firmly inhaled on the first of april 1912. Later when mahatma Gandhi entered the scene of the Indian freedom struggle he described swadeshi as the sole of swaraj and docted it as the key strategy for our fight for independence. The charka or the spinning wheel became the symbol of rural self-employment and swadeshi symbolized the political ideas and independence itself.gandhi movement are also very powerfulin freedom The Coming of Gandhi[edit source | editbeta]
The Non Co-operation Movement[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Non-cooperation movement This movement lasted from September 1920 to February 1922. If Indians refused to cooperate then India would gain Independence." He also said that. 1942 Movement marked the end of Indias struggle for freedom and may be regarded as an apex of the freedom struggle. broke the Salt Law and started a nationwide Civil disobedience The Quit India Movement[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Quit India Movement The Quit India movement was the final of the three major Nationalist movements in India. The Dandi March or the Salt Satyagraha[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Salt Satyagraha The Salt Satyagraha was started by Mahatma Gandhi on 11 March 1930 from Sabarmati Ashram to 5 April until Dandi where he manufactured Salt.Mahatma Gandhi returned to India in 1915 from South Africa after being a part of the Apartheid. People forced their Children out of the Government schools and Colleges. the popular character of the August Rebellion was revealed through the participation of students. Though the Quit India Movement collapsed within a very short time it will be a mistake to suppose that the movement was a total failure. Its seat is in the heart. Secondly. it was the participation of the peasant communication that turned the movement into a mass upsurge. It was because of this Nationalism and Unity among Indians that the British had to finally leave the country leaving behind Pakistan and India. "Ahimsa is not the weapon of the weak. . Result[edit source | editbeta] Though the Nationalist movements in India did not play a big part in bringing independence to the country. People left their offices. working class and peasants. The name of Mahatma began spreading around. and it must be an inseparable part of our very being. Thirdly. After his return he faced similar conditions in India. However. People started following him in all parts of the country.The Non Cooperation Movement in India was the first of the three major movements carried out by Gandhi. "Non Violence is not a garment to be put on and off at will. they did bring a sense of Nationalism among the people. The Movement soon caught National attention and Millions joined the movement. Fourthly. Weak cannot practice Ahimsa. But his method of Satyagraha was a little complicated from the common man's point of view. the movement revealed the determination of the people to undergo any amount of suffering for the cause of the country. It involves active participation and presence of Mind. The movement was started with the thought in mind that the British rule had lasted in India only because of the cooperation by Indians. factories or any other Business which Cooperated the British. he was criticized for his weakness. It is the weapon of the strong. It was started in August 1942 by MK Gandhi. the violent mass upsurge of 1942 convinced the British rulers that their hold was sure to collapse in India sooner or later. he did not achieve immediate national co-operation. the movement could not continue as anticipated by Mahatma. He had hoped for a Nationwide peaceful and Non-Violent movement." Though his views were met with praise. His reply was. His aim was clear : To gain Independence. Firstly. jobs. In the opinion of Sumit Sarkar. As he went on giving speeches about the power of Ahimsa or Non-Violence.
Ages of war and invasion The extent of Maratha Empire. Conception of Pan-South Asianism India's concept of nationhood is based not merely on territorial extent of its sovereignty.  The Indian desire for complete freedom. such as the Gupta Empire. and was known to have a good relationship with the Roman Catholic Church as well as with his subjects – Hindus. much of India has also been unified under a central government by empires. and invited the participation of wise Hindu ministers and kings. and the membership of the Congress grew over tens of millions by the 1930s. Muslim kings are also a part of Indian pride.  Akbar the Great was a powerful Mughal emperor who sought to resolve religious differences. Akbar undid most forms of religious discrimination. Pala Empire. Indian soldiers and regional kings fought the forces allied with the British Empire in different parts of India. The last Hindu empire of India. This permitted common individuals to engage the British in revolution. religious and ethnic equality and brotherhood. incredible conquests and remarkable religious tolerance. these regions roughly form the entities of modern day greater India. the Indian public was outraged and most of India's political leaders turned against the British. and civil disobedience. He forged familial and political bonds with Hindu Rajputkings. Indian Empire etc. In addition. The kings of Ancient India. Maharana Pratap of Rajputana. Rashtrakuta Empire. such as