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General Anatomy MBA

Introduction and Descriptive Terms


A. Introduction
There are few words with a longer history than the word anatomy. If we write anatome, we use the name that Aristotle gave the science of anatomy 2300 years ago. Anatome (Greek) a term built from ana, meaning "up," and tome, meaning "a cutting" (compare the words tome, microtome, and epitome). From an etymological point of view, the term "dissection" ( dis-, meaning "asunder" or apart and secare, meaning "to cut") is the Latin equivalent of the Greek anatome. Anatome (dissection) the method by which the study of the structure of living things is made possible. Anatomy is the science of the structure of the body. When used without qualification, the term is applied usually to human anatomy. Anatomy, wrote Vesalius in the preface to his De Fabrica (1543), "should rightly be regarded as the firm foundation of the whole art of medicine and its essential preliminary." Moreover, the study of anatomy introduces the student to the greater part of medical terminology Anatomy "is to physiology as geography is to history" (Femel); that is, it provides the setting for the events. Although the primary concern of anatomy is with structure, structure and function should be considered together. In relation to the size of the parts studied, anatomy is usually divided into (1) macroscopic or gross anatomy, and (2) microscopic anatomy or histology (now used synonymously). In addition, embryology is the study of the embryo and the fetus (the study of development before birth), that is, the study of prenatal development, whereas the study of congenital malformations is known as teratology. The study of the anatomy of other animals ( comparative anatomy, anatomia comparativa) has been pursued exhaustively, partly in an endeveour to explain the changes in form (morphology) of different animals, including man.

Variability in anatomy: One important fact which an anatomist must recognize is that no two of us, even identical twins, are exactly alike. The structure of the body varies with

age race sex genetic diversity environmental history (especially during growth)
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Physical anthropology, or the branch of the study of mankind that deals chiefly with the external features and the measurements of different races and groups of people and the study of of prehistoric remains, commands interest of the anatomist. As data on variations accumulate, the subject of statistical anatomy emerges. Among the difference races of mandkind there are percentage differences in the form and arrangement of structures, just as there are amongst the different races of the apes and other animals. The human body is generally dissected by regions (regional anatomy), and describes by systems (systematic anatomy). o The regions of the body comprise: the head and the neck, the trunk (truncus); this region is divisible into thorax, abdomen and pelvis), the limbs. The systems of the body comprise: the skeleton (the study of which is osteology), the joints (arthrology), the muscles (myology), the nervous system (neurology, which includes the brain, spinal cord, organ of special sense, the nerves, and the autonomic nervous system). The cardiovascular system (which includes the heart, blood vessles, and lymph vessles).

The viscera of the body (exclusive of the heart and parts of the nervous system) comprise four tubular systems the digestive, respiratory, urinary, and genital and the ductless or endocrine glands. All these are wrapped up in the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Surface anatomy is the identification of structures that can be seen or palpated. An ideal way to study surface anatomy would be to have an artists model available at all times, so that one could be observe, palpate and identify important anatomical features whenever one wished! Since this is impractical, we are forced to rely on pictures or drawings. Anatomy considered with special reference to its medical and surgical bearing is called applied anatomy. Anatomy can be studied profitably, although to a limited extent, by means of cross sections, cross section anatomy. In the living subject a great deal can be learned by inspection and palpation (and also auscultation) of surface parts. This and the relating of deeper parts to the skin surface, surface anatomy, are necessary part of medical education. Radiographic anatomy relies on the X-ray to reveal much that cannot be investigated by other means.

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Regarding nomenclature, it may be said briefly that over 30.000 anatomical terms were in use in the various textbooks of anatomy and in the journal.

B. Descriptive Terms
In describing the relationship of one structure to another it is obviously necessary to avoid ambiguity and misunderstanding. For descriptive purposes the human body is regarded as standing erect, the eyes looking forward to the horizon, the arms by the sides, and the palms of the hands and the toes directed forward; this is the anatomical position. The cadaver may be placed on the table lying on its back, on its side, or on its face, but for descriptive purposes it is assumed to be standing erect in the anatomical position. The palm of the hand is understood to be the anterior surface of the hand. The body is divided into two halves, a right and a left, by a median or midsagittal plane. The anterior and posterior borders of this plane reach the skin surface at the front and back of the body at the median line or midline (linea mediana).

