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TRAINEES NAME: AMUTHA PERMAL (870312 01 5404) MEGALATHEVI D/O THAGAVELLU (871212 02 5386) MISHALINI D/O MAGESWARAN (870313 35 5208 REVATHY D/O MORRTHY (870706 08 6336) THINAGARAN MUTTHUSAMY (871226 06 - 5629 COURSE/UNIT: PROGRAM PERGURUAN PENDIDIKAN RENDAH PENGAJIAN EMPAT TAHUN (MATEMATIK) SUBJECT: MTE 3104 DECISION MATHEMATHICS LECTURER: MR. KUMARAVALU RAMASAMY

SCIENCE & MATHEMATICS DEPARTMENT TENGKU AMPUAN AFZAN TEACHERS TRAINING INSTITUTE

Interpret : : OALD MATHS : : To explain the meaning of something. Translate the original ideas into another from that may contain mathematical values or symbols.

Basic Feasible Solution: x 0 0 20 y 0 16 6 S1 32 0 0 S2 84 20 0 TABLE ONE We can now interpret the simplex process just completed, geometrically in terms of the feasible region graphed in the preceding section. Table one lists the there basic feasible solutions we just found using simplex method. The table also includes the corresponding corner points of the feasible region illustrated in figure one. Looking at table one and figure one, we see that the simplex process started at the origin, moved to the adjacent corner point A (0, 16), and then to the optimal solution B (20, 6) at the next adjacent corner point, C (28, 0). P$ 0 1280 1480 Corner Point 0 (0,0) A (0,16) B (20,6)

Graphical Method A Maximization Problem A problem is one in which: The objective function is to be maximized All the variables involved in the problem are non-negative Each linear constraint may be written so that the expression involving the variables is less than or equal to a non-negative constant Example:Maximize Subject to: P = 3x + 2y 2x + 3y 12 2x + y 8 x0, y0 0 12 13 8

= = = =

You can easily verify that this is a maximization problem. The feasible set is associated with this problem produced in the figure one, where we have that the optimal solution to the problem occurs at the corner point C (3, 2). A Minimization Problem A minimization problem is one in which: The objective function is to be minimized All the variables involved are non-negative Each linear constraint may be written so that the expression involving the variables is greater than or equal to a constant. Example:Minimize Subject to: C = 6x + 8y 40x + 10y 2400 10x + 15y 2100 5x + 15y 1500 x0, y0

= = = =

You can easily verify that this is a minimization problem. The feasible set is associated with this produced in the figure two, where we have that the optimal solution to the problem occurs at the corner point B (30, 120). The Simplex Method The Maximization Problem Maximize Subject to P = 16x + 24y 2x + 3y 24 2x + y 16 y 6 x 0, y 0

Solution: Reorganize the constraints: P 16x 24y = 0 2x + 3y +S1 24 2x + y +S2 16 y + S3 6 P x Y S1 1 0 16 24 0 2 3 1 0 2 1 0 0 0 1 0 R1 = (24) R4 + R1 R2 = (-3) R4 + R2 R3 = (-1) R4 + R3 P x 1 16 0 2 0 2 0 0 S2 S3 RHS 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 24 16 6

y S1 S2 S3 0 0 0 2 4 0 1 0 -3 0 0 1 -1 1 0 0 1

RHS 144 6 10 6

S3 24

RHS 144

-3/2 3 -1 10 1 6

S3 0 -3/2 2 1

RHS 192 3 4 6

When x = 3 and y = 6, the maximum value is 192. The Minimization Problem Minimize Subject to C = 2x + 3y 8x + y 80 3x + 2y 100 x + 4y 80 x 0, y 0

This tells us that the dual problem is: Maximize Subject to P = 80u +100v + 80w 8u + 3v +w 2 u + 2v + 4w 3 u 0, v 0, w 0

1/3 0 2/3 0 1 3

y 0 0 1

P u v w x Y RHS 1 560/3 0 -140/3 100/3 0 200/3 0 8/3 1 1/3 1/3 0 2/3 0 -13/10 0 1 -1/5 3/10 1/2 R1 = (140/3) R3 + R1 R2 = (-1/3) R3 + R2

v 0 1 0

Minimize Subject to: Z = 10x + 20y 6x + 2y 36 2x + 4y 32 y 20 x0, y0

Graphical method

Step 1

Graph the feasible region S. To determine that an optimal solution exits, find the coordinates of each corner points. Since S is unbounded and the coefficients of the objective function are positive, Z has a minimum value.