Chandragupta Maurya and Emperor Ashoka the Great of the Magadha Empire. Ancient texts mention India under emperor Bharata and Akhand Bharat. National leaders like Sardar . He developed for the first time in Islamic India an environment of complete religious freedom. without employing violence or other distasteful means. as well as four major world religions – Hinduism.Indian nationalism refers to the many underlying forces that defined the principles of theIndian independence movement. India today celebrates many kings and queens for combating foreign invasion and domination. Mughal Empire. India embodied the broader Indian subcontinent and influenced a part of Asia. but also future nationalism and conflict on religious and ethnic terms. typified with a strict adherence to ahimsa (nonviolence). gave confidence to a rising younger generation of Indians that the British hegemony could be defeated. an idea that did not catch on until after World War I. Nationalistic sentiments and expression encompass that India's ancient history. Gandhi's victories in theChamparan and Kheda Satyagraha in 1918–19. are also remembered for their military genius. without its vassals. The masses could participate in India's freedom struggle for the first time. When the Amritsar Massacre of hundreds of unarmed and innocent civilians by British forces took place in the same year. Sikhs and Jains. Jainism and Sikhism. was born with Bal Gangadhar Tilak. In addition. This event laid the foundation not only for a nationwide expression. or Swaraj. Buddhism. who combated theMahmud of Ghazni and Tipu Sultan who fought the British. and even religious scholars to debate in his court. Prithviraj Chauhan. whose followers were the first to express the desire for complete independence. and strongly continue to influence the politics of India. as well as being the heart of many contrasting ideologies that have caused ethnic and religious conflict in Indian society. The Gandhian era Mohandas Gandhi pioneered the art ofSatyagraha.  such as Shivaji of the Maratha Empire. as well as activist rejection of castebased discrimination and untouchability united people across these demographic lines for the first time in India's history. and much of Persia. Swaraj In the Indian rebellion of 1857. Buddhists. Indian nationalism often imbibes the consciousness of Indians that prior to 1947. Kittur Chennamma. Rani Laxmibai of Jhansi. Akbar took religious intermingling to new level of exploration. South Asia.  as the birthplace of the Indus Valley Civilization and Vedic Civilization. Gandhi's equally strict adherence to democracy. known as Greater India. Mauryan Empire was the first to unite all ofIndia. Indian nationalists see India stretching along these lines across the Indian Subcontinent. Contents [show] National consciousness in India India has been unified under many emperors and governments in history. Although previous Sultans had been more or less tolerant.
Hindus formed over 75% of the population and thus unsurprisingly the backbone and platform of the nationalist movement. led it to become a nuclear power state in 1974 and is blamed for theKhalistan insurgency and Operation Blue Star – a controversial blend of nationalism and hard politics. a Hindu nation. and more potent. Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Liaquat Ali Khan embraced the notion that Hindus and Muslims were distinct nations. Hedgewar founded the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh in Nagpur. opposing any notion of Muslim nationalism and separatism. adopting a uniform civil code. democracy and unity. India's largest political party and one which controlled government for over 45 years. Religion forms a major. is reliant on the connection to Mohandas K. which grew into the largest civil organisation in the country. Vinayak Damodar Savarkar coined the term Hindutva for his ideology that described India as aHindu Rashtra. More than just "Indian" See also: Demographics of India Indian nationalism is as much a diverse blend of nationalistic sentiments as its people are ethnically and religiously diverse. mainstream base of Hindu nationalism. Hindu Rashtra Main article: Hindu nationalism An important influence upon Hindu consciousness arises from the time of Islamic empires in India. and the Nehru-Gandhi family which has controlled the Congress since independence. created due to the suspicion of Muslim intellectuals and religious leaders with the Indian National Congress. linguistic groups and ethnicity. Entering the 20th century. The Aligarh Muslim University and theJamia Millia Islamia stand apart – the former helped form the Muslim league.B. Muslims have remained loyal voters of the Congress Party. The Muslim school of Indian nationalism failed to attract Muslim masses and the Islamic nationalist Muslim League enjoyed extensive popular political support. thus ending a special legal framework for Muslims. K. Maulana Azad. while the JMI was founded to promote Muslim education and consciousness upon nationalistic and Gandhian values and thought. Rajendra Prasad and Badshah Khan brought together generations of Indians across regions and demographics. Jawaharlal Nehru. Maulana Azad and most of Deobandi clerics strongly backed the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi and the Indian freedom struggle. While prominent Muslims like Allama Iqbal. However. Mahatma Gandhi's leadership attracted a wide array of Muslims to the freedom struggle and the Congress Party. considering itself to be the guardian of India's freedom. Modern Hindu thinking desired to unite Hindu society across the boundaries of caste.Vallabhbhai Patel. The most controversial and emotionally-charged fibre in the fabric of Indian nationalism is religion.Mohandas Gandhi. This ideology has become the cornerstone of the political and religious agendas of modern Hindu nationalist bodies like the Bharatiya Janata Party and the Vishwa Hindu Parishad. the All India Muslim League was founded. and provided a strong leadership base giving the country political direction. Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru. Ethnic communities are diverse in terms of linguistics. Maharashtra. Chakravarti Rajagopalachari. the central element of Indian life. imposed theIndian Emergency. and the core platform of the party today evokes that past strongly. seen as defender of Nehruvian . The Qaum Main articles: Indian Muslim nationalism and Two-Nation Theory In 1906–1907. The Congress Party's fortunes up till the 1970s were single-handedly propelled by its legacy as the flagship of India's Independence Movement. which was perceived as dominated by Hindu membership and opinions. State of Pakistan was ultimately formed following Partition of India Nationalism and politics Prime Minister Indira Gandhi led India to victory in 1971 against Pakistan. and in many cases. In 1925. Hindutva political demands include revoking Article 370 of the Constitution that grants a special semi-autonomous status to the Muslim-majority state ofKashmir. The political identity of the Indian National Congress. These particular demands are based upon ending laws that Hindu nationalists consider as offering special treatment to Muslims. other major leaders like Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari. social traditions and history across India. Thus the most influential undercurrents are more than just Indian in nature.
Sena Empire. Almost every Indian state has a regional party devoted solely to the culture of the native people of that state. Kuninda Kingdom. Vijayanagar Empire. Kushan Empire. Western Chalukya Empire. There were many powerful dynasties in India such as the Maha Janapadas. Caste-based politics invite the participation of the Bahujan Samaj Party and the party of Laloo Prasad Yadav. Gupta Empire. Eastern Ganga Empire. and most populated states of India like Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.Rashtrakuta Empire. serves as a source of nationalist sentiment in India.Kadamba Empire. In Maharashtra. Religious nationalist parties include the Shiromani Akali Dal. Western Ganga Kingdom. The BJP seeks to preserve and spread the culture of the Hindus. who build upon the support of poor low-caste and dalit Hindus in the northern. Maratha Empire. Paramara Kingdom. Kalabhras Kingdom. Eastern Chalukya Kingdom. Maurya Empire. Deccan Sultanates. Chalukya Empire.secularism. Kalachuri Empire. Kakatiya Kingdom. Pala Empire. In Tamil Nadu came the first of such parties. .9 million (US$25 billion) but the actual spending on the armed forces is estimated to be much higher. Delhi Sultanate. which is closely identified with the creation of a Sikh-majority state in Punjab and includes many Sikh religious leaders in its organisation.  and nuclear triad capability. Ahom Kingdom. the Bharatiya Janata Party employs a more aggressively nationalistic expression. Sikh Empire etc. Hoysala Empire. Western Satrap Empire. with the defence of the majority's right to be a majority. Harsha Empire. Sunga Empire. the Pattali Makkal Katchi(PMK) and the Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (MDMK). Vakataka Empire. Yadava Empire. Solanki Kingdom. Shishunaga Empire.  missile defence shield. Kharavela Empire. Today the DK stands for a collection of parties. The modern Army of India was raised under the British Raj in the 19th century. both past and present. the Dravidar Kazhagam (DK). Pratihara Empire. Vishnukundina Empire.Gangaridai Empire. Today the Republic of India maintains the world's third largest armed forces with over a million troops strong. Mughal Empire.  with the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam(DMK). Pallava Empire. Chera Empire. the majority population. the Shiv Sena uses the legacy of the independent Marathakingdom under heroes like Shivaji to stir up support. Nationalism and military conflicts Military history. Satavahana Empire. Pandyan Empire. Shahi Kingdom. the Asom Gana Parishad is a more state-focused party. The army is undergoing rapid expansion and modernisation with plans to have an active military space program. Mysore Kingdom. the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK). In contrast. Nanda Empire. InAssam. It ties nationalism with the aggressive defence of India's borders and interests against archrivals China andPakistan. The official defence budget stands at 1644151. and has adopted Hindutva as well. Chola Empire. The first reference to armies is found in the Vedas and the epics Ramayana and Mahabaratha. arising after the frustration of the United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA) as a benevolent expression of Assamese nationalism.
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