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Terms of relationship. Three pairs of relative terms suffice to express the relationship of any given structure to another. They are: Anterior or in front = nearer the front surface of the body; Posterior or behind = nearer the back surface of the body. Superior or above = nearer the crown of the head. Inferior or below = nearer the soles of the feet. Medial = nearer the median plane of the body. Lateral = farther from the median plane of the body. Intermediate (intermedial) means lying between two structures, one of which is medial and the other lateral. (In the upper limb radial means lateral and ulnar means medial; in the lower limb fibular or peroneal means lateral and tibial means medial).

Terms of comparison. When it is desired to compare the relationship of some structure in man with the same structure in, for example a dog, it is necessary to use a different set of terms, terms related not to space but to parts of the body, such as the head, tail, belly, and back. For example, in man standing erect, the heart lies above the diaphragma; in the dog standing on all fours, it lies in front of the diaphragm; however, in both instances its
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position relative to other parts of the body is the same. So, speaking comparatively, one would say that both in man and n the dog the heart is on the head, cranial, or cephalic side of the diaphragm. Hence, the terms ventral and dorsal, cranial and caudal, as well as medial and lateral are applicable to the trunk (truncus) or torso (thorax, abdomen, and pelvis) irrespective of the position assumed by the body. It is quite correct to employ the terms ventral and dorsal as synonyms for anterior and posterior; also to use cranial (cephal) and caudal for superior and inferior. In the limbs, terms are coupled with reference to (1) the proximity to the trunk, proximal = near the trunk and is synonymous with superior; distal = farther from the trunk and is synonymous with inferior; (2) the morphological borders, preaxial = the lateral or radial border (i.e., thumb side) of the upper limb and the medial or tibial border (i.e., big toe side) of the lower limb; postaxial = the medial or ulnar border of the upper limb and the lateral or fibular border of the lower limb; and (3) the functional surface, flexor and extensor, the flexor surface being anterior in the upper limb and posterior in the lower limb. The anterior surface of the hand is generally called the palmar (or volar) surface, and the inferior surface of the foot is called the plantar surface. The opposite surfaces are called the dorsum of the hand and foot.

Other terms. Inside, interior, or internal and outside, exterior, or external, are reserved (1) for bony cavities, such as the pelvic, thoracic, cranial and orbital, and (2) for hollow organs, such as heart, mouth, bladder, and intestine. An invagination (invaginatio) and an evagination (evaginatio) (L. vagina = a sheath or scabbard) are inward and outward bulging of the wall of a cavity. Superficial and deep (profunda) donate nearness to and remoteness from the skin surface irrespective of whether at the front, side, or back. These two may be applied to organs such as the liver and lung. On, over, and under are terms to beware of. They should be used in a general sense and without specific regard of the anatomical position. Carefully avoid using them loosely in place of superior to and inferior to, for such misuses is the cause of much misunderstanding. Ipsilateral refers to the same side of the body, e.g., the right arm and the right leg. Contralateral refers to opposite sides of the body.

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Superficial Profunda

Invaginatio

Evaginatio

Planes. 1. A sagittal plane is any vertical anteroposterior plane parallel to and including the median plane (an imaginary vertical plane of section that passes longitudinally through the body and divides it into right and left halves). The median plane intersects the surface of the front and back of the body at what are called the anterior and posterior median lines (linea mediana). It is a common error, however, to refer to the" midline" when the median plane is meant. A coronal or frontal plane is any vertical side-to-side plane at right angles to the sagittal plane. and separates the body into anterior and posterior parts. 3. A transverse plane is any plane at right angles to 1 and 2, i.e, at right angles to the long axis of that organ or structure. Thus, a transverse section through an artery is not necessarily horizontal. A transverse section through the hand is horizontal, whereas a transverse section through the foot is coronal 4. The term horizontal plane refers to a plane at a right angle to both the median and coronal planes: it separates the body into superior and inferior parts. This is often termed an axial plane, particularly in radiology.
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5.

An oblique plane may lie at any other angle.

