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The view that knowledge can be gathered through careful observation. RATIONALISM. The view that knowledge can be gained through logic and careful reasoning. ROLE OF PHYSIOLOGY. The branch of biology that studies the functions of living organismswere directly related to the emergence of psychology. PSYCHOLOGY FROM SMALL BEGINNG TO A THRIVING FIELD. STRUCTURALISM. WILHELM WUNDT Focuses on the study of consciousness like what goes on inside our minds. INTROSPECTION In which individuals describe what is going on in their own mind. BEHAVIORISM. JOHN B. WATSON. That only obsevable, overt activities measured in a scientific manner. COGNITIVE SCHOOL Studying mental events or as psychologists prefer to term them, cognitive processes

PSYCHOLOGY Is the science of behavior and cognitive processes. THREE GRAND ISSUES. STABILITY VS CHANGE. NATURE VS NURTURE. RATIONALITY VS IRRATIONALITY. KEY PERSPECTIVES IN PSYCHOLOGY BEHAVIORAL Emphasizing the overt behavior occuring. COGNITIVE. Focuses on cognitive processes such as memory ,thought, reasoning. SOCIOCULTURAL. Focuses on all aspects of social behavior and on the impact of cultural factors on behavior. BIOLOGICAL Focuses on the biological events and processes that underlie behavior. EVOLUTIONARY Focuses on the possible role of inhereted tendencies in various aspects of behavior.

SUBFIELDS OF PSYCHOLOGY CLINICAL PSY. Studies diagnosis, causes and treatment of mental disorders. COUNSELING PSY. Assist individuals in dealing with many personal problems that donot involve psychological disorders. DEVELOPMENTAL PSY. Studies how people change physically, cognitively, and socially over the entire life span. EDUCATIONAL PSY. Studies all aspects of the educational process. EXPERIMENTAL PSY. Studies all basic psychological processes, including perception, learning and motivation. COGNITIVE PSY. Investigates all aspects of cognition, memory, thinking, reasoning, language, decision making, and so on. SOCIAL PSY. All aspects of social behavior and social thought-how we think about and interact with others. INDUSTRIAL / ORGANIZATIONAL PSY. All aspects of behavior in work setting.

PSYCHOLOGY AND THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD. SCIENTIFIC METHOD. Is a systematic study. ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS. ACCURACY (PRECISE) EMPIRICAL (The data can be gained through careful observation). REPEATABLE (REPLICATION) RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY OBSERVATION. A basic method of science in which events or processes in the world are observed and measured in a very careful manner. OBSERVATION WITH INTERVENTION. One exert certain controls over the events or manipulate some variables. OBSERVATION WITHOUT INTERVENTION. A research method in which behavior is studied in the settings where it usually occur. CASE HISTORY METHOD. A method of research in which detailed information about individuals is used to develop general principles about behavior.

SURVEY METHOD. A research method in which large numbers of people answer questions about aspects of their views or their behavior. CORRELATIONAL METHOD. Aresearch method in which researchers attempt to determine whether, and to what extent, different variables are related to each other. EXPERIMENTAL METHOD. In which researchers systematically alter one or more variables in order to determine whether such changes influences some aspects of behavior. Independent Variable. The variable that is systematically changed in an experiment. Dependent Variable. The variable that is measured in an experiment. INTERPRETING RESEARCH RESULTS. STATISTICS. Numerical evaluation of data. Descriptive Statistics. Focused on important aspects of score distribution. Infrential Statistics. Meaning, judgement, and interpretation.

ETHICAL ISSUES IN PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH. DECEPTION. The temporary withholding of information about a study from participants. INFORMED CONSENT. Subjects be provided with information about all the events and procedure a study will involve before they agree to participate in it. DEBRIEFING. Subject be given full information about all aspects of a study after they have participated in it. CONFIDENTIALITY. Privacy, secrecy, careful record keeping.