Step 2

Evaluate the objective function at each corner point, as shown in the table. (x, y) (0, 20) (0, 18) (4, 6) (16, 0) z = 10x + 20y 400 360 160 160

Step 3

Determine the optimal solution from step 2. The minimum value of Z is 160 at (4, 6) and at (16, 0). The solution to example is a multiple optimal solution. In general, if two corner points are both optimal solutions to a linear programming problem, then any point on the line segment joining them is also an optimal solution.

The Simplex Method These are indicated by zero improvement potentials for non-basic variables. Therefore, these non-basic variables could be introduced into the basis without affecting the objective value, giving multiple optimal solutions. In the simplex final tableau, if the row Cj is zero for one or more of the non-basic variables, then we may have more than one optimal solutions (therefore infinitely many optimal solution). To find all the other optimal corner point (if any), pivot on each of nonbasic columns with zero Cj, one-by-one. Example: The following problem has many optimal solutions:

S2 2 -1/3 1/3

RHS 48 8 8

The optimal solution for the stated problem is at the optimal point of (8, 0) and (4, 6) where the optimal value is 48. Thus, this is a multiple solution problem.

Graphical Method Solve the following linear programming problem: Maximize Subject to P = x + 2y -2x + y < 4 x 3y < 3

x > 0, y > 0 Solution: The feasible set S for this problem is shown in figure, since the set S is unbounded (both x and y can take on arbitrarily large positive values), we see that we can make P as large as we please by making x and y large enough. This problem has no solution. The problem is said to be unbounded. A solution region of a system of linear inequalities is bounded if it can be enclosed within a circle. If it cannot be enclosed within a circle, it is unbounded. Refer to the figure one in the back. The maximization problem has no solution, because the feasible set is unbounded. The Simplex Method This condition is indicated by all the entries in the pivot column contain in negative entries, thus preventing selection of a pivot row. Maximize Subject to P = x + 2y -2x + y < 4 x 3y < 3 x > 0, y > 0

Solution: Reorganize the constraints: P x -2y = 0 -2x + y +S1 = 4 x 3y +S2 = 3 P x y S1 S2 1 -1 -2 0 0 0 -2 1 1 0 0 1 -3 0 1 R1 = (2) R2 + R1 R3 = (3) R2 + R3 RHS 0 4 3

P 1 0 0

x -5 -2 -6

y 0 1 -0

S1 2 1 3

S2 0 0 1

RHS 8 4 12

Question 5: Degeneracy In linear programming, it is when some basic variable is at one of its bound values (canonically zero). Without any given qualification, a (basic) solution is degenerate if one or more of its basic values are zero (the canonical lower bound). A solution can be dual degenerate, where one of its non basic variables

has zero reduced cost. In general, a solution is degenerate if it is not strictly complementary. Geometrically, this corresponds to a degenerate polyhedron. Suppose we have {x: Ax <= b} (where A is m by n). This polyhedron is degenerate if there exists an extreme point that is an element of the intersection of more than n hyperplanes. The pyramid is degenerate because four planes meet at a point. A pivot is degenerate if the objective function value does not change. Algorithmically, it could cause cycling in the simplex method. Cycling (in linear programming); revisiting a basis, mainly referring to a simplex method, so that the algorithm would cycle through the same sequence of bases, not converging to an optimal one.

The variables are divided into two (mutually exclusive) groups, as follows: Basic variables are selected arbitrarily with the one restriction that there be as many basic variables as there are equations.

The remaining variables are called non-basic variables. Examples: Maximize Subject to P = 3x + 2y 2x + 3y < 12 2x + y < 8

Non-basic Variables

Basic Variables

Constants

x 2 2 -3

y 3 1 2

S1 1 0 0

S2 0 1 0

P 0 0 1

12 8 0

Observe that each of the S 1, S2 and P columns at the augmented matrix is a unit column. The variables associated with unit columns are called basic variables; all other variables are called non-basic variables.

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