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Attachments of Muscles. Muscles are attached at both ends. The proximal attachment of a limb muscle is its origin (origo); the distal end is its insertion (insertio). No function is implied in these terms. When applied to muscles not associated with the limbs, the terms are arbitrarily assigned, historical precedence being the chief determinant. Vessels. Arteries are likened to trees with branches; veins are likened to rivers with tributaries. Movements at Joins. . To flex (flexio) is to bend or to make an angle. To extend (extentio) is to stretch out or to straighten. Movements of flexion and extension take place at the elbow joint To abduct (abduction) is to draw away laterally from the median plane of the body. To adduct (aductio) is the opposite movement in the same plane (L. ab = from; ad =
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to; duco = I lead). Movements of abduction and adduction, as well as of flexion and extension, take place at the wrist joint. The middle finger is regarded as lying in the axial line of the hand, and the 2nd toe as lying in the axial line of the foot. Abduction of the fingers and those are movements from and toward these axial lines, although, as discussed elsewhere, movements of the thumb are named differently. To circumduct (L. circum around = circumductio) is to perform the movements of flexion, abduction, extension, and adduction in sequence, thereby describing a cone, as can be done at the shoulder, hip, wrist, and metacarpophalangeal (knuckle) joints. To rotate (rotatio) is to turn or revolve on a long axis, as the arm at the shoulder joint, the femur at the hip joint, the radius on the ulna, and certain vertebrae on each other. To pronate (pronatio) was originally to bend or to flex the body forward, as in obeisance in prayer, that is, to face downward or prone. Applied to the forearm, to pronate means to turn it so that the palm of the hand faces downwards on a table, which is the equivalent of facing backward when it hangs by the side. To supinate (supinatio) is to rotate the forearm laterally so that the dorsum of the hand rests on the table or faces backward when the limb hangs by the side. Supine = lying on he back. (Soup-iantion). To protract (L. pro = forward; traho = I pul = protractio) is to move forward. To retract (retractio) is to move backwards. Protraction and retraction are terms applied to the movements of the lower jaw and shoulder girdle.

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Flexio
ANKLE dorsoflexio

neutral

Plantarflexio

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The ankle and toes are often said to dorsiflex and plantarflex. This extra terminology maybe a little confusing but dorsiflexion raises the foot and toes in the direction of the dorsum of the foot, while plantarflexion pushes them down towards to sole or plantar surface

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Hand
When the palm faces forwards, in the anatomical position, or upwards with the elbow bent, then the forearm is supinated. The opposite position is pronated, which is the position we carry out most of the work with our hands.

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Terminologia Anatomica
Terminologia Anatomica (TA) is the international standard on human anatomical terminology. It was developed by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT) and the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA). Released in 1998, it supersedes the previous standard, Nomina Anatomica. Categories of Anatomical Structures The Terminologia Anatomica (TA) divides anatomical structures into the following main categories (Latin standard in parentheses): 1. General anatomy (Anatomia generalis) 2. Bones (Ossa) 3. Joints (Juncturae) 4. Muscles (Musculi) 5. Alimentary system (Systema digestorium) 6. Respiratory system (Systema respiratorium) 7. Thoracic cavity (Cavitas thoracis) 8. Urinary system (Systema urinarium) 9. Genital systems (Systema genitalia) 10. Abdominopelvic cavity (Cavitas abdominis et pelvis) 11. Endocrine glands (Glandulae endocrinae) 12. Cardiovascular system (Systema cardiovasculare) 13. Lymphoid system (Systema lymphoideum) 14. Nervous system (Systema nervosum) 15. Sense organs (Organa sensuum) 16. The integument (Integumentum commune)

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Tissues, Organ, and Organ Systems


Many cells, the smallest living functional units, make up a tissue, various tissues make up an organ, and a number of organs make up an organ system. The four types of tissues are epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous. An organ such as heart or kidney is composed of several tissues contributing to a common function.

A. Epithelial Tissue (epithelium)


Epithelial tissue is lining tissue. Its fuctions are protection (e.g. skin), absorbtion (e.g. digestive tract), secretion (e.g. glands), excretion (e.g. sudoriferous gland) and filtration (e,g. kidney). Epithelial cells may be one or more layers thick (simple or stratified) and may assume various shapes: squamous cels, cuboidal cells, columnar cells. Moist membranes are double serous (serous:serum like) structures consisting of simple squamous epithelium and connective tissue which contain blood and lymph vessles. A small amount of fluid filters from the capillaries through the epithelium in to the spaces between the membranes, preventing friction. The membrane lying on the organ itself is the visceral (viscera: organ) portion; the membrane surrounding the body cavity is the parietal (cavity wall) portion. Examples are: 1. 2. 3. 4. The pericardium surrounding the heart. The pleura on the lungs and inner chest wall. The peritoneum on the abdominal organs and inner abdominal cavity. The single synovial membrane of a joint also secretes a similar type of fluid, although in this case the lining cells are connective tissue.

