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Module 2.12.

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WIND ENERGY - BASIC PRINCIPLES


Gerhard J. Gerdes

Workshop on Renewable Energies November 14-25, 2005 Nadi, Republic of the Fiji Islands

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Contents
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calculate the power in the wind power coefficient efficiency of wind wheel drag devices lift devices comparison of lift and drag devices utilizing wind energy maximum power extraction according to Betz thrust according to Betz airfoil theory:
X drag X lift X laminar vs. turbulent flow
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Utilizing wind energy

conversion of kinetic energy into mechanical or electric energy

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& = 1m & v 2 = 1 Av 3 Pwind = E 2 2


& - mass flow rate m v - wind speed - air density A - control area

Pmech = M = M 2 n
M - torque n - rotational number - angular velocity

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Theoretical maximum power


J J J

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J J

by reducing the speed of an air mass, wind power is converted into mechanical energy to reduce the wind speed to zero, obviously would mean maximum power (hypothesis!) not possible - since stopping an air flow completely at one given spot (rotor) violates the law of energy continuity question: at what speed reduction the maximum wind power can be extracted? answer was given by Betz and Glauert 1926 by a simple calculation

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Mass flow m through an area A

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Rotor 54m diameter Rotor swept area 1500m J Disk of 1 m thickness:


J J X Weight of air: 2.8to

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Betz maximum
J

if energy is extracted, wind speed v2 behind the rotor must be lower than v1

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A1 v1

A2 v2

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Continuity

J J

assumption: homogeneous air flow product of density, velocity and area is constant according to continuity v 1A 1 = v 2 A 2 = v 3 A 3

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air density, v wind speed, A area


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Maximum Power Extraction by Betz

the theoretical maximum power coefficient cp according to Betz is

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J J

this means that a theoretical maximum of 59.3 % of the power in the wind can be extracted in practice, modern electricity producing wind turbines reach efficiencies of more than 50 % in maximum

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cp- value
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The cp-value is the efficiency of power production by wind turbines cp gives the relation between power in the wind (Pwind) to the mechanical power extracted by the turbine rotor (Pturbine): P c p = Turbine PWind Usually cp electric is used to indicated the total efficiency of power production by a wind turbine, referring to the electrical output of the wind turbine generator (Pelectric):

c p electric =

Pelectric PWind
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Power in the wind 1


J

power in the wind with the velocity v and an area A

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Pwind is proportional to the air density , area A and the third power of the wind velocity v the power output of a WTG follows up to a wind speed of approx. 12 m/s wind speed the v energy curve then the power limitation comes into action, to prevent the generator from overload
air density, v wind speed, A area
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Power in the wind power output characteristics


4500 4000 3500
Pwind P
wind

PBetz P
Betz

Power [kW]

3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 2

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PWT P

WT

Wind speed [m/s]

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12

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Practical consequences
J J

first of all, the power in the wind is proportional to the third power of wind speed this has important practical implications
X calculating or estimating the power output of turbines

from wind speed measurements has a high error margin


X doubling the wind speed results in 8 times the power
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output
X ability to withstand gusts is of primary importance for

turbines
J

with around 60 % maximum efficiency, wind turbine compare favourably with other energy conversion systems
X diesel generator:

max. ca. 35 % X large steam turbine: max. ca. 40 %


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Effect of air density

the power output of a wind system is proportional to the air density thus the power varies
X with temperature: low temperatures result in more power X with altitude: high altitudes reduce power output

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Drag devices
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all early wind power systems were drag devices using the force acting on an area perpendicular to the wind direction drag is proportional to the area A, air density and the square of wind speed v:

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D = cD
J

Av 2

the drag coefficient cD depends on the aerodynamic quality of the body

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Drag coefficient depends on shape of body

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Vertical axis wind wheel 1


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simplification

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principle
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simplified model

wind velocity at the plate: w = v - u blade tip speed u = Rm (rotational speed mean radius)
v velocity of wind u rotor blade tip-speed
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Tip speed ratio


J

blade tip speed ratio is the ratio between the speed of the tip of a rotor blade related to the affecting wind speed

=
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Rm
v

where: angular velocity, Rm blade tip radius, .Rm - rotational speed at rotor tip, tip speed ratio

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Power coefficient of wind wheel

blade tip speed ratio = Rm / v


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Interpretation
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obviously, at complete standstill ( = 0) the power is zero also, when the the blade-tip speed is equal to wind speed ( = 1) the maximum power coefficient of cp max = 0.16 occurs at opt = 0.33, when the blade tip moves at 1/3 of the wind speed meaning that only 16 % of the wind power can be extracted

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Drag devices
J J J

all early wind power systems were drag devices using the force acing on an area perpendicular to the wind direction drag is proportional to the area a, air density and the square of rotor speed

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the drag coefficient cD depends on the aerodynamic quality of the body

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Summary drag devices


J J J

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drag devices operate at tip speed ratios < 1, i. e. at tip speeds below wind speeds the power coefficient cp of drag devices is below 0.2, i. e. the maximum efficiency is 20 % with only 1/3 of the theoretical maximum (Betz: 59.3 %), drag devices are not suitable for electricity generation due to their simple construction, drag devices can be used for low power pumping needs etc. however, contemporary use of drag devices is practically non-existent

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Lift devices
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many bodies have not only a drag force component, but also a lift force L, perpendicular to the flow

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L attacks at about of the chord length c, as long as the angel of attack is small (< 10 ), thus: cL = f()

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Lift and drag forces L, D

angle of attack
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Airfoil theory: drag vs. lift

Comparison of lift and drag devices

vWind drag lift

vWind

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Airfoil theory: lift force

lift forceL = c A 1 2 v1 L
2

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Source: DEWI

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Airfoil theory: lift force

Source: DEWI

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Airfoil theory: streamlines and pressure distribution

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Airfoil theory: lift and drag at the blade


L = cL

( ) w (c b ) 2
2 A

D = cD

( ) w (c b ) 2
2 A

X L - lift
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X D - drag X c - chord length X b - width X w - velocity

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Airfoil theory: laminar vs. turbulent flow

Source: DEWI
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Airfoil theory: laminar vs. turbulent flow

laminar flow (attached flow)

turbulent flow (stall)


Source: Schlichting / Truckenbrodt

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Wind and energy

Wind speed is the essential measure influencing the power output of a wind turbine

PWind = c p 1 Av 3 2
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The power in the wind has to be limited with increasing wind speed
X E.g. 20 m/s on a 40 m rotor of a 600kW turbine equals

roughly 6 MW wind power

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0.5

cp--Diagram
Rated power

Rotor power coefficient cp

0.4 Power < rated power

0.3

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Constant power 0.2

Grid connection 0.1 Cut off 0 0 4 8


Start up

12 16 Tip speed ratio

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