Sometimes, disease results in increased amounts of fluid collecting in these space, which must be evacuated (e.g. pleural effusion from congestive heart failure or cancer).

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Pleura

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Pleura

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Peritoneum

B.

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C o n n e c t i v e

Tissue
This tissue forms the structures of the body. Classification: 1. Connective tissue proper (propria) is the framework for most organs.
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2. Fat (adipose) functions for energy storage and metabolism. 3. A tendon (tendo) connects muscle to bone (e.g. Achilles tendon of heel) An aponeorosis is a flattened, sheetlike tendon. 4. A ligament (ligamnetum) connects bone to bone (e.g. a joint capsule = capsula articularis). 5. Cartilage (cartilago) is firm connective tissue (e.g. nose, ear). 6. Bone (os); bones (ossa) 7. Blood and lymph Funtions of connective tissue: 1. Support; mostly fibers 2. Defense; by white blood cells 3. Repair; by fibroblast 4. Transport: nutrients move through the ground substance 5. Structure; derivatives such as cartilage, bone.

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C. Muscular Tissue
Muscular tissue is designed for contraction, thus the movement of other tissues and organs. The three types of muscular tissue are 1. Skeletal (voluntary, striated) muscle: muscle of the skeleton, composed of fibres and small fibrils, containing actinand myocin filaments. Cross- striations are present. 2. Smooth (involuntary) muscle: composed of long thin cells arranged in sheet-like fashion, forming the walls of internal organs. 3. Heart (cardiac) muscle: also contains cross-striations, resembling skeletal muscle. However, when one area of the heart is stimulated, the entire heart contracts, rather than contracting in an isolated fashion like skeletal muscle.

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D. Nervous Tissue
Nervous tissue is composed of neurons, specialized cells for the transmission of electrochemical impulses to and from various parts of the body. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord (medulla spinalis); the peripheral nervous system comprises the spinal nerves, cranial nerves, and the autonomic nervous system. Structure of a neuron (nerve cell) 1. Cell body 2. Axon (neurite) 3. Dendrite, or dendrites.

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The term nerve fibre means an axon or dendrite. Most fibers are axons surrounded by a lipid protein layer called myelin, responsible for the rapid conduction of the nerve impulse. Synapses (gaps) exist between neurons, and a muscle. The nerve impulse is conducted from the axon of one cells across the synapse by a synaptic transmitter (neurotransmitter) to the cell body or dendrite(s) of a second neuron. The neurotransmitter is released by the axon, bridges the synapse for a moment, then dissipates and is reformed in the axon. Some examples of neurotransmitters are acethylcholine, norepinephrine, the catecholamines, twenty-five other neurotransmitters. Sensory (afferent) fibers receive impulses from the skin, muscles, tendons or internal organs, and relay them to the brain or spinal cord. A loss of sensation is anathesia. A partial loss is hypesthesia. An abnormal or tingling feeling is paresthesia. Motor (efferent) fibers react to sensory impulses. They originate in the brain or spinal cord and terminate on muscle or glands. A loss of motor function is paralysis. A partial loss is paresis. A nerve meas many nerve fibers. Most peripheral nerves (e.g. radial = nervus radialis, sciatic = nervus ischiadicus) are mixed nerves that is, they contain both sensory and motor fibers.

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References: Basmajian, JV. Grants Method of Anatomy Moffat, DB. Lecture Notes on Anatomy Snell, RS. Clinical Anatomy Stewart, J. Clinical Anatomy and Pathophysiology.
http://www.dartmouth.edu/~humananatomy/part_1/chapter_1.html#Chpt_1_anatomic_terms#Chpt_1_ anatomic_terms. http://www.waybuilder.net/free-ed/HealthCare/Anatomy/default.asp http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anatomical_terms_of_motion#General_motion

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